In case you are not being able to read this e-mail message , click HERE

Click aqui para ler essa Newsletter em Português

Grau Celsius ABTCP


Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,

Dear friends
, here we are again, now with the issue number 39 of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. We hope that this edition may fulfill your expectations, concerns and interests. The purpose, as always, is that our readers may gain additional knowledge and understanding about the Eucalyptus and Pinus (in special in this edition) planted forests and about the products and services these magic trees provide to the benefit of the human society. This target we try to fulfill bringing a selection of themes combining history, science, technology, innovation, emotion and culture.

With this issue, we hope to be contributing to a better understanding of the many advantages that these magnificent trees offer, but we warn that they must be planted in appropriate conditions for sustainability and with great responsibility by the various stakeholders involved in the productive chains that these forests are inserted. We will always be attentive and heedful to the required sustainability, corporate responsibility and citizenship by stakeholders, and promoting and encouraging them, even playing a keen and careful surveillance, because the success of commercial plantations of forests depends largely on the fulfillment of these key factors.

This is a special edition because it has the mission to bring to you a condensation of everything was considered of utmost relevance and that has been published so far on our publications Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter and also on our other digital newsletter PinusLetter. These contents will be offered through two distinct sections: "Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter Archives" and "PinusLetter Archives", which show the retrospectives of most of our writing efforts disclosed by these digital information publications from their origins until December 2011.

Remember that the mission of the partnership between Celsius Degree and ABTCP – The Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper is to build one of the best and most comprehensive sources of qualified information about the Eucalyptus and Pinus on a global level. Take the opportunity to remember about what has already been brought to all of you in past issues through the links offered for browsing.

This edition also brings one of my articles in which I try to offer my reflections about technological trends for the future kraft pulp mills, in a moment that all focus are being placed on changes in the way of producing pulp due to the development of the biomass biorefinery concept. At present, it is very difficult to get a clear view of the future pulp mills, but not in a distant future, but in a near future, the maximum time frame of 20 to 25 years. We hope that with this article, some companies in the sector may faster mobilize to go deeper into their research to technological breakthrough, and not only contenting themselves to optimize and to increase scale of production in a technological process is already well-known that is the kraft, as it has currently been done by many researchers and technology developers.

We have as purpose that this newsletter issue may be very useful to all of you, since the thematic selection was made in a way to bring interesting and diversified topics about the Eucalyptus and Pinus. We hope and believe they may be valuable to you all, who are honoring us with your reading.

It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate downloading’s of the materials of your interest from the several of our references and links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites; other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites. Anyway, every time when trying to access a referenced link from our newsletter and it does not work, I suggest you to copy the title of the article or event and place in quotation marks to search for the same in a search engine such as Google, Bing, Yahoo, etc. Sometimes, the entity that holds the reference remodels its website and the URL addresses are modified. Other times, the material is removed from the referenced website, but it may eventually be located at some other address, if properly pursued.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales, Papermakers' Wiki, Åbo Akademi - Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology, Blog do Papeleiro and Blog 1800 Flowers. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland, Belarus and South Africa. However, thanks to the World Wide Web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus and Pinus.

Know more about all of our today’s partners
and meet them at the URL address:

Thanks to all of you dear readers for your support and constant presence visiting our websites. Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus and Pinus are currently being sent to a long "mailing list" through our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, a number that today is equivalent to many thousands of registered web addresses. This happens in addition to the accesses made directly to the websites; and, or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book chapters are easily found by search engines in the web.

Our goal from now onwards is very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter and PinusLetter that they will be always on the first page, when any single person in the world, using a search engine like Google, Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the words Eucalyptus or Pinus (pines). Our services aim to better inform stakeholders and interested parties about Eucalyptus and Pinus, with relevant information and a lot of credibility, too. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree and ABTCP, and also from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a friendly hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Edition

Eucalyptus Newsletter & Eucalyptus Online Book Archives - A 2005/2011 Retrospective

PinusLetter Archives - A 2008/2011 Retrospective

Technical Article by Celso Foelkel
The Future Bleached Kraft Pulp Mills - What can we expect for them?

Eucalyptus Newsletter & Eucalyptus Online Book Archives

A 2005/2011 Retrospective

In this section, we are bringing to you a consolidation of most of our efforts and writing creation in the period 2005 to 2011, offering the opportunity to remind you about our most important sections made available in the 38 previous editions of our Eucalyptus Newsletters & 25 chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, published since their origins till December 2011. We intend to make this kind of retrospective at the beginning of each calendar year, always updating this long list file for your easier browsing.

Each one of our newsletter editions is organized in sections, some of which are covered at all issues. Various others come in the format of texts, tutorials, reviews or collections, etc.
The sections "References about Events and Courses" and "Euca-Links" occur frequently. At them, we try to present interesting websites to be navigated and browsed, always containing good quality literature, lectures, teaching materials from courses, books, events, photos, charts, figures, tables, etc. Certainly, they are always related to the Eucalyptus.

Other sections are less frequent, and they are brought in an alternate manner, varying according the issues we intend to bring or that have been requested by readers. They are the following:

"Online Digital Magazines";

"Online Technical Videos";

"A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Manufactured with Eucalyptus Fibers";

"Ecoefficiency and Sustainability Corner";

"A Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation";

"Eucalyptic Technological Essays by the Friends of the Eucalyptus" or also called "Having the Floor... the Friends of the Eucalyptus";

"Ecological, Economic and Forestry Zoning in Brazil".

Moreover, we have a section called "Online Technical References" whose contents vary in format according to the edition, but with the goal to bring good literature about the Eucalyptus to our readers.

Two sections of amazing success among our readers and for which we place a lot of attention and efforts are: "The World of the Eucalyptus" and "The Friends of the Eucalyptus". They focus mainly on regions and people who are world leaders in terms of Eucalyptus. Many researchers have been so far honored and their scientific and technical production shared with our readers. Similarly, several countries and Brazilian states have deserved wide coverage in relation to what they are developing in forestry and forest-based industry.

In 2011, we have introduced a new section to include publications and relevant messages coming from our readers, so we called the section as "Contributions from Readers". It is very common to receive technical gifts as books, theses, lectures and articles from our readers, sometimes interested in spreading this material, sometimes just telling us about their achievements. In most of the cases, they have high relevance to the forest-based sector. For this reason, we decided to create a window in our newsletter giving opportunities to our readers to find information about these materials submitted to us. With this new section, we have expanded and diversified our technological range, opening new routes to discover more knowledge about the Eucalyptus.

Also in 2011, we have introduced in the Eucalyptus Newsletter the section “Celso Foelkel’s Life Reports”, which previously was just referenced in the website In this section, I try to report major events that occurred in my professional life, and that somehow, they may be of interest to our readers, even for reflections by those who are still starting their professional career and may have some references about how things happen in our pulp and paper and forestry sectors. As I was very fortunate being involved in so many situations along my life, even in historical moments of the sector, I decided to use "my pen" and now the computer to share with you these facts.

Another section created in 2011 is totally dedicated to presenting articles and publications on pests and diseases of the Eucalyptus, as a function of increasing relevance on the topic of plantation forests health protection. In this section "Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases”, several authors on this topic have already been introduced to our readers and many others still come to have their publications shared with you.

At last, since 2011 was a year of many innovations in the Eucalyptus Newsletter, we asked and received authorization from our dear friend Dr. Jorge Luiz Colodette (Federal University of Vicosa) to display in our digital publications the technical materials presented at the acknowledged event known as ICEP - International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. In 2011, we could provide speeches and papers from two of these events, so we still have more for you in 2012.

The Ester Foelkel's mini-articles on "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" cover an interesting variety of titles and situations, seeking to elucidate and to clarify the general public about the many uses of Eucalyptus for the benefit of the World Society. On the other hand, our section "Technical Article by Celso Foelkel" has had the mission to increase the knowledge and to clarify readers about conceptual or technical issues that for some reasons have different levels of understanding by people in our Society, and therefore, ultimately result in conflicting and misunderstanding situations.

Finally, randomly and often due to suggestions from readers, we have several special sections, such collections, reviews or tutorial texts, dealing with topics of great interest about the Eucalyptus.

Ultimately, our Eucalyptus Newsletter is also oriented to offer, free-of-charge and to all interested people, the "Eucalyptus Online Book" chapters, launched as a digital book about the many aspects of the Eucalyptus, totally written by Celso Foelkel.

We invite you all to visit our 2005/2011 archives and to access our technical production, according to the interest of each one. Please, use the following links:

Section - The World of the Eucalyptus

The Eucalyptus in Portugal

State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

South Africa


Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil

State of Sao Paulo - Brazil

State of Minas Gerais - Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

State of Piaui - Brazil

Updates about the state of Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil

State of Tocantins - Brazil

Brasilia – Federal District – Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

Section - The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Dr. Herbert Sixta

Forest engineer Teotonio Francisco de Assis

Dr. Robert Paul Kibblewhite

Dr. Laercio Couto

Dr. Maria Cristina Area

Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo

Dr. Jose Luiz Stape

Mr. Gustavo Iglesias Trabado

Professor Jose Paz Pena

Professor Roberto Melo Sanhueza

Professor Paulo Renato Schneider

Professor Miguel Angel Mario Zanuttini

Dr. Dario Grattapaglia (Just in Portuguese till now)

Dr. Alberto Daniel Venica

Professor Dr. Jose Livio Gomide

Professor Dr. Jose Otavio Brito (Just in Portuguese till now)

Professor Dr. Dan Binkley

Forest engineer M.Sc. Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp

Mr. Dave Hillman

Forest engineer M.Sc. Jorge Vieira Gonzaga († In memoriam )

Dr. Leopold Rodes and his famous "Historic Essays about Paper" - († In memoriam) (Just in Portuguese till now)

A Meeting with some Friends of the Eucalyptus from Portugal (Just in Portuguese till now)

Dr. Maria da Graca Videira Sousa Carvalho (Just in Portuguese till now)

Dr. Paulo Jorge Tavares Ferreira (Just in Portuguese till now)

Forest Engineer Manoel de Freitas

• Professor Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher (Just in Portuguese till now)

Section Eucalyptic Technological Essays by the Friends of the Eucalyptus
- or also called - Having the Floor... The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Brazil's Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps - The Superior Eucalyptus Wins the World Pulp Markets Over - by Dave Hillman

The Role of Planted Forests for Meeting the Future Demands from World Society - by Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp & Celso Foelkel

Section – Celso Foelkel’s Life Reports

Graduate Course - Pulp and Paper – Federal University of Vicosa - 1977-1979 (Just in Portuguese till now)

Graduate Course – Forest Products Technology - Federal University of Santa Maria – 1990 – 2000 (Just in Portuguese till now)

Technical Course in Pulp and Paper - State Institute of Education "Gomes Jardim" at Guaiba-RS

Pelotas/RS: CEIMAD/UFPel – Wood Industrial Engineering Course - Federal University of Pelotas & ETFPel – Federal Technical School of Pelotas (Just in Portuguese till now)

Section - Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases

Dr. Celso Garcia Auer

• Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede

Professor Dr. Carlos Alberto Hector Flechtmann

Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

Section - Online Technical References - Just the editions associated to some specific issue

Technical References about South Africa

Technical References about Uruguay

Ph.D. Theses, Master Dissertations and Monographs from Chilean Universities

Technical References about Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul

"O Papel" Magazine Cover Stories (Just in Portuguese till now)

Historical Books about the Eucalyptus written by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi

Some More Historical and Classic Books about the Eucalyptus

A Selection of some Master of Science and Ph.D. Theses from UFV - Federal University of Vicosa... under Dr. Jose Livio Gomide Guidance and Advising

Technical References about the state of Minas Gerais - Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

Technical References about the Charcoal made from Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Technical References about the state of Piaui - Brazil

Technical References about the state of Tocantins - Brazil

Technical References about Brasilia – Federal District – Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

Scientific and Technical Articles by The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Dr. Maria da Graca Videira Sousa Carvalho and Dr. Paulo Jorge Tavares Ferreira (Just in Portuguese till now)

Articles on Eucalyptus written by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Junior

Articles about Black Wattle - Acacia mearnsii – written by Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher

Section Euca-Links
- Just the editions associated to some specific issue

Euca-Links about South Africa

Euca-Links about Uruguay

Euca-Links about the State of Sao Paulo

Euca-Links about Charcoal from Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Euca-Links about the State of Piaui - Brazil

Academic Websites with Emphasis in Pulp and Paper Science & Technology

Euca-Links about the State of Tocantins - Brazil

Section - References about Events and Courses
- Just the editions associated to some specific issue

Events and Courses in South Africa

Events and Courses in Uruguay

Events and Courses in Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul

Events and Courses in Minas Gerais - Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

Events and Courses about Charcoal from Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Section - Online Digital Magazines
- Just the editions associated to some specific issue

Digital Magazines in South Africa

Digital Magazines in Uruguay

Digital Magazines in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil

Digital Magazines in the State of Minas Gerais - Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

Section - Online Technical Videos
- Just the editions associated to some specific issue

Technical Videos about Charcoal from Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Videos about Forestry and Pulp and Paper

Section - A Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation - Just the editions associated to some specific issue

ABTCP Articles (Just in Portuguese till now)

Technological Roadmaps

Strategic Technological Plan from IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies - and Agenda 2020 Technology Alliance

Section - Eco-Efficiency and Sustainability Corner - Just the editions associated to some specific issue

ABTCP Articles (Just in Portuguese till now)

Eco-Labelling and Forest Certification

Section - Ecological, Economic and Forestry Zoning in Brazil

Forest Survey and Ecological Economic Zoning of the State of Minas Gerais - Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

Section - A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Manufactured with Eucalyptus

A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Manufactured with Eucalyptus Fibers

Decor Papers

Section - ICEP’s – International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp

Articles and Speeches from the First Colloquium – I ICEP – Vicosa/MG – Brazil

Articles and Speeches from the Second Colloquium – II ICEP – Concepcion / Chile

Texts, Tutorials and Relevant Selected Topics about the Eucalyptus

Australia Plants - The genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora

Forest Certification

Environmental Impact Assessment Studies of the New Market Pulp Mills (Botnia and ENCE) in Uruguay

Eucalyptus in Asia

Eucalyptus Diseases

The Graduate Course in Pulp and Paper Technology at the Federal Universiy of Vicosa

The Graduate Course in Forest Engineering - Forest Products Technology - UFSM Federal University of Santa Maria

Wood Anatomy - A Tutorial - A Photo Gallery on Images and Wood Anatomy Sceneries

Wood Anatomy: A Complement to our Previous Tutorial

Insect Pests and Diseases of the Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus Essential Oils

Honey Production from Eucalyptus

Genomics in Eucalyptus

Environmental Impact Assessment Studies for Modern Pulp Fiberlines

Environmental Legislation for Modern Pulp Fiberlines: a Study Made Available by the Tasmania Government

Bleaching of the Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps

Best Available Techniques to the Manufacture of Eucalyptus Pulp (a continuation on this topic)

Costs and Profits in the Eucalyptus Wood Production by Coppice / Clear Cutting Forest Management

Eucalyptus Photo Gallery

A Field Guide to the Eucalyptus and Plantation Forest Trees

Planting and Growing Eucalyptus Plantation Forests

Albany resources (Western Australia) pay off for forward thinking

Eucalyptus: Doubts, Creeds, Myths, Facts e Realities. Part 01: The opinion of the "contrary interested parties"

Eucalyptus: Doubts, Creeds, Myths, Facts e Realities. Part 02: The opinion of the "favorable interested parties"

RISI Top 50 Power List

Eucalyptus Global Map 2008

Eucalyptus World Map

Tributes to the Eucalyptus: in the Music and in the Literature

Weed Competition and Control in Eucalyptus Forest Plantations

Five Years of The Section "Ask the Euca Expert" (Just in Portuguese till now)

Eucalyptus Wooden Poles (Just in Portuguese till now)

FEENA - "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest

Eucalyptus Museum

Prices of Forest Products

Costs of Forest Operations with Eucalyptus

Virtual Herbaria

Lignotuber: what is and serves for...

Virtual Xylotheques or Wood Collections

The First Annual Congress or Convention of ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper - in 1968

"The Place of Paper" – Special Edition of the Magazine Ciencia & Ambiente - Federal University of Santa Maria – Brazil (Just in Portuguese till now)

International Year of Forests

Section - Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - by Ester Foelkel

The Eucalyptus and its Artcraft

The Eucalyptus Inspiring Arts

The Eucalyptus used in Landscape Designing and Gardening

The Eucalyptus being used to the Production of Bonsais

The Eucalyptus used for the Production of Insect Repellents

The Eucalyptus used for the Production of Honey - A top quality apiculture

The Eucalyptus used for the Production of Soaps & Detergents

The Production of Shiitake Mushroom based on Eucalyptus Logs

The Association of the Eucalyptus to Human Allergies

The Disinfectant and Antiseptic Properties of the Eucalyptus

The Eucalyptus and the Production of Tannins (Just in Portuguese till now)

Railway Sleepers made from Eucalyptus Woods

Eucalyptus Wood Flooring

Obtaining Pyroligneous Acid from the Wood of Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Obtaining Tar/Creosote from the Wood of Eucalyptus (Just in Portuguese till now)

Products from the Eucalyptus to Prevent Mites and Ticks Problems

Pruning the Urban Eucalyptus

Demolition Wood: New Uses and Advantages to the Wood of the Eucalyptus

Small Diameter Roundwood Obtained from the Eucalyptus and its Utilization in the Construction Industry

High-Value Eucalyptus Wooden Products to the Civil Construction Industry (Just in Portuguese till now)

The Wood of Eucalyptus for Using on Fences and Fence Posts (Just in Portuguese till now)

The Wood of Eucalyptus Used for the Construction of Bridges

Pharmaceutical Products (Medicines) Derived from the Eucalyptus

Beams of Eucalyptus Wood for Structural Uses in the Civil Construction Industry

Eucalyptus as Tea and Food Ingredient (Just in Portuguese till now)

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapters - by Celso Foelkel

Bark of the Eucalyptus Trees: Morphological, Physiological, Forestry, Ecological and Industrial Aspects Oriented to the Pulp and Paper Production (Just in Portuguese till now)

Minerals and Nutrients on Eucalyptus Trees: Environmental, Physiological, Silvicultural and Industrial Aspects about the Inorganic Elements Present on Trees (Just in Portuguese till now)

The Eucalyptus Fibers and the Kraft Pulp Quality Requirements for Paper Manufacturing

Vessel Elements and Eucalyptus Pulps

Industrial Solid Wastes from Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Production. Part 01: Fibrous Organic Residues

Eco-Efficiency in Managing the Pulp Fiber Losses and the Broke Generated in Paper Manufacturing

Eco-efficient Management of Woody Forest Residues from the Eucalyptus Plantation Forestry

The Eucalyptus and the Leguminosae. Part 01: Acacia mearnsii

Eco-efficiency and Cleaner Production for the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Industry

Opportunities for Eco-Effectiveness, Eco-Efficiency and Cleaner Production in Manufacturing Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp (Just in Portuguese till now)

The Production of Eucalyptus Plantation Forests from the Perspective of Eco-Effectiveness, Eco-Efficiency, and Cleaner Production

One Thousand and One Ways to Make your Pulp and/or Paper Mill and your Planted Forest more Eco-Effective and Eco-Efficient (Just in Portuguese till now)

Industrial Solid Wastes from Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Production. Part 02: Success Factors for Management (Just in Portuguese till now)

Papermaking Properties of Eucalyptus Trees, Woods, and Pulp Fibers

The Process of Eucalyptus Wood Chips Impregnation by the Kraft Pulping Liquor (Just in Portuguese till now)

Individualizing Eucalyptus Woody Fibers for the Production of Kraft Pulp (Just in Portuguese till now)

Differentiating Eucalyptus Market Pulps and Papers through Pulp Fines Management (Just in Portuguese till now)

Production of Charcoal using the Wood from Eucalyptus Planted Forests (Just in Portuguese till now)

A Reference Guide about Energy Eco-Efficiency to the Brazilian Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry (Just in Portuguese till now)

Industrial Solid Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Processes. Part 03: Sludges & Sludges (Just in Portuguese till now)

Industrial Solid Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Processes. Part 04: Dirt Bark (Just in Portuguese till now)

Utilization of the Eco-Efficiency Concepts in the Management of Air Emissions from the Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Manufacturing Process (Just in Portuguese till now)

Utilization of the Eco-Efficiency Concepts in the Management of Water Consumption and Effluent Generation in the Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Manufacturing Process (Just in Portuguese till now)

The Eucalyptus and the Non-Process Elements in the Kraft Pulp Manufacturing Process (Just in Portuguese till now)

Industrial Solid Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp Manufacturing Processes. Part 05: Mineral Wastes (Just in Portuguese till now)

Chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book about Solid Wastes in the Pulp and Paper Industry

Chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book about Eco-Efficiency and Cleaner Production in the Pulp and Paper Industry (Just in Portuguese till now)

Technical Articles by Celso Foelkel

Flash Drying as a Process to Differentiate Market Pulps

Eucalyptus: the Tallest and most Productive Trees on Earth...

Washing and Cleaning Eucalyptus Pulps

ECF and TCF Bleaching Sequences for Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps

The Eucalyptus in Brazil

The Eucalyptus in Brazil - Second part

Modern Bleached Kraft Eucalyptus Pulp Fiberlines

Best Available Technologies and Best Environmental Practices to the Production of Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulps

The Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp Manufacturing and the Water Consumption

Closing Water Cycle for Further Reductions on Water Consumption in the Manufacture of Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp

Eucalyptus Planted Forests and Water Consumption

Eucalyptus Planted Forests and the Biodiversity

The Eucalyptus and the Eco-labels

The Eucalyptus and the Soil Conservation

The Eucalyptus Plantation Forests and the Environment

The Eucalyptus Planted Forests and the Sustainability

Communicating to Society the Realities of the Forest-Based Sector

Treating the Wastewaters Generated in the Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp Mills

Managing Eucalyptus Plantation Forests for Enhanced Sustainability

The Eucalyptus Planted Forests, Land Use and the Production of Food in Brazil

The Eucalyptus Plantation Forests and the Use of Pesticides

The Eucalyptus Plantation Forests and the Use of Fertilizers (Just in Portuguese till now)

About Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi

Eucalyptus Plantations and Genetically Modified Trees

Pruning Eucalyptus Trees

Recycled and Virgin Fiber Papers: A Required Complement for both Technological and Environmental Reasons (Just in Portuguese till now)

Paper as a Cultural Asset with Fundamental Value to Human Society

Environmental Performance Indicators for the Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mills

Performance and Productivity Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Mills

Social Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Companies

High-Density and Short-Rotation Eucalyptus Plantations: Can this new silvicultural model be introduced with appropriate sustainability? (Just in Portuguese till now)

Aspects of the Process Technology Evolution in the Pulp and Paper Production (Just in Portuguese till now)

The Environmental Labelling and the Ecoefficiency as Vital Managerial Tools for the Construction of Sustainability in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Production Chain

Sustainability on the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Value Network

Principles, Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management to the Plantation Forests

Thanks my friends for your presence in the Celsius Degree and ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper websites; and for your careful reading and browsing of our texts and information’s about the Eucalyptus. They are created, designed and written to be useful to you all.

PinusLetter Archives

A 2008/2011 Retrospective

Similarly to the Eucalyptus Newsletter, the PinusLetter is a Celsius Degree creation to honor the pines and other conifer species with economic and environmental importance to Latin-American and Iberian countries. All PinusLetter texts are written in Portuguese – there is no English version to this newsletter. However, now-a-days, anyone may have a fair translation from websites using the available tools in Internet.

In this section, we are bringing to you a consolidation of most of our efforts and writing creation in the time spam 2008 to 2011, offering the opportunity to remind you about our most important sections made available in the previous editions of the PinusLetter published since its origin till December 2011. We intend to make this kind of retrospective at the beginning of each calendar year, always updating this long list file for your easier browsing.

There were 36 PinusLetter issues since January 2008 until December 2011, plus a special edition in January 2009. Each one of our newsletter editions is organized in sections, some of which are covered at all issues. Various others come in the format of texts, tutorials, reviews or collections, etc. In addition, we have in each number a "Technical Article" as background, written by Ester Foelkel in the format of a comprehensive review and always looking for maximum applicability.

The sections "References about Events and Courses", "Pinus-Links" and "Pests and Diseases of the Pinus" occur alternately, with varied frequency. On them, we try to present texts, articles, interesting websites to be browsed, literature, lectures, teaching materials, courses, proceedings of events, pictures, flow charts, figures, tables, etc.., everything related to the pines and other conifers.

Furthermore, we have a section titled "Online Technical Literature" which has its content varying according to the edition. This section is mainly designed to honor the "Great Authors about the Pinus" or to present "Papers, Ph.D. Theses and Master Dissertations about the Pinus" published by universities or research institutions in a worldwide range.

A section which has always brought much interest to our readers has been "The Ibero-American Conifers" oriented to display species of pines and other conifers that have been commercially planted in Brazil, in other Latin American countries and in the Iberian Peninsula, where most of our readers are located. We had an endless list of species of Pinus and other conifers to show. Each of them has had interesting detailed morphological descriptions, taxonomic issues and the main characteristics and uses. Since we have already presented most of the conifers of commercial value to the regions of Iberian and Latin American countries, we decided to broaden the scope of this section and have re-named it as “Forest Species of Importance to Ibero-America”. This new name may eventually switch back to the former one, in case we have some other conifer, since this new section is intended to bring hardwoods and monocotyledonous forest species, so only.

Due to the difficulties that the silviculture of Pinus plantations has been experiencing in Brazil, either in a reduction of planted areas or the quality of the final products, we decided to create a new section that was called "Problems and Challenges to Pinus". Hopefully, it may please your expectations.

The "Technical Articles by Ester Foelkel" are intended to cover a variety of interesting titles from silvicultural aspects such tree breeding and forest protection, environmental themes and uses and applications of the products originated from Pinus.

Another section has been successful is the one in which we invite certain personalities from the forest industry to write something specific about pines or other conifers. This occurs in the "Having the Floor… The Great Authors..." We hope you enjoy this way of bringing even more knowledge to the society. In case you understand that someone should be invited, please send us a message suggesting names and e-mail addresses.

At last, in a random manner and often due to suggestions from our readers, we bring special sections, such collections, reviews or tutorials in texts, dealing with topics of great interest about the Pinus.

We invite you all to visit our archives from 2008 till 2011 and access, according to your interest, the following links:

Section – The Ibero-American Conifers

Pinus taeda

Pinus elliottii

Pinus oocarpa

Pinus tecunumanii

Pinus strobus

Pinus caribaea
and the three varieties: caribaea, bahamensis e hondurensis

Pinus maximinoi

Pinus kesiya (P. insularis)

Pinus greggii

Pinus palustris

Pinus merkusii

Pinus echinata

Pinus patula

Pinus radiata

Araucaria angustifolia
- Oddities and Taxonomic Issues

Sequoia sempervirens

• Pinus pinea (Stone pine)

Pinus pinaster (Maritime pine)

Pinus ponderosa

Pinus sylvestris

Pinheiro-do-Oregon (Pseudotsuga menziesii)

Araucaria araucana

Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese pine)

Cupressus lusitanica

Cryptomeria japonica

Podocarpus spp. (Brazilian wild pine)

Cupressus sempervirens

Thuja spp.

Pinus montezumae

Section - Forest Species of Importance to Ibero-America

O Bambu: Características Gerais, Usos e Manejo (The bamboo: general characteristics, uses and forest crop management)

Casuarina equisetifolia

Platano (Platanus spp.)

Section – Online Technical References – Great Authors about the Pinus

Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo

Dr. Jarbas Yukio Shimizu

Dr. Vitor Afonso Hoeflich

Dr. Cesar Augusto Guimaraes Finger

Dr. Umberto Klock

Dr. Vilmar Luciano Mattei

Professor Roberto Melo Sanhueza

Francisco J. N. Kronka; Francisco Bertolani; Reinaldo H. Ponce

Geraldo Jose Zenid

Dr. Antonio Rioyei Higa

Dr. Martha Andreia Brand

Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede

Professor Dr. Jose Otavio Brito

Dr. Celso Garcia Auer

Forest agronomist Pieter Willem Prange

Professor Dr. Clovis Roberto Haselein

Professor Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Jr.

Dr. Robert Paul Kibblewhite

Dr. Carlos Alberto Hector Flechtmann

Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher

Section – Having the Floor... The Great Authors...

Por que Pinus taeda L. no Altiplano de Santa Catarina? - (Why Pinus taeda L. in the highlands of Santa Catarina?)
by Pieter Willem Prange

Celulose de Bambu: uma Commodity em Potencial - (Bamboo pulp: a potential commodity)
by Hans Jurgen Kleine

Section – Online Technical References – Ph.D. Theses and Master Dissertations about Pinus from Ibero-American Universities

Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR) - (Federal University of Parana)

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP) & Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais (IPEF) – (University of Sao Paulo & Institute of Forest Research and Studies)

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) – (Federal University of Santa Catarina)

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) – (Federal University of Santa Maria)

Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) - (State University of Campinas)

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) - (Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul)

Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNaM - Argentina) - (National University of Misiones)

Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) - Instituto de Florestas (IF) - (Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro & Institute of Forests)

UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho" – (Paulista State University "Julio de Mesquita Filho")

UACH - Universidad Austral de Chile - (Austral University of Chile)

UnB - Universidade de Brasilia e UFLA - Universidade Federal de Lavras – (University of Brasilia & Federal University of Lavras)

Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (UTL) – Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA) – Portugal - (Technical University of Lisbon & Advanced Institute of Agronomy – Portugal)

Section – Online Technical References – Articles and Speeches about Pinus from Relevant World R&D Institutions

Laboratorio Tecnologico do Uruguai - (LATU) – (Technological Laboratory of Uruguay)

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) – South Africa

Relatorios e Estudos elaborados pelo Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social (BNDES) – (Reports and studies presented by the Brazilian National Bank for Economic and Social Development)

Novo Livro sobre o Pinus editado pela Embrapa Florestas – (New book about Pinus released by Embrapa Florestas)

PPT - Projeto Pinus Tropicais da ESALQ/USP e IPEF – (The ESALQ/USP/IPEF tropical pines project)

Texts, Tutorials and Special Collections on Relevant Topics about the Pinus

Cultivo e Reflorestamento com os Pinus - (Cultivation and afforestation with Pinus)

Plantando Pinus para Recuperacao de Areas Degradadas – (Planting Pinus to recover degraded lands)

Anatomia da Madeira do Pinus – (Pinewood anatomy)

Taxonomia do Genero Pinus – (Taxonomy of the genus Pinus)

Fabricacao e Producao de Celulose Kraft de Pinus – (Manufacturing and production of kraft pulp from Pinus)

Fototeca (Galeria de Fotos) do Pinus – (Pinus Photo gallery)

Os Pinus e as Formigas Cortadeiras – (The Pinus and the leaf-cutting ants)

Madeiras de Pinus para Paineis OSB ("Oriented Strand Board") – (Pinewood to the manufacture of OSB panels - Oriented Strand Board)

Combate a Mato-Competicao em Povoamentos de Pinus – (Controlling weed infestation in pine stands)

Fabricacao e Producao de Chapas MDF a partir dos Pinus – (Manufacturing and production of MDF panels from pines)

Fabricacao e Producao de Chapas MDP (Chapa de Particulas ou Aglomerado) a partir dos Pinus – (Manufacturing and production of MDP panels from pines)

Aneis de Crescimento e sua Importancia para a Qualidade e Uso da Madeira do Pinus - (Wood growth rings and importance to the quality and utilization of pinewoods)

"Edge Glued Panel" (Painel de Madeira Colado Lateralmente) - (EGP - Edge Glued Panel from pinewood)

Mel de "Honeydew" de Pinus – (Honeydew from pines)

Polimeros Hidroretentores ou Hidrogeis – (Hydrogels or water retention polimers)

Moveis de Pinus no Brasil - (The furnitures on pinewood in Brazil)

Producao e Uso do Composto de Casca de Pinus – (Production and utilization of the compost made with Pinus bark)

Cogumelos Comestiveis Associados aos Pinus – (Edible mushrooms associated with Pinus)

Pinus como Arvore de Natal – (The Pinus as Christmas trees)

Cogumelos Toxicos Associados aos Pinus e Pinaceas – (Toxic mushrooms associated with Pinus and Pinaceae)

Compensados de Madeira de Pinus – (Plywood from pines)

Sementes Comestiveis de Pinus – (Edible seeds of Pinus)

Fitonematoides nos Pinus – (Phytonematodes in Pinus)

Aplicacoes Medicinais dos Pinus – (Medicinal applications for pines)

Pinhoes de Araucarias na Alimentacao Humana – (Araucaria pine nuts as human food supply)

"Waferboard" de Pinus e Diferencas em Relacao aos Paineis OSB – (Pinewood waferboard and diferences with OSB panels)

Araucaria angustifolia: Qualidade da sua Madeira – (Araucaria angustifolia: wood quality)

Utilizacao das Escamas dos Pinhoes para Tratar Efluentes – (Using the scales of the pine nuts to treat wastewater)

Grimpa do Pinheiro-do-Parana para Producao de Madeira Reconstituida – (Parana-pine “grimpa” to the manufacture of reconstituted wood)

Repelentes para Insetos a partir de Extratos de Pinus – (Insect repellents obtained from pine extracts)

No de pinho (No de Araucaria) – (Araucaria knots)

Compensado Sarrafeado de Pinus – (Slats plywood made from pine)

Papelao Ondulado. Parte 1 - Definicoes, Historico, Beneficios, Reciclagem e Mercados – (Corrugated board. Part 1 - Definitions, history, benefits, recycling and markets)

Papelao Ondulado. Parte 2 - Fabricacao do Papelao e Acabamento de Embalagens - (Corrugated board. Part 2 – Board manufacturing and packaging finishing processes)

Papelao Ondulado. Parte 3 - Propriedades do Papelao de Importancia para seu Uso como Embalagens – (Corrugated board. Part 3 – Important board properties in relation to its use as packaging material)

Entomopatogenos no Controle de Formigas Cortadeiras, Importantes Pragas dos Pinus - (Entomopathogens in the control of ants, important pests of Pinus)

Caixas e Palitos de Fosforo de Pinus – (Matchsticks and matches boxes made from pinewood)

Serrarias Moveis ou Portateis – (Mobile and portable sawmills)

Caixas de Madeira de Pinus para o Transporte de Frutas e de Hortalicas – (Pinewood boxes for transporting fruits and vegetables)

Estudos sobre a Resina do Pinus – (Studies about the resin of Pinus)

Artigos da Vida Diaria Fabricados com Madeira dos Pinus – (Daily-life articles manufactured with pinewood)

Mosaicos e Fragmentos Florestais: Importancia para a Biodiversidade e Preservacao Ambiental – (Forest mosaics and fragments: importance to biodiversity and environmental preservation)

Oleo de Pinho - Oleo Essencial do Pinheiro – (Pine oil – Essential oil from pines)

Competpinus: Programa de Manejo Sustentavel e Competitividade da Cadeia Produtiva do Pinus no RS – (Competpinus: a program of sustainable management for the competitiveness of the Pinus productive chain in RS state)

Matas Ciliares como APPs - Areas de Preservacao Permanente – (Gallery forests as areas of permanente preservation)

Produtos de Serragem Residual da Madeira – (Products from residual wood sawdust)

Cinquenta Anos de Engenharia Florestal no Brasil – (Fifty-year anniversary of the Forest Engineering career in Brazil)

Trituradores e Picadores de Biomassa Florestal – (Crushers and chippers for forest biomass)

Polpa Celulosica de Serragem de Madeira de Pinus – (Pulp manufactured from pinewwod sawdust)

Uma Coletanea de ReferEncias Tecnicas sobre o Bambu como Materia-Prima para a Fabricacao de Celulose e Papel - (A collection of technical references about the bamboo as raw material for the production of pulp and paper)

Costaneiras de Pinus – (Pinewood slabs)

Produtos de Fibrocimento Derivados de Fibras de Pinus – (Fiber-cement composite products derived from pine fibers)

Carvao Ativo ou Ativado Derivado da Madeira do Pinus – (Activated charcoal derived from pinewood)

Ocorrencia e Obtencao de Taninos em Pinus – (Occurrence and extraction of tannins from Pinus)

Produtos Isolantes para a Construcao Civil com Base em Fibras e em Madeira de Pinus – (Insulating products to civil construction industry based on fibers and woods from pines)

Os Incendios Florestais e os Pinus – (The forest fires and the pines)

Torrefacao de Residuos de Madeira de Pinus – (Torrefaction of pinewood wastes)

Cercas Vivas a partir de Especies de Coniferas – (Living fences made with conifer species)

Section – Problems and Challenges to Pinus

O Defeito Rabo-de-Raposa-do-Pinus – (The fox-tail defect in Pinus)

Section – Pests and Diseases of the Pinus

Pulgao-do-Pinus ou Pulgao-Gigante-do-Pinus – (Giant aphid of pine)

Gorgulho-do-Pinus - (Banded pine weevil)

Escolitideos em Pinus – (Scolytids in Pinus)

Controle Biologico de Pragas em Florestas Plantadas de Pinus – (Biological control of insect pests em plantation forests of Pinus)

Armillaria spp. - Armilariose em Pinus – (Armillaria disease in Pinus)

Fungos que Depreciam a Qualidade da Madeira de Pinus – (Fungi decay and pinewood quality reduction)

Seca dos Ponteiros dos Pinus Causada por Sphaeropsis sapinea – (Top branches dieback in Pinus caused by Sphaeropsis sapinea)

Technical Articles by Ester Foelkel

As Florestas Plantadas de Pinus e a Vespa-da-Madeira - (The planted forests of pines and the wood-wasp)

As Micorrizas e o Pinus – (The mycorrhizae and the Pinus)

Resinagem do Pinus – (Resin extraction in Pinus)

O Conceito de Especies Invasivas ou Invasoras em Relacao aos Pinus – (The concept of invasive species in relation to Pinus)

A Madeira dos Pinus e sua Susceptibilidade ao Ataque por Cupins-de-Madeira-Seca e por Cupins Subterraneos – (The wood of Pinus and its susceptibility to the attack by wood and underground termites)

Uso do GPS nas Plantacoes Florestais de Pinus – (GPS utilization in the forest plantations of Pinus)

Aspectos Gerais da Producao de Mudas de Pinus – (General aspects of pine seedling production)

Aspectos Ambientais da Industria Moveleira no Brasil – (Environmental issues at the furniture industry in Brazil)

Tecnologias de Beneficiamento e Conservacao de Sementes de Pinus – (Technologies for improvement and conservation of pine seeds)

Producao de Paletes de Pinus – (Production of pinewood pallets)

Producao de Sementes Geneticamente Melhoradas de Pinus – (Production of genetically improved pine seeds)

Casca de Pinus Carbonizada e suas Utilizacoes – (Carbonized pine bark and its uses)

As Plantacoes Florestais de Pinus e a Alelopatia – (The forest plantations of Pinus and the allelopathy)

Poda, Desrama e Desbaste das Arvores de Pinus para Melhor Qualidade da Madeira – (Pruning and thinning pine trees for improved wood quality)

Defeitos Intrinsecos mais Comuns nas Toras e Madeiras sem Beneficiamento de Pinus – (Most common intrinsic defects in pine logs and timber previous to lumber processing)

Principais Usos da Maravalha e Serragem da Madeira de Pinus – (Main uses for pinewood shavings and sawdust)

Defeitos mais Comuns nas Toras e Madeiras de Pinus durante o seu Beneficiamento – (Most common defects in pine logs and timber during lumber processing)

Serrapilheira de Pinus e a Ciclagem de Nutrientes no Ecossistema Florestal – (Pinus forest litter and the nutrient cycling in the ecosystem)

" Tall oil" - Um Valioso Subproduto das Fabricas de Celulose Kraft de Pinus – (Tall oil – a valued byproduct at the pine kraft pulping mills)

Briquetes e Peletes de Madeira de Pinus para Geracao de Energia – (Pinewood briquettes and pellets for power generation)

Propriedades Mecanicas da Madeira do Pinus – (Pinewood mechanical properties)

Fabricacao de Lapis com a Madeira de Pinus – (Manufacturing of pinewood pencils)

Producao Industrial de Terebintina de Pinus – (Industrial production of pine turpentine)

Fraldas e Absorventes Intimos Descartaveis Produzidos com Fibras Celulosicas do Pinus – (Production of diapers and hygienic intimate tampoons with pine pulp fibers)

Polpas ou Celuloses Tipo "Fluff" – (Fluff pulps)

Lignosulfonatos Obtidos a Partir da Lignina do Pinus – (Lignosulfonates obtained from pine lignins)

Embalagens Cartonadas Tipo Longa Vida – (Long-life cartonboard packaging)

Sistemas Agroflorestais (SAF) Aplicados aos Pinus – (Agroforestry systems with Pinus)

Polpa Moldada – (Molded pulp products)

Laminacao / Faqueamento da Madeira de Pinus – (Pinewood veneering)

Papeis para Sacos Kraft de Embalagem com Alta Resistencia Contendo Fibras Celulosicas de Pinus – (High-strength kraft paper for bag packages containing pine pulp fibers)

Sacolas de Compras e Sacos de Papel Obtidos de Polpas Celulosicas de Pinus – (Purchasing bags made with pine pulps)

Preservacao da Madeira de Pinus – (Chemical preservation of pinewood)

Danos e Formas de Controle de Formigas Cortadeiras em Areas de Pinus – (Damages and measures for controlling leaf-cutting ants in Pinus forests)

Thanks my friends for your presence in the Celsius Degree and ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper websites; and for your careful reading and browsing of our texts and information’s about the Pinus. They are created, designed and written to be useful to you all.

Technical Article by Celso Foelkel

The Future Bleached Kraft Pulp Mills - What can we expect for them?

Looking the future is not something simple, easy or with a guarantee of success. In general, when we try to predict something in the future, we usually do such based on indicators of present events. Of course, in future, things may appear in surprising, innovative and different ways, even radical, and able to throw away all the curves that our technical staff have developed based on trends and built with sophisticated software systems. On the other hand, the moment requires us to be mindful and attentive about the future. Many people say that the future starts now and the technologies that will dominate in a few years from today are already occurring in a modest way somewhere in the planet. If this is true, we must also understand and know very well the present, its constraints and opportunities, before venturing to have fanciful visions of a future that we are even unable to understand.

The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest and most developed in the world economy. This is because paper has been a consumer product of high penetration in the modern society, from rough and heavy paper packs to delicate tissue paper handkerchiefs, without forgetting all paper used as deposits of printed words (newspapers, books, magazines, etc.). For this reason, it surprised me the limited availability of literature about predictions on how technology will evolve in the pulp and paper manufacturing industry from now to a few more decades. This fact has just strengthened what I always understood about this industry. The industry is passionate about the core technologies that it houses (kraft process and Fourdrinier type paper machine) and spends nearly all the energy trying to enhance them. This enhancement attempt is associated with improved efficiencies, better use of inputs, operating continuity and production scale economy. There is a more or less tied or limited focus driving the technological development of this type of industry. The industry clearly demands that researchers should be dealing in optimizations and gradual improvements and do little in disruptive or radical innovations. The dream for the future seems to be always the same: huge mills with dinosauric productions with very low production costs, very high operational efficiency, minimal downtime and reduced investment requirements per unit of production. Of course, if all this is accompanied by environmental quality, business sustainability, corporate responsibility, appropriate social issues, clean and green institutional image and good positioning in the stock markets, then the alphabet soup is complete and happiness will reign in the paper kingdom. However, it remains the question: for how long? How much longer? The dreams were the same for companies in the northern hemisphere and many of the coaches jammed and have stopped forever. For this reason, there are changes happening in the business strategies and the focus seems to be another one. Changes are expected, but in what direction? Are they expected to be successful and victorious? Which of them are supposed to have the best chances of success?

Every time we think about looking toward the future we do not escape from the temptation to take a glimpse into the past, even the recent past. In a time horizon not too long, just a century, we are able to note that the pulp industry has undergone remarkable changes. In the first half of the twentieth century, the focus was on production of conventional ground-wood for making newsprint, on sulfate (or kraft) pulping for the production of unbleached paper for manufacturing packaging goods and on the manufacturing of bleached sulfite pulp for noble and high quality bleached papers. A great number of bleached pulp mills were operating the calcium acid sulfite process and fibrous raw materials consisted of coniferous woods. Even Brazil has avenged this model with mills such Melhoramentos, Cambara, Irani, Klabin, using the sulfite process for their pulp production at the beginning of their operations. The sulfite technology of the time was unable to allow recovering the residual cooking liquor. The sulfite mills had to be creative by seeking for alternatives not having all that liquor poured away as industrial pollution. Thus, the waste materials were (and are still being done in sulfite mills as those from Borregaard, Domsjö and Lenzing) converted into multi-products such as lignosulfonates, alcohols, acetic acid, yeast, etc. Models were and are very similar to what researchers now pompously and proudly call as biorefineries, as if the concept had been invented now, although existing for over a century.

However, since the 60's, with increasing environmental pressures and the advent of more efficient technologies for bleaching sulfate pulps, this process has gradually cannibalized the sulfite pulping process. Sulfite mills have gradually disappeared or have been changed ("modernized") to sulfate plants. Even the name sulfate has been replaced by kraft, what means strong, and has a lot more on marketing appeal.

The great truth is that the kraft or sulfate process has been unsurpassed and virtuous, as it has numerous technical and economic advantages: excellent quality of its pulp products; high closing of cycles; possibility of recovering chemicals and power from the residual cooking liquor, flexibility regarding the fibrous raw material, energy efficiency, costs of production, etc. With all these advantages, technicians and entrepreneurs only had as obligation to make pulp mills more efficient and productive. At the same time as they have enhanced the operational variables and production technologies, the engineers have taken advantage to increase the production scale of the mills.

Large pulp mills (with high scale of production) are extremely well-accepted because they offer three significant advantages:

• Reducing the investment unit cost for building a new pulp mill (U.S.$/adt.year – air dry tons of pulp);
• Reducing the production unit cost by more efficient use of inputs such as electricity, steam, chemicals, wood, etc.;
• Reduction of losses of raw materials and inputs, which improves efficiency and reduces pollution from mills.

With such attractive advantages, there is no investor who resists. Kraft pulp mills, which in the 50's were producing a maximum of 200 to 300 adt/day, started to produce more: 500 adt/day in the 60's; 750 adt/day in the 70's; 1,000-1,250 in the 80's; 1,300 to 1,600 in the 90's, from 2,000 to 2,500 in 2000's; and today, the latest engineered mills already are designed to manufacture from 3,000 to 4,500 adt/day.

The growth was not faster and bigger because the engineering limitations for growing the production scale of the recovery boilers and lime kilns. Today, we already have kraft recovery boilers burning from 4,000 to 6,000 tons per day of Total Dry Solids (TDS/day), when a few decades ago a very large boiler was considered as such when burning 1,500-2,000 tons of TDS/day.

There is the belief that in case this pattern persists, in the year 2020 there will be new greenfield bleached kraft mills producing about 6,000 adt of pulp per day, and recovery boilers burning 9,000 tons of TDS/day.

The large pulp mills represent lower specific investment costs because they require smaller amounts of materials (steel, equipment, etc.) per ton of manufactured pulp. Moreover, the scale growth has been accompanied by process simplifications and integration in pursuit of greater efficiencies and operational continuity. In the 80's, the construction of a new bleached kraft pulp mill would require investments from 1,600 to 2,000 U.S.$/adt.year. A pulp mill to produce 500,000 adt/year would require a capital investment of 800 million to one billion dollars. Today, the unit cost of investment for state-of-the-art kraft mills of bleached pulp varies between U.S.$ 1,100 - 1,200/adt.year. That is, with the same investment in the 80's used to build a factory of 500,000 adt.year, we can build today mills producing 800,000 to 900,000 adt of pulp per year. An overwhelming advantage that accelerates the search for the giant mills - they are undoubtedly more competitive and effective.

However, these maxi-mills have their weaknesses and their Achilles' heels. They are very sensitive to disturbances and stable process operation is vital. This means that production interruptions are critical. Everything must operate as an excellent Swiss or Japanese watch.

The giant mills also concentrate in one single location the needs of inputs (especially wood) and the elimination of their pollutants. Even considering that the specific consumption of wood per ton of pulp and the specific emissions of pollutants are lower than the conventional mills, the gigantism of their productions ends up concentrating greater amounts of pollutants to be released in the same environment and the need for more wood to be generated in the region where these maxi-mills are located. For this reason, some pulp companies prefer to consider the possibility of having two large mills rather than a gigantic pulp mill. Further, to avoid losing too much downtime of a giant line of production, the production may be divided in one place between two or more fiberlines and liquor recovery systems. The objective is always to optimize the logistics, reduce downtime and increase results. Some companies choose to diversify production, keeping one fiberline for long fibers and another one for short fibers in the same industrial site.

The wood supply is perhaps the main limiting factor for these gigantic production scales. If it is not the case in Brazil, it is certainly in countries that require much larger tracts of land to meet the wood demands from the pulp mill. Even in Brazil, which has outstanding yields with Eucalyptus plantation forests, the area effectively planted to supply a bleached pulp mill with production of 1.5 million adt/year is something like 150,000 hectares of forests. In Chile, this area would be 250,000 hectares; in the Iberian Peninsula, 450,000 ha and in the Scandinavian countries almost one million hectares. Hard to imagine that countries with small territorial areas may venture to build pulp maxi-mills, because it surely will annoy the domestic inhabitants, more concerned about food production in their national lands.

Furthermore, there are pressures and challenges that are typical and intrinsic of this kind of industry producing bleached kraft pulp, some of them being the following:

• Maximizing operational efficiency (stability, productivity and continuity);
• Maximizing energy efficiency;
• Improvement in product quality in relation to the demands of target markets;
• Optimization of investment costs;
• Optimization of maintenance costs;
• Reduction of operational and production costs;
• Reduction of environmental impacts (closed cycles, reduced consumption of raw materials, reduced generation of pollutants, etc.);
• Automation for increased standardization of processes and reduction of human labor used in manufacturing;
• Optimization of the logistics for timber supply and manufactured products;
• Qualification of the technical and operational personnel;
• Etc.

These pressures and new ways of management in search of eco-efficiency and sustainability have resulted in significant improvements in manufacturing processes, such as:

• Increasing the yields of pulping and bleaching;
• Reducing the specific consumption of wood;
• Reducing the specific consumption of steam and electricity;
• Improving the quality of the manufactured pulp;
• Reducing the specific consumption of general inputs (water, chemicals, etc.);
• Reducing of losses and wastes in processing operations (fiber, filtrates, liquors, odors, particulates, etc.), resulting in lower pollutant loads;
• Etc.

However, the maxi-mills in their state-of-the-art have also been defined as dinosaurs, according to the management guru Tom Peters, who believes that companies and industrial plants of high performance stick the head in the ground precisely satisfied with the performance that their modern present day technologies allow to reach. I actually thought that those who stick the head on the ground were the ostriches, but who are we to oppose administration gurus? Tom Peters has also mentioned that today, with the fast changes in business environments, there would be only two types of entrepreneurs: the quick and the dead. He argued that the gigantism stiffens the flexibility to be fast, as he is fully right, I understand.

Despite these Tom Peters’ considerations, the Brazilian pulp maxi-mills have proven to be very efficient, effective, eco-efficient, safe, simple and with low demand for maintenance. Perhaps, we have not reached the limits of the scale of production that can disturb the company’s management - or else, we are being highly efficient to run them.

Regardless these reflections, there is a consensus within the pulp and paper sector that the kraft process, the way it is, may be regarded as at the peak of its technological maturity. The economy of scale and the optimization of manufacturing processes can, from now on, not being as effective to leverage competitiveness, as they did to present. It is believed that this model may become increasingly hazardous and risky. With these facts in mind, pulp producers in the northern hemisphere, who cannot follow this present model due to lack of area to plant and low forest productivity, are seeking alternatives for their pulp mills. They are seeking for multi-products models and no more a single and commoditized product, considering the potentials for the aforementioned integrated biorefineries.

Before commenting on the biorefineries, let us attempt to understand a little more about our maxi-mills in their state-of-the-art. They are considered like that ("state-of-the-art") because they use the very latest in modern production technology, in the various phases of pulp processing. This includes concepts and equipment’s of high efficiency and performance, designed and operated within the so-called BAT - "Best Available Techniques (or technologies)". Among such technologies we may mention: digesters with modified kraft cooking, pressurized washing presses, ECF-light bleaching; super-boilers with high temperatures and pressures in the superheated steam (greater than 500ºC and 120 bar), evaporators in multi-effects, wastewater treatment plants, solid waste composting stations, etc., etc.

These technologies (associated with process simplification and scale of production) caused such significant savings in electricity and steam consumption’s that the whole energy demand of the plant can be guaranteed by the black liquor, still leaving approximately 0.15 to 0.5 MWh/adt of electricity surplus for sale to third parties. Something unusual, because just two decades ago, all bleached kraft pulp mills should rely on the need of auxiliary boilers burning fuel oil or biomass. Result for the present days: the maxi-mills no longer need bark or biomass auxiliary boilers, unless they are also interested in operating as thermal/power plants for sale the surplus energy produced by cogeneration. Log debarking can be done all over the forest field, leaving the bark and their nutrients to feed future generations of trees. Other manufacturers prefer to maintain log debarking at mill site, in order to use the same to generate extra electricity for sale or to be compacted into briquettes or pellets, also to make up a new and attractive business in the area of bioenergy.

The recovery system, based on the boiler concept developed in the late 1930's by G.H. Tomlinson has also been modernized and optimized. Although the recovery boiler is a mature technology and difficult to be engineered regarding large production scale, it also succeeded to overcome the obstacles and bottlenecks in furnace sizing, internal clogging and liquor spray. The major current threat has been the accumulation of non-process elements (K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, Mn, etc.) that must be removed from the mill system by devices known as "kidneys" or purifiers. This problem is because the pulp mill circuits have been closed and the exhausting doors for these contaminants that come with the wood and other raw materials no longer exist as before.
Read what I wrote about this at:

In any case, what once was a serious limitation to restrict pulp mill scale of production; today is no longer. The black liquor recovery systems have been able to follow the growth of scale of the fiberlines. Today, we have boilers burning over 6,000 tons of TDS/day, and huge lime kilns, with over 150 meters long and 5 in diameter.

The electricity surplus has offered a new market for kraft pulp mills: sale of electricity to the public system or to other industrial factories arranged in islands or clusters, with the pulp mill acting as an anchor company. This has been the current model, with enormous possibilities of expansion as soon as being removed the existing bureaucratic and legal obstacles in the Brazilian case. Note that a one million tons per year kraft pulp mill producing bleached Eucalyptus pulp when opt to also have a biomass auxiliary boiler (bark and rejected wood chips), can generate a surplus from 500,000 to 750,000 MWh/year. This corresponds to a power surplus of 60-90 MW for sale.

If we try to design a future based on the model of production scale growth and sale of electricity as it is happening in the present, we can reach the year 2020 with new and giant pulp mills with the following characteristics:

• Annual production of bleached kraft pulp of more than 2 million air dry tons in a single location, with one or two fiberlines (6,000 adt pulp/day) and a mega recovery boiler (9,000 tons of TDS/day);
• Manufacturing unit also performing as a thermal and power plant to sale energy: from 100 to 150 MW;
• Manufacturing processes increasingly simpler and with reduced water consumption (about 15 m³/adt) and reduced consumption of other inputs;
• Intense use of "kidneys" to purify the internal flows;
• Green energy supply with 100% renewable energy (biomasses and black liquor);
• Pressurized processes with higher consistencies, as if we were talking about a series of tubes with high pressures and temperatures (like a huge pressurized and hot sausage, as it has been referred by our dear friend Luiz Coimbra in our times at Riocell);
• Mills very efficient with high availability, low maintenance demands, safe, automated, with very closed circuits, low production costs, etc.

In countries with large extensions of land that may become available for forest plantations, the maxi-mills will be born in places surrounded by planted forests and will be connected to their customers by very efficient modal systems in logistics (railways, waterways, airports and seaports).

However, this present industry model may be substantially changed due to new drivers which began to act just recently, especially in the northern hemisphere. These forces that are driving technological changes are the following:

• Agenda 2020 technological roadmap in the United States of America;
• Intense interest at pulp companies and governments about researching integrated biorefineries to the pulp and paper sector;
• Nano-technology solutions;
• Recycling of paper;
• Increasing costs and decreasing market prices of traditional products from pulp and papermaking;
• Scarcer wood offer in lumber markets as a function of competition from energy sectors;
• Appreciation of the wood without corresponding paper prices to increase in the same direction;
• New market demands (in types and quantities of products);
• Requirements for Life Cycle Analysis for the characterizations of the products;
• Opportunities in the flourishing field of bioenergy;
• Opportunities at the interesting markets of nano-cellulose;
• More versatile and flexible technological opportunities, with high levels of integration between processes.

These driving forces have the ability and intensity to significantly change the shape and design of future kraft pulp mills and in different and varied models (both using biochemical routes and/or thermochemical ones). Instead of maxi-mills producing a maximum of three products (market pulp, paper and electricity), we may have factories producing integrated multi-products: the mentioned just above and others as liquid and gaseous biofuels, gases for chemical synthesis and chemical products with high added value. A biorefinery integrated in the form as now is been studied could produce pulp for papermaking, lignin, ethanol, dimethyl ether, furfural, nano-crystals of cellulose, biodiesel, synthesis gas (syngas), etc.

The simple and already feasible removal of the lignin from kraft black liquor can switch the excess of electricity generated by the power plant to other materials with much greater value, such as the lignin to the manufacture of carbon fibers, high performance activated charcoal, etc. It also offers the opportunity of the pulp mills to increase production of their fiberlines without bottlenecking the recovery of black liquor, something very welcome for the technicians and managers in our industry.
In short, the alternatives are numerous and they are being dramatically opened. Of course, not all of them will perform well in terms of technical and economic feasibility, but the concept of producing kraft pulp is going to have changes - for that I have no doubts – and this fact is already happening, even in Brazil, in some of the coming maxi-mills to be installed.

Our dear friend Peter Axegård has been showing in many places of the world his excellent speech, which he called "The future pulp mill: the biorefinery?" With this, Peter has tried to show the radiography of the pulp industry he is designing with his peers of researchers in the innovative Swedish company called Innventia. It only remains to know whether biorefineries will break only biomass to multi-product manufacture, or whether they will even blow up the concept of maxi-mills, again converting them into mini-mills. If the kraft recovery boiler could be "discarded" from the process because, for example, the gasification of black liquor, then the changes in the kraft pulp industry could become dramatic - and everyone may be affected by them. Without the need for recovery boilers, the fiberlines can be tailored to each site and the pulp mills may be simpler and smaller. Due to the production of multi-products, the location of plants should be rethought - is more important to be closer to the many and varied customers than to an extensive and distant forest area.

Parallel to this, the growth of the paper industry relies on mini-mills using recycled fiber. These fibers are obtained in larger quantities (collection systems in the municipalities) and their qualities are becoming closer to those from virgin fibers. The secondary fibers will be increasingly cheaper, available and easy to be processed. New technologies for paper recycling are to reduce, as has already occurred, the specific needs of virgin fibers per ton of manufactured paper. It is an unquestionable truth. Therefore, market pulp mills should also find other markets, thus exiting from current concept of a business that is based on huge tonnages to be sold to few and large customers at commodity prices.

The challenges are launched. The routes are many and diverse, but in all cases the success will depend on the effectiveness of the technologies. With appropriate technology we can not only walk the path of increased scale of production and eco-efficiency in operations, as well as the route of fragmentation and conversion of forest biomass in multi-products, even including pulp and paper.

For this reason, the industry's commitment to fundamental research and the development of applied technologies are becoming increasingly more critical. Will our leaders ever notice that? Do they still believe that the gains in production scale will provide eternal life to their companies? Remember the words of the aforementioned guru Tom Peters? The scale of production and eco-efficiency certainly increase competitiveness, but for how long? And another question to think about: will we be competing against what in the future?

The mistake of many top managers is the belief that their future competitors will be at the same industry they operate. However, the practice has increasingly shown that things obey other rules. Where will be our competitors in the future? And our customers, who are to be them? It is absolutely correct to say that things will change.

Since we cannot predict a turbulent future by the lack of crystal balls, we have to go monitoring the way in direction of future and innovating faster. If you do not keep pace with the progress of knowledge, if we do not develop broad and borderless competitive strategies, if we are not quick and competent, we may obsolete our huge pulp mill investments in short period of time. I hope this fact does not happen with my many friends in the pulp and paper sector, but what to do if this happens? Risks always exist in business – they are part of it, precisely because we are talking about a type of game where you can win or lose.

References and Suggestions from the Literature

The fiberline of the future.
T. Johnson; B. Johnson; Peter Gleadow. RISI TechChannels. Accessed on 23.02.2012:

The post-paper mills.
M. Ewing. The Maine Mag. Accessed on 23.02.2012:

Summary: Challenges in black liquor recovery in modern kraft pulp mills. H. Tran; R. Villarroel. 5th International Conference on Eucalyptus Pulp. In “Highlights of the 5th International Colloquium on Eucalypt Pulp”. TAPPI Peers 2011. PowerPoint presentation: 50 slides. (2011)

Summary: The fiberline of the future for Eucalyptus kraft pulp. M.A. Andrade; O. Pikka. 5th International Conference on Eucalyptus Pulp. In “Highlights of the 5th International Colloquium on Eucalypt Pulp”. TAPPI Peers 2011. PowerPoint presentation: 42 slides. (2011)

Antiquated pulp mills to become biorefineries. G. Lamphier. Forest Business Network. (2011)

Pulp mills in transition - from net consumers of energy to producers of energy and services. P. Axegård. Chalmers Energy Conference. PowerPoint presentation: 29 slides. (2011)
& ei=-jlNT8IKkPmCB7nykK8C&usg=AFQjCNHNK7KhH36HvO0rRoT-QX4WceY-Fw

Industria de celulose vende energia excedente. (Pulp industry sells energy surplus). Estado Agency. Painel Florestal News. (2011) (In Portuguese)

Energia da celulose, desafios e oportunidades. (Energy from pulp mills, challenges and opportunities). R. Villarroel. Grau Celsius Website. 03 pp. (2011) (In Portuguese)

Pulp and paper industry. BREF working draft in progress - Pulp and Paper – Reference document on best available techniques in the pulp and paper industry. The European IPPC – Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau. 746 pp. (2010)

Modern fibrelines for minimum environmental impact. T. Johnson; B. Johnson; Peter Gleadow; A. Hall. BECA. 09 pp. (2010)

Forest products industry technology roadmap. G.R. Brown. Agenda 2020 Technology Alliance. 108 pp. (2010)

R&D challenged by resource efficiency.
K. Edelmann. PulPaper Conference. PowerPoint presentation: 24 slides. (2010)

21st century fibrelines. T. Johnson; B. Johnson; P. Gleadow; H. Araneda; F. Silva; R. Aquilar; C. Hsiang. Pulp & Paper Canada (September): 26 – 31. (2009)

Reimagining paper in the 21st century. Policy options for reimagining paper manufacturing and consumption. RePaper Project. 12 pp. (2009)

Biorefinery within the pulp & paper sector. C. Hoffstedt. Innventia A.B. Powerpoint presentation: 11 slides. (2009)

Three plants in the new century. The new generation of papermaking is radically different from the past
. Y. Lavertu. Pulp & Paper Canada. (2008)

The future pulp mill: a biorefinery?
P. Axegård. 1st International Biorefinery Workshop. PowerPoint presentation: 32 slides. (2005)

Where are bleached kraft mills going? Brighter? Cleaner? Cheaper? M. MacLeod. Bay Ledger News Zone. (2008)

Forecasts: Fibreline technology in the new millennium
. A.P. Johnson. Pulp & Paper Canada. (2001)

New paradigms for our industry and fibreline technology in the new millennium. A.P. Johnson. Beca Simmons. APPITA. 05 pp. (2001)

The BREF in the pulp and paper industry. BAT for an industry with a large variety of raw materials and products.
M. Suhr. European Conference on “The Sevilla Process: A Driver for Environmental Performance in Industry”. 30 pp. (2000)

A fabrica de celulose do futuro. Resumo sobre a 6ª Conferencia Internacional de Novas Tecnologias Disponiveis
. (The future pulp mill. A summary of the 6th International Conference about New Available Technologies). B.V.P. Redko. Grau Celsius Website. PowerPoint presentation: 45 slides. (1999) (In Portuguese)

21st century pulp mills. D.G. Meadows. TAPPI Journal 81(12): 51 – 54. (1998)

Environmentally-friendly technologies for the pulp and paper industry.
R.A. Young; M. Akhtar. John Wiley. 577 pp. (1998)

Considerations in the development of a mini-mill. J.L. Goodman. TAPPI Engineering Conference. 10 pp. (1993)

Mini-mills: the beginning of a trend. R.B. Kinstrey. TAPPI Engineering Conference. 06 pp. (1993)

Low-tonnage urban mini-mills may be the wave of the future. R.B. Kinstrey. Resource Recycling Recovered Paper Supplement. 04 pp. (1992)

O que ha adiante da arvore? Tecnologia florestal presente e futura. (What’s ahead of the tree? Present and future forest technologies). E. Ratnieks; T.F. Assis. O Papel (January): 41 – 48. (1993)
(In Portuguese)

Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus.
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2009-2012

This knowledge oriented service was made possible through technical and financial sponsoring support provided by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. The opinions expressed in the texts are those of the authors or coming from the referenced technical literature. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

In case you may wish to know more about the Eucalyptus Newsletter, please visit:

In case you prefer not to receive the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the Eucalyptus Online Book, send a cancellation e-mail message to

In case you want to support or to sponsor the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter, having your logo or name associated with them, click here - to get more information

In case you want to register for receiving the next Eucalyptus Online Book chapters or the next issues of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, please click here and register by filling the requested boxes.