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Editorial

Dear friends,

Good morning, my dear Eucalyptus friends. Here we are again, with the 14th issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. In this edition, as it is being usual, we are again bringing a lot of information and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. Remember that most of this information is brought to you for your better understanding about the Eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer knowledge in a way that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this, we are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books and interesting events. I hope you may, like me, also admire these trees and the products they offer to Society.

In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter we are introducing to you some more chapters of our Eucalyptus Online Book, both in Portuguese. For the time being, be patient, the English versions are in the process of being built.

In the Ester Foelkel's section about "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" she is telling us about the utilization of the Eucalyptus for landscape designing and gardening.

In the section "The Friends of the Eucalyptus", I'm telling to you the professional life and the career of one of the most renowned professors in the Brazilian modern silviculture, Dr. Jose Luiz Stape. Dr. Stape is a great educator, researcher and promoter of the Eucalyptus planted forests. Among his aims, he wants not only to discover new knowledge about these forests as sources of wood products, but also in all the richness of their ecosystems and their eco-physiological efficiencies. I'm very honored to have the opportunity to introduce him to you in this issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter.

We are coming back again with another dialogue with my dear friend Alberto Mori in the section "A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Manufactured with Eucalyptus Fibers". This time, the technical conversation will cover the utilization of the Eucalyptus to the production of decor papers.

The today's mini-article is titled "The Eucalyptus and the Soil Conservation". This is another issue that we decided to have it clarified to readers, in a simple writing format and in the most honest and sincere way. The purpose is to continue to bring information about the environmental effects of the Eucalyptus forests in the ecosystems where they live and develop to generate valuable products to Mankind.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS and GIT - Eucalyptologics. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing.

Know more about all of our today’s partners at the URL address:
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/partners.html

Thanks again for the support to our work. We have just now reached the 6,000 registered people receiving these online publications about the Eucalyptus. Even so,

I beg your help to inform about and to promote our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, Botnia, Aracruz, International Paper do Brasil, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, Suzano and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading.

Celso Foelkel
http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br
http://www.abtcp.org.br

In this edition

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 08 (in Portuguese)

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 09 (in Portuguese)

Online Technical References


References about Events and Courses

Euca-Links

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus: The Eucalyptus used in Landscape Designing and Gardening (by Ester Foelkel)

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Dr. Jose Luiz Stape

A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Manufactured with Eucalyptus Fibers : Decor Papers

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
The Eucalyptus and the Soil Conservation

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 08 (in Portuguese)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe pdf - 10.7 MB) just click the name of the chapter.

In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_eng.html and find the instructions how to get it.

Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"Os Eucaliptos e as Leguminosas. Parte 01: Acacia mearnsii"

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 09 (in Portuguese)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe pdf - 1.3 MB) just click the name of the chapter.

In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_eng.html and find the instructions how to get it.
Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"Ecoeficiencia e Producao mais Limpa para a Industria de Celulose e Papel de Eucalipto"

Online Technical References

In this section, we are offering some very good euca-links with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they are very much connected with the Eucalyptus. In this section, we are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that are helping to build the foundations and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas related to these magic trees.

"Forest Products Annual Market Review" - (English)
It is a publication written in 2006 and showing wood products and world markets, with emphasis on Europe, China and North America. It consists in a joint study by UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 163 pages.

http://www.unece.org/trade/timber/docs/fpama/2006/fpamr2006.pdf

IBAMA Technical Information Document about "Forest Re-establishment" - (Portuguese)
t is a very instructive document edited by the Silviculture Coordination area of IBAMA (Brazilian Institute for Environment and Natural Resources). 39 pages. 2002

http://www.ibama.gov.br/recursos-florestais/wp-content/files/078-reposicao_florestal.pdf

Book "Genomics of Tropical Crop Plants" - (English)
It is a recent book (2008) edited by Springer about the biotechnological advances and genomics in several agricultural and forest crops. There is an excellent chapter by our dear and competent friend Dr. Dario Grattapaglia.

http://www.springerlink.com/content/ku5r2k/?p=561f32e9da424cd89abecef361182d06&pi=0
http://www.springerlink.com/content/ku5r2k/cover-large.gif
http://www.springerlink.com/content/ku5r2k/front-matter.pdf
http://www.springerlink.com/content/x4558lr1651095q3 (Dr. Grattapaglia chapter - only a preview, to have it in total the book has to be bought)

ABRAF 2007 Year Statistical Report - (Portuguese and English)
ABRAF is the Brazilian Association of the Planted Forests Producers. As regularly done, the ABRAF has issued its Yearbook with the Brazilian statistics on plantation forests. It has the aim to present the accomplishments of the Brazilian forestry segment and news about the association members.

http://www.abraflor.org.br/estatisticas.asp
http://www.abraflor.org.br/estatisticas/ABRAF08-BR.pdf (Portuguese)
http://www.abraflor.org.br/estatisticas/ABRAF08-EN.pdf
(English)

Article "Desafios Tecnologicos y Ambientales para la Gestion Sustentable del Sector Forestal en los Paises de America Latina y el Caribe" - (Spanish)
Technical paper written by my special friend from Chile, Prof. Dr. Claudio Zaror co-worked by O. Parra e P. Gonzalez. 47 pages. 1998

http://www.redhucyt.oas.org/ocyt/ENVIRO/sector%20forestal.pdf

Article "Perspectiva Fisiologica en la Produccion y Mejora del Eucalipto (con enfasis en Eucalyptus globulus) - (Spanish)
An article by Prof. Jose A. Pardos, published in the CIDEU Bulletin in an 2007 issue. 49 pages. CIDEU is the Center for Information and Documentation of the Eucalyptus (http://www.uhu.es/cideu)
http://www.uhu.es/cideu/Boletin/Boletin3/BolInf3CIDEU7-55.pdf

Master Dissertation "Qualidade, Desempenho Operacional e Custos com o Cultivo Minimo em Eucalyptus grandis" - (Portuguese)
Master Dissertation by Mr. Vitor A. G. Fesser, having the advising of Dr. Marcos Milan. The covered subject is the minimum soil preparation to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantation forests. ESALQ/USP. 105 pages. 2003

http://www.rsflorestal.com.br/arquivos/artigos/c/Custo%20Cultivo%20Minimo.pdf

"Eucalyptus nitens in Spain" - (English)
Available at the specialized website about Eucalyptus - PrimaBio, United Kingdom. (http://www.primabio.co.uk/index.htm).
http://www.primabio.co.uk/bm_enitensinSpain.htm

Publication "Sustainable Procurement of Wood and Paper-based Products: an introduction" - (English)
A joint publication by WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development) and WRI (World Resources Institute). 18 pages. 2007

http://www.wbcsd.org/DocRoot/OcLec5FMAeZXdpajYk09/ForestProcurementIntro.pdf

FAO Document about "Management of Wood Quality in Planted Forests: A paradigm for global forest production" - (English)
A FAO Working Paper (Food and Agriculture Organization), number FP/36/E - 2006, written by Richard Jagels, available at the FAO website.

http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/j8289e/J8289E00.HTM

Document "Brazil: a Country Profile on Sustainable Energy Development" - (English)
An excellent book resulted from the cooperation of several organizations -IAEA/COPPE/CENBIO/UNDESA. 339 pages. 2006
http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/Pess/assets/BRAZIL_FINAL_24April06.pdf

Thesis "Efeito da Irrigacao e Fertilizacao nas Propriedades do Lenho de Arvores de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla" - (Portuguese)
A great work on Eucalyptus wood anatomy by our dear friend Dr. Mario Tomazello Filho to ESALQ/USP, presented in 2006. 146 pages.
http://www.ipef.br/servicos/teses/arquivos/tomazello%20filho,m.pdf

Master Dissertation "Efeito da Aplicacao do Lodo de Esgoto e de Fertilizacao Mineral no Crescimento e Propriedades da Madeira de Arvores de Eucalyptus grandis"
A research about the utilization of sanitary sludge to fertilize Eucalyptus plantations and the corresponding effect on wood quality and anatomy. A work by Carlos Roberto Sette Jr. presented to ESALQ/USP. 153 pages. 2007. The MS student had Dr. Mario Tomazello Filho as his major professor.

http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/11/11150/tde-03072007-105132

References on Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events. The advantage provided to the readers is that the event organizers made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties.

Workshops "Site Management and Productivity in Tropical Plantation Forests" - (English)
A selected group of international events coordinated by CIFOR (Center for International Forest Research - Indonesia) in partnership with local institutions. The events took place in South Africa, India, Congo, China and Brazil. The proceedings contain valuable technical material on planted forests with Eucalyptus, Acacia, Tectona, Pinus, etc. You cannot miss this:

1998 (South Africa Workshop - 77 pp.)
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/StMgnt.pdf

1999 (India Workshop - 108 pp.)
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/MgSite-kerala.pdf

2001 e 2003 (Congo and China Workshops - 228 pp.)
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/StMgnt-tropical/Site_Management1.pdf
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/zip-file/StMgnt-tropical.zip

2004 (Brazil Workshop)
http://www.ipef.br/eventos/2004/productivity.asp
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/AReports/AR2004F.pdf

Proceedings of the IPEF Technical Meeting about "Second Rotation of Eucalyptus Forests Managed by Coppicing" - (Portuguese)
It is not a recent event, it happened back to 1987. However, this issue is gaining importance again, since the management of Eucalyptus plantation forests by coppicing has potential advantages. There are strong possibilities that this type of silvicultural management may play important role in the years to come.
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/stecnica/nr11.asp

IUFRO Congress "Eucalypts and Diversity: balancing productivity and sustainability" - (English)
A great event by IUFRO dedicated to the Eucalyptus (International Union of Forest Research Organizations). The congress was held in South Africa in the year 2007. Although not all presentations are available for downloading, you may find several of them, all related to the main topic of the congress. Have a look on this offer:
http://www.iufrodurban.org.za (Congress website)
http://www.iufrodurban.org.za/presentations.htm (
Speech presentations)
http://www.iufrodurban.org.za/poster_presentations.htm (Posters)

International Symposium "Forest Soils under Global and Local Changes" - (English)
This event has happened in the year 2004, in France. The event book contains expanded summaries of several dozens of papers related to: management, microbiology, hydrology, productivity, nutrition, fertility, carbon sinking, nutrient cycling, forest wastes, etc. Please, go to visit:
http://www.pierroton.inra.fr/IEFC/manifestations/soilsymposium2004/Abstracts.v4.pdf

Eurosoil 2004 - (English)
The congress took place in Freiburg, Germany, with an enormous number of papers on soil science.
http://www.bodenkunde2.uni-freiburg.de/eurosoil
http://www.bodenkunde2.uni-freiburg.de/eurosoil/Program_eng.htm

IUFRO "Forest Plantations Meeting" - (English)
This event was held in 2006, South Carolina/USA. The speeches may be downloaded both as PowerPoint presentations or expanded summaries in text. See in special the speeches by Dr. Fred Cubbage (NCSU), who gave us a review on forest plantations: fat-growing forestry, wood supply and natural resources conservation. See also the speech by Dr. Thomas Fox concerning the sustainability of the forest plantations in the US South.
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/nreos/forest/feop/Agenda2006/iufro_plantations/
proceedings/summary.html
(Programa do evento)
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/nreos/forest/feop/Agenda2006/iufro_plantations/
proceedings/K02s-Cubbage.pdf
(Palestra Cubbage)
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/nreos/forest/feop/Agenda2006/iufro_plantations/
proceedings/C01s-Siry.pdf
(Palestra Cubbage e Siry)
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/nreos/forest/feop/Agenda2006/iufro_plantations/
proceedings/S01s-Fox.pdf
(Dr. Fox's speech)

Energia 2020 "Sustentabilidade na Geracao e Uso da Energia no Brasil: os proximos 20 anos" - (Portuguese)
This event about energy in Brazil was held in 2002 at UNICAMP. The speeches covered the several sources of energy to Brazil, including biomass.
http://www.cgu.unicamp.br/energia2020/apresentacao.html
http://www.cgu.unicamp.br/energia2020/programacao.html
(Speeches for downloading)

Euca-Links

Here, we are bringing to you a series of links with several very good websites that have strong connection with the Eucalyptus. I hope you may visit them, taking advantage of the good technical material they offer at a no cost basis.

Prof. Dr. Art Ragauskas' Webpage - (USA)
Professor Dr. Art Ragauskas is one of the most distinguishing professors and researchers at IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology - Georgia Tech), in Atlanta/GA. His curriculum, his R&D activities, his educational hand-outs are available in a very rich webpage. Don't miss this, a value-added page to anyone wondering to know more about pulp, paper, biorefineries, nanotechnologies, etc.

http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/faculty_new/faculty_bios/ragauskas/bio_ragauskas_art.html (Dr. Ragauskas' biography)
http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/faculty_new/faculty_bios/ragauskas/ragauskas_tech_reviews.html (Technical reviews and class hand-outs - wood chemistry, pulp, paper, biorefineries, etc.)
http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/faculty_new/faculty_bios/ragauskas/ragauskas_posters.html (Posters and speeches)
http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/faculty_new/faculty_bios/ragauskas/ragauskas_presentations.html (PowerPoint presentations)
http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/faculty_new/faculty_bios/ragauskas/student_presentations/index.html (PowerPoint presentations)

Mushrooms Website - (Brazil)
It is a very interesting website about mushrooms, some of them (Shiitake) having the Eucalyptus wood as source of nutrients and medium for growth. The authors are professors, technical staff and students of the Agronomical Sciences College - UNESP Botucatu/SP.

http://www.fca.unesp.br/cogumelos/index.php
http://www.fca.unesp.br/cogumelos/cogumelos.php (About eatable mushrooms)
http://www.fca.unesp.br/cogumelos/publicacoes.php?id=16 (About shiitake in Eucalyptus)
http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:c6j6ZQX0wBMJ:www.eduem.uem.br/acta/agro/2005_2/15_256_04.pdf
+%22Controle+de+fungos+contaminantes+no+cultivo+do+cogumelo+comest%C3%ADvel+shiitake+%22&hl
=pt-BR&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=br
(
About shiitake in Eucalyptus)

Portal "Colheita da Madeira - Wood Harvesting" - (Brazil)
It is a very good website, housing many technical information as theses, dissertations, articles, speeches, etc., both for Eucalyptus and Pinus species.

http://www.colheitademadeira.com.br (Website)
http://www.colheitademadeira.com.br/colheita/fotos (Photo gallery)
http://www.colheitademadeira.com.br/colheita/publicacoes (Publications)

SBSAF - Sociedade Brasileira de Sistemas Agroflorestais - Brazilian Society of Agroforestry Systems - (Brazil)
SBSAF is an association of professionals of different background who have interest to promote agroforestry systems in Brazil. The association is well-known due to the congresses it organizes, with a lot of papers about agroforestry with Amazon region tree species. It worth, have a look.

http://www.sbsaf.org.br (General website )
http://www.sbsaf.org.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=16&Itemid=28 (Agroforestry congresses proceedings)
http://www.sbsaf.org.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=category&sectionid=
5&id=15&Itemid=26
(Online magazine)

Portal "Nutricao de Plantas - Plant Nutrition" - (Brazil)
Excellent website about plant nutrition, oriented to agricultural crops and forest species, such as Eucalyptus and Pinus. There are several articles on this topic to these two genus, have a look to download those you may wish.

http://www.nutricaodeplantas.agr.br/site/index.php
http://www.nutricaodeplantas.agr.br/site/culturas/eucalipto_pinus

Website "Eucalyptus-Passion" - (France)
A recent website in English by Mr. Howard Lloyd. The aim is to promote the cold resistant Eucalyptus, a need to the weather conditions in Central Europe. You cannot miss the photo gallery, where you may see an Eucalyptus gunnii tree, completely covered by snow (and surviving to the minus 15ºC, according to Mr. Lloyd).

http://eucalyptus-passion.com/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1
http://eucalyptus-passion.com/index.php?option=com_easygallery&act=categories&cid=39&Itemid=92 (Photo gallery)

Website "Prima Bio" - (United Kingdom)
Website created in the year 2000 by Mr. John Purse. The main activity of PrimaBio is the development (through tree breeding) of Eucalyptus species, including ornamental ones, to the weather conditions present at the United Kingdom. There is a well-noticed purpose to the diffusion of knowledge about the Eucalyptus to the European countries.

http://www.primabio.co.uk/index.htm

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus
by Ester Foelkel
(http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/ester.html)

In this edition: The Eucalyptus used in Landscape Designing and Gardening

Eucalyptus wood is the prime raw material for many industrialized products such as furniture, wood panels, housing construction materials, pulp and paper, etc.. Eucalyptus trees have a social importance to all of these above mentioned utilizations, but their ornamental value is also getting stronger. Today, the Eucalyptus trees are demanded and admired in many parks and gardens all over the warm regions of the world. Even on some European and American cold places, some species of these trees are well used as ornamental too. The main reason for this usage is the same one rewarded by the factories using the Eucalyptus trees as industrial raw materials: they show fast growth rates, they do not lose the leaves in the winter, they have vegetative growth all over the year, and they also surpass in development many other tree species. On the gardening point of view, specially the fast growth Eucalyptus characteristic is desired to develop shadow and vegetation in a short period of time. Other well-appreciated characteristics of this genus for the landscape usage are the beauty of the trees, the colors, the bark, the flowers and the diversity of species that can have the same type of utilization.

There are Eucalyptus species with gorgeous big flowers and fruits. In some others, the leaves are impressively beautiful, with nice colors and ornamental textures. There are even some that the barks gets the attention on the landscape, which is desired for parks and gardens decoration. We should also remind that some Eucalyptus species show amazing smell that gets even more evident after some wind, by the balancing of the trees. The Eucalyptus flowers have also magnificent odor and colors, varying according to the species. This smell attracts pollinators bringing even more biodiversity and beauty to the place the trees are growing.

Medium high seedlings obtained from Eucalyptus seeds can be transplanted directly to the garden soil, or they can be placed in recipients such as containers or big size pots. This kind of Eucalyptus growing on vases reminds or can be defined as a type of macro-bonsai. The potted Eucalyptus plants require special treatments and cares, but if well done, they can even blossom and fructify, enlarging their beauty and consequently the place they are.

Other important aspect to remind about the Eucalyptus is the low tolerance they have to frost. Most of the species cannot be planted in rigorous winter regions. The Eucalyptus thermal limit is around 8 to –7 ° C for the ornamental red flowers species. The frequency of cold days is also a limiting factor for the Eucalyptus establishment. The higher the number of cold days the plant is submitted, the worst for the Eucalyptus adaptation and even surviving. Eucalyptus cold weather tolerant species are recommended in these cases. These are Eucalyptus pulverulenta, E. pleurocarpa, E.gunnii, E.caesia, etc.

The most important gardening Eucalyptus management practices are the following:

• Acquire good genetic quality seedlings, certified by special nurseries, disease and pest free. The first step and care to obtain the ideal gardening species is to buy them in reliable garden shops or nurseries.
• Another important factor is to choose the right place to transplant the Eucalyptus seedling. Finding the best place needs to be well-discussed and planned, avoiding places close to houses, walls and electric wires. Even medium size Eucalyptus plants are known to have vigorous root systems. The roots can damage streets, constructions and sideways if a previous designing and prevention measures are not taken. The precautions are worth for even bush size plants. They can also grow very fast.

• The Eucalyptus trees need direct sunlight to well develop. They have low tolerance to shadow environments or dark places. These points should be considered for choosing the planting location. The lack of direct sunshine could even contribute to some plant diseases and reduction on growing rate. Do not plant the Eucalyptus in flooded areas. If you believe that the Eucalyptus plants are to dry your swampy area, this is not going to happen. You may be condemning the plant to death from the incapable development of the root system on places without soil air.
• Spring and Summer are the recommended seasons for seedling transplantation. You need to avoid cold periods during plant establishment.
• Fertilizing the soil with macro and micro nutrient is desired. The Eucalyptus is considered sensitive to poor soils. They need nutrients in balanced and ideal quantities.
• Irrigation is needed for the seedlings specially on the hot and dry periods of the year.
• Pest control is another key-point. Specially to the ants. In some cases, if control is not taken, the seedling can even die.
• As the Eucalyptus plant grows, some management such as pruning and thinning may become recommended in gardening. They help to control the fast development, but also are important for the shape designing of the tree. Drastic pruning is considered one of the best ways to control plant growth. Most Eucalyptus species regrow by sprouting, so the pruning could even be done in high levels in the trunk.
• Some species of Eucalyptus or Corymbia can be already sold grafted or as clones. These kind of seedlings are more expensive, but they provide early flowering and better resistance to root diseases.
There is a large number of Eucalyptus species being used for landscape designs all over the world.

However, it is in Australia (Eucalyptus original homelands) that it’s possible to find the most common examples. In Australia, the common ornamental species are: Eucalyptus leucoxylon, Eucalyptus erythrocorys, Eucalyptus caesia, Eucalyptus youngiana, Eucalyptus multicaulis, Eucalyptus macrandra and Corymbia ficifolia.

In Brazil, there are three "Eucalyptus" species most used for ornamental purposes. They are: Corymbia ficifolia, Eucalyptus cinerea and Corymbia ptychocarpa. Corymbia citriodora is also commonly planted for the reason of the excellent leaves smell. Notice that most of the ornamental Eucalyptus planted in Brazil comes from the Corymbia genus, reclassified some years ago by the work of some taxonomists.

Corymbia (Eucalyptus) ficifolia
– Also known as "Red Eucalyptus". It is a typical gardening species. Originated from the Western part of Australia, it is short in height (10 m), produces great number of big red flowers, but is very susceptible to frosts and cold weather. Depending on the weather, they can be substituted by the cold tolerant Eucalyptus leucoxylon.

Eucalyptus cinerea
– In the USA it’s commonly named as "Silver Dollar Eucalyptus" because of the round-shaped leaves and because their bluish silver colors. In Australia this species is called "Blue Gum". Their leaves are, for sure, the most beautiful and ornamental part of the tree.

Corymbia (Eucalyptus) ptychocarpa – This species comes from the Australian North and Western regions, it has medium height and has little tolerance to cold weather. It develops under a thermal amplitude of 10 to 40 °C. Corymbia ptychocarpa also shows a beautiful and abundant red flowering.

Corymbia (Eucalyptus) citriodora
– One of the most common Eucalyptus species. Known from the essential oil extracted by specialized industries from the leaves. This oil is used as prime material to manufacture soaps, perfumes, detergents and other cleaning products. In USA, the species is also known as Lemon Scented Gum.

Find out more information about the Eucalyptus species used as ornamental purposes in some selected websites. On these webpages you will know the gardening Eucalyptus characteristics, management and the required cares. You’ll be able to see wonderful pictures of these ornamental plants. One of the most rich and interesting websites aiming this subject is the one from our friend Gustavo Iglesias Trabado (GIT Forestry) with its blog "Eucalyptologics". It has a whole bunch of information about ornamental Eucalyptus. Use you time to navigate in the selection we have prepared to you.

http://git-forestry.com/ornamental/intrornamental.htm
(Spanish)
http://git-forestry.com/ornamental/EucaliptosParaJardineria01.htm (Spanish)
http://git-forestry-blog.blogspot.com (English)
http://git-forestry-blog.blogspot.com/2007/09/container-grown-ornamental-eucalyptus.html (English)
http://git-forestry.com/OrnamentalEucalyptusWorldwideBUDS.htm (English)
http://git-forestry-blog.blogspot.com/2008/02/cold-hardy-pink-flowering-eucalyptus.html (English)
http://www.primabio.co.uk/ornamentals.htm (English)
http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/C/Corymbia_citriodora.asp (English)
http://www.metrotrees.com.au/treehandbook/page-listings/corymbia-Eucalyptus-citriodora.html (English)
http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/C/Corymbia_ficifolia.asp (English)
http://www.metrotrees.com.au/treehandbook/page-listings/corymbia-eucalyptus-ficifolia.html (English)
http://www.dierbergertropicais.com.br/luisbacher/albuns/arvores/pages/Eucalyptus%20ficifolia_jpg.htm (Portuguese)
http://dias-com-arvores.blogspot.com/2004/07/red-flowering-gum.html (Portuguese)
http://www.gardening.eu/plants/Masts/Eucalyptus-ficifolia/3359 (English)
http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/C/Corymbia_ptychocarpa.asp (English)
http://gvcocks.homeip.net/PlantFamilies/Myrtaceae/Eucalyptus/ptychocarpa/eucalyptus_ptychocarpa.htm (English)
http://www.dierbergertropicais.com.br/luisbacher/albuns/arvores/pages/Eucalyptus%20Ptychocarpa_jpg.htm (Portuguese)
http://www.arbolesornamentales.com/Eucalyptuscinerea.htm (English)
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsheets/trees-new/eucalyptus_cinerea.html (English)
http://www.fotosearch.com.br/NGF006/73614637 (Portuguese)
http://asgap.org.au/APOL31/sep03-2.html (English)
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/Plant.asp?code=A509 (English)
http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s914096.htm (English)
http://www.actahort.org/members/showpdf?booknrarnr=630_9 (English)
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/Plant.asp?code=A509 (English)
http://www.backyardgardener.com/plantname/pda_85c0.html (English)
http://www.edirectory.co.uk/pf/880/mia/d/standard+gum+tree+eucalyptus+gunnii+plant/pid/4262180 (English)
http://www.english-country-garden.com/trees/eucalyptus.htm (English)
http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s2169749.htm (English)
http://www.gardenexpress.com.au/forum/viewtopic.php?f=23&t=5069 (English)
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=EUCI80 (English)
http://www.parkseed.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/StoreCatalogDisplay?storeId=10101&catalogId=10101&langId
=-1&mainPage=prod2working&ItemId=3179&cid=pext00008
(English)
http://www.australianwatergardener.com/print_page.asp?category=298&ID=620 (English)
http://www.treeworld.info/attachments/f29/42d1170110769-tree-roots-pipes
-se-water-australia-treeroots.pdf
(English)
http://www.australianwineandbeer.com/natives/natives.htm (English)
http://www.casaecia.arq.br/arvoresl.htm (Portuguese)
http://www.fazendacitra.com.br/dierberger/content/view/40/34 (Portuguese)
http://www.dwpicture.com.au/picture.asp?image_number=72660&picture=
72660&cat=Flowers,%20Shrubs,%20Trees%20-%20E&cat2=
Flowers,%20Shrubs,%20Trees%20-%20E&cat3
(English)

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Dr. Jose Luiz Stape

Dr. Jose Luiz Stape is one of the greatest names of the modern Brazilian silviculture. His scientific contribution about Eucalyptus plantations in terms of their physiology, management, carbon sinking and efficiency in using light, water and nutrients has been remarkable. Besides his considerable vocation for science, Dr. Stape is also a great educator, not only of his students at ESALQ/USP, but of agronomists, agricultural technicians and Society in general. He has always placed a strong emphasis on extension and education themes, thus making an important contribution for Society, enabling it to understand more and more about the Eucalyptus trees, their forests, their uses and the ways of minimizing impacts and optimizing performances.

Jose Luiz Stape was born in Tatui, State of Sao Paulo, in 1962. At present, at the age of 46, he is one of the greatest citizens of the worldwide Eucalyptus plantation forestry science. The support he receives from his family is fundamental for these accomplishments. His wife Luceni and his two sons, Thiago and Glauco, have much to be proud of, as they have played a major role, accompanying him and giving him forces and motivation for these achievements. Stape comes from a family who owned lands and had agricultural activities – hence his liking for agricultural matters. However, it was neither agronomy nor forest engineering his first attempt on university level in search of a professional career. Right in the beginning, he studied medicine at USP – University of Sao Paulo – for two years, until discovering that he had another vocation: the productive use of the land. For this reason, he moved to ESALQ - Agricultural College "Luiz de Queiroz", to study agronomy, where he graduated from in 1985. As he had identified himself much with the silvicultural activities, which even included a job in the forest area of Eucatex, he decided to add this to his curriculum. In only one year he completed at ESALQ the required courses that would allow him to be also forest engineer, having graduated in forest engineering in 1986.

Before starting his career as a university professor at the same ESALQ he had graduated from, he worked as forest research engineer for Eucatex and Ripasa, two forest-based companies in Brazil. At the latter he participated in one of the most renowned Brazilian silviculture teams, together with Nelson Barbosa Leite, Edson Balloni, Edson Martini, Arnaldo Salmeron, Ademir Cunha Bueno, Lineu Wadouski, Jose Zani Filho, Carlos Alberto Guerreiro and Pablo Vietz Garcia. It was really an important team, whose professionals have very much contributed to the success of the Brazilian Silviculture. During the time he has worked for Ripasa, he was given the authorization to take his course of Master Degree in Agronomy at ESALQ. He elected the area of Statistics and Agricultural Experiments, under the advising of the great professor Humberto de Campos. His master’s degree dissertation had the title "Uso do delineamento sistematico tipo leque no estudo de espacamentos florestais".

In 1992, he set up with his colleagues Jose Zani Filho and Carlos Alberto Guerreiro a forest consulting company – GSZ -, where he could be active as technical expert and entrepreneur. However, his real vocation was the academy, as well as research. In 1995, he participated in the public competition for the position of silviculture professor at ESALQ, occupying the vacancy left by our esteemed friend Dr. Joao Walter Simoes, who had retired. At ESALQ, from 1995 onwards, he has built his brilliant academic career with an enormous academic and scientific production.

Between 1998 and 2002, when he obtained his Ph.D., he did his doctorate studies at Colorado State University, in the United States of America, under Dr. Dan Binkley’s guidance. His option for that university was due to Dr. Binkley’s acknowledged competence in forest productivity and eco-physiology studies, including those concerning Eucalyptus, since he had experiments with the genus in Hawaii. He was co-oriented by Dr. Mark Ryan, another great name in this area of studies. His doctorate thesis had the title "Production ecology of clonal Eucalyptus plantations in Northeastern Brazil". This work became a scientific milestone in Eucalyptus plantation studies and has been a world reference about this theme, with thousands of citations and references. From 2002 onwards, with the know-how he succeeded in adding to the Eucalyptus plantation forestry, his career reached such a level of maturity, that he has been regularly invited to lectures, speeches, courses, events and articles in the most different regions of the world.

From that time on, his main lines of investigation have been:
• Planted forest silviculture;
• Eco-physiological forest system modeling with emphasis on practical model applications;
• Carbon sinking and allocation in forests (biomass);
• Planting spacing and thinning;
• Carbon sinking and carbon dynamics in the soil;
• Forest nutrition and fertilization;
• Water and nutrient transfer processes and balance;
• Forest regeneration models aiming at carbon sinking;
• Sewer sludge utilization in forest plantations as organic fertilizer;
• Forest restoration with native species (Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and Pantanal), using the concepts developed for the forests planted with exotic species.

His projects for the future include more advanced studies of Eucalyptus plantations in terms of modeling their growth and use of water, light and nutrients. He has also the purpose of developing edapho-climatic zonings for Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil, following the example of what was given in the past by our great master Dr. Lamberto Golfari in the 70's, but now encompassing the knowledge built up during these 30 years of silviculture in addition to that Dr. Golfari had available at that time.

Academically, professor Stape is a very successful professor, having been regularly paid homage to by the recent groups of ESALQ students about to graduate. Furthermore, he provides guidance not only to graduate students in their research works for dissertations and theses, but also undergraduate conclusion works, young researchers’ scientific initiation works, etc. Dozens of research papers under these circumstances are concerned. As to his scientific production, his contributions in terms of technical and scientific articles, lectures at events, interviews, columns, etc., etc., also amount to some hundreds. In short, a rich career as to knowledge creation, combined with its communication to Society, who definitively needs this. Exactly for this reason, the Brazilian forest sector greatly acknowledges what professor Stape has done and is doing for the sector. And for this very reason, I've asked Dr. Stape what he believes to have really added in value for this Brazilian planted forest sector. His answer was: "to contribute to the change of mind of the forest sector people, so that they do not think only about wood productivity in the planted forests, but about something much more comprehensive, the details of which must be still better discovered in terms of efficient use of water, light and nutrients. I believe that very soon it will be possible to make predictions about the whole forest ecosystem based on these indicators, so as to develop forest models which will allow producing wood in a much more efficient way and with lower impacts on the ecosystems."

At ESALQ and also via IPEF (Institute of Forest Researches and Studies), he has exerted himself very much with regard to teaching, research and extension projects that he coordinates or participates in as enthusiastic collaborator.

Among these projects, the following may be highlighted:

- Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity (BEPP)
This is a cooperative research project of 2 universities (University of Sao Paulo – ESALQ - and Colorado State University), 8 forest companies (Aracruz Celulose, Cenibra, Copener Florestal, Internacional Paper, Suzano Bahia Sul Celulose, Votorantim Celulose e Papel, Veracel Celulose, V & M Florestal), IPEF, the Rocky Mountain Research Station of USDA Forest Service, CNPq and CIRAD/France. The companies have established the experimental areas between 2000 and 2004. The areas have on average five hectares with six treatments and use the specific genetic material (clone) of each company.

Get acquainted with further details about BEPP at:

http://lamar.colostate.edu/~binkley/Brazileucalyptus.htm
http://www.ipef.br/bepp
http://www.ipef.br/bepp/bepp.asp


BEPP has four lines of research guiding the working groups composed of the companies’ researchers and engineers and the university professors:
Eucalyptus carbon balance;
• Use and efficiency of using natural resources by the Eucalyptus;
• Forest stratification and productivity in Eucalyptus;
• Eco-physiological modeling.

- PTSM – IPEF’s Thematic Management and Silviculture Cooperative Program
http://www.ipef.br/ptsm
PTSM was started in 1995, with the purpose of studying the effects of the minimum soil cultivation on forest productivity and production sustainability. In 1995, as it was started, it was oriented to 3 forest companies partners. It has evolved and incorporated silviculture, forest mechanization and modeling areas. At present, it is composed of 14 forest companies partners, via IPEF-Institute of Forest Researches and Studies, and holds approximately 3 yearly meetings. PTSM’s scientific coordination is under the responsibility of ESALQ professors: Prof. Jose Leonardo de Moraes Goncalves; Prof. Jose Luiz Stape and Prof. Fernando Seixas.

- TUME – Test of Multiple Use of Eucalyptus
http://www.tume.esalq.usp.br
http://www.esalq.usp.br/destaques.php?id=116
TUME means "Test of Multiple Use of Eucalyptus" and aims at generating knowledge and promoting Eucalyptus plantation forestry to small and medium-sized rural producers. Effectively implanted in 2002, the project is present in almost 100 rural estates. Due to climate and soil diversity in Brazil, the ample wide testing of Eucalyptus species is fundamental to evaluate their adaptability, growth and potential of use by rural producers. TUME is a creation and a dream of Professor Stape, who becomes delighted by the activities of extension to farmers. The project was started in 1995, in order that the rural farmers could know more about the different species of Eucalyptus. This would enable them to better choosing the most suitable one for their demands, planting them according to the environmental zoning of the farms. Thus, TUME uses over 20 species with wood potentials for: firewood, charcoal, pulp, fences, poles, boards, beams and furniture; and non-wood ones for: essential oil, honey, shiitake mushrooms, ornamental and gardening and windbreak. The species studied by TUME are E.benthamii, E.botryoides, E.camaldulensis, C.citriodora, E.cloeziana, E.deanei, E.deglupta, E.dunnii, E.grandis, C.maculata, E.microcorys, E.paniculata, E.pellita, E.phaeotricha, E.pilularis, E.propinqua, C.ptychocarpa, E.pyrocarpa, E.resinifera, E.robusta, E.saligna, E.tereticornis, C.torelliana, E.urophylla, E.viminalis and several hybrids.

- Course LCF - 1581: Forest Resources in Rural Farms - oriented to the career of Agronomy at ESALQ/USP
http://naeg.prg.usp.br/relatorio/disciplina.phtml?id_disciplina=LCF1581
This course has a broad and eclectic view, destined to provide not only technical knowledge, but also to develop the vision of forestry as an alternative to the farmers. It is very useful to Society. I received the promise from Dr. Stape to have the course materials and hand-outs maintained available for downloading in his personal webpage (under construction): http://www.esalq.usp.br/lcf/~stape
In this website, Dr. Stape plans to offer his theses, articles, speeches, and a lot more.

- Course and Meeting on Advances and Updates on Eucalyptus Plantations
This is a regular basis event coordinated by Dr. Stape, with the aim to update the knowledge about the plantation forestry on Eucalyptus. Please, have a look to the meeting/course program:

http://www.ipef.br/eventos/2007/eucaliptocultura7.asp


In case you may wish to know more about Dr. Jose Luiz Stape, we strongly suggest to navigate in some of the available curriculum vitae posted in Internet:

Platform of Curriculum CNPq Lattes Brazil
http://buscatextual.cnpq.br/buscatextual/visualizacv.jsp?id=K4769549D3&tipo=completo

USP Atena systems
http://sistemas.usp.br:/atena/atnCurriculoLattesMostrar?codpes=915164

ESALQ/USP Department of Forest Sciences Website
http://lcf.esalq.usp.br/docentes.asp
http://especialistas.usp.br/especialistas/especialistaObter?codpes=915164

Professor Stape has, as seen, an enormous academic and scientific production, dozens of published articles, 8 book chapters, and a full book in partnership with his friend and colleague at ESALQ/USP Dr. Jose Leonardo de Moraes Goncalves. The title of this book, written in Portuguese is: "Conservacao e cultivo de solos para plantacoes florestais". Know it at:
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/livroconservacao
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/livroconservacao/capitulos.asp

Stape has also a software with co-authorship with Moises Rabelo de Azevedo for utilization in Eucalyptus silviculture: SoftBEPP. It consists in a software to storage, to process and to export data on climate, soil, biology, and physiology in the BEPP project.
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/ipefnoticias/ipefnoticias175.pdf

Along his career, Dr. Stape has worked with several researchers in a world basis. His most frequent co-authors and scientific partners have been:

Dan Binkley:
http://lamar.colostate.edu/~binkley/research.htm
http://lamar.colostate.edu/~binkley/publications
http://www.colostate.edu
http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/frws-home/index.php

Mark G. Ryan:
http://lamar.colostate.edu/~mryan/
http://lamar.colostate.edu/~mryan/publications.htm
http://academic.evergreen.edu/projects/ican/research/researchers/CV_Ryan.pdf

Jose Leonardo de Moraes Goncalves:
http://buscatextual.cnpq.br/buscatextual/visualizacv.jsp?id=K4786386H3&tipo=completo

Fabio Poggiani:
http://buscatextual.cnpq.br/buscatextual/visualizacv.jsp?id=K4783527Y1

Jean Paul Laclau:
http://publications.cirad.fr/auteur.php?mat=1297
http://www.cirad.org.br/bresil_fr/recherche_et_developpement/
systemes_de_cultures_durables/eucalyptus_et_environnement

http://www.cirad.fr/ur/index.php/ecosystemes_plantations/
th_mes_de_recherche/focus_sur_les_projets/eucalyptus_au_bresil

http://www.cirad.org.br
http://www.cirad.org.br/content/download/696/4461/version/6/file/303br.pdf

My dear and esteemed friend Dr. Jose Luiz Stape, for the excellence of your technical, educational and scientific work, for your competence and dedication to the Eucalyptus forestry sector, please, accept the most sincere thanks from all the people who admire you.

Please, know more about Dr. Stape talented work though some of his major publications (thesis, dissertations, articles, speeches, lectures, etc.).

• Ph.D. Thesis:
Production ecology of clonal Eucalyptus plantations in Northeastern Brazil. J.L.Stape. Ph.D. Thesis. Colorado State University. 237 pp. (2002)
http://www.ipef.br/servicos/teses/arquivos/stape,jl.pdf

• Technical and scientific articles (also included some of Dr. Stape's graduate students dissertations and theses):

Production and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with water and nutrient manipulations. J.L.Stape; D.Binkley; M.G.Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 920 – 930. (2008)
http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_2008_stape_j001.pdf

Influencia do desbaste e da fertilizacao no deslocamento da medula e rachadura de tora de Eucalyptus grandis. I.L. Lima; J.N.Garcia; J.L.Stape. Cerne 13(2): 170 – 177. (2007)
http://www.dcf.ufla.br/cerne/Revistav13n2-2007/06%20artigo%20397.pdf

Caracterizacao ecofisiologica de especies nativas da Mata Atlantica sob dois niveis de estresse induzidos pelo manejo florestal em area de restauracao florestal no estado de Sao Paulo. C.M.I.Servin. Ph.D. Thesis. ESALQ/USP. 95 pp. (2007)
http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/11/11150/tde-05092007-140157

Ganhos de produtividade de plantacoes clonais de Eucalyptus urophylla e suas correlacoes com variaveis edafoclimaticas e silviculturais. J.M.A.Ferreira. Master Dissertation. ESALQ-USP. 85 pp. (2007)
http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/11/11150/tde-09052007-165212

Control of production and carbon allocation in Eucalyptus. M.Ryan; D.Binkley; J.L.Stape. Symposium IUFRO "Eucalypts and diversity: balancing productivity and sustainability". PowerPoint presentation: 24 slides. (2007)
http://www.iufrodurban.org.za/Presentations/Monday/MichaelRyanIUFRO2007Durban.pdf

Diferenca na alocacao de uma reserva legal de criterios ambientais versus uma de criterios tecnico-economicos com o uso de ferramentas de SIG. P.G.Molin; J.L.Stape. Anais XIII Simposio Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto. p.: 1749 – 1756. (2007)
http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:gXmyKy5CFL4J:marte.dpi.inpe.br/col/
dpi.inpe.br/sbsr%4080/2006/11.14.20.03/doc/1749-1756.pdf+stape+pdf
+eucalyptus&hl=pt-BR&ct=clnk&cd=83&gl=br

Efeito do desbaste e da fertilizacao nas tensoes de crescimento em Eucalyptus grandis. I.L.Lima; J.N.Garcia; J.L.Stape; S.M.S.Piedade. Scientia Forestalis 70: 171 – 183. (2006)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/scientia/nr70/cap17.pdf

Avaliacao da sustentabilidade nutricional de plantio de Pinus taeda usando um balanco de entrada-saida de nutrientes. J.C.M.Bizon. Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP. 96 pp. (2006)
http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/11/11150/tde-22102007-092659

Fisiologia e crescimento florestal. J.L.Stape. IPEF Seminar "Integracao e Atualizacao Tecnica em Floresta Plantada". PowerPoint presentation: 71 slides. (2006)
http://www.ipef.br/eventos/2006/integracao/Palestra02.pdf

Tree-girdling to separate root and heterotrophic respiration in two Eucalyptus stands in Brazil. D. Binkley; J.L.Stape; E.N. Takahashi; M.G. Ryan. Oecologia 148: 447 – 454. (2006)
http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/~dan/papers/Oecologia_2006_Girdle.pdf

A twin-plot approach to determine nutrient limitation and potential productivity in Eucalyptus plantations at landscape scales in Brazil. J.L.Stape; D.Binkley; W.S.Jacob; E.N. Takahashi. Forest Ecology and Management 223: 358 – 362. (2006)
http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/~dan/papers/FEM_2006_TwinPlot.pdf

Zonas edafoclimaticas aptas para especies forestales bajo escenarios de cambio climatico: um estudio de caso en Costa Rica. A.P.C.Ferez; J.L.Stape; M.R.Vallejos; P.Imbach. Informe ESALQ/CATIE. 32 pp. (2006)
http://www.catie.ac.cr/BancoMedios/Documentos%20PDF/Cervi,%20A.P.
%202006.%20Zonas%20edafoclim%C3%A1ticas%20aptas%20para
%20especies%20forestales.pdf

Aplicacao de metodos geoestatisticos para identificacao de dependencia espacial na analise de dados de um experimento em delineamento sistematico tipo "leque". M.L.Oda. Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP. 88 pp. (2005)
http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/11/11134/tde-22082005-135811/publico/MelissaOda.pdf

Erosao hidrica e desenvolvimento inicial do Eucalyptus grandis em um argissolo vermelho amarelo submetido a diferentes metodos de preparo do solo no Vale do Paraiba – SP. M.C.P.Wichert. Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP. 84 pp. (2005)
http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/11/11150/tde-06012006-170804

Growth, yield and system performance simulation of a sugarcane-Eucalyptus interface in a sub-tropical region of Brazil. L.F.G.Pinto; M.S.Bernardes; J.L.Stape; A.R.Pereira. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 105(1/2): 77 – 86. (2005)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T3Y-4D3WHCW-
3&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221
& _version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=25af9763a3f4fd45ad71859edcddfc09

Sustainable management of Eucalyptus plantations in a changing world. D.Binkley; J.L.Stape. IUFRO Congress "Eucalyptus in a Changing World". Aveiro. 7 pp. (2004)
http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/~dan/papers/PortugalSustain.pdf

Thinking about efficiency and resource use in forests. D. Binkley; J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 193: 05 – 16. (2004)
http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/~dan/papers/FEM_193_Efficiency.pdf
http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_2004_binkley_d001.pdf

Water use, water limitation, and water use efficiency in a Eucalyptus plantation. J.L. Stape; D. Binkley; M.G. Ryan; A.N. Gomes. Bosque 25(2): 35 – 41. (2004)
http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/~dan/papers/Bosque_2004.pdf

Testing the utility of the 3-PG model for growth of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla with natural and manipulated supplies of water and nutrients. J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley. Forest Ecology and Management 193: 219 – 234. (2004)
http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/~dan/papers/FEM_193_3PG.pdf
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/9293

Eucalyptus production and the supply, use and efficiency of use of water, light and nitrogen across a geographic gradient in Brazil. J.L.Stape; D.Binkley; M.G.Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 193: 17 – 31. (2004)
http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/~dan/papers/FEM_193_Gradient.pdf
http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/~dan/papers/FEM_Stape_1b.pdf

Assessing nutritional and climate limitations to the productivity of Eucalyptus plantations at larger spatial and temporal scales using a simple paired-plot design coupled to traditional inventory network. J.L.Stape; J.M.Alvez; E.Takahashi; W.Franciscate; W.Jacob. IUFRO Congress "Eucalyptus in a Changing World". Aveiro. 2 pp. (2004)
http://www.ipef.br/silvicultura/Stape_Parcelas_Gemeas_IUFRO_2004.pdf

Water and nutrient interplay and forest productivity in the tropics. J.L.M.Goncalves; J.L.Stape; J.P.Laclau; M.C.P.Wichert. Symposium "Forest Soils under Global and Local Changes: from research to practice". PowerPoint presentation: 66 slides. (2004)
http://www.pierroton.inra.fr/IEFC/manifestations/soilsymposium2004/LeonardoGoncalves.pdf

Silvicultural effects on the productivity and wood quality of Eucalyptus plantations. J.L.M.Goncalves; J.L.Stape; J.P.Laclau; P.Smethurst; J.L.Gava. Forest Ecology and Management 193: 45 – 61 (2004)
http://publications.cirad.fr/une_notice.php?dk=520514
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T6X-4BWYDX1-4
& _user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221
& _version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a04e232c5c11d46f000b0d046bbe9776

Plantios florestais em outros paises. J.L.Stape. II Seminario Nacional Plantacoes Florestais. AMDA. (2003)
http://www.amda.org.br/assets/files/34STAPE.zip

Age-related decline in forest ecosystem growth: an individual-tree, stand-structure hypothesis. D.Binkley; J.L.Stape; M.G.Ryan; H.R.Barnard; H.Fownes. Ecosystems 5: 58 – 67. (2002)
http://welcome.warnercnr.colostate.edu/~dan/papers/Ecosystems_5_2002.pdf

Resource manipulation of the carbon budget of Eucalyptus plantation. J.L.Stape; D.Binkley, M.Ryan. ESA 2002 Annual Meeting. Full Abstract. (2002)
http://abstracts.co.allenpress.com/pweb/esa2002/document/4611

Geographic gradient in resource use efficiency in Eucalyptus plantations. D.Binkley; J.L.Stape; M.Ryan. ESA 2002 Annual Meeting. Full Abstract. (2002)
http://abstracts.co.allenpress.com/pweb/esa2002/document/14766

Relationships between nursery practices and field performance for Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. J.L.Stape; J.L.M.Goncalves; A.N.Goncalves. New Forests 22(1/2): 19 – 41. (2001)
http://www.springerlink.com/content/p3551g0360132146

Indicadores de sustentabilidade das plantacoes florestais. F.Poggiani; J.L.Stape; J.L.M.Goncalves. IPEF Technical Series 12(31): 33 – 44. (1998)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/stecnica/nr31/cap3.pdf

Planejamento global e normatizado de procedimentos operacionais da talhadia simples em Eucalyptus. J.L.Stape. IPEF Technical Series 11(30): 51 – 62. (1997)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/stecnica/nr30/cap5.pdf

Resultados experimentais da fase de emissao da brotacao em Eucalyptus manejados por talhadia. F.R.A.Camargo; C.P.Silva; J.L.Stape. IPEF Technical Series 11(30): 115 – 122. (1997)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/stecnica/nr30/cap11.pdf

Manejo de brotacao de Eucalyptus spp: resultados tecnico-operacionais. J.L.Stape; J.C.Madachi; D.D. Bacacicci; M.C.Oliveira; IPEF Technical Report 183. 13 pp. (1993)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/ctecnica/nr183.pdf

Definicao do periodo e localizacao da cobertura de Eucalyptus grandis em funcoes da dinamica do crescimento radicular. J.L.Stape. IPEF Technical Report 174: 1 – 6. (1990)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/ctecnica/nr174.pdf

Viveiros de mudas florestais. Analise de um sistema operacional atual e perspectivas futuras. J.Zani Filho; E.A.Balloni; J.L.Stape. IPEF Technical Report 168. 20 pp. (1989)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/ctecnica/nr168.pdf

O uso de residuos da industria de celulose como insumo na producao florestal. J.L.Stape; E.A.Balloni. IPEF 40: 33 – 37. (1988)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/scientia/nr40/cap05.pdf

Variacao dos teores de alburno e de cerne em arvores de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla irrigadas e fertilizadas. M.Tomazello; R.Moya; J.T.S.Oliveira; J.L.Stape. (undated and without reference of source)
http://www.iufro.org/uploads/media/t2-tomazello-mario-et-al-prop-mad-euc.doc

Avaliacao da qualidade do plantio dos testes do uso multiplo do eucalipto (TUME) atraves do indice de sobrevivencia com 1 ano. C.Z.Souza; C.A.P.Lobato; A.R.Vergani; J.L.Stape. Semana de Iniciacao Cientifica USP. 1 pp. (undated)
http://www.usp.br/siicusp/15Siicusp/3696.pdf

Carbon allocation in forest systems. M.Ryan; C.Litton; D.Binkley; J.L.Stape; C.Giardina. Rocky Mountain Research Station. PowerPoint presentation: 35 slides. (undated )
http://lamar.colostate.edu/~mryan/Seminars/Carbon%20Allocation%20in%20Forest%20Ecosystems.pdf

Environmental determinants of productivity in Eucalyptus plantations. D.Binkley; J.L.Stape; M.Ryan. PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides. (undated)
http://www.dsr.inpe.br/dsr/vianei/cc_uape/Binkley.pdf

Cycles biogeochimiques en plantations d’eucalyptus au Bresil. J.P.Laclau. CIRAD (undated)
http://www.cirad.fr/ur/index.php/ecosystemes_plantations/content/
download/656/2873/file/Cycles%20biogéochimiques.pdf

• Viewpoints and columns:

A expansao florestal no hemisferio sul. J.L.Stape. Revista Opinioes (Jun/Aug). (2007)
http://www.revistaopinioes.com.br/Conteudo/CelulosePapel/Edicao008/Artigos/Artigo008-00-G.htm

Como abordar a sustentabilidade das florestas plantadas. J.L.Stape. Revista Opinioes. (Mar/May). (2006)
http://www.revistaopinioes.com.br/Conteudo/CelulosePapel/Edicao003/Artigos/Artigo003-13-G.htm

A pesquisa silvicultural e a visao socioambiental sao imprescindiveis para os novos clusters florestais. J.L.Stape. Revista Opinioes. (Dec 2007/Feb 2008). (2008)
http://www.revistaopinioes.com.br/Conteudo/CelulosePapel/Edicao010/Artigos/Artigo010-21-G.htm

*Dr. Jose Luiz Stape photo presented in this text was kindly provided by Revista Opinioes, a contribution of our friend Mr. William Domingues Souza.

A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Manufactured with Eucalyptus Fibers

Decor Papers

About Mr. Alberto Mori:

Alberto Mori was born in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. He got his graduation in Chemical Engineering by the Maua Engineering College in 1970. He had in his career several technical and industrial managerial positions in some companies in Brazil: MD Papeis and EKA Chemicals, as example. Today, he is acting as consultant in the paper technological area, through his company Mori Consult. He is one of the most renowned experts on the utilization of the Eucalyptus fibers for papermaking. Mori is also president of ABTCP - The Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper.

The result of our second technical dialogue: A written summary by Celso Foelkel

" Up to recent times, the good quality furniture was the one manufactured with very dense and heavy hardwood, being strong, with the wood grain drawings giving beauty and aesthetics to the design. The times have changed. Hardwoods have become scarce and expensive. On the other hand, world population is continuing to grow and hardwood resources have turned unable to supply this dramatically huge markets. High quality woods have peaked prices that are difficult to be paid by regular citizens. Human creativeness soon has developed feasible alternatives. Wood panels manufactured with wood residues (OSB - Oriented Strand Board) or defibrated wood fibers (MDF - Medium Density Fiberboard) have now-a-days reached wide levels of utilization. Curiously, these wood panels are enabling the production of very high quality furniture, floors, houses, etc, in some cases, even better than those made with natural solid wood. These new furniture’s and construction materials are more uniform, stable, smooth and in the texture that the customers may order. The same it may be said about the panel density, strengths, and other treatments. They are designed and manufactured to fit the usage requirements. Another advantage is the application of a thin layer of paper impregnated with resin over the surface of the wooden panel. This kind of decorative paper may be printed in different colors, textures, in most cases an imitation of the several well-known woods available in the past. The MDF panel is very stable, it does not "work" , and has no problems of curling, cracking, etc. The strengths may be designed as wanted, just a matter of production specifications. The paper has the mission to hidden the wood panel, and to give the finishing beauty to attract the attention of the customers. It may be printed in fantastic reproductions of woods as chestnut, mahogany, redwood, etc. Another option is not to print wood drawings, but stones: granite, marble, etc. In short, we may reproduce what we may wish, depending in the final use of the finished panel. This composite material having the MDF, decor paper and resins has allowed enormous growth in the markets, replacing many other wood utilization’s. Some of the old technologies have being pushed to other applications. It is the case of the very well-known phenolic laminated "Formica". This phenolic laminated plate, made of several layers of papers impregnated with phenolic resin had the mission to cover the not so smooth surface of the plywood or particle board panels. Today, these materials are only oriented to aggressive environments, whose customers may be willing to pay the extra price they have in relation to the most modern technologies. Times, technologies and products have changed in such business. The combined composite materials manufactured with MDF, decor paper and resins are obtained with the utilization of simpler technologies, they have low cost and allow a wide range of utilization’s. They now comprise a special market niche, with high aggregation of knowledge and technology. The high-tech is divided in the different segments involved: in the decor paper, in the resin, in the MDF panel surface, and in the process of combining all of then in a single product. The impregnation of the decor paper with resin gives to the resulting product a plastic behavior and performance, but with significant advantages in relation to the plastic: more resistance to the fire and to abrasion and wearing, better stability, and better finishing and beauty.

Today, there are three different processes to the production of these resin impregnated papers applied on the surface top of wooden panels. They are:

High pressure processes (HP): they consist in the production of a sandwich of several paper layers (decor and base paper for phenolic impregnation), all of them impregnated with resin, and pressed with the use of high pressure and temperatures (70 kgf/cm² and 140ºC). The resulting product densities are between 0.6 and 0.7 g/cm³. This is the process to manufacture the "Formica" or laminated phenolic boards or panels.
Low pressure processes (LP): the decor paper is previously impregnated with melaminic resins. These resins are activated with catalysts to fast curing. After the impregnated paper becomes dried, it is pressed on the very smooth MDF surface. The pressing and temperature cycles are faster and not so aggressive in pressure as the previous process. The pressures ranges close to 25 kgf/cm² and the temperature is about 200ºC. The resulting product is very resistant to wearing and abrasion due to the highly impregnated surface of the decor paper. The adhesion is perfect among the components.
Processes involving a surface coating of the wood panel with a "finish foil": the paper foil is "glued" over the MDF surface to cover it, without the utilization of pressure. The paper has only a simple layer or cover of resin that migrates to the paper Z direction. This coated paper gives a not so strong resistance to the panel, but it is low-cost and appropriate to materials for quick utilization. The resin coating is not perceived or noticed by the users. These panels are used in low priced furniture, walls, etc. The papers used in such processes have a lower quality in relation to the decor papers required to the previous two kind of processes.

As it is possible to imagine, after the explanation of these different processes having the utilization of paper, the demand for quality in the decor paper is vital and essential. Resin penetration, uniformity, surface smoothness, porosity, and many other quality specifications are needed. It is an art to manufacture decor paper. The appropriate quality of the decor paper makes the success of the above mentioned panel manufacturing processes.

A high quality decor paper must have the following qualities:

• High and uniform bulk and porosity values in the paper sheet. These properties aiming to hold and to facilitate the penetration of the aqueous based resin to the paper structure. Also, it helps to release the paper air being displaced by the resin. Despite the importance of total porosity, not only the porosity value is important, but also the size and distribution of the pores.
• High water absorption capacity to allow fast penetration of the aqueous resin. Not only the total amount of absorbed resin is important, but also the speed of penetration.
• High wet web strengths, to give enough strengths to the sheet of resinated paper for moving through drying tunnels.
• Complete cleanliness in the paper sheet, the paper must be contaminant and speck-free. Dirt content offsets the paper to be decor.
• Surface smoothness has to be excellent to allow good quality printing. Remember that this smoothness has to be achieved without plugging the surface pores, this means, a special calendering system and procedures are required.
• Paper formation is vital. Paper caliper cannot vary. In case this would happen, the formation of clouds in the paper would be a disaster to the decor paper.
• High opacity to hide the MDF (LP products) or the unbleached paper impregnated layer in the HP Formica-type products.
• High brightness stability, and also stability in the chromatic values (X, Y, Z, a, b, L). The decor paper sheet needs to be very resistant to lose its brightness, hue and "color" during the sheet utilization at high temperatures. Although many decor papers are produced in colored format, and using high charges of titanium dioxide (rutile type), the whiteness stability is one of the properties most needed in decor papers. It should be emphasized that not only the reflection of light at 457 nm is important, but the stability in all wavelengths of the visible spectrum.
• Uniform distribution and retention of the titanium dioxide in the paper sheet structure.
• Minimum expansion of the paper when wet. When paper is printed, it absorbs the ink and there is the chance to expand in dimensions. The same happens when the aqueous resin is absorbed. There are severe and strict limitations to these expansions The expansion of the paper dimensions brings problems to the printing quality. In the past, the decor papers were differentiated only by the color. They were not printed. However, today, printing is a fundamental requirement to provide the textures and drawings already mentioned. There is a great demand for printing woods and stones models on the top of the decor paper sheet. Printing has to be absolutely perfect, to give to the customers the real feeling they are observing a wood or a stone. Rotogravure high resolution printing is the usual process of achieving such levels of quality.
• Excellent dimensional stability of the decor paper in needed to guarantee the required printing quality. Since dimensional stability is very much influenced by pulp refining, the more refined the worse the stability, the pulp refining must be minimum. The freeness level is just the one to allow paper to be pulled through the paper-machine.
• The tension and stretch caused by pulling the paper web must also be minimum, both in the machine and cross-machine directions.
• Very low moisture content in the final paper sheet (about 1%) to allow maximum absorption of the aqueous resin and to speed up the rate of absorption.
• Continuous studies for paper grammage reductions, maintaining all the other already mentioned paper requirements.

The greatest challenge the papermaker has is to combine and to achieve all these requirements at the same and very time. How to get smoothness and paper strengths without losing bulk, porosity, opacity and bulk? Only the highly qualified decor papermakers may have this answer.

From what we have seen, it is simple to conclude that decor papers do not like long fibered pulps in the stock composition. Long fibers flocculate and have poor paper sheet formation, the fibers are easily collapsed and the sheet loses bulk, opacity, porosity and absorption rate. Also, the paper surface is rougher and worse than those obtained in short fibered papers.

Short fibered pulps are the ideal raw materials to the manufacture of the decor papers. Some of the Eucalyptus pulps, but not all of them are excellent fibers for decor paper making. We know that higher the cell wall fraction in the Eucalyptus fibers, higher fiber coarseness we have. These fibers are the most recommended to decor papers. It is easier to get decor paper specifications with higher coarseness Eucalyptus fibers. Furthermore, the pulp must be resistant to the refining/beating. The pulp web must gain the required strengths without being impaired in terms of porosity, bulk, opacity, and absorption. Fibers need also to be collapsing-resistant and they should have minimum fines content. Eucalyptus fibers with high fiber population and fines are not suitable because they "close" the paper sheet and they are also easily beaten. The ideal Eucalyptus pulps are those manufactured with denser woods. These pulps are welcome, as far as they are able to fulfill all the other pulp quality specifications, such as brightness, reversion, dirt content, etc. These ideal fibers may be due to intrinsic Eucalyptus species properties (for example, Eucalyptus globulus), or obtained thanks to tree breeding (cloned material are in general welcome due to the better stability in quality). Silvicultural practices have also influence to develop the decor paper oriented Eucalyptus pulps.

The decor paper manufacturing process is an art that is connected not only to the fibrous raw material. It depends on the pulp and paper manufacturing process. The requirements to the pulps are very stringent, otherwise, the paper quality will not be fulfilled. If decor paper quality is not attained, the paper cannot perform well and to accomplish its mission. For this very reason, the decor papermakers need specialty pulps, with the quality controlled along all the pulping process, from the wood selection to the way to make and to dry the pulp sheet. Some of these properties may be improved by what we call pulp fines content management or by the drying process applied to the pulp. A drastic pulp drying (for example, the flash drying process) increases the fiber deformations and this feature helps to improve porosity, absorption and bulk.

Eucalyptus fibers market pulp manufacturers, when able to fully understand these needs coming from the customers, may work to adjust their processes and raw materials. Doing such, they will help the decor papermakers to achieve their needs on paper quality. The reward is the customers satisfaction, and probably the retention of them. Specialty pulps segment is demanding, but also gives to the pulpmaker the image that he needs as a quality supplier in the market. Several of the available Eucalyptus pulps in the market are able to be used as decor paper raw material. However, we need to remember that specifications are always getting harder and tougher, due to changing technologies.

The ideal situation is to search for a very sound alignment among the partners in this productive chain: the forester, the pulpmaker, the decor papermaker, the resin manufacturer, the MDF manufacturer, the furniture maker, etc. The relationship between market pulp manufacturer and decor papermaker is very important. It has to be strengthened and improved. The main reason is that the manufacture of decor paper in an integrated operation (pulp and paper in the same mill) is not recommended. The "never-dried" pulps available in the integrated mills do not perform as well to the decor paper manufacturing. For this very reason, it is the role of the actors in this value chain to search for integration and optimization in their operations. The purpose is that Eucalyptus pulps should not be just recommended for decor paper manufacturing, but they must become vital and essential for such utilization."

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel

The Eucalyptus and the Soil Conservation

The soil is one of the greatest patrimonies or heritages that Nature offers us. It is the soil that allows the terrestrial plants to develop and to perform the photosynthesis, without which this planet of ours would not be what it is at present. The photosynthesis performed by plant leaves is the basis of the whole food chain where the human being is fitted in. With healthy soils the plants develop well, produce carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, etc. These organic compounds serve as a basis for both soil quality restoration, when falling on it as residues, and food for other living beings.

Anthropocentrically speaking, we decided to place man on the top of this food chain beginning at the leaves of the trees. Then, we can understand that soil quality is one of the factors giving sustainability to the human population and society. To form the organic material, plants need a viable habitat to live in. The dead bodies of the plants growing on the planet soils supply two important chains: the already mentioned alimentary or food chain and the not very well-known debris chain. In the latter, the plant debris falling on the soils decompose and release organic carbon and nutrients to these soils. This helps improve soils structure and their micro-life and restores a part of their fertility. Thus, they feed again the productive chain, as they give new fertility to the soils and revitalize them, allowing the plants to grow by using these nutrients cycled in this way. In desert environments, where soil is poor and almost sterile, plant vegetation is rare, the agricultural crops do not come to ripeness and there exists little capacity for supporting this ecosystem for man and other living beings to live there. Then, it is easy to understand the soil importance, is it not? Difficult to understand is why there exists on the part of the same human beings so little respect for our planet soils.

The intense soil use by man has contributed to its constant degradation. As a matter of fact, the soils will continue to be more and more demanded by man, who grows in population and in goods originating from things coming from the soils. At present, as everybody is speaking of manufacturing fuels from plants (biofuels), the pressure on the soils will increase even more. On the other hand, what we must also understand is that we will be able to mitigate the impacts on soil quality if we use it well. Soils degradation and the loss of their fertility have been due to a great extent to the misuse of these soils. In part this is understandable. The whole soil science and the knowledge about soils interactions with the agricultural crops and forest plantations are recent. Up to a few decades ago the soil was rather looked at as a physical substrate for plants, forests and pastures to grow on, something with an "inexhaustible richness" and with an enormous capacity to resist our abuses and misuses. What many people did not see and other ones do not yet realize at present is that Nature took millions of years to engineer and to mold these soils in a so perfect manner. And all this may be lost in an extremely short period of time. This has happened in many cases: all of us have already come across such situations of abandonment and disrespect for the soils.

Ill-managed or ill-conserved soils, without suitable erosion prevention, may lose about 10 to 20 tons of dry sediments per hectare and per year. This corresponds to a layer of approximately 1 mm of soil thickness lost per year, whereas in environments covered with forests, even planted forests, such a loss may be about 20 to 100 times lower.

If nothing will be done to give the deserved respect to the planet soils, we may be condemning the whole food chain to become unbalanced. The resulting damage will be born by the soil, and the reflexes will be noticed in the planet, in the plants and in the animals depending thereupon, among which we, human beings, as well.

When the planted Eucalyptus forest sector speaks of sustainability, it is referring among other things to the sustainability of the productive capacity of these plantation areas. It is one of the sector’s priorities. The forest planters have endeavored to understand their impacts and to reduce them through the knowledge generated by research and by monitoring their environmental effects. By doing this, one of the targets is to keep the soils healthy and productive. If this will not happen, productivity will drop and the soils will no longer be able to meet the purposes of sustainable forest production. The soil would become exhausted in terms of fertility, organic carbon, clay content, moisture, micro-life, etc. The forests would no longer develop and new areas would have to be looked for, it would be more or less something like "rapine agriculture". Fortunately this is not happening and is not even being considered by the Brazilian leading forest companies.

It is very easy to identify the case of forest companies who are not making good use of their soils. The same applies to farmers of agricultural crops or pastures. It is enough to consider 5 fundamental things: the level of erosion that may be occurring in the area; the proportion of vegetation coverage and of uncovered soil at the rural estate; the growth and vigor of the plants; the maintenance of gallery forests and other types of permanent preservation areas; the color and the level of eutrophication and silting-up of the waters of the water courses in the watersheds of the area.

Eucalyptus forest planters concerned with their soil quality are always asking the following questions:

• how to avoid sediment losses?
• how to avoid the different types of erosion?
• how to guarantee that the rain succeeds in penetrating into the soils?
• how to increase soil porosity and permeability?
• how to facilitate structuration and formation of more stable aggregates in the soil?
• how to enhance the organic carbon content in the soil?
• how to improve the cationic and ionic exchange capacity of the soil?
• how to prevent soil compaction?
• how to avoid soil nutrient losses?
• which are the quantities of nutrients that should be replaced in order to maintain the nutrient balance by evaluating inputs, outputs and stocks of each nutritional element?
• how to guarantee the microbiological soil quality, its richness in mycorrhizae, nitrifying bacterias, saprophyte decaying fungi, and mesofauna organisms contributing to soil structure and consolidation?
• how to renew the soil quality and vitality after its use for forest plantations?
• which are the impacts of each forest operation?
• which silvicultural operations should be practiced to increase the sustained production capacity of the site?

In case an environmental audit does not succeed in obtaining effective evidences of answers to these questions, then we will be finding just a tree plantation, the only purpose of which is to obtain wood at low cost in the short term. The long run will be no priority of this bad forest planter. The most interesting thing is that sometimes such a planter obtains significant productivity results in his forests. This was the case obtained by people who were used to burn the whole organic litter of the forest, in order to transform it into ashes that had a fertilization effect in the extremely short term. And what about the long term? The problems will remain for the next generations to manage them. Now, the companies certified by standard ISO 14001 and by the criteria of FSC and CERFLOR should have answers and plans for monitoring and mitigating negative effects for all these questions. However, not only the normative demands have led the quality leading forest-based companies of our country to act well with regard to their soils. Their own awareness and consciousness to these extremely important themes for their future have led those leading companies to search for more sustainable ways for their silvicultural activities.

Going some 30 years back in time, we will see that it was common for the companies to burn their forest harvesting residues to favor the subsequent silvicultural activities. This was the model of that time, based upon the knowledge available to them. Carbon was burned, the undesirable carbon dioxide gas was generated in the atmosphere, the soil was bared for the rain drop impacts and consequent greater erosion, etc. At present, such a situation is a distant past. It is also past the intense soil preparation work by means of plowing, racking, etc., in order to "fluff up" the soil, intending to facilitate planted seedling radicular growth. It was ingenuousness on the part of the agronomic science of that time. The soil was exposed to an intense organic carbon degradation, to a direct sunlight exposure on the micro-life and to an enormous sediment loss by erosion. Science helped change much in just a few decades. The added knowledge caused the forest plantings to become much more ecoefficient. However, as always, I see opportunities to do it better, we have still much more to accomplish.

In the following items, I intend to make comments on each vital soil quality topic and what we are doing or can still further improve in the planted Eucalyptus forest sector.

Soil compaction

The planted forest sector uses to make utilization of soils which have been already very much used by agriculture and pasturing, which are poor soils in terms of fertility, sometimes eroded and compacted. The option for these soils is due to their low cost, to the low planted forest requirements, to the low area cleaning and preparing operation requirements and to the limited seed bank present in the soil. Soils very much used by agriculture and pastures may present such conditions. Thus, weed competition control is much facilitated and the forest planting operations are simplified.

Forest planting and harvesting operations are nowadays rather mechanized. The use of these machines may contribute to a further compaction of these already compacted soils. The ill-managed forest harvesting operation has a strong impact on soil compaction and on water infiltration into the soil profile, contributes to sediment losses by erosion, due to the fact that it bares the soil, and may disturb the organic tree litter deposited on the soil surface, formed by the planted forest during its growth. To prevent these impacts from occurring, it is important for the soil to have vegetation or vegetation rests on it, to relieve machine tires or belts pressures. It is well-known that bark, branches and leaves maintenance over the soil surface during forest harvesting minimizes soil compaction. For this reason, it is already a common practice in most forest companies to keep the forest harvesting residues very scattered over the soil.

Another advantage of forest plantations is their long cycle between planting and harvesting. Between these both operations the Eucalyptus forest does not endure any anthropic action from 5 to 8 years. Thus, the plant roots and the organic tree litter deposited on the soil surface help protecting the soil, structure it, enrich it with carbon, avoid erosion, etc. The longer the period of time between forest planting and harvesting operations, the better it is for both soil and Nature. There occurs nutrient and organic carbon storage by the organic debris in the forest. Thus, the forest will be growing longer from the use of nutrients released from its own debris. This phenomenon is called nutrient cycling. For this reason, the Eucalyptus forest rotation should be increased, not decreased. When hearing the biofuel heralds speaking about Eucalyptus plantations with close tree spacing and forest harvesting at 3 to 4 years of age, we should become afraid and marshal for action against such ideas. The whole accumulated knowledge shows that this proposal is completely unsuitable. The correct procedure is to think in the long term, is it not so? We cannot obtain biofuels for the present, while disqualifying the respective soil from hosting plants for producing photosynthesis in the future. This is a very poor way of thinking.

The forest management for high and wide tree stem with longer rotations, including thinning, should gradually become the dominant practice, for both rural farmers and forest-based companies. The "forest cluster" formation, defended by several regional development plans, will catalyze for this to happen faster.

Porosity, structure, permeability and organic carbon in the soil

We want the soil to have life, to be plenty of organisms. The structuration of which will allow the soil to absorb and retain water. Water is a source of life for the living beings of the soils: plants, animals, microorganisms. This water must penetrate into the soil, a process occurring with difficulty in compacted or low porosity and permeability soils.

Eucalyptus forests are planted at present based on the "minimum cultivation" technology. This means in short that only the planting line will be prepared (furrowed, ripened or pit digged). The remaining area remains untouched, even if the soil has been previously compacted by the cattle. This is intended to avoid soil carbon and sediment losses, which occur as a result of an excessive soil preparation. When the soil components are exposed, almost everything organic begins quickly to decompose by the action of oxygen and sunlight.

As the seedling roots start growing, they begin to populate the soil with their tissues. The roots grow quickly in order to meet the crown requirements, in quick growth as well. Therefore, many nutrients will be absorbed by the plants. The initial fertilization provided by the forest planter will be quickly utilized. The first 30 centimeters of the soil begin to shelter an enormous amount of thin roots. This root network coexists with mycorrhizal fungi and other organisms of the soil. This helps impart porosity to the soils, since as the roots or the fungi die, they leave spaces to be converted into cavities or pores. Thus, there occurs a soil decompaction.

Roots and fungi also contribute to the structuration, which is achieved by the presence of agglutinants in the soil. The main agglutinative substances are the humified organic carbon, clay and iron oxides. Planted forests are great carbon suppliers to the soils. Leaves, barks and branches falls leave huge amounts of organic matter on the soil, as well as the forest harvesting residues. This organic material decomposes soon. There are studies showing that over 50% of this organic matter decomposes within less than one year. The decomposition of the substances easy to decompose, such as leaves, releases rapidly large amounts of nutrients to the soil. Leaves are rich in nitrogen, potassium and micro-nutrients. They cooperate much with this nitrogen for the biological activity in the soil. We shall by no means think of removing Eucalyptus forest leaves for burning in biomass boilers. This would be a great ecological mistake. For the Corymbia citriodora or Eucalyptus globulus plantations for essential oil production, ways should be found to replace these organic losses, such as the use of other agricultural straws, sawmill residues, organic sludge, etc.

The final fraction of this organic decomposition is called humus. Humus is relatively stable in the soil, but it decomposes when the soil is ill-treated, exposed, bared or aerated in excess. Humus is also vital for soil particle aggregate structuration and formation. Losing humus is a result of bad technical forest management. Therefore, many forest activities are developed at present to have the minimum impact on the soils and to preserve carbon and nutrients.

After forest harvesting, the harvesting residues should remain well-distributed on the soil surface. The silvicultural operations for coppicing or forest reestablishment of the area should begin quickly, so that there is no time for this baring to degrade the soil, its structure, its micro-life and its humified carbon content. Definitively, sprout coppicing is a more soil-conserving operation than the forest plantation reestablishment. At present, the forest companies are very interested in reestablishing their forest areas, replacing poor quality genomes by other genetically improved materials. However, this model should soon become exhausted and sprout coppicing will be able to come back to become more present again in our silviculture. This will improve nutrient cycling, as well as the soil structure. For this very reason the academic researches on sprout coppicing should deserve to be reactivated in the Brazilian academies.

Eucalyptus forests are very efficient in sinking carbon from the atmosphere and incorporating it into their biomasses and into the soil. An Eucalyptus forest aggregates on average about 35 to 45 tons of dry biomass matter per hectare to the soil during a seven-year long rotation. This is definitively fabulous, admitting that this same forest produces from 120 to 160 tons of dry wood. It is incumbent upon the forest technician to plan his operations very well, in order to guarantee that the soil and the forest make good and efficient use of this generous deposition of organic material by the Eucalyptus trees. It is also important to know that the higher the Eucalyptus forest productivity, the higher are these depositions and the more efficiently the biomass is produced with regard to nutrient consumption. Therefore, to improve the forest productivity is an environmental improvement factor and so it should be understood by both technicians and environmentalists.

The organic carbon helps to improve the soil structure, but it also helps to increase the cationic exchange capacity (CEC) of this soil. The weak carboxylic acids of the humus adsorb and retain the cations in the soil body, preventing them from being leached. As retention is not strong, when finding these nutrients the roots know how to take advantage thereof for their metabolism. These phenomena of Nature are simply wonderful...


Soil microbiology

We want a "living" soil, with microbiological richness. These microorganisms can be organic matter degraders, or they can be also organisms associated with the Eucalyptus roots (mycorrhizae). They can be also symbiotic Rhizobium with natural leguminosae present in the area. When these microorganisms die, they leave their little bodies as a source of carbon and of nutrients too. In a word – it is a cycle beginning again. All this improves the ecosystem richness and efficiency in the metabolisms developing there.

These microorganisms, such as any other living being, need nitrogen for metabolic acceleration. If the amount of nitrogen in the soil is small, the working rhythm of the microorganisms is too low. As nitrogen is important as well for the soil microbiology as for the forest plants, we have to discover some ways to increase it or to not lose it from the soil.

Unfortunately, the nitrogen stocks of the soil are low. Very little of the soil nitrogen comes from weathering of the soil mother rock of this soil. What the air brings to the soils is not nitrogen rich either. The region’s native leguminosae have been the ones that have always helped incorporate nitrogen into the soils. By symbiosis with the rhizobia, they take nitrogen from the soil air and fix it as amino acids. Later, as the plant residues of those leguminosae decompose, the released nitrogen enters to the stock of this nutrient in the soil.

Therefore, it is fundamental the forest technician to take vital measures to:
• avoid nitrogen losses by ammonia volatilization in anaerobic environments;
• avoid nitrogen losses as a function of ion removal by torrent water flows or rain run-offs, or by gravity to the deep regions of the soil;
• avoid damages as a result of applying herbicides in excess to the native leguminosae to the future forest understorey;
• study alternative ways of green fertilization by using leguminosae: mixed plantings with Eucalyptus and leguminosae species (acacias, bracatingas, angicos - genus Piptadenia and genus Anadenanthera, etc.);
• maintain a rich understorey in the planted forest by opening the spacing and by leguminosae seed bank enrichment in the soil;
• use organic fertilization with nitrogen rich industrial or domestic wastes: effluent treatment sludge, organic compounds, etc.

Seed bank

The forest soil seed bank uses to be improved by suitably planning the permanent preservation and legal forest reserve areas. Birds and other animals visiting and having shelter in Eucalyptus forests use to take seeds when eating the native plant fruits or along with their excrements. It should be privileged for this seed bank to be rich in leguminosae seeds.

Upon forest harvesting these seeds begin soon to germinate and the leguminosae will be already fixing nitrogen. When dying, they will leave their nutrient rich residues to help the nutritional balance of the planted forest. Marvelous gift from Nature.

Erosion prevention

I always use to say that the greatest pollution of the Brazilian rivers is neither that caused by the industry nor that resulting from the sanitary sewage. The brownish color of our rivers shows the huge amount of soils carried to them.

To prevent erosion is the first responsibility of any forest planter, something that should be included as an essential dogma in his operational activities.

Planted Eucalyptus forests present high erosion preventing capacity. They protect the soil from the impact of rain drops and do not allow torrent water flows to form on the surface of the soil covered with trees and organic tree litter. Practically, over 85% of all water falling as rain in the forests can be infiltrated into the forest soil. Even the waters running along the forest roads can be deviated to holding water basins within the planted area. At present, the efficient forest road planning, so that they help retain water and do not allow abundant torrent water flows to form, is very common. Thus, water infiltrates and will quench the thirst of the plants and feed the underground water layer flows and levels.

Another way of avoiding erosion is by adopting the "minimum cultivation practice", as already mentioned. The minimum movements and interventions on the soil prevent it from disintegrating and its particles from being removed.

The soil preparation uses to be done either in contour level line or by "cutting the waters", even if the planting lines are made "down the hill", to facilitate forest harvesting. These actions help to retain the water and to prevent torrent water flows from forming and removing sediments to the rivers. This is very important at the young forest age, up to 1 to 2 years of age, when the soil is still exposed to a certain extent. It is only after canopy closure that the impact of rain will be minimized.

At forest harvesting the forest technician can also prevent erosion, by maintaining the forest residues on the soil surface. He can also carry out his operations without causing disturbances to the organic tree litter deposited on the soil surface by the forest while growing. The bark of the trees, when left on the soil after debarking, is vital for erosion prevention.

Another very important way to prevent erosion is by suitably planning the planting of Eucalyptus stands and the distribution of the permanent preservation and legal reserve areas. Small Eucalyptus forest planting stands, well-segregated and surrounded by preserved native forest belts, contribute to a significant reduction in plantation soil erosion. It is much more efficient to project the distribution of the legal reserve areas in this way than to reserve a large isolated area to lodge it.

Soil moisture

Every soil contains a water stock in its constitution when the plantation is established. This water comes from rain, from the underground layer of water or from some existing suspended aquifer. The forest technician must understand very well the hydrological behavior of his plantation areas. Monitoring water inlets and outlets is very important. We are not speaking only of rain precipitation inlets, but of all water inlets and stocks. What really matters is that the Eucalyptus plantations do not invade the water reserves of the soils, which have been built in the past. On the contrary, planted forests should be established so as to only consume a part of the rainwater and help better distribute the remaining water to the underground layers of water and to the watersheds on the region.

Practically, all Eucalyptus plantation leading companies have some kind of hydrological water monitoring in the soils. The purpose is to minimize and to become better acquainted with the impacts of planted forests on the local hydrology.

The Eucalyptus are also being improved for more efficient use of the soil water. Species more tolerant to the hydric deficits, as well as less water-consuming species (e.g. Eucalyptus urophylla and E.camaldulensis) are being developed.

Consequently, as well the nutritional as the hydrological balances are important tools on the modern Brazilian silviculture. This is not intended just as an academic research, but to generate technological changes to optimize the use of natural resources by the Eucalyptus forests.

Soil fertility

In general, the soils used by silviculture are poor in terms of fertility. If no nutrient (N, P, K, micro-nutrients, Ca, Mg, S) fertilization occurs, the forest runs the risk of growing badly or even not at all. Such fertilization should be based on chemical and physical soil analyses, as well as on nutritional balances involving all components containing nutrients available in the system. The use of fertilization must be a priority, in order not to impoverish the soils. However, this use should be such as to allow responses from both plants and soil.

The organic forest harvesting residues and the organic tree litter deposited on the soil surface help improve the nutritional balance, but they alone do not solve the nutritional deficit that may exist, because there occurs an export of nutrients with the wood/bark and there are also nutrient losses along forest rotation. Then, an action must be taken to improve the inputs and reduce the outputs of nutrients from the forest area. Our prime responsibility is to deliver this soil to the future generations in better condition than that it presented when we began to plant forests on it.

The unit prices of chemical fertilizers are getting higher and higher. Furthermore, their production has also an environmental impact on the analytical study of the forest product life cycle. The solution that the forest sector has looked for is to associate the mineral fertilization with chemical fertilizers with other sources of nutrients, which may consist of organic residues from other cultures or industries, or pulp mill residues (dregs, grits, lime sludge, biomass boiler ashes, etc.). Also used are woody residues from sawmills or furniture factories, or else organic sludge from the industrial or sanitary effluent treatment. In general, these residues contain interesting contents of carbon and nutrients, among which is nitrogen. This new activity allows the residues to have a nobler destination than to occupy expensive space in a sanitary or industrial landfill. Then, it is incumbent upon the environmental legislators to understand that this opportunity is ecoefficient and deserves to be studied and utilized with due monitoring.

Residues such as biomass boiler ashes are calcium, potassium and magnesium rich. These cations are vital for the forest growth and to help revitalize the soils. The richer potassium content for instance contributes for Eucalyptus plants to become more resistant to hydric deficits.

Finally, I stress some points already mentioned above, hoping that they will become routine practice in our silviculture:

• mixed planting including Eucalyptus and leguminosae may become more and more attractive for the ecological health of the systems, as well as for more balanced nutritional balances;
• increase in rotation age allows better use of nutrient cycling and the demands for mineral fertilization will be lower. Lasting longer, the trees will live longer by using their debris;
• sprout coppicing should be more thoroughly studied by the researchers, as it is a more ecoefficient alternative than the forest plantation reestablishment;
• continued planting of a single species has impacts on the biological succession, on the seed stock, on the soil micro-life biodiversity and on the nutritional balance of this area itself. Therefore, crop rotation is something that is essential to be planned in the long term. A soil that for decades has been used with only one species or genus or even a clone deserves to have in the future a rest as legal reserve area, or else to receive some other species having different requirements (agricultural or forest culture of a leguminosae, for instance).


Final considerations

My friends, there are soils and soils, there are managers and managers, we come across situations and situations in our Eucalyptus forest silviculture. As everything in life, situations of the plus and the better world, as well as the opposite may be found. This is inevitable among human beings.

What we are sure of is that continuous improvement is definitively practiced by the Brazilian companies leading in terms of technology and performance in the Eucalyptus forest sector.

I am also sure that within one decade or so our silviculture will be much better and more ecoefficient than that practiced at present, because our scientific foundations are very solid and shared in cooperative forest research programs. I believe very much in our scientists and technicians. They have been very competent to show this along the recent decades of Brazilian silviculture dealing with Eucalyptus trees.

We must still convert the new knowledge that will result from research as quickly as possible into environmentally sounder operational practices. We cannot afford to wait for others to be the first ones to implement, and later, "if everything works well", to be the next ones. We must be capable of converting the Eucalyptus silviculture into an activity characterized by much ecoefficiency and sustainability. Thus, we will be able to meet the demands for products to society, doing this with minimum impacts on the environment. The soils will benefit more and the forests will go on doing their photosynthesis, but more and more efficiently.

This depends very much on our concepts of management. Sustainability implies to look at the desired future and to act in the present. Without focussing on the long term we will neither be able to achieve it, nor to maintain the productive capacity of our soils and forests.

Fortunately there is much light to light up our ways.

Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus. It depends only on registering yourself to receive them.
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
celso@celso-foelkel.com.br
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2007-2010

This knowledge oriented service was made possible through sponsoring support provided by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper and by Botnia, Aracruz, International Paper do Brasil, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates and Suzano. The opinions expressed in the texts are those of the author or coming from the referenced technical literature. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.


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