Good morning, my dear Eucalyptus friends. Here we are
again, with the 14th issue of our Eucalyptus
Newsletter. In this
edition, as it is
being usual, we are again bringing a lot of information and knowledge
about these wonderful trees and their utilization. Remember that
most of this information is brought to you for your better understanding
about the Eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer knowledge in a way
that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this, we
are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to grab as much
on good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and
recommendations of books and interesting events. I hope you may,
like me, also admire these trees and the products they offer to Society.
this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter we are introducing to you
some more chapters of our Eucalyptus Online Book, both in Portuguese.
For the time being, be patient, the English versions are in the process
of being built.
In the Ester Foelkel's section about "Curiosities
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" she is telling us about the
utilization of the Eucalyptus for landscape designing and gardening.
In the section "The
Friends of the Eucalyptus", I'm telling
to you the professional life and the career of one of the most renowned
professors in the Brazilian modern silviculture, Dr. Jose Luiz
Dr. Stape is a great educator, researcher and promoter of the Eucalyptus planted forests. Among his aims, he wants not only to discover new
knowledge about these forests as sources of wood products, but also
in all the richness of their ecosystems and their eco-physiological
efficiencies. I'm very honored to have the opportunity to introduce
him to you in this issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter.
We are coming
back again with another dialogue with my dear friend Alberto Mori in
the section "A Talk with Alberto Mori about the
Papers Manufactured with Eucalyptus Fibers". This time, the technical
conversation will cover the utilization of the Eucalyptus to the production
of decor papers.
The today's mini-article is titled "The
Eucalyptus and the Soil Conservation". This is another issue that we decided
to have it clarified to readers, in a simple writing format and in
the most honest
and sincere way. The purpose is to continue to bring information about
the environmental effects of the Eucalyptus forests in the ecosystems
where they live and develop to generate valuable products to Mankind.
case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus
Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus
Online Book, I suggest
you to do it through the following link: Click
here for registration.
have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus
Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI,
RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE,
AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS and GIT - Eucalyptologics. They are helping
to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries
such as: Brazil, USA, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina,
Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. However, thanks to the world
wide web, in reality they are helping to promote our project to the
entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what
we are doing.
Know more about all of our today’s partners at
the URL address:
Thanks again for the support
to our work. We have just now reached the 6,000 registered people
receiving these online publications about
the Eucalyptus. Even so,
I beg your help to inform about and to promote
our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may
be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the
gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP,
Botnia, Aracruz, International Paper do Brasil, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates,
Suzano and from
the supporting partners.
Our best wishes to all of you, and please
enjoy your reading.
Online Book Chapter 08 (in Portuguese)
Online Book Chapter 09 (in Portuguese)
Online Technical References
about Events and Courses
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus: The Eucalyptus used
in Landscape Designing and Gardening (by Ester Foelkel)
Friends of the Eucalyptus - Dr. Jose Luiz Stape
Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Manufactured with
Eucalyptus Fibers : Decor Papers
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Eucalyptus and the Soil Conservation
Online Book Chapter 08 (in Portuguese)
the chapter (in Adobe pdf - 10.7 MB) just click the name of the chapter.
you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please
visit http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_eng.html and find
the instructions how to get it.
is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.
Eucaliptos e as Leguminosas. Parte 01: Acacia mearnsii"
Online Book Chapter 09 (in Portuguese)
the chapter (in Adobe pdf - 1.3 MB) just click the name of the chapter.
you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please
visit http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_eng.html and find
the instructions how to get it.
Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.
e Producao mais Limpa para a Industria de Celulose e Papel de Eucalipto"
In this section, we are offering some very good euca-links
with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web
library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents
and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible
for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me,
they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since
they are very much connected with the Eucalyptus. In this section,
we are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those
that are helping to build the foundations and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas
related to these magic trees.
Products Annual Market Review" - (English)
It is a publication written in 2006 and showing wood products and world
markets, with emphasis on Europe, China and North America. It consists
in a joint study by UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 163 pages.
Technical Information Document about "Forest Re-establishment" -
t is a very instructive document edited by the Silviculture Coordination
area of IBAMA (Brazilian Institute for Environment and Natural Resources).
39 pages. 2002
Book "Genomics of Tropical Crop Plants" -
It is a recent book (2008) edited by Springer about the biotechnological
advances and genomics in several agricultural and forest crops. There
is an excellent chapter by our dear and competent friend Dr. Dario
http://www.springerlink.com/content/x4558lr1651095q3 (Dr. Grattapaglia
chapter - only a preview, to have it in total the book has to be bought)
ABRAF 2007 Year Statistical Report - (Portuguese and English)
ABRAF is the Brazilian Association of the Planted Forests Producers.
As regularly done, the ABRAF has issued its Yearbook with the Brazilian
statistics on plantation forests. It has the aim to present the accomplishments
of the Brazilian forestry segment and news about the association
Article "Desafios Tecnologicos y Ambientales para la Gestion
Sustentable del Sector Forestal en los Paises de America Latina y el
Caribe" - (Spanish)
Technical paper written by my special friend from Chile, Prof. Dr.
Claudio Zaror co-worked by O. Parra e P. Gonzalez. 47 pages. 1998
Article "Perspectiva Fisiologica en la
Produccion y Mejora del Eucalipto (con enfasis en Eucalyptus
article by Prof. Jose A. Pardos, published in the CIDEU Bulletin
in an 2007 issue. 49 pages. CIDEU is the Center for Information and
Documentation of the Eucalyptus (http://www.uhu.es/cideu)
Dissertation "Qualidade, Desempenho Operacional e Custos
com o Cultivo Minimo em Eucalyptus grandis" - (Portuguese)
Master Dissertation by Mr. Vitor A. G. Fesser, having the advising
of Dr. Marcos Milan. The covered subject is the minimum soil preparation
to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantation forests. ESALQ/USP. 105
nitens in Spain" -
Available at the specialized website about Eucalyptus - PrimaBio, United
Publication "Sustainable Procurement of Wood and Paper-based
Products: an introduction" - (English)
A joint publication by WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable
Development) and WRI (World Resources Institute). 18 pages. 2007
Document about "Management of Wood Quality in Planted Forests:
A paradigm for global forest production" - (English)
A FAO Working Paper (Food and Agriculture Organization), number FP/36/E
- 2006, written by Richard Jagels, available at the FAO website.
Document "Brazil: a Country Profile on Sustainable Energy Development" -
An excellent book resulted from the cooperation of several organizations
-IAEA/COPPE/CENBIO/UNDESA. 339 pages. 2006
Thesis "Efeito da Irrigacao e Fertilizacao nas Propriedades do
Lenho de Arvores de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla" - (Portuguese)
A great work on Eucalyptus wood anatomy by our dear friend Dr. Mario
Tomazello Filho to ESALQ/USP, presented in 2006. 146 pages.
da Aplicacao do Lodo de Esgoto e de Fertilizacao Mineral no Crescimento
e Propriedades da Madeira de
Arvores de Eucalyptus grandis"
A research about the utilization of sanitary sludge to fertilize Eucalyptus plantations and the corresponding effect on wood quality and anatomy.
A work by Carlos Roberto Sette Jr. presented to ESALQ/USP. 153 pages.
2007. The MS student had Dr. Mario Tomazello Filho as his major professor.
on Events and Courses
This section has as aim to introduce to you several
very good links with recently already happened events. The advantage
provided to the readers is that the event organizers made the presentations
or proceedings available for free downloading. This is a very good
way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere
thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing
the event material with the interested parties.
Workshops "Site Management and Productivity in Tropical Plantation
Forests" - (English)
A selected group of international events coordinated by CIFOR (Center
for International Forest Research - Indonesia) in partnership with
local institutions. The events took place in South Africa, India, Congo,
China and Brazil. The proceedings contain valuable technical material
on planted forests with Eucalyptus, Acacia, Tectona, Pinus, etc. You
cannot miss this:
1998 (South Africa Workshop - 77 pp.)
1999 (India Workshop - 108 pp.)
e 2003 (Congo and China Workshops - 228 pp.)
2004 (Brazil Workshop)
of the IPEF Technical Meeting about "Second Rotation
of Eucalyptus Forests Managed by Coppicing" - (Portuguese)
It is not a recent event, it happened back to 1987. However, this issue
is gaining importance again, since the management of Eucalyptus plantation
forests by coppicing has potential advantages. There are strong possibilities
that this type of silvicultural management may play important role
in the years to come.
and Diversity: balancing productivity and sustainability" -
A great event by IUFRO dedicated to the Eucalyptus (International
Union of Forest Research Organizations). The congress was held in
in the year 2007. Although not all presentations are available for
downloading, you may find several of them, all related to the main
topic of the congress. Have a look on this offer:
Symposium "Forest Soils under Global and Local Changes" -
This event has happened in the year 2004, in France. The event
book contains expanded summaries of several dozens of papers related
management, microbiology, hydrology, productivity, nutrition, fertility,
carbon sinking, nutrient cycling, forest wastes, etc. Please, go
Eurosoil 2004 - (English)
The congress took place in Freiburg, Germany, with an enormous
number of papers on soil science.
IUFRO "Forest Plantations Meeting" - (English)
This event was held in 2006, South Carolina/USA. The speeches may
be downloaded both as PowerPoint presentations or expanded summaries
text. See in special the speeches by Dr. Fred Cubbage (NCSU), who
gave us a review on forest plantations: fat-growing forestry, wood
and natural resources conservation. See also the speech by Dr.
Thomas Fox concerning the sustainability of the forest plantations
proceedings/summary.html (Programa do evento)
proceedings/K02s-Cubbage.pdf (Palestra Cubbage)
proceedings/C01s-Siry.pdf (Palestra Cubbage e Siry)
proceedings/S01s-Fox.pdf (Dr. Fox's speech)
2020 "Sustentabilidade na Geracao e Uso da Energia no
Brasil: os proximos 20 anos" - (Portuguese)
This event about energy in Brazil was held in 2002 at UNICAMP. The
speeches covered the several sources of energy to Brazil, including
http://www.cgu.unicamp.br/energia2020/programacao.html (Speeches for
Here, we are bringing to you a series of links
with several very good websites that have strong connection with
the Eucalyptus. I hope you may visit them, taking advantage of the
good technical material they offer at a no cost basis.
Prof. Dr. Art
Ragauskas' Webpage - (USA)
Professor Dr. Art Ragauskas is one of the most distinguishing professors
and researchers at IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology
- Georgia Tech), in Atlanta/GA. His curriculum, his R&D activities,
his educational hand-outs are available in a very rich webpage. Don't
miss this, a value-added page to anyone wondering to know more about
pulp, paper, biorefineries, nanotechnologies, etc.
reviews and class hand-outs - wood chemistry, pulp, paper, biorefineries,
Mushrooms Website - (Brazil)
It is a very interesting website about mushrooms, some of them (Shiitake)
having the Eucalyptus wood as source of nutrients and medium for
growth. The authors are professors, technical staff and students
of the Agronomical Sciences College - UNESP Botucatu/SP.
shiitake in Eucalyptus)
shiitake in Eucalyptus)
Portal "Colheita da Madeira - Wood Harvesting" -
It is a very good website, housing many technical information as
theses, dissertations, articles, speeches, etc., both for Eucalyptus
and Pinus species.
SBSAF - Sociedade Brasileira de Sistemas Agroflorestais - Brazilian
Society of Agroforestry Systems - (Brazil)
SBSAF is an association of professionals of different background
who have interest to promote agroforestry systems in Brazil. The
association is well-known due to the congresses it organizes, with
a lot of papers about agroforestry with Amazon region tree species.
It worth, have a look.
5&id=15&Itemid=26 (Online magazine)
Portal "Nutricao de Plantas - Plant Nutrition" -
Excellent website about plant nutrition, oriented to agricultural
crops and forest species, such as Eucalyptus and Pinus. There are
several articles on this topic to these two genus, have a look to
download those you may wish.
Website "Eucalyptus-Passion" -
A recent website in English by Mr. Howard Lloyd. The aim is to promote
the cold resistant Eucalyptus, a need to the weather conditions
in Central Europe. You cannot miss the photo gallery, where you may
see an Eucalyptus gunnii tree, completely covered by snow (and
to the minus 15ºC, according to Mr. Lloyd).
Website "Prima Bio" -
Website created in the year 2000 by Mr. John Purse. The main activity
of PrimaBio is the development (through tree breeding) of Eucalyptus species, including ornamental ones, to the weather conditions present
at the United Kingdom. There is a well-noticed purpose to the diffusion
of knowledge about the Eucalyptus to the European countries.
Eucalyptus wood is the prime raw material for many
industrialized products such as furniture, wood panels, housing construction
materials, pulp and paper, etc.. Eucalyptus trees have a social importance
to all of these above mentioned utilizations, but their ornamental
value is also getting stronger. Today, the Eucalyptus trees are demanded
and admired in many parks and gardens all over the warm regions of
the world. Even on some European and American cold places, some species
of these trees are well used as ornamental too. The main reason for
this usage is the same one rewarded by the factories using the Eucalyptus trees as industrial raw materials: they show fast growth rates, they
do not lose the leaves in the winter, they have vegetative growth
all over the year, and they also surpass in development many other
tree species. On the gardening point of view, specially the fast
growth Eucalyptus characteristic is desired to develop shadow and
vegetation in a short period of time. Other well-appreciated characteristics
of this genus for the landscape usage are the beauty of the trees,
the colors, the bark, the flowers and the diversity of species that
can have the same type of utilization.
There are Eucalyptus species
with gorgeous big flowers and fruits. In some others, the leaves
are impressively beautiful, with nice
colors and ornamental textures. There are even some that the barks
gets the attention on the landscape, which is desired for parks and
gardens decoration. We should also remind that some Eucalyptus species
show amazing smell that gets even more evident after some wind, by
the balancing of the trees. The Eucalyptus flowers have also magnificent
odor and colors, varying according to the species. This smell attracts
pollinators bringing even more biodiversity and beauty to the place
the trees are growing.
Medium high seedlings obtained from Eucalyptus seeds can be transplanted directly to the garden soil, or they can
be placed in recipients
such as containers or big size pots. This kind of Eucalyptus growing
on vases reminds or can be defined as a type of macro-bonsai. The
potted Eucalyptus plants require special treatments and cares, but
if well done, they can even blossom and fructify, enlarging their
beauty and consequently the place they are.
important aspect to remind about the Eucalyptus is the low tolerance
they have to
frost. Most of the species cannot be planted
in rigorous winter regions. The Eucalyptus thermal limit is around
8 to –7 ° C for the ornamental red flowers species. The
frequency of cold days is also a limiting factor for the Eucalyptus establishment. The higher the number of cold days the plant is submitted,
the worst for the Eucalyptus adaptation and even surviving. Eucalyptus cold weather tolerant species are recommended in these cases. These
are Eucalyptus pulverulenta, E. pleurocarpa, E.gunnii, E.caesia, etc.
The most important gardening Eucalyptus management
practices are the following:
• Acquire good genetic quality seedlings, certified by special nurseries,
disease and pest free. The first step and care to obtain the ideal
gardening species is to buy them in reliable garden shops or nurseries.
• Another important factor is to choose the right place to transplant
the Eucalyptus seedling. Finding the best place needs to be well-discussed
and planned, avoiding places close to houses, walls and electric
wires. Even medium size Eucalyptus plants are known to have vigorous
root systems. The roots can damage streets, constructions and sideways
if a previous designing and prevention measures are not taken. The
precautions are worth for even bush size plants. They can also grow
• The Eucalyptus trees need direct sunlight to well develop. They have
low tolerance to shadow environments or dark places. These points
should be considered for choosing the planting location. The lack
of direct sunshine could even contribute to some plant diseases and
reduction on growing rate. Do not plant the Eucalyptus in flooded
areas. If you believe that the Eucalyptus plants are to dry your
swampy area, this is not going to happen. You may be condemning the
plant to death from the incapable development of the root system
on places without soil air.
• Spring and Summer are the recommended seasons for seedling transplantation.
You need to avoid cold periods during plant establishment.
• Fertilizing the soil with macro and micro nutrient is desired. The Eucalyptus is considered sensitive to poor soils. They need nutrients
in balanced and ideal quantities.
• Irrigation is needed for the seedlings specially on the hot and dry
periods of the year.
• Pest control is another key-point. Specially to the ants. In some
cases, if control is not taken, the seedling can even die.
• As the Eucalyptus plant grows, some management such as pruning and
thinning may become recommended in gardening. They help to control
the fast development, but also are important for the shape designing
of the tree. Drastic pruning is considered one of the best ways to
control plant growth. Most Eucalyptus species regrow by sprouting,
so the pruning could even be done in high levels in the trunk.
• Some species of Eucalyptus or Corymbia can be already sold grafted
or as clones. These kind of seedlings are more expensive, but they
provide early flowering and better resistance to root diseases.
There is a large number of Eucalyptus species being used for landscape
designs all over the world.
However, it is in Australia (Eucalyptus original homelands)
that it’s possible to find the most common
examples. In Australia, the common ornamental species are: Eucalyptus
leucoxylon, Eucalyptus erythrocorys, Eucalyptus caesia, Eucalyptus
youngiana, Eucalyptus multicaulis, Eucalyptus macrandra and Corymbia
In Brazil, there are three "Eucalyptus" species most used
for ornamental purposes. They are: Corymbia ficifolia, Eucalyptus
cinerea and Corymbia ptychocarpa. Corymbia citriodora is also commonly
planted for the reason of the excellent leaves smell. Notice that
most of the ornamental Eucalyptus planted in Brazil comes from the
Corymbia genus, reclassified some years ago by the work
of some taxonomists.
Corymbia (Eucalyptus) ficifolia – Also known as "Red Eucalyptus".
It is a typical gardening species. Originated from the Western part
of Australia, it is short in height (10 m), produces great number
of big red flowers, but is very susceptible to frosts and cold weather.
Depending on the weather, they can be substituted by the cold tolerant
Eucalyptus cinerea – In the USA it’s commonly named as "Silver
Dollar Eucalyptus" because of the round-shaped leaves and because
their bluish silver colors. In Australia this species is called "Blue
Gum". Their leaves are, for sure, the most beautiful and ornamental
part of the tree.
Corymbia (Eucalyptus) ptychocarpa – This species comes from
the Australian North and Western regions, it has medium height and
has little tolerance to cold weather. It develops under a thermal
amplitude of 10 to 40 °C. Corymbia ptychocarpa also shows a beautiful
and abundant red flowering.
Corymbia (Eucalyptus) citriodora – One
of the most common Eucalyptus species. Known from the essential oil extracted by specialized industries
from the leaves. This oil is used as prime material to manufacture
soaps, perfumes, detergents and other cleaning products. In USA,
the species is also known as Lemon Scented Gum.
Find out more information about the Eucalyptus species used as ornamental
purposes in some selected websites. On these webpages you will know
the gardening Eucalyptus characteristics, management and
the required cares. You’ll be able to see wonderful pictures of these ornamental
plants. One of the most rich and interesting websites aiming this
subject is the one from our friend Gustavo Iglesias Trabado (GIT
Forestry) with its blog "Eucalyptologics". It has a whole
bunch of information about ornamental Eucalyptus. Use you time to
navigate in the selection we have prepared to you.
Friends of the Eucalyptus
Jose Luiz Stape
Jose Luiz Stape is one of the greatest names of the modern
Brazilian silviculture. His scientific contribution about Eucalyptus plantations in terms of their physiology, management,
carbon sinking and efficiency in using light, water and nutrients
has been remarkable. Besides his considerable vocation for
science, Dr. Stape is also a great educator, not only of
his students at ESALQ/USP, but of agronomists, agricultural
technicians and Society in general. He has always placed
a strong emphasis on extension and education themes, thus
making an important contribution for Society, enabling it
to understand more and more about the Eucalyptus trees, their
forests, their uses and the ways of minimizing impacts and
Luiz Stape was born in Tatui, State of Sao Paulo, in 1962.
At present, at the age of 46,
he is one of the greatest citizens
of the worldwide Eucalyptus plantation forestry science.
The support he receives from his family is fundamental for
accomplishments. His wife Luceni and his two sons, Thiago
and Glauco, have much to be proud of, as they have played
role, accompanying him and giving him forces and motivation
for these achievements. Stape comes from a family who owned
lands and had agricultural activities – hence his liking
for agricultural matters. However, it was neither agronomy
nor forest engineering his first attempt on university level
in search of a professional career. Right in the beginning,
he studied medicine at USP – University of Sao Paulo – for
two years, until discovering that he had another vocation:
the productive use of the land. For this reason, he moved
to ESALQ - Agricultural College "Luiz de Queiroz",
to study agronomy, where he graduated from in 1985. As he
identified himself much with the silvicultural activities,
which even included a job in the forest area of Eucatex,
he decided to add this to his curriculum. In only one year
completed at ESALQ the required courses that would allow
him to be also forest engineer, having graduated in forest
starting his career as a university professor at the same
ESALQ he had graduated from, he worked as forest
engineer for Eucatex and Ripasa, two forest-based companies
in Brazil. At the latter he participated in one of the
most renowned Brazilian silviculture teams, together with
Barbosa Leite, Edson Balloni, Edson Martini, Arnaldo Salmeron,
Ademir Cunha Bueno, Lineu Wadouski, Jose Zani Filho, Carlos
Alberto Guerreiro and Pablo Vietz Garcia. It was really
an important team, whose professionals have very much contributed
to the success of the Brazilian Silviculture. During the
time he has worked for Ripasa, he was given the authorization
take his course of Master Degree in Agronomy at ESALQ.
elected the area of Statistics and Agricultural Experiments,
the advising of the great professor Humberto de Campos.
His master’s degree dissertation had the title "Uso
do delineamento sistematico tipo leque no estudo de espacamentos
1992, he set up with his colleagues Jose Zani Filho and Carlos
Alberto Guerreiro a forest consulting
company – GSZ
-, where he could be active as technical expert and entrepreneur.
However, his real vocation was the academy, as well as
research. In 1995, he participated in the public competition
position of silviculture professor at ESALQ, occupying
the vacancy left by our esteemed friend Dr. Joao Walter
who had retired. At ESALQ, from 1995 onwards, he has
built his brilliant academic career with an enormous
and scientific production.
1998 and 2002, when he obtained his Ph.D., he did his doctorate
Colorado State University,
States of America, under Dr. Dan Binkley’s guidance.
His option for that university was due to Dr. Binkley’s
acknowledged competence in forest productivity and
eco-physiology studies, including those concerning
he had experiments with the genus in Hawaii. He was
Dr. Mark Ryan, another great name in this area of studies.
His doctorate thesis had the title "Production
ecology of clonal Eucalyptus plantations in
This work became a scientific milestone in Eucalyptus plantation
studies and has been a world reference about this theme,
thousands of citations and references. From 2002 onwards,
with the know-how he succeeded in adding to the Eucalyptus plantation
forestry, his career reached such a level of maturity,
that he has been regularly invited to lectures, speeches,
events and articles in the most different regions of
that time on, his main lines of investigation have been:
Planted forest silviculture;
Eco-physiological forest system modeling with emphasis on practical
Carbon sinking and allocation in forests (biomass);
Planting spacing and thinning;
Carbon sinking and carbon dynamics in the soil;
Forest nutrition and fertilization;
Water and nutrient transfer processes and balance;
Forest regeneration models aiming at carbon sinking;
Sewer sludge utilization in forest plantations as organic fertilizer;
Forest restoration with native species (Atlantic Forest, Cerrado
and Pantanal), using the concepts developed for the
forests planted with exotic species.
projects for the future include more advanced
studies of Eucalyptus plantations in terms of modeling
use of water, light and nutrients. He has also
the purpose of developing edapho-climatic zonings for
Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil, following the
example of what
was given in the
past by our great master Dr. Lamberto Golfari in
the 70's, but now
encompassing the knowledge built up during these
of silviculture in addition to that Dr. Golfari
had available at that time.
professor Stape is a very successful professor, having been
regularly paid homage to by the recent groups of
ESALQ students about to graduate. Furthermore, he provides
guidance not only to graduate students in their research works
for dissertations and theses, but also undergraduate conclusion
works, young researchers’ scientific initiation works,
etc. Dozens of research papers under these circumstances are
concerned. As to his scientific production, his contributions
in terms of technical and scientific articles, lectures at
events, interviews, columns, etc., etc., also amount to some
hundreds. In short, a rich career as to knowledge creation,
combined with its communication to Society, who definitively
needs this. Exactly for this reason, the Brazilian forest sector
greatly acknowledges what professor Stape has done and is doing
for the sector. And for this very reason, I've asked Dr. Stape
what he believes to have really added in value for this Brazilian
planted forest sector. His answer was: "to contribute
to the change of mind of the forest sector people, so that
they do not think only about wood productivity in the planted
forests, but about something much more comprehensive, the details
of which must be still better discovered in terms of efficient
use of water, light and nutrients. I believe that very soon
it will be possible to make predictions about the whole forest
ecosystem based on these indicators, so as to develop forest
models which will allow producing wood in a much more efficient
way and with lower impacts on the ecosystems."
At ESALQ and also via IPEF (Institute of Forest Researches
and Studies), he has exerted himself very much with regard
to teaching, research and extension projects that he coordinates
or participates in as enthusiastic collaborator.
Among these projects, the following may be highlighted:
- Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity (BEPP)
This is a cooperative research project of 2
universities (University of Sao Paulo – ESALQ - and Colorado State University),
8 forest companies (Aracruz Celulose, Cenibra, Copener Florestal,
Internacional Paper, Suzano Bahia Sul Celulose, Votorantim
Celulose e Papel, Veracel Celulose, V & M Florestal),
IPEF, the Rocky Mountain Research Station of USDA Forest
Service, CNPq and CIRAD/France. The companies have established
the experimental areas between 2000 and 2004. The areas have
on average five hectares with six treatments and use the
specific genetic material (clone) of each company.
Get acquainted with further details about BEPP at:
BEPP has four lines of research guiding the working groups
composed of the companies’ researchers and engineers
and the university professors:
• Eucalyptus carbon balance;
• Use and efficiency of using natural resources by the Eucalyptus;
• Forest stratification and productivity in Eucalyptus;
• Eco-physiological modeling.
PTSM – IPEF’s
Thematic Management and Silviculture Cooperative Program
was started in 1995, with the purpose of studying the effects
of the minimum soil cultivation on forest productivity
and production sustainability. In 1995, as it was started,
it was oriented to 3 forest companies partners. It has evolved
and incorporated silviculture, forest mechanization and modeling
areas. At present, it is composed of 14 forest companies partners,
via IPEF-Institute of Forest Researches and Studies, and holds
approximately 3 yearly meetings. PTSM’s scientific coordination
is under the responsibility of ESALQ professors: Prof. Jose
Leonardo de Moraes Goncalves; Prof. Jose Luiz Stape and Prof.
- TUME – Test of Multiple Use
means "Test of Multiple Use of Eucalyptus" and
aims at generating knowledge and promoting Eucalyptus plantation
forestry to small and medium-sized rural producers. Effectively
implanted in 2002, the project is present in almost 100 rural
estates. Due to climate and soil diversity in Brazil, the ample
wide testing of Eucalyptus species is fundamental to evaluate
their adaptability, growth and potential of use by rural producers.
TUME is a creation and a dream of Professor Stape, who becomes
delighted by the activities of extension to farmers. The project
was started in 1995, in order that the rural farmers could
know more about the different species of Eucalyptus.
This would enable them to better choosing the most suitable
one for their
demands, planting them according to the environmental zoning
of the farms. Thus, TUME uses over 20 species with wood potentials
for: firewood, charcoal, pulp, fences, poles, boards, beams
and furniture; and non-wood ones for: essential oil, honey,
shiitake mushrooms, ornamental and gardening and windbreak.
The species studied by TUME are E.benthamii, E.botryoides,
E.camaldulensis, C.citriodora, E.cloeziana, E.deanei, E.deglupta,
E.dunnii, E.grandis, C.maculata, E.microcorys, E.paniculata,
E.pellita, E.phaeotricha, E.pilularis, E.propinqua, C.ptychocarpa,
E.pyrocarpa, E.resinifera, E.robusta, E.saligna, E.tereticornis,
C.torelliana, E.urophylla, E.viminalis and several hybrids.
Course LCF - 1581: Forest Resources in Rural Farms - oriented
to the career of Agronomy at ESALQ/USP
This course has a broad and eclectic view, destined to provide
not only technical knowledge, but also to develop the vision
of forestry as an alternative to the farmers. It is very
useful to Society. I received the promise from Dr. Stape
to have the
course materials and hand-outs maintained available for downloading
in his personal webpage (under construction): http://www.esalq.usp.br/lcf/~stape
In this website, Dr. Stape plans to offer his theses, articles,
speeches, and a lot more.
- Course and Meeting on Advances and Updates on Eucalyptus Plantations
This is a regular basis event coordinated by Dr. Stape, with
the aim to update the knowledge about the plantation forestry
on Eucalyptus. Please, have a look to the meeting/course program:
In case you may wish to know more about Dr. Jose Luiz Stape,
we strongly suggest to navigate in some of the available
curriculum vitae posted in Internet:
Platform of Curriculum CNPq Lattes Brazil
Department of Forest Sciences Website
Stape has, as seen, an enormous academic and scientific production,
dozens of published articles, 8
and a full book in partnership with his friend and colleague
at ESALQ/USP Dr. Jose Leonardo de Moraes Goncalves. The title
of this book, written in Portuguese is: "Conservacao e
cultivo de solos para plantacoes florestais". Know it
Stape has also a software with co-authorship with Moises Rabelo
de Azevedo for utilization in Eucalyptus silviculture: SoftBEPP.
It consists in a software to storage, to process and to export
data on climate, soil, biology, and physiology in the BEPP
his career, Dr. Stape has worked with several researchers
in a world basis. His most frequent co-authors and scientific
partners have been:
Jose Leonardo de Moraes Goncalves:
Jean Paul Laclau:
My dear and esteemed friend Dr. Jose Luiz Stape, for the excellence
of your technical, educational and scientific work, for your
competence and dedication to the Eucalyptus forestry sector,
please, accept the most sincere thanks from all the people
who admire you.
Please, know more about Dr. Stape talented work though some
of his major publications (thesis, dissertations, articles,
speeches, lectures, etc.).
Production ecology of clonal Eucalyptus plantations in Northeastern
Brazil. J.L.Stape. Ph.D. Thesis. Colorado State University.
237 pp. (2002)
and scientific articles (also included some of Dr. Stape's
graduate students dissertations
and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with
water and nutrient manipulations. J.L.Stape; D.Binkley;
M.G.Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 920 – 930.
Influencia do desbaste e da fertilizacao no
deslocamento da medula e rachadura de tora de Eucalyptus
grandis. I.L. Lima;
J.N.Garcia; J.L.Stape. Cerne 13(2): 170 – 177. (2007)
ecofisiologica de especies nativas da Mata Atlantica sob
dois niveis de estresse induzidos pelo manejo
florestal em area de restauracao florestal no estado de Sao
Paulo. C.M.I.Servin. Ph.D. Thesis. ESALQ/USP. 95 pp. (2007)
de produtividade de plantacoes clonais de Eucalyptus
urophylla e suas correlacoes com variaveis edafoclimaticas
e silviculturais. J.M.A.Ferreira. Master Dissertation. ESALQ-USP.
85 pp. (2007)
of production and carbon allocation in Eucalyptus. M.Ryan;
D.Binkley; J.L.Stape. Symposium IUFRO "Eucalypts and diversity: balancing productivity and sustainability".
PowerPoint presentation: 24 slides. (2007)
na alocacao de uma reserva legal de criterios ambientais
versus uma de criterios tecnico-economicos com o uso de ferramentas
de SIG. P.G.Molin; J.L.Stape. Anais XIII Simposio Brasileiro
de Sensoriamento Remoto. p.: 1749 – 1756. (2007)
do desbaste e da fertilizacao nas tensoes de crescimento
em Eucalyptus grandis. I.L.Lima; J.N.Garcia;
Scientia Forestalis 70: 171 – 183. (2006)
Avaliacao da sustentabilidade nutricional de plantio de Pinus
taeda usando um balanco de entrada-saida de nutrientes. J.C.M.Bizon.
Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP. 96 pp. (2006)
e crescimento florestal. J.L.Stape.
IPEF Seminar "Integracao
e Atualizacao Tecnica em Floresta Plantada". PowerPoint
presentation: 71 slides. (2006)
Tree-girdling to separate root and heterotrophic
respiration in two Eucalyptus stands in Brazil. D. Binkley;
E.N. Takahashi; M.G. Ryan. Oecologia 148: 447 – 454.
approach to determine nutrient limitation and potential productivity
in Eucalyptus plantations at landscape
scales in Brazil. J.L.Stape; D.Binkley; W.S.Jacob; E.N. Takahashi.
Forest Ecology and Management 223: 358 – 362. (2006)
edafoclimaticas aptas para especies forestales bajo escenarios
de cambio climatico: um estudio de caso en Costa
Rica. A.P.C.Ferez; J.L.Stape; M.R.Vallejos; P.Imbach. Informe
ESALQ/CATIE. 32 pp. (2006)
de metodos geoestatisticos para identificacao de dependencia
espacial na analise de dados de um experimento
em delineamento sistematico tipo "leque". M.L.Oda.
Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP. 88 pp. (2005)
Erosao hidrica e desenvolvimento inicial do
Eucalyptus grandis em um argissolo vermelho amarelo
submetido a diferentes metodos
de preparo do solo no Vale do Paraiba – SP. M.C.P.Wichert.
Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP. 84 pp. (2005)
yield and system performance simulation of a sugarcane-Eucalyptus interface in a sub-tropical region
of Brazil. L.F.G.Pinto;
M.S.Bernardes; J.L.Stape; A.R.Pereira. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
105(1/2): 77 – 86. (2005)
Sustainable management of Eucalyptus plantations
in a changing world. D.Binkley; J.L.Stape. IUFRO Congress "Eucalyptus in a Changing World". Aveiro. 7 pp. (2004)
about efficiency and resource use in forests. D. Binkley; J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology
193: 05 – 16. (2004)
Water use, water limitation, and water use
efficiency in a Eucalyptus plantation. J.L. Stape; D. Binkley;
M.G. Ryan; A.N.
Gomes. Bosque 25(2): 35 – 41. (2004)
the utility of the 3-PG model for growth of Eucalyptus
grandis x urophylla with natural and manipulated
water and nutrients. J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley. Forest
Ecology and Management 193: 219 – 234. (2004)
and the supply, use and efficiency of use of water, light
and nitrogen across a geographic
in Brazil. J.L.Stape; D.Binkley; M.G.Ryan. Forest Ecology and
Management 193: 17 – 31. (2004)
nutritional and climate limitations to the productivity
of Eucalyptus plantations at larger spatial
and temporal scales
using a simple paired-plot design coupled to traditional inventory
network. J.L.Stape; J.M.Alvez; E.Takahashi; W.Franciscate;
W.Jacob. IUFRO Congress "Eucalyptus in a Changing World".
Aveiro. 2 pp. (2004)
and nutrient interplay and forest productivity in the tropics. J.L.M.Goncalves; J.L.Stape; J.P.Laclau; M.C.P.Wichert.
Symposium "Forest Soils under Global and Local Changes:
from research to practice". PowerPoint presentation: 66
Silvicultural effects on the productivity and wood quality
of Eucalyptus plantations. J.L.M.Goncalves; J.L.Stape;
J.P.Laclau; P.Smethurst; J.L.Gava. Forest Ecology and Management
193: 45 – 61
florestais em outros paises. J.L.Stape. II Seminario
Nacional Plantacoes Florestais. AMDA. (2003)
decline in forest ecosystem growth: an individual-tree,
stand-structure hypothesis. D.Binkley;
H.R.Barnard; H.Fownes. Ecosystems 5: 58 – 67. (2002)
Resource manipulation of the carbon budget of Eucalyptus plantation. J.L.Stape; D.Binkley, M.Ryan. ESA 2002 Annual Meeting. Full
Geographic gradient in resource use efficiency in Eucalyptus plantations. D.Binkley; J.L.Stape; M.Ryan. ESA 2002 Annual
Meeting. Full Abstract. (2002)
Relationships between nursery practices and
field performance for Eucalyptus plantations in
A.N.Goncalves. New Forests 22(1/2): 19 – 41. (2001)
de sustentabilidade das plantacoes florestais. F.Poggiani; J.L.Stape; J.L.M.Goncalves. IPEF
12(31): 33 – 44. (1998)
global e normatizado de procedimentos operacionais da talhadia
simples em Eucalyptus. J.L.Stape.
Series 11(30): 51 – 62. (1997)
experimentais da fase de emissao da brotacao em Eucalyptus manejados
por talhadia. F.R.A.Camargo; C.P.Silva;
J.L.Stape. IPEF Technical Series 11(30): 115 – 122. (1997)
Manejo de brotacao de Eucalyptus
spp: resultados tecnico-operacionais. J.L.Stape; J.C.Madachi; D.D. Bacacicci; M.C.Oliveira; IPEF
Technical Report 183. 13 pp. (1993)
Definicao do periodo e localizacao da cobertura
de Eucalyptus grandis em funcoes da dinamica do
crescimento radicular. J.L.Stape.
IPEF Technical Report 174: 1 – 6. (1990)
de mudas florestais. Analise de um sistema operacional
atual e perspectivas futuras. J.Zani Filho; E.A.Balloni; J.L.Stape.
IPEF Technical Report 168. 20 pp. (1989)
uso de residuos da industria de celulose como insumo na
florestal. J.L.Stape; E.A.Balloni. IPEF 40: 33 – 37.
Variacao dos teores de alburno e de cerne em arvores de clones
de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla irrigadas
e fertilizadas. M.Tomazello; R.Moya; J.T.S.Oliveira; J.L.Stape. (undated and
without reference of source)
da qualidade do plantio dos testes do uso multiplo do eucalipto
(TUME) atraves do indice de sobrevivencia com
1 ano. C.Z.Souza; C.A.P.Lobato; A.R.Vergani; J.L.Stape. Semana
de Iniciacao Cientifica USP. 1 pp. (undated)
allocation in forest systems. M.Ryan; C.Litton; D.Binkley;
J.L.Stape; C.Giardina. Rocky Mountain Research Station. PowerPoint
presentation: 35 slides. (undated )
Environmental determinants of productivity in Eucalyptus plantations. D.Binkley; J.L.Stape; M.Ryan. PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides.
biogeochimiques en plantations d’eucalyptus
au Bresil. J.P.Laclau. CIRAD (undated)
expansao florestal no hemisferio sul. J.L.Stape. Revista
Opinioes (Jun/Aug). (2007)
abordar a sustentabilidade das florestas plantadas. J.L.Stape.
Revista Opinioes. (Mar/May). (2006)
pesquisa silvicultural e a visao socioambiental sao imprescindiveis
para os novos clusters florestais. J.L.Stape. Revista Opinioes.
(Dec 2007/Feb 2008). (2008)
Jose Luiz Stape photo presented in this text was kindly provided
by Revista Opinioes, a contribution of our friend
Mr. William Domingues Souza.
with Alberto Mori about the Papers Manufactured with Eucalyptus Fibers
About Mr. Alberto Mori:
Alberto Mori was born in
the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. He got his graduation in Chemical
Engineering by the Maua Engineering
College in 1970. He had in his career several technical and industrial
managerial positions in some companies in Brazil: MD Papeis and
EKA Chemicals, as example. Today, he is acting as consultant
in the paper technological area, through his company Mori Consult.
He is one of the most renowned experts on the utilization of
the Eucalyptus fibers for papermaking. Mori is also president
of ABTCP - The Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper.
result of our second technical dialogue: A written summary by Celso
Up to recent times, the good quality furniture was the one manufactured
with very dense and heavy hardwood, being strong, with the wood
grain drawings giving beauty and aesthetics to the design. The
times have changed. Hardwoods have become scarce and expensive.
On the other hand, world population is continuing to grow and hardwood
resources have turned unable to supply this dramatically huge markets.
High quality woods have peaked prices that are difficult to be
paid by regular citizens. Human creativeness soon has developed
feasible alternatives. Wood panels manufactured with wood residues
(OSB - Oriented Strand Board) or defibrated wood fibers (MDF -
Medium Density Fiberboard) have now-a-days reached wide levels
of utilization. Curiously, these wood panels are enabling the production
of very high quality furniture, floors, houses, etc, in some cases,
even better than those made with natural solid wood. These new
furniture’s and construction materials are more uniform,
stable, smooth and in the texture that the customers may order.
The same it may be said about the panel density, strengths, and
other treatments. They are designed and manufactured to fit the
usage requirements. Another advantage is the application of a thin
layer of paper impregnated with resin over the surface of the wooden
panel. This kind of decorative paper may be printed in different
colors, textures, in most cases an imitation of the several well-known
woods available in the past. The MDF panel is very stable, it does
not "work" , and has no problems of curling, cracking,
etc. The strengths may be designed as wanted, just a matter of
production specifications. The paper has the mission to hidden
the wood panel, and to give the finishing beauty to attract the
attention of the customers. It may be printed in fantastic reproductions
of woods as chestnut, mahogany, redwood, etc. Another option is
not to print wood drawings, but stones: granite, marble, etc. In
short, we may reproduce what we may wish, depending in the final
use of the finished panel. This composite material having the MDF,
decor paper and resins has allowed enormous growth in the markets,
replacing many other wood utilization’s. Some of the old
technologies have being pushed to other applications. It is the
case of the very well-known phenolic laminated "Formica".
This phenolic laminated plate, made of several layers of papers
impregnated with phenolic resin had the mission to cover the not
so smooth surface of the plywood or particle board panels. Today,
these materials are only oriented to aggressive environments, whose
customers may be willing to pay the extra price they have in relation
to the most modern technologies. Times, technologies and products
have changed in such business. The combined composite materials
manufactured with MDF, decor paper and resins are obtained with
the utilization of simpler technologies, they have low cost and
allow a wide range of utilization’s. They now comprise a
special market niche, with high aggregation of knowledge and technology.
The high-tech is divided in the different segments involved: in
the decor paper, in the resin, in the MDF panel surface, and in
the process of combining all of then in a single product. The impregnation
of the decor paper with resin gives to the resulting product a
plastic behavior and performance, but with significant advantages
in relation to the plastic: more resistance to the fire and to
abrasion and wearing, better stability, and better finishing and
there are three different processes to the production of these
resin impregnated papers applied on the surface top of
panels. They are:
pressure processes (HP): they consist in the production
of a sandwich of several paper layers (decor and base paper for
phenolic impregnation), all of them impregnated with resin, and
pressed with the use of high pressure and temperatures (70 kgf/cm² and
140ºC). The resulting product densities are between 0.6 and
0.7 g/cm³. This is the process to manufacture the "Formica" or
laminated phenolic boards or panels.
Low pressure processes (LP): the decor paper is previously impregnated
with melaminic resins. These resins are activated with catalysts
to fast curing. After the impregnated paper becomes dried, it is
pressed on the very smooth MDF surface. The pressing and temperature
cycles are faster and not so aggressive in pressure as the previous
process. The pressures ranges close to 25 kgf/cm² and the
temperature is about 200ºC. The resulting product is very
resistant to wearing and abrasion due to the highly impregnated
surface of the decor paper. The adhesion is perfect among the components.
Processes involving a surface coating of the wood panel
with a "finish
foil": the paper foil is "glued" over the MDF surface
to cover it, without the utilization of pressure. The paper has
only a simple layer or cover of resin that migrates to the paper
Z direction. This coated paper gives a not so strong resistance
to the panel, but it is low-cost and appropriate to materials for
quick utilization. The resin coating is not perceived or noticed
by the users. These panels are used in low priced furniture, walls,
etc. The papers used in such processes have a lower quality in
relation to the decor papers required to the previous two kind
As it is possible to imagine, after the explanation of these different
processes having the utilization of paper, the demand for quality
in the decor paper is vital and essential. Resin penetration, uniformity,
surface smoothness, porosity, and many other quality specifications
are needed. It is an art to manufacture decor paper. The appropriate
quality of the decor paper makes the success of the above mentioned
panel manufacturing processes.
A high quality decor paper must have the following qualities:
• High and uniform bulk and porosity values in the paper sheet. These
properties aiming to hold and to facilitate the penetration of
the aqueous based resin to the paper structure. Also, it helps
to release the paper air being displaced by the resin. Despite
the importance of total porosity, not only the porosity value is
important, but also the size and distribution of the pores.
High water absorption capacity to allow fast penetration of the
aqueous resin. Not only the total amount of absorbed resin is important,
but also the speed of penetration.
wet web strengths, to give enough strengths to the sheet of resinated
paper for moving
through drying tunnels.
• Complete cleanliness in the paper sheet, the paper must be contaminant
and speck-free. Dirt content offsets the paper to be decor.
• Surface smoothness has to be excellent to allow good quality printing.
Remember that this smoothness has to be achieved without plugging
the surface pores, this means, a special calendering system and
procedures are required.
• Paper formation is vital. Paper caliper cannot vary. In case this
would happen, the formation of clouds in the paper would be a
disaster to the decor paper.
• High opacity to hide the MDF (LP products) or the unbleached paper
impregnated layer in the HP Formica-type products.
High brightness stability, and also stability in the chromatic
values (X, Y, Z, a, b, L). The decor paper sheet needs to be very
resistant to lose its brightness, hue and "color" during
the sheet utilization at high temperatures. Although many decor
papers are produced in colored format, and using high charges
of titanium dioxide (rutile type), the whiteness stability is
of the properties most needed in decor papers. It should be emphasized
that not only the reflection of light at 457 nm is important,
but the stability in all wavelengths of the visible spectrum.
• Uniform distribution and retention of the titanium dioxide in the
paper sheet structure.
• Minimum expansion of the paper when wet. When paper is printed,
it absorbs the ink and there is the chance to expand in dimensions.
The same happens when the aqueous resin is absorbed. There are
severe and strict limitations to these expansions The expansion
of the paper dimensions brings problems to the printing quality.
In the past, the decor papers were differentiated only by the
color. They were not printed. However, today, printing is a fundamental
requirement to provide the textures and drawings already mentioned.
There is a great demand for printing woods and stones models
on the top of the decor paper sheet. Printing has to be absolutely
perfect, to give to the customers the real feeling they are observing
a wood or a stone. Rotogravure high resolution printing is the
usual process of achieving such levels of quality.
• Excellent dimensional stability of the decor paper in needed to
guarantee the required printing quality. Since dimensional stability
is very much influenced by pulp refining, the more refined the
worse the stability, the pulp refining must be minimum. The freeness
level is just the one to allow paper to be pulled through the
• The tension and stretch caused by pulling the paper web must also
be minimum, both in the machine and cross-machine directions.
• Very low moisture content in the final paper sheet (about 1%) to
allow maximum absorption of the aqueous resin and to speed up
the rate of absorption.
• Continuous studies for paper grammage reductions, maintaining all
the other already mentioned paper requirements.
The greatest challenge the papermaker has is to combine and to
achieve all these requirements at the same and very time. How to
get smoothness and paper strengths without losing bulk, porosity,
opacity and bulk? Only the highly qualified decor papermakers may
have this answer.
From what we have seen, it is simple to conclude that decor papers
do not like long fibered pulps in the stock composition. Long fibers
flocculate and have poor paper sheet formation, the fibers are
easily collapsed and the sheet loses bulk, opacity, porosity and
absorption rate. Also, the paper surface is rougher and worse than
those obtained in short fibered papers.
Short fibered pulps are
the ideal raw materials to the manufacture of the decor papers.
Some of the Eucalyptus pulps, but not all
of them are excellent fibers for decor paper making. We know that
higher the cell wall fraction in the Eucalyptus fibers, higher
fiber coarseness we have. These fibers are the most recommended
to decor papers. It is easier to get decor paper specifications
with higher coarseness Eucalyptus fibers. Furthermore, the pulp
must be resistant to the refining/beating. The pulp web must gain
the required strengths without being impaired in terms of porosity,
bulk, opacity, and absorption. Fibers need also to be collapsing-resistant
and they should have minimum fines content. Eucalyptus fibers
with high fiber population and fines are not suitable because they "close" the
paper sheet and they are also easily beaten. The ideal Eucalyptus
pulps are those manufactured with denser woods. These pulps are
welcome, as far as they are able to fulfill all the other pulp
quality specifications, such as brightness, reversion, dirt content,
etc. These ideal fibers may be due to intrinsic Eucalyptus species
properties (for example, Eucalyptus globulus), or obtained
thanks to tree breeding (cloned material are in general welcome
the better stability in quality). Silvicultural practices have
also influence to develop the decor paper oriented Eucalyptus pulps.
The decor paper manufacturing process is an art that is connected
not only to the fibrous raw material. It depends on the pulp and
paper manufacturing process. The requirements to the pulps are
very stringent, otherwise, the paper quality will not be fulfilled.
If decor paper quality is not attained, the paper cannot perform
well and to accomplish its mission. For this very reason, the decor
papermakers need specialty pulps, with the quality controlled along
all the pulping process, from the wood selection to the way to
make and to dry the pulp sheet. Some of these properties may be
improved by what we call pulp fines content management or by the
drying process applied to the pulp. A drastic pulp drying (for
example, the flash drying process) increases the fiber deformations
and this feature helps to improve porosity, absorption and bulk.
Eucalyptus fibers market pulp manufacturers, when able
to fully understand these needs coming from the customers, may
work to adjust
their processes and raw materials. Doing such, they will help the
decor papermakers to achieve their needs on paper quality. The
reward is the customers satisfaction, and probably the retention
of them. Specialty pulps segment is demanding, but also gives to
the pulpmaker the image that he needs as a quality supplier in
the market. Several of the available Eucalyptus pulps
in the market are able to be used as decor paper raw material.
However, we need
to remember that specifications are always getting harder and tougher,
due to changing technologies.
ideal situation is to search for a very sound alignment among
the partners in this productive
chain: the forester, the pulpmaker, the decor papermaker, the resin
manufacturer, the MDF manufacturer, the furniture maker, etc. The
relationship between market pulp manufacturer and decor papermaker
is very important. It has to be strengthened and improved. The
main reason is that the manufacture of decor paper in an integrated
operation (pulp and paper in the same mill) is not recommended.
The "never-dried" pulps available in the integrated mills
do not perform as well to the decor paper manufacturing. For this
very reason, it is the role of the actors in this value chain to
search for integration and optimization in their operations. The
purpose is that Eucalyptus pulps should not be just recommended
for decor paper manufacturing, but they must become vital and essential
for such utilization."
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
The Eucalyptus and the Soil Conservation
The soil is one of the greatest patrimonies or heritages that Nature
offers us. It is the soil that allows the terrestrial plants to develop
and to perform the photosynthesis, without which this planet of ours
would not be what it is at present. The photosynthesis performed
by plant leaves is the basis of the whole food chain where the human
being is fitted in. With healthy soils the plants develop well, produce
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, etc. These organic compounds serve
as a basis for both soil quality restoration, when falling on it
as residues, and food for other living beings.
speaking, we decided to place man on the top of this food chain
beginning at the leaves of the trees. Then, we
can understand that soil quality is one of the factors giving sustainability
to the human population and society. To form the organic material,
plants need a viable habitat to live in. The dead bodies of the
plants growing on the planet soils supply two important chains: the
mentioned alimentary or food chain and the not very well-known
debris chain. In the latter, the plant debris falling on the soils
and release organic carbon and nutrients to these soils. This helps
improve soils structure and their micro-life and restores a part
of their fertility. Thus, they feed again the productive chain,
as they give new fertility to the soils and revitalize them, allowing
the plants to grow by using these nutrients cycled in this way.
desert environments, where soil is poor and almost sterile, plant
vegetation is rare, the agricultural crops do not come to ripeness
and there exists little capacity for supporting this ecosystem
for man and other living beings to live there. Then, it is easy to
the soil importance, is it not? Difficult to understand is why
there exists on the part of the same human beings so little respect
our planet soils.
The intense soil use by man has contributed to its
constant degradation. As a matter of fact, the soils will continue
to be more and more
demanded by man, who grows in population and in goods originating
from things coming from the soils. At present, as everybody is speaking
of manufacturing fuels from plants (biofuels), the pressure on the
soils will increase even more. On the other hand, what we must also
understand is that we will be able to mitigate the impacts on soil
quality if we use it well. Soils degradation and the loss of their
fertility have been due to a great extent to the misuse of these
soils. In part this is understandable. The whole soil science and
the knowledge about soils interactions with the agricultural crops
and forest plantations are recent. Up to a few decades ago the soil
was rather looked at as a physical substrate for plants, forests
and pastures to grow on, something with an "inexhaustible richness" and
with an enormous capacity to resist our abuses and misuses. What
many people did not see and other ones do not yet realize at present
is that Nature took millions of years to engineer and to mold these
soils in a so perfect manner. And all this may be lost in an extremely
short period of time. This has happened in many cases: all of us
have already come across such situations of abandonment and disrespect
for the soils.
Ill-managed or ill-conserved soils, without suitable erosion prevention,
may lose about 10 to 20 tons of dry sediments per hectare and per
year. This corresponds to a layer of approximately 1 mm of soil thickness
lost per year, whereas in environments covered with forests, even
planted forests, such a loss may be about 20 to 100 times lower.
If nothing will be done to give the deserved respect to the planet
soils, we may be condemning the whole food chain to become unbalanced.
The resulting damage will be born by the soil, and the reflexes will
be noticed in the planet, in the plants and in the animals depending
thereupon, among which we, human beings, as well.
When the planted Eucalyptus forest sector speaks
of sustainability, it is referring among other things to the sustainability
of the productive
capacity of these plantation areas. It is one of the sector’s
priorities. The forest planters have endeavored to understand their
impacts and to reduce them through the knowledge generated by research
and by monitoring their environmental effects. By doing this, one
of the targets is to keep the soils healthy and productive. If this
will not happen, productivity will drop and the soils will no longer
be able to meet the purposes of sustainable forest production. The
soil would become exhausted in terms of fertility, organic carbon,
clay content, moisture, micro-life, etc. The forests would no longer
develop and new areas would have to be looked for, it would be more
or less something like "rapine agriculture". Fortunately
this is not happening and is not even being considered by the Brazilian
leading forest companies.
It is very easy to identify the case of forest companies who are
not making good use of their soils. The same applies to farmers of
agricultural crops or pastures. It is enough to consider 5 fundamental
things: the level of erosion that may be occurring in the area; the
proportion of vegetation coverage and of uncovered soil at the rural
estate; the growth and vigor of the plants; the maintenance of gallery
forests and other types of permanent preservation areas; the color
and the level of eutrophication and silting-up of the waters of the
water courses in the watersheds of the area.
Eucalyptus forest planters concerned with their soil quality are
always asking the following questions:
• how to avoid sediment losses?
• how to avoid the different types of erosion?
• how to guarantee that the rain succeeds in penetrating into the soils?
• how to increase soil porosity and permeability?
• how to facilitate structuration and formation of more stable aggregates
in the soil?
• how to enhance the organic carbon content in the soil?
• how to improve the cationic and ionic exchange capacity of the soil?
• how to prevent soil compaction?
• how to avoid soil nutrient losses?
• which are the quantities of nutrients that should be replaced in
order to maintain the nutrient balance by evaluating inputs, outputs
and stocks of each nutritional element?
• how to guarantee the microbiological soil quality, its richness in
mycorrhizae, nitrifying bacterias, saprophyte decaying fungi, and
mesofauna organisms contributing to soil structure and consolidation?
• how to renew the soil quality and vitality after its use for forest
• which are the impacts of each forest operation?
• which silvicultural operations should be practiced to increase the
sustained production capacity of the site?
In case an environmental audit does not succeed in obtaining effective
evidences of answers to these questions, then we will be finding
just a tree plantation, the only purpose of which is to obtain wood
at low cost in the short term. The long run will be no priority of
this bad forest planter. The most interesting thing is that sometimes
such a planter obtains significant productivity results in his forests.
This was the case obtained by people who were used to burn the whole
organic litter of the forest, in order to transform it into ashes
that had a fertilization effect in the extremely short term. And
what about the long term? The problems will remain for the next generations
to manage them. Now, the companies certified by standard ISO 14001
and by the criteria of FSC and CERFLOR should have answers and plans
for monitoring and mitigating negative effects for all these questions.
However, not only the normative demands have led the quality leading
forest-based companies of our country to act well with regard to
their soils. Their own awareness and consciousness to these extremely
important themes for their future have led those leading companies
to search for more sustainable ways for their silvicultural activities.
Going some 30 years back in time, we will see that
it was common for the companies to burn their forest harvesting
residues to favor
the subsequent silvicultural activities. This was the model of that
time, based upon the knowledge available to them. Carbon was burned,
the undesirable carbon dioxide gas was generated in the atmosphere,
the soil was bared for the rain drop impacts and consequent greater
erosion, etc. At present, such a situation is a distant past. It
is also past the intense soil preparation work by means of plowing,
racking, etc., in order to "fluff up" the soil, intending
to facilitate planted seedling radicular growth. It was ingenuousness
on the part of the agronomic science of that time. The soil was exposed
to an intense organic carbon degradation, to a direct sunlight exposure
on the micro-life and to an enormous sediment loss by erosion. Science
helped change much in just a few decades. The added knowledge caused
the forest plantings to become much more ecoefficient. However, as
always, I see opportunities to do it better, we have still much more
following items, I intend to make comments on each vital soil quality
topic and what we are doing or can still further improve
in the planted Eucalyptus forest sector.
The planted forest sector uses to make utilization of soils which
have been already very much used by agriculture and pasturing, which
are poor soils in terms of fertility, sometimes eroded and compacted.
The option for these soils is due to their low cost, to the low planted
forest requirements, to the low area cleaning and preparing operation
requirements and to the limited seed bank present in the soil. Soils
very much used by agriculture and pastures may present such conditions.
Thus, weed competition control is much facilitated and the forest
planting operations are simplified.
Forest planting and harvesting operations are nowadays rather mechanized.
The use of these machines may contribute to a further compaction
of these already compacted soils. The ill-managed forest harvesting
operation has a strong impact on soil compaction and on water infiltration
into the soil profile, contributes to sediment losses by erosion,
due to the fact that it bares the soil, and may disturb the organic
tree litter deposited on the soil surface, formed by the planted
forest during its growth. To prevent these impacts from occurring,
it is important for the soil to have vegetation or vegetation rests
on it, to relieve machine tires or belts pressures. It is well-known
that bark, branches and leaves maintenance over the soil surface
during forest harvesting minimizes soil compaction. For this reason,
it is already a common practice in most forest companies to keep
the forest harvesting residues very scattered over the soil.
Another advantage of forest plantations is their long cycle between
planting and harvesting. Between these both operations the Eucalyptus forest does not endure any anthropic action from 5 to 8 years. Thus,
the plant roots and the organic tree litter deposited on the soil
surface help protecting the soil, structure it, enrich it with carbon,
avoid erosion, etc. The longer the period of time between forest
planting and harvesting operations, the better it is for both soil
and Nature. There occurs nutrient and organic carbon storage by the
organic debris in the forest. Thus, the forest will be growing longer
from the use of nutrients released from its own debris. This phenomenon
is called nutrient cycling. For this reason, the Eucalyptus forest
rotation should be increased, not decreased. When hearing the biofuel
heralds speaking about Eucalyptus plantations with close tree spacing
and forest harvesting at 3 to 4 years of age, we should become afraid
and marshal for action against such ideas. The whole accumulated
knowledge shows that this proposal is completely unsuitable. The
correct procedure is to think in the long term, is it not so? We
cannot obtain biofuels for the present, while disqualifying the respective
soil from hosting plants for producing photosynthesis in the future.
This is a very poor way of thinking.
forest management for high and wide tree stem with longer rotations,
should gradually become the dominant practice,
for both rural farmers and forest-based companies. The "forest
cluster" formation, defended by several regional development
plans, will catalyze for this to happen faster.
structure, permeability and organic carbon in the soil
We want the soil to have life, to be plenty of organisms. The structuration
of which will allow the soil to absorb and retain water. Water is
a source of life for the living beings of the soils: plants, animals,
microorganisms. This water must penetrate into the soil, a process
occurring with difficulty in compacted or low porosity and permeability
Eucalyptus forests are planted at present based on
cultivation" technology. This means in short that only the planting
line will be prepared (furrowed, ripened or pit digged). The remaining
area remains untouched, even if the soil has been previously compacted
by the cattle. This is intended to avoid soil carbon and sediment
losses, which occur as a result of an excessive soil preparation.
When the soil components are exposed, almost everything organic begins
quickly to decompose by the action of oxygen and sunlight.
As the seedling roots start growing, they begin to populate the
soil with their tissues. The roots grow quickly in order to meet
the crown requirements, in quick growth as well. Therefore, many
nutrients will be absorbed by the plants. The initial fertilization
provided by the forest planter will be quickly utilized. The first
30 centimeters of the soil begin to shelter an enormous amount of
thin roots. This root network coexists with mycorrhizal fungi and
other organisms of the soil. This helps impart porosity to the soils,
since as the roots or the fungi die, they leave spaces to be converted
into cavities or pores. Thus, there occurs a soil decompaction.
Roots and fungi also contribute to the structuration, which is achieved
by the presence of agglutinants in the soil. The main agglutinative
substances are the humified organic carbon, clay and iron oxides.
Planted forests are great carbon suppliers to the soils. Leaves,
barks and branches falls leave huge amounts of organic matter on
the soil, as well as the forest harvesting residues. This organic
material decomposes soon. There are studies showing that over 50%
of this organic matter decomposes within less than one year. The
decomposition of the substances easy to decompose, such as leaves,
releases rapidly large amounts of nutrients to the soil. Leaves are
rich in nitrogen, potassium and micro-nutrients. They cooperate much
with this nitrogen for the biological activity in the soil. We shall
by no means think of removing Eucalyptus forest leaves for burning
in biomass boilers. This would be a great ecological mistake. For
the Corymbia citriodora or Eucalyptus globulus plantations for essential
oil production, ways should be found to replace these organic losses,
such as the use of other agricultural straws, sawmill residues, organic
The final fraction of this organic decomposition is called humus.
Humus is relatively stable in the soil, but it decomposes when the
soil is ill-treated, exposed, bared or aerated in excess. Humus is
also vital for soil particle aggregate structuration and formation.
Losing humus is a result of bad technical forest management. Therefore,
many forest activities are developed at present to have the minimum
impact on the soils and to preserve carbon and nutrients.
After forest harvesting, the harvesting residues should remain well-distributed
on the soil surface. The silvicultural operations for coppicing or
forest reestablishment of the area should begin quickly, so that
there is no time for this baring to degrade the soil, its structure,
its micro-life and its humified carbon content. Definitively, sprout
coppicing is a more soil-conserving operation than the forest plantation
reestablishment. At present, the forest companies are very interested
in reestablishing their forest areas, replacing poor quality genomes
by other genetically improved materials. However, this model should
soon become exhausted and sprout coppicing will be able to come back
to become more present again in our silviculture. This will improve
nutrient cycling, as well as the soil structure. For this very reason
the academic researches on sprout coppicing should deserve to be
reactivated in the Brazilian academies.
Eucalyptus forests are very efficient in sinking carbon from the
atmosphere and incorporating it into their biomasses and into the
soil. An Eucalyptus forest aggregates on average about 35 to 45 tons
of dry biomass matter per hectare to the soil during a seven-year
long rotation. This is definitively fabulous, admitting that this
same forest produces from 120 to 160 tons of dry wood. It is incumbent
upon the forest technician to plan his operations very well, in order
to guarantee that the soil and the forest make good and efficient
use of this generous deposition of organic material by the Eucalyptus trees. It is also important to know that the higher the Eucalyptus forest productivity, the higher are these depositions and the more
efficiently the biomass is produced with regard to nutrient consumption.
Therefore, to improve the forest productivity is an environmental
improvement factor and so it should be understood by both technicians
The organic carbon helps to improve the soil structure, but it also
helps to increase the cationic exchange capacity (CEC) of this soil.
The weak carboxylic acids of the humus adsorb and retain the cations
in the soil body, preventing them from being leached. As retention
is not strong, when finding these nutrients the roots know how to
take advantage thereof for their metabolism. These phenomena of Nature
are simply wonderful...
We want a "living" soil, with microbiological richness.
These microorganisms can be organic matter degraders, or they can
be also organisms associated with the Eucalyptus roots (mycorrhizae).
They can be also symbiotic Rhizobium with natural leguminosae present
in the area. When these microorganisms die, they leave their little
bodies as a source of carbon and of nutrients too. In a word – it
is a cycle beginning again. All this improves the ecosystem richness
and efficiency in the metabolisms developing there.
These microorganisms, such as any other living being, need nitrogen
for metabolic acceleration. If the amount of nitrogen in the soil
is small, the working rhythm of the microorganisms is too low. As
nitrogen is important as well for the soil microbiology as for the
forest plants, we have to discover some ways to increase it or to
not lose it from the soil.
the nitrogen stocks of the soil are low. Very little of the soil
nitrogen comes from weathering of the soil mother rock
of this soil. What the air brings to the soils is not nitrogen rich
either. The region’s native leguminosae have been the ones
that have always helped incorporate nitrogen into the soils. By symbiosis
with the rhizobia, they take nitrogen from the soil air and fix it
as amino acids. Later, as the plant residues of those leguminosae
decompose, the released nitrogen enters to the stock of this nutrient
in the soil.
Therefore, it is fundamental the forest technician to take vital
• avoid nitrogen losses by ammonia volatilization in anaerobic environments;
• avoid nitrogen losses as a function of ion removal by torrent water
flows or rain run-offs, or by gravity to the deep regions of the
• avoid damages as a result of applying herbicides in excess to the
native leguminosae to the future forest understorey;
• study alternative ways of green fertilization by using leguminosae:
mixed plantings with Eucalyptus and leguminosae species (acacias,
bracatingas, angicos - genus Piptadenia and genus Anadenanthera,
• maintain a rich understorey in the planted forest by opening the
spacing and by leguminosae seed bank enrichment in the soil;
• use organic fertilization with nitrogen rich industrial or domestic
wastes: effluent treatment sludge, organic compounds, etc.
The forest soil seed bank uses to be improved by suitably planning
the permanent preservation and legal forest reserve areas. Birds
and other animals visiting and having shelter in Eucalyptus forests
use to take seeds when eating the native plant fruits or along with
their excrements. It should be privileged for this seed bank to be
rich in leguminosae seeds.
forest harvesting these seeds begin soon to germinate and the leguminosae
will be already fixing nitrogen. When dying, they will
leave their nutrient rich residues to help the nutritional balance
of the planted forest. Marvelous gift from Nature.
I always use to say that the greatest pollution of the Brazilian
rivers is neither that caused by the industry nor that resulting
from the sanitary sewage. The brownish color of our rivers shows
the huge amount of soils carried to them.
To prevent erosion is the first responsibility of any forest planter,
something that should be included as an essential dogma in his operational
Planted Eucalyptus forests present high erosion preventing capacity.
They protect the soil from the impact of rain drops and do not allow
torrent water flows to form on the surface of the soil covered with
trees and organic tree litter. Practically, over 85% of all water
falling as rain in the forests can be infiltrated into the forest
soil. Even the waters running along the forest roads can be deviated
to holding water basins within the planted area. At present, the
efficient forest road planning, so that they help retain water and
do not allow abundant torrent water flows to form, is very common.
Thus, water infiltrates and will quench the thirst of the plants
and feed the underground water layer flows and levels.
Another way of
avoiding erosion is by adopting the "minimum
cultivation practice", as already mentioned. The minimum movements
and interventions on the soil prevent it from disintegrating and
its particles from being removed.
The soil preparation
uses to be done either in contour level line or by "cutting the waters", even if the planting lines
are made "down the hill", to facilitate forest harvesting.
These actions help to retain the water and to prevent torrent water
flows from forming and removing sediments to the rivers. This is
very important at the young forest age, up to 1 to 2 years of age,
when the soil is still exposed to a certain extent. It is only after
canopy closure that the impact of rain will be minimized.
At forest harvesting the forest technician can also prevent erosion,
by maintaining the forest residues on the soil surface. He can also
carry out his operations without causing disturbances to the organic
tree litter deposited on the soil surface by the forest while growing.
The bark of the trees, when left on the soil after debarking, is
vital for erosion prevention.
Another very important way to prevent erosion is by suitably planning
the planting of Eucalyptus stands and the distribution of the permanent
preservation and legal reserve areas. Small Eucalyptus forest planting
stands, well-segregated and surrounded by preserved native forest
belts, contribute to a significant reduction in plantation soil erosion.
It is much more efficient to project the distribution of the legal
reserve areas in this way than to reserve a large isolated area to
Every soil contains a water stock in its constitution when the plantation
is established. This water comes from rain, from the underground
layer of water or from some existing suspended aquifer. The forest
technician must understand very well the hydrological behavior of
his plantation areas. Monitoring water inlets and outlets is very
important. We are not speaking only of rain precipitation inlets,
but of all water inlets and stocks. What really matters is that the
Eucalyptus plantations do not invade the water reserves of the soils,
which have been built in the past. On the contrary, planted forests
should be established so as to only consume a part of the rainwater
and help better distribute the remaining water to the underground
layers of water and to the watersheds on the region.
Practically, all Eucalyptus plantation leading companies have some
kind of hydrological water monitoring in the soils. The purpose is
to minimize and to become better acquainted with the impacts of planted
forests on the local hydrology.
The Eucalyptus are
also being improved for more efficient use of the soil water. Species
more tolerant to the hydric deficits, as
well as less water-consuming species (e.g. Eucalyptus urophylla and E.camaldulensis) are being developed.
as well the nutritional as the hydrological balances are important
on the modern Brazilian silviculture. This is
not intended just as an academic research, but to generate technological
changes to optimize the use of natural resources by the Eucalyptus forests.
In general, the soils used by silviculture are poor in terms of
fertility. If no nutrient (N, P, K, micro-nutrients, Ca, Mg, S) fertilization
occurs, the forest runs the risk of growing badly or even not at
all. Such fertilization should be based on chemical and physical
soil analyses, as well as on nutritional balances involving all components
containing nutrients available in the system. The use of fertilization
must be a priority, in order not to impoverish the soils. However,
this use should be such as to allow responses from both plants and
The organic forest harvesting residues and the organic tree litter
deposited on the soil surface help improve the nutritional balance,
but they alone do not solve the nutritional deficit that may exist,
because there occurs an export of nutrients with the wood/bark and
there are also nutrient losses along forest rotation. Then, an action
must be taken to improve the inputs and reduce the outputs of nutrients
from the forest area. Our prime responsibility is to deliver this
soil to the future generations in better condition than that it presented
when we began to plant forests on it.
The unit prices of chemical fertilizers are getting higher and higher.
Furthermore, their production has also an environmental impact on
the analytical study of the forest product life cycle. The solution
that the forest sector has looked for is to associate the mineral
fertilization with chemical fertilizers with other sources of nutrients,
which may consist of organic residues from other cultures or industries,
or pulp mill residues (dregs, grits, lime sludge, biomass boiler
ashes, etc.). Also used are woody residues from sawmills or furniture
factories, or else organic sludge from the industrial or sanitary
effluent treatment. In general, these residues contain interesting
contents of carbon and nutrients, among which is nitrogen. This new
activity allows the residues to have a nobler destination than to
occupy expensive space in a sanitary or industrial landfill. Then,
it is incumbent upon the environmental legislators to understand
that this opportunity is ecoefficient and deserves to be studied
and utilized with due monitoring.
Residues such as biomass boiler ashes are calcium, potassium and
magnesium rich. These cations are vital for the forest growth and
to help revitalize the soils. The richer potassium content for instance
contributes for Eucalyptus plants to become more resistant to hydric
Finally, I stress some points already mentioned above, hoping that
they will become routine practice in our silviculture:
planting including Eucalyptus and leguminosae may become more and
more attractive for the ecological health of
systems, as well as for more balanced nutritional balances;
• increase in rotation age allows better use of nutrient cycling and
the demands for mineral fertilization will be lower. Lasting longer,
the trees will live longer by using their debris;
• sprout coppicing should be more thoroughly studied by the researchers,
as it is a more ecoefficient alternative than the forest plantation
• continued planting of a single species has impacts on the biological
succession, on the seed stock, on the soil micro-life biodiversity
and on the nutritional balance of this area itself. Therefore, crop
rotation is something that is essential to be planned in the long
term. A soil that for decades has been used with only one species
or genus or even a clone deserves to have in the future a rest as
legal reserve area, or else to receive some other species having
different requirements (agricultural or forest culture of a leguminosae,
friends, there are soils and soils, there are managers and managers,
we come across situations and situations in our Eucalyptus forest
silviculture. As everything in life, situations of the plus and
the better world, as well as the opposite may be found. This is
inevitable among human beings.
we are sure of is that continuous improvement is definitively practiced
by the Brazilian companies
leading in terms of technology
and performance in the Eucalyptus forest sector.
also sure that within one decade or so our silviculture will be
much better and
more ecoefficient than that practiced at present,
because our scientific foundations are very solid and shared in
cooperative forest research programs. I believe very much in our
technicians. They have been very competent to show this along the
recent decades of Brazilian silviculture dealing with Eucalyptus trees.
still convert the new knowledge that will result from research
as quickly as possible into environmentally sounder operational
We cannot afford to wait for others to be the first ones to implement,
and later, "if everything works well", to be the next ones.
We must be capable of converting the Eucalyptus silviculture into
an activity characterized by much ecoefficiency and sustainability.
Thus, we will be able to meet the demands for products to society,
doing this with minimum impacts on the environment. The soils will
benefit more and the forests will go on doing their photosynthesis,
but more and more efficiently.
depends very much on our concepts of management. Sustainability
implies to look at the desired future
and to act in the present.
Without focussing on the long term we will neither be able to achieve
it, nor to maintain the productive capacity of our soils and forests.
there is much light to light up our ways.
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