is the first issue of our Eucalyptus
Newsletter in 2006. I've tried to build it
as a valuable source of virtual technical references to you.
The idea to have it in such format has emerged from the fact that I receive
many questions in the section "Ask
the Euca X Pert" in the
websites www.celso-foelkel.com.br and www.eucalyptus.com.br .
As usual in a forum like this, many questions are repeated several times.
more than 500 adds in our forum (http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/forum/index.php ),
I've noticed that I can dramatically simplify the answers and to improve
the services to the readers and to the forum participants, indicating
sources of virtual literature that may be easily accessed in the web.
As a result, this Eucalyptus Newsletter is coming, with expanded recommendations
of the traditional Euca-Links.
Surely, there are many areas not covered in these suggested links, but
in other newsletter editions I'll offer
more selections to you. Otherwise, the Eucalyptus
Online Book chapters
are aimed to cover most of the subjects that you have interest to know.
Wait for them.
in case you are not registered yet to receive the Newsletter, and the
book chapters attached to it, when they are made available, do it
immediately. There are no costs involved. Please, use the short cut Click
here to register.
Please, accept my most sincere thanks for supporting our work when accessing
regularly our websites. We have now more than 1,500 registered guests
receiving the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the Eucalyptus
Online Book. With
your help, we may double or triple this figure very easily.
case I may eventually count with your help, please, send a recommendation
to your friends who have the same level of interest for the eucalyptus,
suggesting them to register to receive these virtual publications. Thanks
for this cooperation.
Remember, this is a no-cost service offered to you. I'm devoted to do
it in a very high quality and providing good benefits to the users.
Thanks for all, and my wishes for a very happy 2006.
Videos about Eucalyptus Forestry & Cultivation
To all those who love videos and movies, there are some to be acquired
course about the cultivation of eucalyptus plantations in the small
videos that are available through Embrapa Florestas)
Management Plans from Brazilian Companies
majority of the leading Brazilian forest-based companies have worked
to achieve the status of Forestry Certification. Most of them have
obtained this recognition, either by the Brazilian system of certification
CERFLOR, or by the FSC - Forest Stewardship Council. A few have
been certified by both systems. One of the requirements for certification
is to have a well presented and implemented Forestry Management
Plan. This plan has to become public and disseminated to the interested
parties. Since the plans are freely available via internet, I'm
offering the links to you visit some of them. They have valuable
information, nice pictures and they offer very good and sound knowledge
about the sustainable eucalyptus forestry management.
Cenibra: http://www.cenibra.com.br/cenibra/Capa.aspx (access
the item Processo Florestal)
Paper do Brasil / Inpacel: http://internationalpaper.com.br/downloads/premios/resumo.pdf
Santa Catarina: http://ww2.imaflora.org/arquivos/KLABIN%20SC%20%2004.pdf
/ Ripasa: http://www.scscertified.com/PDFS/forest_rilisa-ripasa_port.pdf
Bahia Sul: http://ww2.imaflora.org/arquivos/SUZANO%20BAHIA%20SUL_Mucuri.pdf
Management Plans from Brazilian Companies
Cenibra: http://www.cenibra.com.br/cenibra/English/Capa.aspx (access
the item Forest)
/ Ripasa: http://www.scscertified.com/PDFS/forest_rilisa-repasa_eng.pdf
There are hundreds of websites describing species
of the genus Eucalyptus and Corymbia. Some few have been selected
Profitability and Return on the Investments in Plantations
most common questions about eucalyptus plantations are those related
to costs, prices and return on the investments. People planting
forests for commercial reasons are always anxious to know the potential
gain they are expected to have. I've selectd several very good
references on these topics. However, the reader must be aware that
the issues related to costs, prices and profits have to be treated
case-by-case, place-by-place and they varies moment-by-moment.
It is important to learn how to deal with the figures and how to
evaluate alternatives. These references are rich on offering these
issue very much questionned is the one about eucalyptus essential
oils. This is very normal because people are always feeling, smelling
and taking advantage on these oils in the daily life. The size
of this market is huge, and there are still lots of potential for
websites presented in this item are more general, they offer broader
information. The REMADE - Revista da Madeira virtual magazine is
and the ABRAFLOR (Brazilian Association of Planted Forests Producers)
website has many generous information.
Eucalyptus of California - in English)
Anatomy and Chemistry of the Wood
There is no better place to remind these knowledges
than in Dr. Umberto Klock's website. The technical hand-outs of these
lectures in the Forestry Engineering course at the Federal University
of Parana are definitively very clear and well-presented. Have a
look on them.
MS and PhD thesis, updated articles and good technical reviews
are presented in the following links.
of the Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps
bleaching is for sure one of the areas with fastest growth in generation
of papers and knowledge. Some oustanding and recent articles were
selected for your reading.
Mini Article by Celso Foelkel
and Cleaning Eucalyptus Pulps
pulp and paper sector is living today an unique technological
moment, but this moment also brings
At the same time that the environmental requirements are suggesting
water mill closures, the demands for pulp and paper qualities are
becoming stricter. Today, in a move in contrary to that it would
be reasonable, the requirements are for cleaner, whiter and purer
pulps and papers. The driving force for the "total white" has
been the utilization of calcium carbonate as filler, associated
with the alkaline sizing of the paper. In a whiter paper, dirt
and contamination are more visible. The closures on water cycles
are concentrating all sort of chemicals, from different sources
and with different compositions. We are concentrating: resins,
metal ions, starches, sizes, surfactants, hexenuronic acids, lignin
fragments, etc., etc. Since the pulp to become whiter and brighter
requires more oxidation stages, we are also promoting an increase
on the chemical charges and in the level of carboxyl groups in
the final bleached pulps. These charges make the fibers to act
as an ion-exchange resin, adsorbing cations and polar compounds.
The removal of these grafted compounds from the fibers are more
and more difficult. In the past, we were used to have intense washing,
without caring to the amount of water being used to do this. Today,
this is no longer available: we are being forced to use more and
more chemicals, one to counter-act the others. Chemicals are used
to clean pitch, as biocides, as detergents, as retention aids,
etc., etc. The chemical trash in the systems is raising dramatically.
Extractions and purges of this garbage is fundamental, to preserve
the pulp and paper qualities. The so difficult to achieve high
pulp brightness may be reverted or the quality of final product
lost because other kind of contamination. Dirt contaminants are
becoming frequent, in different sizes, formats, and chemical constituents.
In the past, dirt and brightness determinations were the most usual
tests to evaluate pulp quality. Today, there are newcomers: pulp
conductivity, colloidal pitch, iron and manganese content, etc.,
etc. This means: more requirements, more controls, more losses
and more difficulties. From the past, we have the memories of the
efficient chemical washing promoted by the chlorinating stage of
pulp bleaching, and the intense washing, freely using water. These
old and past memories may help to find new ways in the present.
The chlorination stage was efficient because it was in reality
a chemical acid washing of the metal ions, in a pH lower than 2.
Immediately of this washing, a purge of the filtrate to the effluent
was the case. At the same time, chlorination had a serious deleterious
effect. It was able to transform some of the eucalyptus wood extractives
in a sticky substance, known as pitch. Today, the intense washing
with clean water is being replaced by counter-current washing with
filtrates. The positions to add fresh and clean water are fewer.
These positions have to be found and selected in our process with
a lot of wisdom. Also, with wisdom we need to identify the places
to purge the chemical trash from the system. The best positions
to add fresh and clean water are those located at the end of the
fiber-line. For example: in the manufacture of bleached marked
pulp, the last pulp washing happens at the wet end of the pulp
sheet forming machine. When the pH is slightly acid in such step
( 4-5 ), the washing is even more efficient. The filtrates or the
white water from the pulp machine is clean and it is a completely
recoverable water. Till now, I question myself the reason for that,
in many mills, good and reasonable clean waters are blended with
and contaminated effluents. The result is known: all waters are
transformed into dirty effluents to be discarded after expensive
treatments. On the other hand, the acid stages in pulp process
are becoming seldom. In some cases, we have an acid pre-stage in
the bleaching line, and in most cases, we still have the chlorine
dioxide stages. The Dhot stage has proved to be very important
as a chemical washing step, doing a job similarly to the chlorination
in this regard. For this reason, it is important to wisely identify
its filtrate purge or the recycling of it. The utilization of sulfurous
acid (SO2 water) is still very popular as a final bleaching step:
the aims are to kill the residual chlorine dioxide, to remove cations
adsorbed in the fibers and to better stabilize pulp brightness.
SO2 is a reducing compound, as well-known. Today, to do similar
job, the technology is searching for other alternatives, as the
metabisulfite of sodium.
me, the result of all this is very clear: we need to be more
clever and wiser in the selection of our bleaching and washing
stages, electing also the more efficient alternatives for purging
and recycling the filtrates. We need to remind ourselves that
in all cases, there are costs involved, and associated with our
actions, the environmental impacts. In case of mismanagement
or misjudgement, we are to damage the pulp quality, the environment,
and the mill financial performance. All this situation brings
some very curious and unexplained procedures. For example, when
the last bleaching stage is a peroxide stage, it is common to
wash the pulp with SO2 water after the stage. The peroxide stage
is a high pH step (around 9.5) and the SO2 washing an acid one
(pH around 5). Surprisingly, when the pulp goes to the paper
manufacturing section, the pH is raised again to 8 – 8.5
with caustic soda for refining. The required and requested low
conductivity is definitively lost, very soon, indeed. The explanation
is clear: we are becoming slaves on the utilization of chemicals.
It is a continuous addition, for everything and to control anything.
I would like to ask the pulp and paper mill project engineers
to remember that the water may be cleaned in different mini-water
treatment plants in the mill. Use the water more wisely, discovering
the most adequate use and treatment for each of your filtrates.
I’m sure that this is more economical, and a lot more positive
to the environment.
the other alternative would be the gradual reduction on the pulp
brightness, whiteness and cleanliness specification
for ordinary paper manufacturing. Well, this is another topic
for another discussion: very controversial, surely.