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Dear friends,

This is the Eucalyptus Newsletter number 06. It will be the last one to be released this year. The next edition will come next January, mostly probably with some financial support to this project. The negotiations with potential sponsors to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter are running well, and the target is close to be achieved. Remember as I've said before in other editorials, with some financial support, not very much, I may assure this to you, I'll be able to have a better dedication to work in the newsletter and in the online book. And also, surely, in the Q&A section, the Ask the Euca ExPert forum. I hope to have more often releases to bring more information to you about the eucalyptus. They are deserving and needing this, mainly now-a-days. Helping me in this task, working for sponsors to my work, I have received fraternal efforts from Mr. Umberto Cinque and Mr. Taavi Siuko, two great friends. They also believe that this project requires perpetuity. My best thanks to them, and especially to you, my readers, for the continuous cooperation received.

In this edition, I'm finalizing my version of the History of the Eucalyptus in Brazil. This second part of the mini-article, I've started in the newsletter number 05, closes the theme, by now. However, I'll come with more details when this topic will become a chapter in the Eucalyptus Online Book.

In the past newsletter, I've also promised to bring more information about the pests and diseases of the Eucalyptus plantations. We all know the importance of this issue, due to the potential fragility of the clonal plantations, with narrow genetic bases. In this edition you will find an endless list of very good references, all available in the web. Please, use your time to search this collection of articles and websites about Pests and Diseases of the Eucalyptus.

Another interesting collection of knowledge I'm providing here is about Wood Anatomy. It was built in two sections. First one: I've just launched in my website a photo gallery about wood anatomy. There are more than 200 photos, a collection fruit of a long and patient time. I'm sharing it with you. I hope you like it. I decided to give a suggestive name to this photo gallery: Wood Anatomy Sceneries. It was because the beauty of the images taken from different woods. You are for sure to agree with me. There is an Euca-Link redirecting you to the collection. Second one: I made a huge effort searching valuable websites and technical information about wood anatomy, to provide to you one of the most inexhaustive source of information on wood anatomy. To this collection of references, I decided to give the name Wood Anatomy Tutorial. In summary, we have here, to those who love wood anatomy, something to keep them busy a lot. To those who are not so enthusiastic, I ask the kindness to have a look. I promisse that you are at least to keep this work as a reference to return back in the future.

I'm also bringing the usual suggestion for guides, books and events about the eucalyptus plantations. They are always welcome in our daily professional life.

I have also a pleasant recommendation to you. The Flora Brasiliensis website. It is definitively a masterpiece. A pearl in the botanic science. In case you visit the website, you are to save it immediately. You are to see a different Brazil, a Brazil being seen through its plants.

This newsletter also brings to you some other historic facts. I had an important phase in my professional life helping the creation of the Graduate Course in Pulp and Paper Technology at the Federal University of Viçosa. It was a privilege to me to have been part of this, and I decided to tell you how it happened. Unfortunately, the history is being presented only in Portuguese, I'm sorry for the inconvenience. Today, the course in Viçosa is one of the most renowned of the world, with great emphasis about the eucalyptus. Part of this historical report are my ex-students' master theses and the courses hand-outs, all available for you. I hope you may enjoy this living experience.

In case you like these Euca-Links, please download the files as soon as possible, since the web is very dynamic, and websites are always being changed, updated or restructured.

Just in case you are not registered yet to receive the Eucalyptus Newsletter, and the book chapters attached to it, when they are made available, do it immediately. There are no costs involved. Please, use the short cut Click here to register. Please, accept my most sincere thanks for supporting our work when accessing regularly our websites.

In case I may eventually count with your help, please, send a recommendation to your friends who have the same level of interest for the eucalyptus, suggesting them to register to receive these virtual publications. Thanks for this cooperation. We are now over 2.100 registered readers, thanks to you all.

Remember, this is a no-cost service offered to you. What we want is to provide good benefits to the users.

Thanks for everything

Celso Foelkel

In this edition

Lots of Euca Links and Knowledge
The Graduate Course in Pulp and Paper Technology at the Federal Universiy of Viçosa
Wood Anatomy: a Tutorial and a Photo Gallery
Insect Pests and Diseases of the Eucalyptus

Literatures and Events about Eucalyptus Plantation Forests
Flora Brasiliensis - A Masterpiece

Technical Mini Article by Celso Foelkel
The Eucalyptus in Brazil - Second part

Lots of Euca Links and Knowledge
The websites we are suggesting as links are not ours. Their contents are not our responsibility. Our suggestion is based on the fact that they are offering good technical material that we feel could be valuable to you. In case you do not agree with their contents, please get in touch directly to their web addresses. Please, be patient when opening some of the suggested URLs. They may take some minutes due to the fact some files are very heavy. In case the URL does not open in your first attempt, try it again, one or more times. In case of heavy files, this is a common problem in the internet use. Since most of the URLs are contemplating pdf files, you are recommended to have Adobe Acrobat Reader in your computer. Please, give some minutes of your precious time for these links, you are not to feel sorry.

The Graduate Course in Pulp and Paper Technology at the Federal Universiy of Viçosa

Thirty years after the course creation, I decided to report this history. This is to avoid losing it. The time flies, the people change, and also are changed. The life continues, new challenges, new roads. However, we need to have a look to the past, sometimes. Specially when this past was pleasant and rich on achievements. And also, very important to Brazil.
I have written some phrases about this great success, the installation of the graduate course in pulp and paper at the Federal University of Viçosa, in 1976. The first group of students started classes in March 1977. Long time ago. Today, I'm proud to see that it was absolutely rewarding. The university, professors, students and the pulp and paper companies have provided the required forces to the continuation of the course and of the research in this area, with a lot of value added along these years. Today, the university and the laboratory of pulp and paper technology are some of the major drivers to the development of this business in Brazil. But Viçosa is not only pulp and paper. We also have the forestry engineering undergraduate and graduate courses ( and the SIF - Society of Forest Investigations ( They are great contributors to the forest science and forest based industry, with special emphasis about the eucalyptus.
See the history of the course, the names involved in building it, the companies that provided the initial funds to the start up of this project at: (Portuguese)

In case you may wish to read the course hand-outs, written at that time, the quizzes, the difficult problems that I was used to ask the students to solve at home, and also the master theses of my ex-students from the early stage of the course, please visit: (Portuguese)

You are to notice that the eucalyptus were part of that time daily life. This is mainly because the course was born exactly during the golden Brazilian economic times, the 70's, when the pulp and paper industry received a lot of government support for growth, based on the eucalyptus. Thanks to the sum of good decisions and efforts, Brazil was capable to have a winning pulp and paper segment, both to supply internal demands and to export a considerable amount of these products.

Wood Anatomy - A Tutorial
A Photo Gallery on Images and Wood Anatomy Sceneries

I always had an admiration to the woods beauties, both to the macroscopic and microscopic views of them. The rich designs they have, the precious drawings, colors, etc., they are admired by most of the human beings. For these reasons, the woods are so popular in our society. In the anatomical evaluations of the woods, we also are able to find a lot of beauty. The anatomic arrangements of the cells and the quality and quantity of the chemical constituents are responsible to provide these nice designs we all like. The wood cells are also very important to the type of utilization's to the different woods. For all these reasons, I decided to launch a photo collection about wood anatomy, and the title of this gallery is Wood Anatomy Sceneries. At the same time, I'm providing a huge number of euca-links on wood anatomy, not only about eucalyptus, but covering different species and wood fundamentals. Thanks to the good knowledge on the wood quality, we'll be able to better use them. Along my life, I've published several articles about wood quality and wood anatomy. Some of them may be reached at:

Just in case you may wish to visit the Wood Anatomy Sceneries Photo Gallery, please go to:

On the other hand, if you are wondering to learn more about the woods, you have a great opportunity visiting several of the suggested euca-links. Enjoy the Wood Anatomy Tutorial. I'm convinced that we are providing one of the most complete and wide list of links on wood and wood anatomy in the web. Anyone who may need some knowledge about these topics may try to find the answer here. In a future moment, I'll be writing an Eucalyptus Online Book chapter about the anatomy of the eucalyptus wood. However, this is to happen somewhere in the future. For the time being, enjoy these euca-links. It pays to navigate on the Wood Anatomy Tutorial. Check it:

Technical and Scientific Associations:

Association for Tree-Ring Research (English)

Botanical Society of America (English)

IAWA- International Association of Wood Anatomists (English)

International Academy of Wood Science (English)

Society of Wood Science Technology (English)

Journals and Magazines about Wood Anatomy and Botany:

Please, do not forget to use the search engine in each of these online publications. You may find good articles in the journal archives searching for eucalyptus.

American Journal of Botany (English)

Annals of Botany (English)

Australian Journal of Botany (English)

Brazilian Journal of Botany (Portuguese)

Forest Products Journal (English)

Fuctional Plant Biology, anteriormente Australian Journal of Plant Physiology (English)

IAWA Journal (English)

Journal of Microscopy (English)

Journal of Wood Science (English)

Maderas: Ciencia y Tecnologia (Spanish)

New Zealand Journal of Botany (English)

Wood & Fiber Science (English)

Wood Science and Technology (English)

Wood Properties, Structure and Characteristics:

"A Guide to the American Hardwood Species" - American Hardwood Information Center (English)

"A Practical Guide to the Wood", by the Montana Company (Portuguese)

"A Technical Guide to the Wood and to the Furniture Making", published by INETI - Portugal (Portuguese)

"Botanical Technical Sheets from the Dendrogene Project" - EMBRAPA Eastern Amazon Region (Portuguese)

"Brazilian Woods", by Agua de Meninos Sawmill Co. (Portuguese)

"Commercial Woods: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification and Information", a website about wood species by H.G.Richter & M.J.Dallwitz (Portuguese)

"Conhecendo a Madeira - Knowing the Wood" - A Portal for Brazilian Woods (Portuguese)

"Conhecendo a Madeira - Knowing the Wood – Eucalyptus" (Portuguese)

"Forest Products Laboratory Wood Collection" (English)

"The Carpenter and Joiner Guide" (Portuguese)

"The Carpenter and Joiner Guide – Knowing the Woods" (Portuguese)

"The Tree Collection" (English)

"The Trees", a technical material for students offered by the University of Viseu - Portugal (Portuguese)

"Tropical and Certified Woods", available in the Forest Stewardship Council Website (English)

Xylarium", from the Oxford University (English)

"Wood Handbook", offered by the IPT/SP and by the Municipality of Sao Paulo (Portuguese)

"Wood List and Good Guide" - WWF World Wildlife Fund (English)

"Wood Properties and Structure", Canadian Wood Council & Forintek Canada (English)

"Wood Properties and Structure", classes hand-outs from McGill University Canada (English)

"Wood Species from Flora Cites" - Botanical Garden of Cordoba - Spain (Spanish)

Woods and their Properties", by the IPT - Institute of Technological Research (Portuguese) (Corymbia citriodora) (Eucalyptus grandis)

"Woods and their Sustainable Utilization in the Construction and Housing Manufacturing Industry", a guide edited by the IPT/SP, Sinduscon/SP and by the Environment Secretary of the Sao Paulo City Municipality (Portuguese)

"Wood Wisdom 2006 Directory" (English)

Technical Materials, Atlas, Courses, Speeches & Websites:

"Anatomical Identification of the Tennessee Woody Species", University of Tennessee (English)

Anatomical Images through the Utilization of the SilviScan", CSIRO - Australia (English)

"Anatomy and Identification of Woods", a course by Prof. Elisabeth Wheeler - North Carolina State University (English)

"Anatomy and Microscopy of Central European Wood Species", by W. Schoch; I.Heller; F.H.Schweingruber & F.Kienast (English)

"Anatomy and Plant Tissue Science", website (Portuguese)

"Anatomy and Properties of the Wood", a course by Prof. Elisabeth Wheeler - North Carolina State University (English)

"Atlas on Plant Anatomy" , University of Sao Paulo (Portuguese)

"Basics on Botany", a course provided by Oregon State University (English)

"Botanical Laboratory Classes", Kean University (English)

"Classes on Plant Anatomy", University of Hawaii (English)

"Classes on Secondary Xylem", a course by Prof. J.D.Mauseth - University of Texas (English)

"Conifers Wood Anatomy", hand-outs Prof. E.A.Wheeler from North Carolina State University (English)

"Conifer Woods and Fibers from the Australian Dry Lands", by C.A.Raymond, D.Rowel, P.Blakemore, N.Clark, M.Williams, G.Freischmidt & B.Joe (English)

"Formation of Wood and Tension Wood", Sara Andersson Gunneras’ thesis - Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (English)

"Hardwoods Anatomy", hand-outs Prof. E.A.Wheeler from North Carolina State University (English)

"Inside Wood Website", North Carolina State University (English);jsessionid=d2302553301158110837544?e=home

"Inside Wood Website – Acacia" (English)

"Inside Wood Website – Corymbia" (English)

"Inside Wood Website – Eucalyptus" (English)

"Knowing the Wood – Anatomy", by The Portal Conhecendo a Madeira (Portuguese)

"Modules in Plant Anatomy", University of Sydney - Australia (English)

"Online Image Collection", from Botanical Society of America (English)

"Photomicrographs of Non Woody Fibers", Norwegian University of Science and Technology (English)

"Photomicrographs of the Most Common Raw Materials to the Manufacture of Pulp and Paper", Norwegian University of Science and Technology (English)

"Photographic Atlas of Plant Anatomy", by J.D.Curtis, N.R. Lersten & M.D.Nowak (English)

"Plant Anatomy", technical material from the course "Plant Anatomy" - University of Rhode Island (English)

"Plant Anatomy Images", University of Rhode Island (English)

"Secondary Growth – Woods", an online course by the National University of Cordoba - Argentina (Spanish)

"Tree Rings Ultimate Page – Dendrochronology", by Henri D. Grissino-Mayer (English)

"Vegetative Morphology" - Texas A&M University - BioInformatics Working Group (English)

"Xylem", by University of Hamburg (English)

"Wood Anatomy", technical material from the course "The Anatomy of Wood" - Palomar College (English)

"Wood Anatomy" - Prof. Dr. Ademir Castro e Silva website’s (Portuguese)

"Wood Anatomy Handbook", Prof. H.M.Barnes, Mississippi State University (English)

"Wood and Wood Anatomy Website", Forest Products Laboratory – University Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro - Portugal (Portuguese)

"Wood Quality" , Celso Foelkel’s course hand-outs to the Federal University of Viçosa 1977 to 1979 (Portuguese)

"Wood Structure", Celso Foelkel’s course hand-outs to the Federal University of Viçosa 1977 to 1979 (Portuguese)

"Wood Trunk Anatomy", University of Western Cape – South Africa (English)

Research and Technical Centers:

Center for Wood Anatomy Research - Forest Products Laboratory (English)

Research Program "Wood Wisdom" (English)

Wood Ultrastructure Research Center (English)

Important Links on Wood Anatomy as Indicated by Expert Websites (English);jsessionid=

Insect Pests and Diseases of the Eucalyptus

The forest health is something fundamental now-a-days. There are several examples of harmful problems due to pests and diseases attacks, not only in plantations, but also in natural forests. Some forests in the world have been extremely damaged because this type of causes, and the results were dramatic: to the forest, to the fauna, to the economy and to the society. Enormous losses are associated to pests and diseases. For this reason, this extensive work in providing to you the best I could in terms of a rich collection of references. I'm sure that you'll find it is valuable for your daily work. You are to find great articles, good books, top illustrated speeches, and magic photos. Go ahead, and use your time. Let me introduce the Tutorial on Pests and Diseases to you:

Technical and Scientific Associations:

Brazilian Society of Entomology (Portuguese)

Entomological Society of Brazil (Portuguese)

Journals and Magazines about Plant & Forest Pathology and Entomology

Please, do not forget to use the search engine in each of these online publications. You may find good articles in the journal archives searching for eucalyptus.

Annual Review of Phytopathology (English)

Brazilian Journal of Entomology (Portuguese)

Brazilian Phytopathology (Portuguese)

Entomology and Vectors (Portuguese)

Journal of Pesticide Science (English)

Journal of Phytopathology (English)

Journal of Plant Pathology (English)

Phytopathology (English)

Plant Health Progress Journal (English)

Plant Pathology (English)

Plant Pathology Journal (English)

Plant Pathology Online – Phytopathology News (Inglês)

Important Links on Plant & Forest Health:

Forest Diseases and Pathology (English)

UFPEL Federal University of Pelotas - Department of Plant Health (Portuguese)

Websites Especializados em Pragas e Doenças:

Enthomology UFV - Federal University of Viçosa (Portuguese)

Forest Monitoring - FURB Regional University of Blumenau - Pests, Diseases, Forest Fires (Portuguese)

Info Insetos – An Informative Newsletter to the Brazilian Entomologists (Portuguese)

Laboratory of Forest Protection - Federal University of Parana (Portuguese)

Website (Spanish)

Website Forest Pathology - Federal University of Santa Maria (Portuguese)

Website ForestPests (English)

Website (Portuguese)

Website Prof. Norivaldo dos Anjos (Portuguese)


National Congress of Applied Entomology – Spain 2003 (Spanish)

Course on Leaf Cutter Ants - IPEF Institute of Forest Research and Studies – 1994 (Portuguese)

Course about "Cloning, Diseases and Pests of the Eucalyptus in Nursery and in the Planted Forests" – SIF – Society of Forest Investigations / UFV – Federal University of Viçosa (Portuguese)
It is a very valuable technical material, rich on illustrations showing symptoms. A true bible about pests and diseases of the Eucalyptus, provided by Dr. Acelino Couto Alfenas, one of the most renowned experts on this issue in the world. Visit it, and download the course classes, even if you don't understand Portuguese.The photos will reward your efforts.

Seminar on "Forest Health and Protection" – SIF/UFV (Portuguese)ção%20Florestal

XX SILVOTECNA CORMA Chile 2005 "Forest Health in a Global World" (Spanish) (program) (presentations)

Workshop about "Exotic Pest Risks and their Impacts on Trade" – APS Plant Pathology (English)

Technical and Informative Materials:

"A Manual of Diseases of Eucalyptus in South East Asia", an online book by K.M.Old, M.J. Wingfield, Z.Q.Yuan, an edition of ACIAR/CIFOR Center for International Forestry Research, 2003 (English)

"Ants in Eucalyptus Plantations", Revista Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira v.35, n.19: 1911-1918, 2000 (Portuguese)

"Ants in North America" - Online Catalog of the Ants of North America (English)

"Biological Control of Eucalyptus Insect Pests" – CORMA Chile 2005 (Spanish)

"Coleopters in Eucalyptus", Floresta e Ambiente v.7,n.1: 143-151, 2000 (Portuguese)

"Coleopters in Eucalyptus Plantations", Scientia Forestalis n.62: 149-153, 2002 (Portuguese)

"Damages in Plantations by Herbivores" - CSIRO Australia (English)

"Diseases of the Eucalyptus in South of Brazil", EMBRAPA Florestas Technical Communication number 45 (Portuguese)

Environmental Heterogeneity as a Strategy for Pest Management in Eucalyptus Plantations - Forest Ecology and Management v.12, n.1,3: 9-12 (English)

"Eucalyptus Diseases in Thailand", by Krisna Pongpanish - Royal Forest Department at Bangkok (English)

"Eucalyptus Plant Nutrition and the Associated Diseases", Technical Circulation Sheet # 200 IPEF, 2003 (Portuguese)

"FEROBIO – Utilization of Biological Products in the Control of Insect Pests" – UFV Federal University of Viçosa (Portuguese)

"Foliage Eater Insect Pests in Eucalyptus", Technical Circulation Sheet # 131 - IPEF, 1981 (Portuguese)

"Forest Health in the Forestry-About Website " (English)

"Forest Pests Handbook", 3 books edited by the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring Insects in Forests IPEF/SIF (Portuguese)

"Forest Pests in the South Pacific Region", by M.Ramsden, J.McDonald & F.R.Wylie, 2002 (English)

"Forestry Images – Forest Pests - Website Forestry Images" (English)

"Global Impacts and Outbreaks of the Major Forest Pests and Diseases" - FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (English)

"Health of Eucalyptus Forests in Australia: A Management Plan" - Forest Health Committee Australia (English)

"Hemipters in Eucalyptus" - Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira v.40, n.7: 723-726, 2005 (English)

"Insect Pests and Diseases in Australia Hardwoods", Queensland Government Australia (English)

"Insect Pests and Diseases in Indonesian Forests", an online book by K.S.S. Nair - CIFOR - Center for International Forestry Research (English)

"Insect Pests in Eucalyptus and Pinus", Tree Note number 21 - Department of Agriculture of Western Australia, 2005 (English)

"Insect Pests Control in Eucalyptus Plantations", by Charlma Phillips - Forestry SA Australia, 1994 (English)

"Insect Pests in Young Eucalyptus Plantations", a leaflet by Nick Collett, 2001 (English)

"Insect Pests in Tropical Forests" , a reference book by M.R.Speight, 2000 (English)

"Integrated Management for the Control of Ants", by A.J.Laranjeiro, 1994 (Portuguese)

"Integrated Management for the Control of Ants", classes hand-outs by Prof. Ronald Zanetti - UFLA Federal University of Lavras (Portuguese)

"Integrated Management for the Control of Insect Pests in Forestry", classes hand-outs by Prof. Ronald Zanetti – UFLA Federal University of Lavras (Portuguese)

"Leaf Cutter Ants" – UFPR Federal University of Parana (Portuguese)

"Leaf Cutter Ants" – a dedicated website (English)

"Leaf Cutter Ants Control" , by M.S.Araujo; T.M.C. Della Lucia; D.J. Souza (Portuguese)

"Lepidopter Pest in Eucalyptus", IPEF n.41/42, 1989 (Portuguese)

"Major Forest Pests and Diseases in South Eastern Europe" - EuroSilvaSur Project - European Forest Institute (English)

"Major Forest Pests in Canada", Department of Natural Resources Canada (English)

"Major Pests in the Plantations of the Eucalyptus" , a publication by the Potafos Institute (Portuguese)

"Microwasp in Eucalyptus", an article by Prof. Norivaldo dos Anjos (Portuguese)

"Minimization of the Disease Risks Associated with the Clonal Plantations of Eucalyptus" , a speech by Prof. Dr. Acelino Couto Alfenas (Portuguese)ário%20sobre%20Silvicultura%20de%20Florestas%20Plantadas/Congresso_Silvicultura_Vitoria.pdf

"Minimum Soil Preparation and its Association with Insect Pests in Eucalyptus" – Proceedings of the 1º Seminar about Minimum Preparation of the Soil in Forestry" - IPEF (Portuguese)

Pest Outbreaks in Tropical Forest Plantations – Is there a greater risk for exotic tree species?", by K.S.S.Nair - Center for International Forestry Research (English)

"Pest Risk Assessment of the Importation into the USA of Unprocessed Eucalyptus Logs and Chips from South America" , a publication from the Forest Products Laboratory (English)

"Pests and Diseases in Eucalyptus", a report written by M.Diekmann & J.B.Ball - IPGRI International Plant Genetic Resources Institute , 1995 (English)

"Pests and Diseases in Pinus", Technical Series IPEF, v.13, n.33, 2000 (Portuguese)

"Pests and Diseases of Eucalyptus in Regions Outside Australia", Unasylva v.12, n.2 - FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (English)

"Pests and Other Threats to the Forests in the NSW Natural Parks" - New South Wales Australia (English)

Phorocantha in Eucalyptus", Gama Filho University (Portuguese)

"Protecting Plantations from Pests and Diseases", FAO Forestry Department, 2001 (English)

"Psyllid pest in Eucalyptus", Technical Communication # 18 from EMBRAPA Environment, 2004 (Portuguese)

"Psyllid pest in Eucalyptus", Technical Circulation Sheet # 201 from IPEF, 2003 (Portuguese)

"Resistance of Eucalyptus to Insect Pests", by Julio Cesar Valente - UFV Federal University of Viçosa (Portuguese)

"Rust and Canker Control in Eucalyptus", by Carlos A.P. Junior – UFV Federal University of Viçosa (Portuguese)

Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm –Eucalyptus spp." - FAO / IPGRI International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (English)

"Termites in Eucalyptus" - Anais do Instituto Biologico v.71, supplement, 2004 (Portuguese)

"Thyrinteina arnobia in Eucalyptus", Revista Ciencia Florestal v.13, n.2:143-151 (Portuguese)

Literatures and Events about Eucalyptus Plantation Forests

We are providing very good links on publications about the eucalyptus, which have been made available in the web. There are valuable photos and texts. Have a look on them.


"El eucalipto en la repoblación forestal" - FAO – Food & Agriculture Organization 1995 (Spanish)

The hand-out "Por Dentro do Eucalipto" by AMS – Silviminas (Minas Gerais Silviculture Association) (Portuguese)

Qué sabe de las Plantaciones Forestales Chilenas? – CORMA- Corporación Chilena de la Madera - Chile (Spanish)


You are to find great speeches for downloads. Visit these events:

"Forum Florestal Regional RS - Regional Forestry Forum RS" - UFSM – Federal University of Santa Maria (Portuguese)
There are very good information's on forest management, forest products markets, environmental issues, and silviculture of plantations:

"II Seminar about the Silviculture of Plantation Forests" - SIF – Society of Forest Investigations (Portuguese)
Here, you'll be delighted by the richness on the knowledge about Eucalyptus plantations. Have a look, please.ário%20s

" Australian Forestry Plantations Conference 2002" – BRS – Bureau of Rural Sciences (English)
This event was very much concerned about the social impacts and potentials related to the plantation forests in Australia.

Volume 1:

Volume 2:

Flora Brasiliensis - A Masterpiece

Flora Brasiliensis has been considered as the most complete and the best botanical work about the Brazilian flora. This work was performed from 1840 to 1906 by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, August Wilhelm Eichler and Ignatz Urban, with technical support from many other botanists and plant taxonomists in the world. It contains studies and descriptions of over 20.000 plants , the majority from Brazilian hardwoods. Everything is now being made available to general public, both in Portuguese and English. Definitively, a masterpiece. Check it out: (Portuguese/English)

Technical Mini Article by Celso Foelkel

The Eucalyptus in Brazil - Second part

We had the opportunity to write in the past Eucalyptus Newsletter about the arrival of the Eucalyptus in Brazil: the initial phases of the plantations and the spreading of the trees throughout the country. During the first decades, the utilization's for the eucalyptus woods were a lot more restricted, and the silvicultural practices relatively immatures. It is important to remind, that till early 60's, we had not a formal career on forestry in the country. Silviculture was a not so developed science, briefly taught in the agronomy colleges in Brazil, and not in all of them. Very few research programs were available. The knowledge about plantations and wood products technologies were more empirical than scientific. Although the huge efforts from the pioneers, the plantations growth rates were good (for that time), but far from the today's. The forest management was more based on coppicing, with two, three and more rotations from the same stump. Because of that type of management, the tree planters were unable to have good quality trees and logs. There was the trend to leave 2 or 3 sprouts growing from the same stump. It was the recommendation inclusively from the universities to have more stacked volume of wood. The eucalyptus were not capable to find more sophisticated uses for their woods. For these reasons, the woods were oriented to firewood, poles, fences, small construction in the rural farms, etc. In the manufacturing industries, the eucalyptus woods had success for pulp and paper, particle board, and hardboards: the exigencies on wood and log qualities were not so strict for these uses. For sawmills, furniture and veneers, the attempts were proved to be disastrous. The logs were very sensitive to the drying process, chinking, splitting and curling. The production of wood charcoal to the steel industry was also successful. In this case, the objectives were more related to dry weight of biomass than any other requirement.

The right decisions and the consequences

In 1966, the Brazilian Federal Government decided to promote the plantation of forests in the country. The idea was to offer alternative sources of wood to the Brazilian society, preventing the exhaustion of the natural forest resources. The government launches an Income Tax deduction incentive program to bring the attention of citizens and companies to this new business. This incentive program existed from 1966/1967 till 1987, about 20 years. There are statistics, not very good however, informing that the program was responsible for the plantation of over 3.5 million hectares of forests, mainly eucalyptus and pines. The success of this program was enormous, although the criticism has been in the same size. It is known that always a door is opened, some undesirable guests may appear. This happens even now-a-days. Because of this, the forest incentive program had some blunders and errors, and it is more from this that it is reminded. However, a lot of good things also have appeared, as consequences. The intensification of the plantations favored the research, the forest education, the innovation and the growth of several businesses. The growth of the silviculture in the country provoked the parallel growth of the technology and of the knowledge. The first colleges of forestry were founded in Curitiba, Viçosa, and Piracicaba. From late 60's and early 70's, several strong forest research institutes and technical associations were launched, as the IPEF/USP ( , SIF/UFV ( , IPT/SP (, FUPEF/UFPR (, Embrapa Florestas ( , and many others. Associations were born, as ABTCP (, SBS (, and a lot more. Soon, the colleges started to create graduate courses in forestry and in pulp and paper. Many congresses in forestry and in pulp and paper came to the scene, and are well alive till today. The cooperative research programs started to blossom, involving universities, research institutes and forest based companies. From that time onwards, the growth was fantastic: papers, articles, journals, congresses, exhibitions, conferences, intense and dynamic activities in different regions of the country. Brazil had become not only a source of native wood from natural resources, but also the homeland of the forest plantations, with prominence for the eucalyptus.

The powerful drivers for these developments were surely the Income Tax Incentives for afforestation and the II PND - National Program for Development, this one released by the Federal Government along the 70’s. The II PND had as targets to promote a huge growth in the steel and pulp & paper manufacturing industries. The high potentials for these businesses could offer to the country the opportunity to guarantee domestic consumption and also to generate astonishing surpluses of products for exports. In 1974, the PNPC - National Program for Pulp & Paper was launched by the government, with strong financial support coming from the state owned banks. The market pulp export oriented model had been born. The government and the businessmen were good enough to work well in their homework’s. Very fast, the eucalyptus were elected as the favorite sources of fibers to the pulp industry, and of woods to the charcoal manufacture. The existing pulp and paper mills and steel factories could grow, but new and modern ones have come to the scene. In the steel manufacturing side we had the birth of Usiminas, Açominas, Acesita; and in the pulp side, Riocell, Cenibra, Aracruz, Bahia Sul. The existing pulp and paper companies were also driven to grow in tonnage’s and to expand their frontiers: Suzano, Ripasa, VCP ex-Simao; International Paper ex-Champion, Klabin, etc. Even the Jari mill, that started using the woods of Gmelina and Pinus, soon migrated to the eucalyptus, and they do not feel sorry for this. By contrary, the eucalyptus are given new power to the company. The pulp and paper industry could grow from the 700 thousand tons in 1970 to about 10 million in 2005, about 8% growth per year, very impressive to Brazilian and to this type of industry standards. The Brazilian statistics on plantations are not very good because the huge number of small planted areas by rural farmers. It is estimated that we have today in Brazil about 5.5 million hectares of plantations, and from these, 3.5 are eucalyptus. The leading states in eucalyptus plantations are Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Bahia and Espirito Santo. Minas Gerais has the privilege to be the leader, thanks to the success obtained in producing wood charcoal to the steel industry and fibers to the market pulp production for exporting.

The forest technology and its development

Technology and innovation have been key factors for giving and keeping competitiveness to the eucalyptus in Brazil. First, to develop very productive forests, with fast growth rates, thanks to tree breeding, genetics, and outstanding silvicultural practices. At the same time, the industrial technology is also very well understood and based on high level of R&D. The mills are state-of-the-art, environmentally sound and with a great level of knowledge applied in adapting the eucalyptus to the industrial processes and to market demands. Today, the Brazilian eucalyptus based industry is a winning activity in pulp and paper manufacturing. There are also very good competitive advantages and expertise in the generation of energy using the eucalyptus biomass (bark, residues and firewood). More recently, another success has been achieved by developing technology to saw eucalyptus logs, dry the timber, and to use the wood for veneers, furniture, wood panels, etc. At the same time, tailor made woods are been develop by tree breeders, with properties more compatible to the end uses. Everything is result of great efforts, a lot of inspiration and transpiration, and why not to say, courage and determination. The cooperation between industrial companies and the universities is being fundamental to these achievements.

Today, new technological roads are being offered to be paved. The production of bio-oil, the use of the pyroligneous oil from the charcoal production, the bio-refinery concept, the production of newsprint using high percentage of high yield eucalyptus fibers, the use of eucalyptus fibers for fluff pulp, new utilizations for eucalyptus dissolving pulps, etc. Also, the use of genetic engineering and genomics to provide advances not even imagined. Spaces for innovations are numbered in hundreds. And this is quite important to keep the Brazilian competitiveness in this very aggressive business environment.

Brazilians have been pushed to search new forest technologies to the eucalyptus, both by the opportunities and by important threats. The major threats we faced in the past happened early in the 70's. The first was related to the fact that most of the Eucalyptus trees available in Brazil, at that time, were very heavily hybridized. The hybrids were natural, and the forest stands very uneven in terms of growth and wood quality. The genomes were completely blended and contaminated. An enormous program for the reintroduction of species and provenance’s took place, everything as Navarro de Andrade had done some decades earlier. However, in a much larger dimension. Federal government agencies, the universities and the companies started to work together, searching for pure species and high quality genomes coming from different parts of the world. These reintroduction’s of genomes helped to guarantee a wider genetic basis for the Eucalyptus in Brazil. The real benefit was the excellent possibility to obtain hybrids by artificial crossings, based on high quality and pure genomes. The next step in this technological road was the cloning development. Cloning was the result of the second major threat the Eucalyptus faced in Brazil in the 70's. At that time, the introduction of Eucalyptus saligna and E.grandis to the states of Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo and Bahia were surprised by an unexpected problem. A fungi disease named "Eucalyptus canker" came very intense and destroying trees and forest stands, no matter the astonishing growth they were showing. Everything very quick, and demanding fast action by the researchers. The search for species that could be resistant to this disease was the driver to the introduction of tropical species of Eucalyptus. At the same time, the study of hybrids between these new species and those present in South Brazil resulted in the Eucalyptus urograndis hybrid. This hybrid, obtained by artificial crossing, and the clones, were the major forces to push fast ahead the forest technology in Brazil. Hybridization and cloning started to offer uniform and fast growing trees, and also resistant to the major pests and diseases. Starting slowly during the 80's, today cloning of Eucalyptus is the dominant procedure for tree multiplication in Brazil, both for hybrids or pure species genetic material. Parallel to this, the universities and the companies are keeping gene banks, to use them when required. This is why so much attention is being placed to genome mapping. As a tool to speed up the breeding process, and to guarantee a safer forestry by using new genes, when they become identified and needed. Today, the leading eucalyptus-based forest companies are achieving average growth rates from 40 to 55 m³/ha.year, but there are stands growing 60, or even more. The eucalyptus wood is also being subjected to quality improvements, according to the end use, no matter if charcoal, timber, firewood, printing and writing papers, tissue papers, etc. Today, the technology has developed clones, whose wood do not split or bend, that are being used for excellent furniture manufacturing, and a lot more. Definitively, a tailor making process: the right wood to the right process and product. The technology has changed the business environment, definitively. A surprise to some executives that clearly did not believe in R&D. Bad luck to them, good luck to the others.

The consolidated sucess and the sustainability: years 2000

Today, when we talk about sustainability, we have 5 different viewpoints:

  1. Business sustainability: it comes from the owners' will to keep the company alive in the market, growing or at least, not losing market share. Business sustainability has financial and economic approaches.
  2. Site sustainability: it is related to develop the ability to keep the capacity of a given area planted with forest to stay productive years ahead, without losing its capability to produce wood and trees. The foresters are those in charge of controlling or optimizing conditions as: soil conservation, soil fertility, pests and diseases, weeds, regional hydrological cycles, genetic breeding, etc.
  3. Environmental sustainability: it consists in the sound utilization of the natural resources, using best available and eco-efficient technologies, to minimize negative impacts of the plantations on biodiversity, soil quality, water resources, weather, etc.
  4. Social sustainability: it is a clear commitment of the company to respect the human beings associated to its activities, both workers and communities. It also implies in ethics, transparency, dialogue and a clear policy to be respected.
  5. Forest certification: it is a way, very open and clearly discussed with public, that the forest companies have to obtain a third party certification that they are working in direction of sustainability. A company that has such certification is in compliance to the legislation, it has an evaluation and control of environmental and social impacts, it is submitted to third parties auditing procedures, and it has a continuous improvement program. Forest certification is a combination of the former 4 viewpoints already mentioned.

The result from the adoption of these 5 levels of sustainability gives to the company the status of being working for the Sustainable Development or Corporate Sustainability. We are running fast in this direction. It is good to everybody: to the business (economic pillar), to the Nature (environmental pillar) and to human beings (social pillar). New forest technologies are being introduced, more environmentally friendly, and better to the communities. For sure, there is a long way to go, but we know very well the direction. The recent right decisions to share the technologies and the genomes with the rural farmers in agroforestry programs is an excellent indication of social sustainability. The results are to be shared with the society, both economic, environmental and social. An even and more balanced business environment will be reached. The eucalyptus plantations are to bring more benefits to the communities, and safer protection to the environment. The today's important goal to the eucalyptus forest planters is to find better ways to dialogue and to communicate with the society. Better dialogue and mutual commitments are the next steps in forestry. This means we are starting some new sciences in the Eucalyptus plantation forests, as the social sciences and anthropology. This is definitively a changing world. And very exciting, too.


FOELKEL, C.E.B. - Eucaliptos no Brasil: historia de pioneirismo. Visao Agricola v.4: 66-69, 2005

FOELKEL, C.E.B. - Technological developments in the sustainable plantation of forests in Brazil. 6 pages , 2006 Available in:

MORA, A . L. ; GARCIA, C.H. – A cultura do eucalipto no Brasil. Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura, 112 p., 2000

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