Here we are again, with another issue
of our Eucalyptus Newsletter to provide to you valuable information
about the eucalyptus.
In this issue, we are again bringing to you something new. It consists
in a new section, where we will present a condensation of talks with
my dear friend Alberto Mori. In this dialogue and debate, we intend to
take advantage of all Mori's expertise in the field of paper manufacturing
and specialty papers properties. The intention is to better understand
the advantages of the eucalyptus for different paper grades. We will
start with unusual paper grades as filter, decor, cigarettes, supercalendered,
coated, and other papers. One paper grade at a time. We are calling this
section as "A Talk with Alberto Mori
about the Papers Made with Eucalyptus Fibers". I'm sure that it will be rewarding to you all.
In the section "The
Friends of the Eucalyptus" we
are telling the professional life, scientific production, and career
of one of the
world's most renowned expert on fibers for papermaking: our dear friend
Dr. Robert Paul Kibblewhite. Paul is definitively a legend, a myth and
a patrimony to the pulp and paper sector. I'm very proud to have had
the chance to introduce him to you.
Another issue that I'm bringing again to you is about "Costs
and Profits in the Eucalyptus Wood Production by Coppice/Clear
Management". Also, in other section in this newsletter, I'm widening
the issue about BATs ("Best Available
Techniques") to the manufacture
of bleached kraft eucalyptus pulp. Both issues have been exhaustibly
covered for your reading. Several valuable euca-links are also presented
for even further updating you in these two topics.
In this issue, we are also bringing to you the fifth chapter of our
Eucalyptus Online Book. The title of this chapter (only in Portuguese
till now) is:"SOLID
WASTES GENERATED IN THE EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP PRODUCTION. Part 01:
Fibrous organic wastes"
English translations for chapters 04 and 05 are on the way, please,
wait a little more. The mini-article of this newsletter closes my comments
about the water consumption and water cycle closure in the production
of eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp. Since the past mini-article about
water consumption, I have received many comments from readers, asking
for additional information on this theme. For this reason, I decided
to bring a complement on this issue, and some other suggestions. Evething
very feasible and sound. My suggestions are very applicable to many mills,
it is just a question of reflections and actions.
you may notice, I'm placing a lot of efforts in environmental issues
and pulp production. This is a key point nowadays. I hope to be bringing
my contribution to the forestry and pulp and paper segments. I'm
being quite strong and positive on this. My purpose is that the eucalyptus
pulp and paper production continues to grow in an environmentally
sound way in the direction of
the dreamed sustainability.
As we are used to do, in this newsletter issue, we are bringing a lot
of interesting subjects about the eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer
knowledge in a way that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such.
For this, we are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to
grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles,
and recommendations of books and interesting events.
In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus
Newsletters and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest
you to do it through the following link: Click
here for registration.
have now several non financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus
Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI,
RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA. They are
helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the eucalyptus in countries
as Brazil, USA, Chile, Portugal, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New
Zealand and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality
they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very
much to our partners for believing in what we are doing. Know more about
all of our today’s partners at the URL address: http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/partners.html
Thanks again for the support to our work. I beg your help to inform about
and to promote our project to your friends , in case you feel these
publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks,
and also the gratitude from ABTCP, BOTNIA, ARACRUZ and partners.
Our best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading.
Online Book Chapter 05 in Portuguese
on Events and Courses
Available Techniques to the Manufacture of Eucalyptus
Pulp - (a continuation on this topic)
Costs and Profits in the Eucalyptus
Wood Production by Coppice / Clear Cutting Forest Management
The Friends of the Eucalyptus
- Dr. Robert Paul Kibblewhite
A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Made
with Eucalyptus Fibers
mini-article by Celso Foelkel
Water Cycle for Further Reductions on Water Consumption
in the Manufacture of Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp
Online Book Chapter 05
in English will soon be released. Thanks for the patience.
WASTES GENERATED IN THE EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP PRODUCTION. Part 01:
Fibrous organic wastes"
this section, we are offering some very good euca-links with relevant
publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You
have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or
to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for
the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they
are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they
are very much connected with the eucalyptus. In this section, we
are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that
are helping to build the foundations and the history of the eucalyptus
forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas
related to these magic trees.
An UNICAMP Master Dissertation about Genomics in Brazil (Portuguese)
Redes de pesquisa em genomica
no Brasil : politicas publicas e estrategias privadas frente a programas
de sequenciamento genetico. (Research
networks on genomic in Brazil : public policies and private strategies
toward genetic sequencing programs). E. L. Dias.
Master Dissertation. UNICAMP - University of Campinas. 225 pp. (2006)
Online Book about Field Pests and Diseases of the Eucalyptus (Spanish)
Manual de campo. Plagas y enfermedades
de eucaliptos y pinus en Uruguay. (Field handbook.
Pests and diseases of eucalyptus and pines in Uruguay). Ministerio
de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca de Uruguay. 173 pp. (2006)
of the Symposium Genomics for Future Forests (English)
Genomics for future forests. Canadian Symposium. Natural
Resources Canada. 83 pp. (2006)
2006 ABRAF Statistics - Associacao Brasileira dos Produtores
de Florestas Plantadas - Brazilian Association of the Planted Forests
Producers (Portuguese and English)
Statistical Yearbook ABRAF
Base year 2006. Publication 2007 (English)
Anuario Estatistico ABRAF
Ano Base 2006. Publicacao 2007 (Portuguese)
Proceedings of the Wood Fibre Cell Wall Structure Conference
- Building a cell wall (English)
A publication by The Finnish Forest Research Institute, University of Helsinki & Cost
Action E20 Working Group. 85 pp. (2003)
An USP PhD Thesis about Eco-efficiency in the Pulp and
Paper Industry (Portuguese)
Eco-eficiencia na industria de
celulose e papel - Estudo de caso. (Eco-efficiency in the pulp and paper
industry - A case study). Z.C.Piotto. University of Sao
Paulo. 379 pp. (2003)
An Online Book about Changes in the Land Utilization
(English and Spanish)
Land use, land use change and forestry. R.T.Watson;
I.R.Noble; B.Bolin; N.H.Ravindranath; D.J.Verardo; D.J.Dokken.
IPCC Report - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
A FAO Online Book about Forest Biotechnology (English)
Biotechnology in forest tree improvement. R.Haines. FAO Forestry Paper
FAO State of the World's Forests Reports (English, Spanish
State of the World's Forests Reports
(from 1994 till 2007 annual reports). FAO - Food
and Agriculture Organization
An Online Article about Eucalyptus Cloning (Portuguese)
Clonagem de Eucalyptus sp. (Cloning
of Eucalyptus sp.). A.Araujo. Federal University
on Events and Courses
on System Analysis in Forest Resources (English)
An event organized by Pacific Northwest Research Station, Rocky Mountain Research
Station, US Forest Service. Edited by M.Bevers; T.M.Barrett. The symposium covers
forest economy, planning and management. (2003)
Latin American Symposium on Forest Management and Economics (English
An event organized by CTFC - Centro de Tecnologia Florestal da Catalunha, also
about forest economy, planning and management. (2004)
Simposio Ibero Americano de Gestao e Economia Florestal - III
Iberian American Symposium on Forest Management and Economics
(English and Portuguese)
Organized by IPEF - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais (Institute
of Forest Research and Studies). It really pays to navigate in the papers,
have a look. (2005)
I Seminar on Forest Hydrology - Riparian Zones (Portuguese)
Organized by the Federal University of Santa Catarina. 157 pp. (2003)
PowerPoint Course "From forests to fibers" by Dr. Hasan
A kind offer from North Carolina State University, Pulp and Paper Science Program.
There are many excellent slides to the beginners in this topic. (2002)
Online PowerPoint Course "Major pulp
tests" by Dr. Hasan Jameel (English)
A North Carolina State University course about the fundamental tests to determine
the quality of a pulp. (2002)
Online PowerPoint Course "Papermaking: fibers
into paper" by Dr. Ethan K. Andrews (English)
A North Carolina State University course about the fundamentals of papermaking.
E32 Events - "Characterization of Paper Surfaces for Improved
Printing Grades" (English)
The COST E32 has a very rich webpage. It is housed by the
PFI - Paper and Fiber Research Institute, in Norway. In this
page we may find the presentations of several COST E32 events
that took place in European cities since 2003. COST is the
acronym for European Cooperation in the Field of Science and
Technical Research, with several working groups in different
science and technology fields. Fortunately to us, they have
a working group on printing papers and their surface quality.
Please, visit the several events and check the "Presentations".
Also visit the PFI website:
Chilean Modular Course to the Certification of Labor Competence
of Forest Workers (Spanish)
Excellent online course offered by CORMA - Corporacion Chilena de la Madera,
Bio Bio Division. An example to be pursued.
Forum in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Portuguese)
A great event organized by the Uniao Nacional dos Engenheirandos Florestais
and by Floresta Junior - Federal University of Santa Maria. Congratulations
to this new harvest of young and entrepreneur Brazilian forest engineers.
we are bringing to you a selection of excellent online journals with
connection to the eucalyptus. In these journals, you may freely download
articles or read the news, without the need of memberships, passwords
or payments. They are journals or article collections at our hands
(or eyes), available to all those wondering to read and to learn
more about forestry, environment, pulp, paper, woods, and eucalyptus,
surely. Please, go the the search tool in each journal, and type "Eucalyptus".
Then, have a look in the result. In this way, many times you may
find valuable technical material. To the editors of these journals,
our most sincere appreciation and thanks. We hope many other journals
may join forces to this scientific and technical knowledge chain.
A technical and scientific journal edited by The Finnish Society of Forest
Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute. Articles in English.
this magazine was named Solutions, and edited by TAPPI - Technical
Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, and PIMA - Paper Industry
Management Association. Recently, Questex Media took the publication
to their responsibility, in an agreement with TAPPI and PIMA. The
journal keeps a link with both associations. It is a very nice and
good reading magazine, with articles, interviews, news and information
about the pulp and paper industry. Edited in English, with free web
magazine of the Instituto de Florestas da Universidade Federal Rural
do Rio de Janeiro (Institute of Forestry - Rural Federal University
of Rio de Janeiro). Edited in Portuguese, with English abstracts.
scientific journal of North Carolina State University. It is oriented
to studies about biomass, bioenergy, paper, pulp, and lignocellulosic
materials. It is an excellent journal, with several papers from Brazilian
scientists. Publication in English.
online journal about forest issues edited by ICI - Instituto de Ciencia
e Investigacion do Uruguai (Institute of Science and Research of
Uruguay). Articles are preferably in Spanish, but you may also find
articles in English and Portuguese, depending on the sources.
Internal online publication of the company CMPC Chile. It brings fresh information
about the different CMPC businesses. Publication in Spanish.
Best Available Techniques to the Manufacture
of Eucalyptus Pulp
continuation on this topic)
a recent Eucalyptus Newsletter, I presented my personal vision
about what I consider to be modern, feasible and state-of-the-art
in terms of available technologies and best environmental practices
to the manufacture of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp and paper (http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newseng_mar07.html#quatorze).
This topic is something very attractive and deserves a lot of attention.
There are several pulp mills that have recently been or are still
being built in countries as Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, China, Indonesia,
etc. In all cases, the objective should be oriented to the construction
of modern mills, with the best available technologies. This is
valid for operational efficiency in production and environmental
protection. But, what are the best available techniques? Which
are the signals of the technological state-of-the-art? Where to
find information about these topics? Who could provide reliable
and updated information about what could be considered minimum
environmental impact pulp and paper mills? How to know whether
or not the new pulp and paper mills being built are really based
on BATs? For this reason, I decided to bring more information on
this topic. The purpose is to offer to all stakeholders, a valuable
source of information and references about the "BATs" (Best
Available Techniques or Technologies) ou "ESTs" (Environmentally
Sound Technologies) to the pulp and paper industry . The euca-links
may be accessed and the issue better understood. Also, the existing
mills may have a chance to search the BATs for their modernization
projects and better environmental performances. This kind of information
is also valid to several niches of the general society, to better
understand about the pulp and paper industry, and about the care
of such industry on environment preservation. I consider also important
that these documents may become a source of realistic references
to the government control agencies. Having them at the hands, they
may better evaluate the level of the impacts of the pulp and paper
mills they are responsible for controlling and/or licensing.
Before presenting the list of references, I suggest
you to have a look in a questionnaire I have prepared as a check
list to identify the technological stage of a bleached kraft pulp
mill. It allows the identification of the technological stage of
any kraft pulpmill. After grabbing the information about key areas
in the mill, you may search the sectorial benchmarks. By a detailed
evaluation of each of the suggested areas, you may reach the conclusion
about whether or not the mill has a BAT or a EST in each of these
areas. The benchmarks you may obtain reading the suggested euca-links
in this section.
Celso Foelkel's questionnaire at:
most traditional document to define the BATs to the pulp and paper
industry is the BREF, developed by EIPPCB. By BREF you may understand
the term as being "Reference Document on BAT - Best Available
Techniques in the Pulp and Paper Industry". The EIPPCB (European
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) is the European
Union technical committee to work on issues on prevention and controlling
industrial pollution. This BREF reference document was delivered
on December 2001, it has already 6 years of age. The development
of the document happened along 2000 and 2001. The techniques, suggested
benchmarks and references are those from that time. The EIPPCB
has already an agenda for updating this document till November
2008, when a new version is expected to be released.
December 2001 - EIPPCB - in English (alternative websites for
following up the updating process of the pulp and paper BREF, please
are several official publications from the EIPPCB and also many
available articles commenting the BREF. A country that pays a lot
of attention on the BREF, BATs and ESTs is Finland. There are several
papers about these topics by the Finnish. There are sound reasons
for this: Finland has today the most advanced development of technologies
and machinery suppliers to the pulp and paper industry. Finland
is also very strong in terms of pulp and paper production. Several
Finnish companies are world leading producers in distinct market
segments of this business, with mills located both in Scandinavia
and throughout the world.
Please, find some references about the BREF, BATs
and ESTs in the following links:
Impact of Best Available Techniques (BAT) in the Competitiveness
of European Industry. D.Hitchens; F.Farrell;
J.Lindblom; U.Triebswetter. European Comission, Report EUR
20133 EN. 120 pp. (2001)
Available Techniques in European Environmental Legislation: the
case of Finland. A.R.Lindgren. Congress ABTCP/PI
to Consider in the Determination of BAT.
Techniques. 7 pp.
Continuum - Rethinking BAT Emissions
of the Pulp and Paper Industry in the European Union. P.Nilsson;
K.Puurunen; P.Vasara; T.Jouttijarvi. Finnish Environment Report
12/2007. 41 pp. (2007)
Strategic Concept for Best Available Techniques in the Forest Industry. P.Vasara;
H.Jappinen; L.Lobbas. Finnish Environment Report 425. 75 pp. (2001)
Forces for Environmentally Sounder Innovations. The case of the
Finnish pulp and paper industry. P.Kivimaa; P.Mickwitz.
Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental
Change. 25 pp. (2003)
of Environmenal Cross-Media and Economic Aspects in Industry -
Finnish BAT expert case study. P.Vasara; K.Silvo;
P.Nilsson; L.Peuhkuri; A.Perrels. Finnish Environment Report 528.
117 pp. (2002)
General Principles of Monitoring. EIPPCB
Report. 123 pp. (2003)
Sector Guidance: pulp and paper. EIPPCB S6.01.
108 pp. (2000)
Sector Guidance: pulp and paper - Applicant version. EIPPCB
S6.01e. 52 pp. (2000)
Performance, Regulations and Technologies in the Pulp and Paper
Industry. Ekono strategic study. Brochure. 5 pp.
(2005) - Study to be obtained through Ekono.
Advice on the Development of Environmental Guidelines for Any New
Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill in Tasmania. BECA/AMEC & RPDC,
Tasmania, Australia. 53 pp. (2004)
Futuro de la Produccion de Celulosa y las Tecnicas
de Produccion mas Favorables para el Medio Ambiente. Greenpeace
Argentina. 48 pp. (2006)
Products Technologies: energy savings via R&D. US Department
of Energy. 24 pp.
and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report. Jacobs & IPST.
116 pp. (2006)
Scenario Document on Non-Integrated Paper Mills. OECD
- Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Environmental,
health and safety publications. 36 pp. (2006)
Impact Assessment and Environmental Auditing in the Pulp and
Paper Industry. FAO Forestry Paper 129. (1996)
other important sources for defining BATs to the pulp and paper industry
are the Stockholm Convention on POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants),
and the series of documents about environment, occupational safety
and health from IFC - International Finance Corporation, a World
the IFC series, the former document issued in 1998 is being replaced
by a new one. The new version (June 2007) is in the draft format,
being submitted for comments by stakeholders.
The former document from 1998 may still be accessed at:
Pollution Prevention and Abatement
Handbook - Pulp and paper mills. IFC. 6 pp. (1998)
The new document, in an updated and new version is available at:
Environmental, Health and Safety
Guidelines - Pulp and paper mills. IFC. 31
Finally, the Stockholm Convention on POPs presented several industrial segment
technologies, and proposals for improvements as regards to the POPs generation
and elimination. Several websites about the Convention have being released
to the public.
Many papers related
to the Stockholm Convention and the POPs have being released to the public.
UNEP - The United Nations Environment Programme also has important contributions
on the POPs. Some of these relevant documents may be obtained in links as those
Convention on POPs - Article 5. Annex C - Measures to reduce or
eliminate releases from unintentional production
on Best Available Techniques and Provisional Guidance on Best Environmental
Practices. Stockholm Convention on POPs. Working
Group. Advanced Draft. 317 pp. (2004)
Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxins and Furans
Releases. UNEP Draft Document. 194 pp. (2001)
Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxins and Furans
Releases. UNEP Final Document. 253 pp. (2005)
and Profits in the Eucalyptus Wood Production by Coppice
/ Clear Cutting Forest Management
there is an enormous movement among rural farmers in considering
eucalyptus for plantations. Many investors and farmers are really
willing to go to this potentially profitable business. There is a
projection for reasonable economic gains with the forestry activity.
On the other hand, there is a great level of lack on knowledge in
simple issues as: how to plant? how to manage? where to obtain good
quality seedlings? how to get the licenses for planting and harvesting?
and mainly: which are the potential economic results of such activity?
I am receiving many comments and questions about these topics in
my website www.celso-foelkel.com.br. We definitively have a lack
of information to the regular people, the newcomers in the business.
Some sources are informing very high profitability to the eucalyptus
plantation forests, even difficult to be achieved. This may lead
to frustration to farmers, in case they go planting eucalyptus anticipating
huge results. Also, the silvicultural activity involves risks. The
final economic results depend on the weather, on the silvicultural
techniques, the genetic material being used, on the attacks of pests
or diseases, on forest fires, etc. It is very important to be acquainted
to the forest technologies, to have good genetic material and a good
definition about the type of forest management to be adopted. There
are several possibilities: to harvest the forest in a clear cutting
in an early age (7 years in Brazil) or to manage the forest by adopting
thinning at intermediate ages, saving the best trees to a final harvest,
later. This second management gives more valuable wood, but the majority
of the income is delayed to the end of the cycle. Another option is
to adopt agroforestry,
a combination of plantations of trees with agricultural crops or
pastures for cattle growing. Each of these selected forest management
may provide you a different result, and associated risks. The timing
for income inputs also may vary from one option to another.
all these reasons, I strongly
recommend to all farmers who may be willing to
start in this business to place
an effort on studying and reading the subject,
as much as possible. There are
many options, and you may find valuable websites
books with considerations about
forestry for the eucalyptus plantations. However,
be careful, there are also information
sources not so reliable. When
considering the potential economic
gains of the plantation forests, each possibility
demands for an economic evaluation.
is because different cash flows
lead to different financial results. It is
very important to dialogue, to
understand the steps, and to be very realistic,
in some cases, even conservative.
Sound figures and reliable financial analyses
may provide you the required
information for taking the best decisions.
many cases, the forest
planter may be willing
to have a fast income,
and to harvest the forest by clear cutting
at the age 7, as usual
in Brazil. In case he adopts a poor forest
technology, with bad
quality seedlings, no fertilization,
no combat to weeds,
ants and other pests, etc, his productivity
will be very poor.
It will be very difficult to reach the dreamed
values of 40 to 45
There are cases that
even doing everything right, with good forest
productivity, the farmers
face problems to sell the wood: how
to sell? to whom? what
are the market prices? which is the minimum
price to pay his costs
and to give him some profit? how to
sell the wood? Harvested
wood? Standing tree forest? Each situation
will give him new costs
and changes the economic results, for better
or for worse. For this
reason, it is very important that the
rural farmers be used
to financial mathematics calculations. A clear
understanding and definitions
of all business steps
are vital. For all these, please, when in
the business, read
a lot, search for benchmarks, try to adopt
the best forest technologies
and best genetic materials.
Also, value each dollar you spend,
and work the cash flow
for a final good result. Don't try
to save money in things
that are to damage your growth yield.
The economic result
is very sensitive to the final harvested volume
of wood. Remember,
the cost/benefit ratio is more important than
Brazil, any farmer who has a land has options
for its use. One of the options is to rent
or to lease the land to another farmer or to
a large scale agricultural company. The land
may be leased for planting soybean, sugar cane,
corn, planted forests, etc. The leased land
may provide a sum of money to the farmer. This
money has no risk, as far there are good guarantees
in the leasing contract. The land owner has
only to care about a good use of the land,
without soil degradation and exhaustion. Let's
call this money received for the rental as "land
rental result". This value corresponds
to a payment to the money invested by the landowner
to purchase and to preserve the land. It is
very fair to be considered in the financial
evaluations. Let's consider a value of 100
US$ per hectare per year for the potential
rental/leasing of the land (an example in Brazil).
On the other hand, let's suppose that the farmer
decides for planting an eucalyptus forest.
Any money he spends to plant the forest could
be saved and invested in a saving account in
his favorite bank. It is a conservative investment,
with close to nil risks. In the year 2007,
in Brazil, a conservative investment in a saving
account pays you 8% of interest rate per year.
As a consequence of these two factors: a planted
forest must reward the land and the spent capital,
do you agree? The final result shall consider
the remuneration of the land (rental/leasing)
and the financial result for the invested capital.
have a forest
of the planted
at the age
7. The purpose
is to replace
In 7 years,
in the leading
to find more
not be interested
are to replace
just in case
be very poor.
may be managed
may be harvested
in 7 years
It all depends
on the quality
of the forest
in the ability
by good management
admit some assumptions for
our preliminary financial
evaluation. This will be a
example, just to give to rural
farmers a model to use. All
costs will be placed in US$,
for better understanding of
the international readers.
Costs and incomes are to be
presented in dollars per hectare.
The costs are very similar
to those in force in Brazil,
high quality silviculture
the adopted forest
management system was coppicing with
clear cutting at the end of the rotation
cost of forest plantation per hectare
in the "zero year" was
the equivalent to 1250 US$ (seedlings,
fertilizers, herbicides, soil preparation,
ants combat, road improvement,
etc). In case the farmer receives
the seedlings as donation from
a forest company or from a government
organization, the cost may be reduced
to 1100 US$. Another cash flow
cost in the first year with fertilization,
silvicultural practices , combat
to weeds, ants, etc, will be 500
US$ per hectare
land rental is 100 US$/hectare.year
(ants combat, repairs in fences,
protection against fires, vigilance,
etc) from the second to the seventh
year will be 50 US$/hectare.year
growth yield will be adopted as
40 m³ of
solid trunk with bark/ha.year
bark content to be 12% in volume
discount rate equal to 8% per year
(this 8% is equivalent to the interest
rate being paid by the Brazilian
banks for keeping the farmer capital
in a saving account)
We are now presenting
two options for evaluations. We could
have many more, it all depends on
the way the farmer wants to manage
and to harvest his plantations. Let's
assume that the farmer wants to clear
cut the forest to sell the wood for
pulp, panels or any other commodity-like
1: the forest is harvested at the age
7. The farmer (or the forester) will
replace the forest by another one he
expects to have a much better performance.
All remuneration of the invested capital
and land rental must be paid in one
plantation forest cycle.
Option 2: the farmer (or the forester)
decides to leave the forest for another
rotation, even knowing that the forest
yield will be somewhat lower due to some
trees that will die. Let's admit that the
forest growth rate for the second rotation
will be 35 m³/ha.year. The second
harvesting will be kept at the age 7, as
in the first rotation. Since the trees
will not be so large in diameter, the bark
content was assumed to grow to 15%. Poorer
the forests, higher the bark content. In
the first year of the second rotation,
the farmer will spend 600 US$/hectare in
activities as fertilization, combat to
weeds, soil protection, etc. Furthermore,
the usual values for land rental and forest
maintenance will be applicable, as well.
make the financial projections
for these two case studies. The
in both cases is to discover
the price of the wood that pays
in terms of a discount
rate of 8%, and a land rental of
What we need to do is to
find a wood price that brings the
NPV - Net Present
Value to be zero. Any price
that do not reach this value is
the land and the capital
as it should be. Values above are
than the assumed 8% for
the discount rate. To the investor,
it is very
important to know these
The results may be easily obtained using any calculating machine, you
do not need to have a financial calculator to do this. However, in
case you have, it makes your exercise simpler and faster. Cash flows
were simulated for the two selected options.
Results for Option 1: The price
for selling the wood in the standing forest should
be the equivalent to
15,3 US$ per cubic meter of wood with bark, standing
trees, no costs involved with the harvesting. In
case the option be to sell the wood with no bark,
for the debarked wood has to be 17,4 US$ / m³ of
debarked wood, but considered in the standing forest.
This is due to the fact that wood is only 88% on
Results for Option 2: In this case,
the price for selling the wood
has to be a minimum of 13,2 US$
per cubic meter with bark in the
standing forest. For debarked wood,
the value grows to 15,5 US$ per
The methodology is very simple, we need to find the price for the wood
that generates a null NPV- Net Present Value. We do this by attempts,
changing the prices and checking the NPV. In case we are able to find
a better price than the one calculated for zero NPV, we may work to
discover the IRR - Internal Return Rate. This will be the new rate
of discount that is being applicable to your cash flow. In case we
get 15% for example, we are gaining more results than keeping the money
in the bank saving account. It depends on you to take the decision
to invest and to take the risks.
a better understanding of the wood market prices in Brazil, there
are some available sources to be searched.
One is the website of CEPEA - Center of Advanced
Studies in Applied Economy - ESALQ/USP at:
possibility is to visit the REMADE forestry portal at: http://www.remade.com.br/pt/ind_preco_mad.php
friends, please make sound analyses and good reflections to be
the bases for your decisions on going to this new business. You
may make good money, but you also may lose money: it depends a
lot on you. This fact is inherent to any type of business. In case
of bad decisions and not using appropriate technologies, you may
lose even more than you have spent. You need patience, wisdom,
knowledge and good practices. Our eucalyptus trees grow very well,
but they need care. We also need to provide the conditions they
need for this growth.
these discussions, I'm bringing to you a large list of euca-links,
with selected articles that may be obtained in the online literature.
They are in Portuguese and Spanish. Most of them deal with eucalyptus
plantation costs and profits. There are many cases of different
forest management, you must be careful on reading them.
In the previous Eucalyptus Newsletter number 03, I had already presented
to you some of these articles (http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newseng_jan06.html#oito).
Now, since the topic
is very hot and demanded, I decided to offer a long list, with many
more references for your reading. Pay a lot of attention to each
case, try to identify those more similar to your situation. Time
is money, please use your time to make more money, OK? Just in case,
a financial maths calculator is a good purchasing. The price is negligible
in comparison to the costs for planting a forest.
visit the euca-links below, although most of then are written in
Portuguese or Spanish. However, you may find abstracts in English:
Friends of the Eucalyptus
Robert Paul Kibblewhite
R. Paul Kibblewhite is one of the most prominent and renowned
names in the world of the pulp and paper technology. His career
and his life have always been associated to challenges and the
need to overcome them. Despite his difficulties with his eyes
and the problems to see, Paul's wills to create, to innovate,
to develop and to win were growing at the same time his vision
was fading. A curious and unique situation: higher the difficulties,
stronger the determination and better the achievements. An example
to be followed.
is, besides all, a captivating, charming and charismatic person.
This is due both for his knowledge and skills, and because the
fantastic human being he is. For these reasons, Paul is admired
not only in New Zealand and Australia, but in all the pulp and
paper world. His name is notably known in the area of paper physics
and pulp fiber morphology.
as his preference to be called, was born in a small town in New
Zealand, in Christchurch. Along the years of his early ages,
his life was linked to the beauty of Nature, because the amazing
surroundings in the place he grew up. This factor motivated him
to study and to grow interest in issues as botany and natural
sciences. Soon, he developed the interest to work with the New
Zealand Forest Service, a dream he was able to accomplish still
very young. As an option to his professional career, he decided
to study Plant Science and Chemistry, obtaining his Bachelor
of Science in 1965 through the University of Auckland. Immediately,
he moved to United States of America, to work for the Master
of Science degree at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, in Appleton,
Wisconsin. The PhD at the same institute was a natural consequence
oh his successes in his academic studies. His researches were
oriented to the wood and fiber structure. He tried to combine
his knowledge in fundamentals of botany and wood chemistry to
the practical utilization of the trees, a sound match. Early
before this, he had obtained his position at the New Zealand
Forest Service. The organization soon had identified Paul's potentials
and skills. For this reason, the NZ Forest Service has provided
support and help to Paul's career development with the academic
studies. When back to New Zealand, he was ready to grab a professional
position as researcher at the FRI - Forest Research Institute,
Forest Products Division, in Rotorua. The FRI was the forest
and wood technology branch of the NZ Forest Service. In Rotorua,
Paul could begin and to dedicate to the study of fibers, pulps
and woods for pulping and papermaking. This was a sector considered
to be vital to the country's development. His successes in the
career and in the researches soon rewarded the investments made
by the Forest Service with Paul's studies abroad. His technological
and scientific contribution along the 40 years of professional
career have been outstanding. Paul has never satisfied himself
only with science: he always tried to combine science with the
practical utilization of the woods and fibers. Based on this
fact, he developed new technical ways to measure fiber attributes
that could be strongly related to fiber uses for existing and
new products. His attention was driven to species growing in
forest plantations. These species could provide the needs for
wood to the country development, helping to preserve the natural
forests. Based on this principle, Paul placed many efforts to
investigate the utilization for papermaking of several woods,
mainly those from Pinus radiata, Acacia spp. and the most commonly
planted eucalyptus in New Zealand: Eucalyptus nitens, E.fastigata,
E.regnans and E.globulus. Although so close
to Australia, the eucalyptus do not grow naturally in New Zealand,
they need to be planted in man-made plantation forests. For this
interest of developing these woods for industrial utilization.
The potential of the eucalyptus for New Zealand was defined as
very promising. As a consequence, special attention has been
always provided by Paul and his research team in the evaluation
of eucalyptus species with good potential to New Zealand.
his practical sense, Paul has never discarded science and new
knowledge development to explain his findings and to upgrade
forest products. Paul was one of the first scientists to work
the concept of fiber deformations ("kinks" and "curl")
to differentiate fiber properties and to add new papermaking
characteristics to them. He placed a hard working in searching
new fiber attributes, new ways to evaluate pulps, in an attempt
to diversify fiber uses.
his career, Paul was able to build a fantastic data bank about
wood, fibers, pulps and papers. The knowledge he has in these
issues has been the main reason for Paul's reputation, not only
locally, but internationally. Paul is one of the most renowned
and awarded scientists in New Zealand.
of the most important phases of his career happened along the
time when the FRI was converted to PAPRO - New Zealand Pulp and
Paper Research Organization. The names Kibblewhite and PAPRO
were so tightly linked that could be associated as name and surname.
More recently, PAPRO has become a part of ENSIS, a R&D joint
venture between the Australian CSIRO and the New Zealander SCION.
In spite of the fact of so many managerial changes, Paul is still
working at the same place, doing what he knows as few people
in the world: research and development. Today, Paul is principal
scientist of ENSIS in studies related to pulp fibers and uses
for them (papers, fiber/cement composites, etc).
Paul is also dedicating part of his time to transfer his accumulated
knowledge in courses, speeches and seminars. He is doing this
in several countries, as recently happened in Brazil and Chile.
His professional career started with the natural forests, and
later received an specialization in planted trees for commercial
uses. His admiration and enthusiasm for the trees has always
been the same, independently the way they have been planted.
main areas of expertise are the following:
and softwood fibers and their attributes for papermaking;
relationships between fiber fundamental properties
and fibers multiple uses;
of new fiber products;
on fiber uses through forest tree breeding and industrial process
and benchmarking for fibers and pulps;
tree breeding for better fiber designing and wood engineering;
of paper sheet and paper machine performance;
refining and effects on pulp fibers;
blends for the production of better quality papers;
of papermaking furnishes, industrial process variables and quality
of pulp and paper products;
emphasis on developing and training people.
results of his professional career are proved by his over 150
published papers, one patent, and over 250 consulting reports.
Some additional information about Dr. R. Paul Kibblewhite, his curriculum,
his seminars and his scientific awards may be seen in the below mentioned
fibre – from forest to paper end use. Course
fibres for the future. Symposium brochure.
publication list 2006. 10
Dr R. Paul Kibblewhite – Eucalypt
Research. 3 pp. (2006)
The Royal Society of New Zealand.
ScionResearch. New Zealand.
of the most recent Paul's technical articles , and the most relevant
related to the eucalyptus are presented to you as euca-links.
Dr. Kibblewhite has also a considerable number of papers related
to the study of Pinus radiata, another very popular forest species
being planted in New Zealand.
it is a honor to me being a friend of yours and to have had the
opportunity to know more about you and your life and career.
Thanks very much for all you have done in favor of the eucalyptus.
Our most sincere appreciation and recognition for all you have
done and still are to do to the pulp and paper industry.
market kraft fibre and pulp qualities. R.P.Kibblewhite;
A.D.Bawden; M.C.Hughes. Appita Journal 44(5): 325 – 332
(1991). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.
and optical properties of separate and co-refined softwood
and eucalypt market kraft pulps. R.P.Kibblewhite.
Appita Journal 47(2): 149 – 153, 158 (1994). A courtesy
of Appita / Australia.
requirements of softwood and eucalypt kraft market pulps and
R.P.Kibblewhite. Appita Journal 47(5): 375 – 379, 401
(1994). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.
of refining response of eucalypt and mixed hardwood and their
blends with softwood. C.L.Brindley; R.P.Kibblewhite.
Appita Journal 49(1): 37 – 42 (1996). A courtesy of
Appita / Australia.
fibre and pulp quality of 29 trees of New Zealand grown Eucalyptus
nitens. R.P.Kibblewhite; M.J.C.Riddell;
C.J.A.Shelbourne. Appita 51(2): 114 – 121 (1998). A
courtesy of Appita / Australia.
fibre property variation among 29 trees of 15-year-old Eucalyptus
fastigata and comparison with Eucalyptus nitens. R.P.Kibblewhite;
C.J.McKenzie. Appita Journal 52(3): 218 – 225 (1999).
A courtesy of Appita / Australia.
fibres for improved papers through exploiting genetic variation
in wood microstructure. R.P.Kibblewhite.
Appita Journal 52(6): 429 – 435, 440 (1999). A courtesy
of Appita / Australia.
and kraft fibre property variation within and among nine
trees of Eucalyptus nitens. R.P.Kibblewhite;
M.J.C.Riddell. Appita Journal 53(3): 237 – 244 (2000).
A courtesy of Appita / Australia.
potential of different eucalypt softwood blends during separate
and co-PFI mill refining. S.D.Mansfield;
R.P.Kibblewhite. Appita Journal 53(5): 385 – 392 (2000).
A courtesy of Appita / Australia.
of microfibril angle, density and fibre orientation in twenty-nine Eucalyptus
nitens trees. R.Evans;
S.Stringer; R.P.Kibblewhite. Appita Journal 53(5): 450 – 457
(2000). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.
variation of some wood and kraft fibre properties of Eucalyptus
fastigata and E.nitens. R.P.Kibblewhite;
M.J.C.Riddell. Appita Journal 54(2): 136 – 143 (2001).
A courtesy of Appita / Australia.
in density and wood fibre properties with height position
in 15/16-year-old Eucalyptus nitens and E.fastigata. R.P.Kibblewhite;
R.Evans; M.J.C.Riddell; C.J.A.Shelbourne. Appita Journal
57(3): 240 – 247 (2004). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.
between kraft handsheet and wood fibre and chemical properties
for the trees and logs of 29 Eucalyptus fastigata and
29 E.nitens. R.P.Kibblewhite; R.Evans;
M.J.C.Riddell. Appita Journal 57(4): 317 – 325 (2004).
A courtesy of Appita / Australia.
and fibre wall response to refining in softwood and hardwood
kraft pulps. R.P.Kibblewhite; A.D.Bawden.
Proceedings of the PIRA Conference “Current and Future
Technologies of Refining”. 36 pp. (1991). A courtesy
of refined softwood : eucalypt pulp mixtures on paper properties. R.P.Kibblewhite.
Transactions of the 10th Fundamental Research Symposium “Products
of Papermaking”. 34 pp: 127 – 157, 1365 – 1367.
(1993). A courtesy of FRC / UK.
selection of trees with designer fibres for different paper
and pulp grades. R.P.Kibblewhite; C.J.A.Shelbourne.
Transactions of the 11th Fundamental Research Symposium “The
Fundamentals of Papermaking Materials”. pp:439 – 472,
1435. (1997). A courtesy of FRC / UK.
in wood, kraft fibre, and handsheet properties among 29 trees
of Eucalyptus regnans, and comparison with E.nitens and E.fastigata. R.P.Kibblewhite;
M.J.C.Riddell; C.J.A.Shelbourne. New Zealand Journal of Forestry
Science 30(3): 458 – 474 (2000). A courtesy from the
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science.
and papermaking properties of eucalypt, mixed hardwood and
softwood market pulp blends. R.P.Kibblewhite;
C.L.Brindley. PAPRO Report, New Zealand. 4 pp. (1993). A
courtesy from PAPRO / New Zealand.
pulp qualities of Eucalyptus nitens, E.globulus and E.maidenii at
ages 8 and 11 years. R.P.Kibblewhite; B.Johnson;
C.J.A.Shelbourne. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science
30(3): 447 – 457 (2000). A courtesy from the New Zealand
Journal of Forestry Science.
for future products from pulp. R.P.Kibblewhite.
Powerpoint Presentation: 26 slides.
tool for the rapid assessment of wood and fiber quality. R.
Evans; R.P.Kibblewhite; G.Downes; J.Ilic; M.Hughes; S.O.Lundqvist.
PowerPoint Presentation: 44 slides. Marcus Wallenberg Prize
eucalypt-fibre selection for papermaking. R.P.Kibblewhite.
2nd International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. PowerPoint
Presentation: 64 slides. (2005)
influences on tissue quality. R.P.Kibblewhite.
2nd International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. PowerPoint
Presentation: 59 slides. (2005)
of treating lignocellulosic or cellulosic pulp to promote
the kinking of pulp fibers and/or to improve paper tear strength. A.J.Kerr;
R.P.Kibblewhite. US Patent 4227964. (1980)
Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Made with Eucalyptus Fibers
Mori was born in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. He got his graduation
in Chemical Engineering by the Maua Engineering College in 1970.
He had in his career several technical and industrial managerial
positions in some companies in Brazil: MD Papeis and EKA Chemicals,
as example. Today, he is acting as consultant in the paper technological
area, through his company Mori Consult. Mori is also president of
ABTCP - The Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper.
result of our first talk:
is a wide range of utilization for the eucalyptus short fibers. In
less than 40 years, the eucalyptus
able to leave a marginal position in the pulp markets to become today
one of the preferred fibers in paper manufacturing. The success of
the eucalyptus are more concentrated in the bleached kraft fibers,
than in the unbleached segment. This is very understandable: unbleached
papers are more valued by their strengths properties, and this is not
the main feature for the eucalyptus short fibers. However, even in
the strong packaging papers, we are able to find eucalyptus fibers
in the furnish blend. For example, it is very common in Brazil the
addition of some eucalyptus wood chips to the pinewood chips in the
kraft digestion. The blend provides gains in pup yield, and reduction
in pulp costs. The mills, mainly those bottlenecked, are able to
raise daily production due to the eucalyptus addition.
There are very
good reasons to the growth in consumption for the eucalyptus pulps.
Some are strictly technical, and others are typically economic. Since
eucalyptus wood leads to better pulping yield, lower specific wood
consumption and better pulp bleachability than
softwoods, the pulp production costs are smaller than those for the
softwoods. Because of these issues, the eucalyptus pulp manufacturer
is able to better negotiate the pulp prices. He is able to sell the
eucalyptus short fibered pulps for a lower price than the softwood
pulps. Today, the price difference between eucalyptus fibers and
softwoods is about 100 US$/adt. This is a tremendous driver to motivate
the papermaker to do all his efforts to use more and more eucalyptus
fibers. Another eucalyptus pulp advantage is the pulp homogeneity.
Eucalyptus pulps, mainly in Brazil, are made using wood from cloned
forests. The cloned trees are more uniform in shape, size, dimensions,
wood and pulp quality. Because of these features, the eucalyptus
pulp specifications are more efficiently and more easily achieved. Remember
that the pulps in North Hemisphere are commonly made with a blend
of pulpwoods, and not from a single wood species.
Because the quality
the eucalyptus fibers have, they are able to participate in most
of fibrous furnishes to paper manufacturing.
Almost all paper grades may contain eucalyptus fibers. The eucalyptus
fibers may also be engineered as the sole fibrous material to several
paper grades: tissue, printing & writing, coated papers, etc.
The two already mentioned factors: pulp quality and pulp costs
are vital to the papermaker, more specifically to the non-integrated.
Since the pulp participation in the paper cost is the most important
parameter, the papermaker is always willing to have more of this
not so expensive pulp in his paper composition. To the papermaker,
pulp quality and uniformity in the paper products are vital. The
papermaker also values the minimum wastes and minimum off-grade
that may be referred in terms of broke generation. Broke is a driver
force to raise paper production costs. The eucalyptus short fibers,
when well characterized, evaluated, specified and controlled may
have their participation in the paper furnish in a growing move,
no matter in which paper market or which paper grade we are talking
about. Also, the differentiated fiber mix allows the papermaker
to develop differentiation in his paper products. He becomes able
reach specific niches in the markets: something not well possible
when manufacturing commodities. Due to these reasons, he continuously
adds new value to paper products: new qualities and product performances
are expected to reach the paper business thanks to the eucalyptus
fibers. Today, there is a strong move in the direction of basis
weight reduction to several paper
grades. The purpose is to save fibers, to reduce paper costs, and
to reduce the generation of paper garbage by society. The numerous
and relatively slender and stiff eucalyptus fibers are good enough
to provide very good paper bulk, porosity and caliper. Although
the paper basis weight may be reduced, the papers may be still
performance due to the eucalyptus fibers. Another advantage to
the eucalyptus fibers.
The papers that are made using eucalyptus fibers varies from typical
commodity grades (tissue, offset, coated, writing papers) up to specialty
papers, with high technologies and pulp and paper specifications
(filters, decor, labels, thermal, glassine, cigarette, supercalendered,
etc). It is clear that to some of these papers the eucalyptus fibers
are important part of the furnish. They are imparting their properties
to the required paper specifications. They are adding economic value
and technical advantages to the paper manufacture.
of the pulp manufacturers acting in the market are commodity oriented.
In these markets, it is clearly important the
low production costs, the uniform product quality, and the production
scale. This is also valued in paper mills also manufacturing commodity
papers. On the other hand, the papermakers manufacturing specialty
papers demand for other pulp and fiber qualities that are far beyond
the regular evaluations of pulp cleanliness, brightness, and viscosity.
There are other characteristics in the fibers and pulps that are
very welcome: fiber wall thickness, fiber coarseness, fiber population,
resistance to sheet compressibility both in the wet or dry paper
sheet, speed for resin impregnation, size of paper porous in the
sheet, etc. For these reasons, it is a clear advantage to the pulp
and paper makers if both could become closer. This could even further
improve the development of specialty pulps to specialty papers. The
market for eucalyptus fibers could grow even more. The pulp manufacturer
could also better design the trees and wood by forest breeding
in the direction of special qualities. In the production of specialty
papers, the specifications for the eucalyptus pulps are rather
than the normal evaluations that are regularly presented by the
market pulp manufacturers. While these pulp makers are only oriented
few pulp tests, a maximum they provide is a pulp beating curve,
the specialty paper maker deals with very sophisticated pulp and
properties. For example, to the filter papermaker, not only the
regular porosity is important, but also the uniformity in size
of pores, including those in the Z direction of the paper. There
are also requirements about the paper sheet behavior when submitted
to intense forces and pressures, as the case of supercalendered
papers. There are also requirements in the decor papers for very
in the speed and retention of resin: impregnation, absorption and
resin holding capacity are vital properties for such papers. After
all, the specifications for the pulp fibers in the specialty papers
manufacturing may be very unique, depending on the paper grade.
Pulp manufacturer may contribute to changes in the pulp quality
on the wood quality he is using, but also in the way he is cooking
or bleaching the pulp. He may also affects the pulp quality, according
to the process of drying the pulp sheet. Just a simple example
to better explain the importance of these topics: the uniformity
the kappa number in the individual fibers is very important to
the pulp behavior in specialty papers manufacturing. When the average
kappa number is 16, the individual fibers in the pulp may have
numbers from 14 to 18; or from 12 to 23, for example. For sure,
the first case is much better to be utilized in specialty papers
because the uniformity in the fibers."
After discussing these fundamental issues with Alberto Mori, in
our next conversation we are to talk with him about some specific
paper grade and the importance of the eucalyptus fibers to add value
and quality to it. Please, wait one of our next Eucalyptus Newsletters.
mini-article by Celso Foelkel
Closing Water Cycle for
Further Reductions on Water Consumption in the Manufacture of
Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp
system closures are generic measures oriented to the reduction on
water consumption and effluent generation in pulp and paper mills.
There are many ways to close water cycles: they depend on people
creativeness and on the methodologies being used by the technicians.
However, to close water circuits should not be understood as to transfer
one exceeding amount of water from one area to another one in the
mill. This may eventually be appropriate in some cases. However,
if we do not have discipline, analysis and control, we can always
have the possibility that the transferred water may start to become
overexceeded in some other area in the mill. To close water cycle
is definitively related to the phrase "close the faucets".
This means that first of all, we need to find ways to reduce consumption
in the places the water is being used. This is to be the general
procedure: to identify how much water is being used?; What is the
required water quality?; How much and where water is being lost?;
What are the quantities and qualities of the discarded effluents?
This may be summarized by a water balance, a typical mass balance
for water, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and suspended solids. By
doing such, we are to have a good understanding of all water inputs
and outputs from any mill system. The second and very important question
to be answered is: what is really the water quality required in any
mill area? For example: to wash logs, do we need clean and fresh
water? Could it be done with recovered water from another mill area?
Could we use an effluent to wash the logs? Which one could be feasible
for such service? What temperature could this water have: cold? hot?
room temperature? Are there limitations about this water? We should
do this analysis to each place in the mill demanding important water
balances and overall evaluations and diagnosis for water qualities
may be performed by any chemical engineer in the mill. It is only
a matter of good will and determination. Even in the most difficult
conditions, it is possible to reach reasonable mass balances. There
are precious softwares freely available on the web. Please, try to
see the example of the "WaterPlanner" (http://www.gemi.org/waterplanner)
This software is made available by GEMI (Global
Environmental Management Initiative). The software is possible to
be used directly at GEMI website (http://www.gemi.org/waterplanner/calc-waterbalance.asp.).
It is very helpful and powerful for simple and even
more complicated water balances. It is recommended for mill and area
third point in our methodology is to identify and to make visible
the water wastes. Where are they? Where more water than needed is
being used? How much in excess? Where and for what reason water is
being discarded? How to avoid this? The water mass balance is a powerful
tool to help us to identify and to give answers to these questions.
at our hands the mill and area water balances, we'll be better able
to continue our job in the target to close water circuits. The final
purpose is to reduce water consumption and effluent discharges. Why
do I say this? In my professional life, I've seen several times people
in the mills, trying to save water, or transferring water from one
place to another. They usually try this by attempts, without previous
mass balances and water quality evaluations. The results are what
they should be: after some time, the situation becomes reverse, and
people's dispair is evident. Lack of analysis, wrong methodologies,
or no methodology at all, are common mistakes. Attempts/errors are
not the right procedures to do this type of optimization service.
developing the basis for our work, we may go to the next step. We
need our creative thinking to develop good ideas and to try solving
the problems. We need also a good negotiation skill. To innovate
and to develop a creative topic is very good. On the other hand,
we need to deal with other interested parties in the mill. For this
reason, to negotiate and to convince people to be part of the problem
solution is essential.
any kind of industrial process the possibilities to reduce water
consumption exist. The operators know this very well. They know the
area they work as no other people in the mill. This mean they must
be involved in the search of solutions. An alliance with operators
is a good step in the direction we want to go. We know that the possibilities
exist, but where are they? Are they feasible? In our recent Eucalyptus
Newsletter number 09 (http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newseng_may07.html#quatorze)
I have placed a great emphasis on the topic about
water consumption in the pulp and paper mills. Because the points
I covered, I received several comments from readers. They asked me
for additional suggestions and potential measures for closing even
further the water systems in eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mills.
Well, as a writer oriented to my readers, I became motivated to
write more on this issue. How to give a reasonable reply to the target
to achieve a maximum water consumption of 25 m³/adt and an effluent
discharge of no more than 15 m³/adt? To offer sound suggestions
to you, I decided to divide the pulp mill according to the areas
demanding more water. From now onwards, my purpose is to talk about
consumed waters and generated effluents in key areas in the eucalyptus
kraft pulp mill. My points have always been added as suggestions
for reflections or actions. In this example, I decided to take a
modern mill demanding a specific flow of 40 m³ of raw water/adt
(adt = "air dry ton"). This same mill had also a specific
treated effluent generation of 30 m³/adt. This is a very typical
case for modern and state-of-the-art mills, according to the engineering
people projecting and building the today's new pulp mills.
Let's see where and how we may do things better in an eucalyptus bleached
kraft pulp mill?
Eucalyptus wood chips
the moisture of the wood, more water is being added to our system.
Wood is an important source of water, most of the times, neglected.
In case our wood moisture be 45%, the wood brings to the mill something
in the range of 1.7 m³ water/adt of pulp. In case the wood moisture
goes up to 55%, then the mill will be receiving 2.5 m³ water/adt
of manufactured pulp. Green wood is better because the water it brings,
and also for pulping. The kraft pulping process performs better with
wet wood: pulp yield is better, and higher the pulp viscosity is
after cooking. All technical people in the mill are used to this.
A possibility we have is to add moisture to the chip pile. This may
be done using a residual water or an alkaline condensate or filtrate.
Instead of sending this condensate or filtrate to the effluent, we
may use a certain volume to irrigate the wood chips. Wood has always
a natural acidity, due to hemicellulosic acetyl and uronyl groups.
This acidity is responsible for some active alkali consumption to
be neutralized. The use of a condensate as wood chips irrigation
water has at least four benefits: water addition to the process,
reduction in effluent generation, improvements in the diffusion of
kraft pulping cooking liquor, and consumption of part of the natural
acidity of the wood chips. It is very possible that we may add up
to 0.5 m³/adt of an alkaline filtrate or condensate for this
2. WTP - Water treatment plant
It is hard to believe, but there are many water losses
in a standard water treatment plant. I'm talking about
the water from the back-washing
of sand filters, and the water that is the vehicle of the diluted
sludge leaving this area to the WWTP - Waste water
treatment plant. These
two types of wasted water correspond to about 1 m³/adt. They may
be easily recovered, close to all of the discarded flows. With the
use of a filter press or centrifuge to the sludge, a major amount of
this water may be recycled back. This removed sludge water, and the
dirt water from the back-washing of the sand filters may be reintroduced
water. They may follow again the water treatment, and the loop will
be closed. The water flows may be recovered up to the extent of 0.8
m³/adt. It is very simple to be done, and corresponds to substantial
3. Wood preparation area
We always have water losses in this area: both due to evaporation
and by wasting water and misuses .The wood preparation area normally
consumes an average of 1.5 to 2.5 m³/adt of water, and generates
about 1 to 2 m³/adt of effluent, depending on the system closure
and design. These water losses can easily be reduced to a minimum:
only the evaporated water, and the water that follows with the logs,
after log washing. In this area, it is very simple to close the water
cycle. The required water does not need to be fresh and treated water.
By adopting a simple system for removing dirt (sand, soil, branches,
bark and leaves), the water is good again to be reused. Make up water
may be a recovered water, as a condensate from evaporation or a filtrate
from bleaching line. There is even the possibility to use the final
treated effluent, as make up water (a secondary treated effluent
is perfect for this task). As we always say that our effluents are
in quality, why not give to it the responsibility to participate
effectively in our process?
4. Unbleached pulp area
In the digesting and washing/screening areas, the water losses are
not expected to be high. I'm referring to modern mills, where this
area is very closed. Water losses in these areas reach about 0.5
However, this water may be heavily contaminated with COD. The ideal
is to definitively close this area, and to send this effluent back
to the system (or to evaporation). In the worst case, it will be
changed to a condensate.
5. Bleaching line
This area is still the main effluent generator in a kraft mill. A
modern ECF bleaching line contributes with 10 m³/adt of an acid effluent, and about
3 m³/adt of alkaline effluent, depending on the design and engineering of
the water cycle. The alkaline effluent may be partially recovered by the system.
The today's most recommended utilization is to wash pulp in the unbleached area.
Bleaching line also provides water to the forming and drying machine, and fills
its obligation to receive also a part of this water (white water) back from the
pulp machine. White water is clean and suitable for washing the pulp along the
bleaching operation. Today, the bleaching line water consumption and effluent
generation may be further optimized. There are mills with bleaching line effluent
generation with a maximum of 10 m³/adt. This flow corresponds to 40 to
60% of total mill effluent. It is very important that all this flow be filtered
recover the fibers. Doing this, the fibers are recovered, the COD in the effluent
is lower, and the effluent is clean enough to become a low solids one. In this
case, the bleaching line effluent does not need to go to a primary clarifier.
An excellent saving in capital costs.
6. Pulp drying machine
This area is a great user of water, mainly clean and hot water, and
steam. Until now, I cannot understand why this area through away
so much water to the effluent. The water is clear and clean, the
level is minimum. The pH is also getting better because the new requirements
for market pulps with neutral pH. It is hard to believe that the
forming and pulp drying machines may waste something from 1.5 to
of good water to the effluent. For me, the chance to close this water
leakage is excellent. The only water that could be separated is the
drain from the centrifugal cleaners. This effluent is dirt, although
it has fibers that deserve also to be recovered by other measures.
The remaining water has very good quality. The eventual contamination
of this water with felt fibers could be easily solved by sending
this effluent to the water intake (water treatment system). The water
be treated again, and the sand filters could take care of removing
the felt fibers.
7. Evaporation line
The evaporation line is a great producer of dirty and hot effluents
in a kraft pulp mill. The total generation of condensates in the
evaporation line is about
6 to 8 m³/adt. Part of these condensates may be reused and recovered to
wash logs and pulp, and also in the production of white liquor. There is a potential
for further recovery of these condensates. Today, the wasted condensates are
still in the range of 4 to 5 m³/adt. The WWTP receives this huge volume,
and the effort to treat this high COD load is high. An option to use a part
of this condensate flow is to give additional moisture to the wood chips in
8. WWTP - Waste water treatment plant
The own WWTP generates an effluent to be treated and cycled back
to early stages of the treatment. This WWTP effluent (about 1 m³/adt)
is generated in the sludges pressing area, in washing the floors,
overflows, etc. This water shall not be lost to the soil or evaporated.
to keep this loop well closed to avoid extra losses
9. Solid wastes
Sludges, dregs, grits, bark, wet soil and sand, etc, are very wet
solid wastes. They carry about 0.05 to 0.15 m³/adt of water
far away from the mill site (to landfills or to the forests). We
need a very
good solid waste management and well maintained machinery to remove
as much as possible of water from these wastes. We need to focus
this issue. Unfortunately, few people in the mills pay attention
kind of water losses.
10. Sealing waters
The water that is being discarded as sealing water is still very
high in volume. The addition of all sealing waters from a modern
pulp mill gives a number close
to 2 to 2.5 m³/adt. It is always a good quality water being discarded
as waste: we should have no mercy to this engineering concept. It is completely
out-of-date, and not applicable to the today's world. Sealing waters may be
recovered and recycled in a pulp mill. They may even be returned back to the
WTP to be retreated again, in case we may be afraid of eventual contaminations.
11. Air compressors
This volume is variable depending on the technological age and air
compressor concept. On the other hand, this volume is not negligible:
from 0.4 to 0.7 m³/adt. Air compressor waters deserve the same
treatment as the sealing waters.
12. Recovery boiler and Power boilers
The boilers are relatively closed areas in terms of water balance,
with an effluent generation of 0.5 to 1 m³/adt all together.
One of the major ingenuity in boilers is wasting the purged waters.
excellent quality waters don't deserve to be thrown away as wastewaters.
13. Cooling towers for hot waters
Cooling towers are far the most important machinery wasting waters
in a pulp and paper mill. They through as mist the impressive volume
of 4 to 6 m³/adt. An enormity! This is seen by everybody in
the mill, and no single person spend his time working to reduce this
Everybody considers this waste as normal, it is a natural loss they
think. My goodness, we are being blinded by the technology! The adoption
of indirect heat exchangers or the use of demisters to recover the
mist drops are ways to reduce and to minimize this water loss. Please,
pay attention to the fact that these losses correspond to about 10
to 15% of the mill water intake. We are sending all this to the atmosphere,
without any preventive measure.
also very common in pulp and paper mills an excess of hot water.
In many cases, a good quality hot water is discarded to the effluent.
Unbelievable, a very good water being wasted just because it is
hot. This water deserves another opportunity in the mill, don't
14. Cooling towers in the WWTP - Waste water treatment
The trend is to receive effluents in the WWTP with the minimum
temperature as possible. The heat is recommended to be recovered
along the process,
using exchangers to warm the process water. The purpose is to discard
the use of cooling towers to reduce temperatures in effluents,
replacing them for indirect heat exchangers, with minimum consumption
waters. The cooling waters used in the indirect heat exchangers
may go to cooling towers, because the mist derived from them is not
harmful. Water losses
as mist in the wastewater treatment plant may be in the average
of 0.5 to 1.5 m³/adt. Also here, the use of demisters should be
15. Water demineralization
The system based on ion exchange resins is gradually losing ground
to reverse osmosis. The impact derived from the use of ion exchange
resins is very high. The resins need to be regenerated by strong
solutions of acids and alkalis. The resulting effluents are very
strong and with
completely antagonic characteristics. Specific flows are also high:
about 1 m³/adt. For this reason, the reverse osmosis technology
is more suitable. The RO concentrated solution is an ion rich solution.
This water can be directed again to the water treatment plant, replacing
a part of the water intake. Instead of being an effluent, the water
becomes raw material.
16. Minor areas consuming water and generating effluents
There are other sources of effluents and points of water consumption:
Lime kiln and causticizing: 0.15
Evaporation in lagoons, ponds,
floors, etc: 0.6 to 1.2 m³/adt
Chemical plant: 0.2 m³/adt
steam: 0.3 a 0.5 m³/adt
17. New sources of waters
are some interesting new sources of process waters to be included
in our water balances:
or storm water: they may be saved and stored for mill utilization
(0.4 to 0.8 m³/adt)
used in the dilution of purchased chemicals (caustic soda, peroxide,
anti-foamers, etc): about 0.1 m³/adt.
As you could notice, there are many opportunities for
water system closures. When we close the system, in
many cases the recovered water reduces the need of
water intake, and reduces also the generation of effluent.
We are gaining in both sides. Fort this reason, the
water cycle closures have to be pursued with determination.
I have the opinion that our eucalyptus kraft pulp mills
should have in their mill design a buffer pond to save
waters. The water saved in this lagoon could be recycled
as such or it could again be directed to the water
treatment plant. This flow would be replacing water
from the river: a very good option. The pond could
be constructed in the same way those for keeping effluents
are. It would be made as an emergency lagoon, however
for saving good quality waters. Since we place efforts
at the end of the pipe, let's also do something in
the beginning of the pipe. The size could be smaller
than those for keeping effluents: I understand that
a volume equivalent to 15 m³/adt/day, corresponding
to the tonnage of a day of production. This mean that
a mill with a daily production of 2.000 adt would need
a pond with 30.000 m³ capacity. To this pond,
we could send good quality waters, those in conditions
to be recovered or to replace part of the water intake:
rain water, purged water from boilers, air compressor
water, refrigerating water, hydraulic unit water, sealing
water, filtered effluent from the pulp drying machine,
vacuum pump water, osmosis reverse concentrated solution,
condensed mist from cooling towers, back-washing water
from sand filters, condensed steam, excess of hot water,
etc. It is something very simple to be made, and with
a tremendous potential for recover and recycle waters
in the mill.
friends, I guess this mini-article was not so mini, sorry for
that. However, I have been motivated by friends to bring more
comments on this important issue. They are the result of my observations
in close to 40 years in the pulp and paper segment. My purpose
clear: I want to help as much as possible the sector to reach the
dreamed sustainability. If a right time exists for closing water
cycle, this is just the one. In case you are using some of the
mentionned water saving practices, I'll be very happy. In case
not yet, please, use a fraction of your time to think about them.
Newsletter consists of technical information texts written
and made available to all people involved with the forestry
and utilization of the eucalyptus
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2005-2007
Eucalyptus Newsletter is a Celsius
and it was made possible through sponsoring support provided
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