we are again, with another issue of our Eucalyptus
Newsletter to provide to you valuable information
about the eucalyptus. In this issue,
we are bringing two new sections. They were designed to widen the knowledge
and the networking about the eucalyptus. In one of them, the purpose
is to cover the main countries planting and using the eucalyptus as
raw material for the most different end-uses, mainly pulp and paper.
This section was named "The World
of the Eucalyptus". We
are starting it describing our brother and friendly country, Portugal.
This country has an important production of pulp and paper from Eucalyptus
globulus. The other section has the aim to introduce to you some
renowned people, who are directly involved in doing better the world
eucalyptus. The section will bring to you researchers, scientists,
authors of articles, books and technical issues about the eucalyptus,
in a world basis. This section was called "The
Friends of the Eucalyptus". The first of these
friends I'm bringing to you is my dear friend Dr.
Herbert Sixta. Please, read with attention these
two sections. They will be part of the new coming Eucalyptus
Through them, I have the purpose to widen the knowledge and the friendship
among those who believe in the eucalyptus.
this issue, we are also re-introducing to you the third chapter of
our Eucalyptus Online Book.
The title of this chapter is:
eucalyptus fibers and the kraft pulp quality requirements for paper
hope you may enjoy this review I've made about the eucalyptus fibers
and pulps and their main paper quality requirements.
It is available
for your downloading and reading. In case you like it, please,
send it as a reference and recommendation to your friends.
we are used to do, in this newsletter issue, we are bringing a lot
subjects about the eucalyptus. The purpose
knowledge in a way that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing
such. For this, we are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate
to grab good information, but we also offer articles, and recommendations
of paper books and interesting events. The traditional euca-links
also back again, giving you opportunities to visit very good
websites available in the world wide web. Please, enjoy.
mini-article I have written this time is about my vision on what could
as the "Best Available Technologies" for manufacturing
bleached kraft pulp in an environmentally friendly way. It is
very update, considering the state-of-the art available technology
We all know that in a couple of years more, science and technology
will offer new additions and new BAT will be made available. Very
trend to the society, to the environment and to the eucalyptus.
case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus
Newsletters and the chapters of the Eucalyptus
Book, I suggest
you to do it through the following link: Click
here for registration.
again for the support to our work. I beg your help to inform your
friends about our project, in case you feel these
helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also
the gratitude from ABTCP, our sponsors and partners.
best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading.
Online Book Chapter
on Events and Courses
on Paper Books & CDs
The World of the Eucalyptus - The Eucalyptus in Portugal
Section: The Friends of the Eucalyptus
- Dr. Herbert Sixta
(Suggested Websites for your Visit)
Mini Article by Celso Foelkel
Available Technologies and Best Environmental Practices
to the Production of Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulps
Online Book Chapter
EUCALYPTUS FIBERS AND THE KRAFT PULP QUALITY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAPER MANUFACTURING"
this section, we are offering some very good euca-links with relevant
publications available in the virtual world web library. You have
only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or to
save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for
the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they
are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they
are very much connected with the eucalyptus.
FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization Online Book
El eucalipto en la repoblacion
It is an interesting book, first published in 1955 and written by Andre Metro.
This second edition, available in the FAO website, was released on 1981. Remember,
this book is already 25 years of age, and the silviculture of the eucalyptus
has improved very much in this time length. Even so, the book is a good reference
to be read or to be saved in your virtual library.
Book on Short Rotation Forests, made available by the Aberdeen University
How to Grow Short Rotation Forests-
A Chapter about Brazil
This book was first written on 1992 and later revised on 1995. It brings very
interesting operational data. A chapter on the Brazilian eucalyptus forestry
is available, showing that in 1992/1995 Brazil was already a paradigm of silviculture
for the eucalyptus.
Mechanization in Short Rotation, Intensive Culture Forestry
(edited by Bryce Stokes and Timothy McDonald, in 1994) in the Woody
Crops website (English)
Website do Short Rotation Woody
Crops Operators Working Group
All articles are in the following
Article about eucalyptus plantations in Brazil: Silvicultural
Techniques for Short Rotation Eucalyptus Plantations in Brazil,
by Dr. Ken McNabb
FAO Publication - Working Paper FP/36E (English)
Management of Wood Properties in
Planted Forests- A paradigm for global forest production
It is a virtual technical book written by Richard Jagels in 2006 and edited
by FAO. The author writes about the relationship between forest plantation
management and its impacts on the wood quality and wood utlization.
Bank and IFC - International Finance Corporation Guidelines (English)
Environment, Health and Safety
Guidelines for the Forest Management (IFC - 2007 draft)
Environment, Health and Safety Guidelines for Sawmilling
and Manufactured Wood Products (IFC
Environment, Health and Safety Guidelines
for Board and Particle Based Products (IFC
Pollution Prevention Abatement Handbook - Pulp
and Paper Mills Report (World Bank - 1998)
The World Bank and IFC guidelines and handbooks are technical references to
all undertaking willing to request financing to these two organizations. These
entities are oriented to finance world development, but under a sustainable
basis and with appropriate environmental and social principles and criteria.
The World Bank report on pulp and paper mills is being revised, since this
version is already 10 years old. Soon, the World Bank will release a draft
for comments in the organization and in IFC websites.
CENARGEN - EMBRAPA Genetic Resources and Biotechnology Publication
O Eucalyptus urophylla no
Brasil / The Eucalyptus urophylla in Brazil
Newsletter - Society of Forest Investigations (Portuguese)
Felizmente, o eucalipto existe
/Fortunately, the eucalyptus exists
An excellent article written by our dear professor Roberto Novaes (Federal
University of Vicosa) about the dilemma of the eucalyptus, with several truths
and myths about their environmental and social impacts.
An University of Sao Paulo Thesis about the Competitiveness
of the Brazilian Pulp Industry (Portuguese)
Analise da evolucao
da industria brasileira de celulose no periodo
de 1980 a 2005 / An analysis of the Brazilian pulp industry
growth in the period 1980 till 2005
Master dissertation written and defended by the economic
scientist Ms. Adriana Estela Sanjuan Montebello at the USP - Escola
Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz.
on Events and Courses
of the International Conference on Timber Plantation Development
- FAO 2002
It deals with the plantation forestry in the Asia Pacific region. (English)
Online Proceedings of the VII Brazilian Symposium about
Forest Harvesting and Wood Transportation , promoted by SIF - Society
of Forest Investigations, in 2005 (Portuguese)
This is a very traditional event in Brazil, with outstanding research and practical
work about forest plantation harvesting and wood transportation.
Colloquiums on Eucalyptus Pulp - ICEP
These amazing technical and scientific colloquiums came to the scene thanks
to the determination and will from two superb researchers on eucalyptus pulps:
Dr. Jorge Colodette and Dr. Jose Livio Gomide, professors in the Federal University
of Vicosa. Until now, we had three events, the first at Vicosa in the year
2003, another one at Concepcion/Chile in 2005, and the past one at Belo Horizonte/Brazil
in 2007, just a couple of weeks ago. For the organization of the colloquium,
the organizing committee has support from several cooperators, as universities,
technical associations (SIF, ABTCP and ATCP Chile), and partners, such CeluloseOnline.
The three official languages for the colloquiums are: Portuguese, English and
Spanish. For this reason, the papers may be presented in any of these languages,
but all have an English summary.
the first colloquium does not have a link for downloading of the presented
technical papers and speeches. There is only a journalistic
coverage with news and photos made available by the partner CeluloseOnline.
For the other two colloquiums, all technical papers may be downloaded from
the CeluloseOnline website. The links are provided to you for your entertainment:
1st ICEP - International Colloquium
on Eucalyptus Pulp
2nd ICEP - International Colloquium on Eucalyptus
3rd ICEP - International Colloquium on Eucalyptus
Event Presentation by SIF:
ESALQ/USP - A Course about Watersheds Management (Portuguese)
It is worldwide renowned the qualification and competence of the
University of Sao Paulo in forest hydrology. For our luck, professor Dr.
Walter de Paula Lima and engineer Claudia Moster kindly made available for
downloading all the hand-outs of the course professor Lima is responsible
for teaching at that University. The original publication dates 1996, but
the technical material was updated in 2006. All the files are in Portuguese.
You are also suggested to visit the Forest Hydrology Laboratory website (Department
of Forestry Sciences - ESALQ/USP) at: http://www.esalq.usp.br/departamentos/lcf/lab/lhf/
Cover - Introducao ao Manejo de Bacias Hidrograficas:
Chapter 1 - O que e o manejo
de bacias hidrograficas: http://www.esalq.usp.br/departamentos/lcf/lab/lhf/arquivos/CAPITULO%201.pdf
Chapter 2 - Introducao a hidrologia
Chapter 3 - Ciclo hidrologico
e balanco hidrico:
Chapter 4 - Analise fisica
da bacia hidrografica:
Chapter 5 - Producao
de agua e geracao de defluvio em microbacias
Chapter 6 - Regime da agua do
solo em microbacias florestais:
on Paper Books & CDs
do Eucalipto e CD Manual Pratico do Fazendeiro Florestal / A Guide
for the Eucalyptus and a Practical Handbook for the Forest Farmer
The book and CD were released on 2006. They were written by professor Jose
de Castro Silva and by the engineers Bruno Almeida Xavier and Vinicius Resende
de Castro. You may find these technical materials for purchasing at:
Book Conservacao de Nascentes e Hidrologia e Manejo de Bacias Hidrograficas
/ Conservation of Water Springs, Hidrology and Watershed Management (Portuguese)
A book released in 2005 and written by Osvaldo Ferreira Valente and Marco
Biotecnologia Florestal / Forest Biotechnology (Portuguese, but soon with
an English version)
A great book edited by professor Aluizio Borem (Federal University of Vicosa),
with many chapters covering biotechnological issues in plantation forests.
Several renowned authors have been selected by professor Borem, to write the
book chapters. Fortunately, I had the chance to write the first chapter about
the plantation forests in Brazil.
Know more in:
Buy it in:
Book Eucalipto - Historias de um Imigrante Vegetal / Eucalyptus -
History of a Plant Immigrant (Portuguese)
A book with a sense of newspaper coverage report, very well written by journalist
Geraldo Hasse. It deals with the introduction, the advantages and the conflicts
with the eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. A publication of Editora and Jornal
Ja, in 2006.
Know more and buy it at:
New Section: The World of the
The Eucalyptus in Portugal
is considered the European gateway due to its strategic
location, in the utmost western point of the Iberian peninsula.
Thanks to this location and sense of adventure, the Portuguese
were able to develop great navigators in the 1500s, and
to discover Brazil. To know more about this fantastic country,
visit the website "Atlas of Portugal", created
by the Geographical Institute of Portugal (http://184.108.40.206/atlas/index1.asp).
a geographical position so favorable, nothing more natural that
the eucalyptus could reach Portugal very early in the history.
They found there a good climate and nice reception to grow in
area and in economic importance. Eucalyptus plantations and products
are today important economic resources in Portugal. The Eucalyptus
globulus is the dominant eucalyptus species in Portugal. The
Portuguese people are very proud of this species. It has important
and very good quality for the manufacture of essential oils,
wood veneer, pulp, paper and manufactured solid products from
the wood. E.globulus (or blue gum as it is known in the origin
region) is originated from Tasmania / Australia. The eucalyptus
arrived in Europe thanks to the European scientific expeditions
to Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand. The scientists in that
time became very attracted by the silver shade of the E.globulus young leaves, by the type of bark with colored drawings, and
by the nice odor of its essential oils present in the leaves. E.globulus seeds were them brought to be planted in the most
important European botanic gardens. The eucalyptus were also
attractive as wood source. For these reasons, the eucalyptus
scattered and disseminated along the Mediterranean coast, including
Portugal. Although there are few documented registers of the
initial planting of eucalyptus in Portugal, there are evidences
that they entered in Portugal somewhat from 1850 to 1870. Besides
E.globulus, there is another eucalyptus species more recommended
to poorer soils and drier climates in Portugal: E.camaldulensis.
Today, there are about 670.000 hectares of eucalyptus plantations
in Portugal. However, the diversity in quality and productivity
is very huge, although there are many efforts in genetic improvements
for the E.globulus. The forest growth rate for the E.globulus in Portugal varies from 15 to 25 m³/ha.year. There are forest
stands with even better productivity, but this is not the rule.
Despite the fact that the Portuguese forest productivity is not
compared with the Brazilian plantation yields, the species has
very good advantages: the wood density is high and the wood lignin
content very low for eucalyptus. Even better, the quality of
this lignin is favorable for easier cooking and bleaching in
pulp manufacture. The result of these unique properties is that
E.globulus is perhaps the most admired eucalyptus species for
pulping and papermaking, due to the easy processing and the yields
that are possible to be reached. There are studies being performed
in Portugal for hybridization of E.globulus with other more productive
species. Cloning may be a good opportunity to improve forest
yield with similar industrial performance and quality. There
is a lot of activity being applied to forest genetics by the
Portuguese eucalyptus-based industries. One of the well known
centers of investigation in this respect is RAIZ - Institute
of Forest and Paper Investigation, a scientific organization
with strong partnership with the industry (http://www.raiz-iifp.pt).
Portugal has always claimed to
be the first country outside Australia to have had the privilege
to produce bleached
kraft pulp from 100% eucalyptus wood as raw material. There are
laboratory studies in Portugal using eucalyptus woods for pulping
since 1906. Several pulping processes have been evaluated with
eucalyptus wood: bisulfite, sulfite, cold soda, kraft, etc. The
industrial conversion of eucalyptus wood to kraft pulp in Portugal
happened for the first time in April 1957. Companhia Portuguesa
de Celulose (Portucel - Cacia, Aveiro municipality) was able to
manufacture bales of eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp with 85ºGE
brightness and to sell this pulp to paper producer customers in
Portugal and England. The production in that year reached 60 tons
of baled pulp. In 1958, the Cacia mill could increase the yearly
production of eucalyptus pulp to 9600 tons of bleached product.
From that time onwards, the production has always raised, placing
Portugal as an important supplier of pulp and paper products manufactured
from the eucalyptus.
Portugal has about 3.2 million hectares of forests,
being the following the main species planted for economic purposes:
maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), sobreiro or corticeira (Quercus
suber), azinheira (Quercus ilex), Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus
pinea) and the eucalyptus (E.globulus). One of the most important
Portuguese problems with regard to the country forests are the
forest fires. The dry weather in some regions of the country definitively
favor this disaster, that has damaged so much the forests in Portugal
in the recent years.
more about the Portuguese forests in the following links:
Forestry and forests in Portugal:
Forest statistics for Portugal:
Forest areas in Portugal:
The forestry cycle:
Portugal country report by
the FAO Forestry Department:
Why to invest in forestry in
The eucalyptus in Portugal:
The maritime pine (pinheiro
The Mediterranean stone pine
The sobreiro or corticeira (Quercus
The azinheira (Quercus ilex):
FSC - Forest Stewardship Council
Certification Report about the forests of the Caima Company :
CELBI forest management plan for forest certification purposes:
Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal
We know very well the admiration and care the
Portuguese foresters and forest sector devote to the E.globulus.
This is completely understandable. Nothing more natural than the
will to do this species even better by forest breeding. There are
several euca-links showing the status of E.globulus forestry and
the main drivers for the eucalyptus forest breeding programs in
video conference about E.globulus (A speech in Spanish
by Dr. Nuno Borralho - a software of the type Media Player
required to be able to reproduce the speech)
About E.globulus in Portugal
Forest improvements and tree
breeding of E.globulus in Portugal
Portuguese pulp and paper industry
is an important producer of market pulp and printing and writing
papers using the fibers of the eucalyptus. Its position in these
fields is definitively competitive and outstanding. Today, the
most important pulp and paper manufacturers in Portugal of these
Know more about the eucalyptus pulp and paper production in Portugal
through the links:
innovation in the universities and technological institutes
has been very innovative and productive in terms of R&D for
the eucalyptus forestry and pulp and paper technologies. Several
theses and technical articles are being released, although the
few forestry, wood and pulp and paper sector journals/magazines
available for publishing technical literature in the country.
It is common the presence of very good scientific and technical
Portuguese papers in international journals due to this fact.
TECNICELPA, the Portuguese Technical Association of Pulp and
Paper organizes and promotes an annual congress where many good
papers are published about the pulp and paper technology.
The main organizations dedicated to R&D with
of Coimbra, through the College of Sciences and Technology,
Chemical Engineering Department (professors Paulo Ferreira, Maria
Graca Carvalho, Maria Margarida Figueiredo)
University of Aveiro, through the Departament of Chemistry (professors Carlos Pascoal Neto and Dmitry Victorovitch Evtyugin)
2004, Aveiro housed the IUFRO (International Union of
Forest Research Organizations) event - Eucalyptus in a Changing
one of the most important events about the eucalyptus in the
Tras os Montes and Alto Douro (with its well known
College of Forestry and Wood Technology Laboratory)
of the Beira Interior, through its Department of Paper Science
RAIZ- Instituto de Investigacao da Floresta e Papel / Institute of Forest
and Paper Investigation
Portuguese Pulp and Paper Associations
the pulp and paper segment, we have two main associations in
Portugal: one of them is technical (TECNICELPA) and the other
institutional / sectorial (CELPA). I've been Tecnicelpa member
for the past 10 years. I'm very happy and proud to follow the
success being achieved by my dear friends Cesaltina Baptista
and Augusto Gois, very dedicated people to the association, adding
efforts and value to the association together our former president
Carlos Bras, and today's president Paulo Barata. Tecnicelpa has
modernized, it has today an attractive website, a new publication
and a very interesting newsletter with the summary of technical
Visit Tecnicelpa at:
institutional and sector association is CELPA - Paper
Industry Association. In Celpa website there are very good pieces of information
about Portugal and the pulp and paper sector and related businesses.
Visit and know Celpa at:http://www.celpa.pt/index.php
Pasta e Papel
Section: The Friends of the Eucalyptus
Dr. Herbert Sixta
have the privilege to introduce to you someone I have in
high level of estimation, and also one of the most respected
technical and scientific person we have in the pulp and paper
world. Dr. Herbert Sixta is Austrian, but he has a very strong
link with Brazil, and with the eucalyptus. He studied chemistry
at the University of Innsbruck, and he got his Ph.D. in 1982.
After that, Dr. Sixta started to work with an Austrian company,
Lenzing AG, one of the world leaders in the production of
dissolving pulps and regenerated cellulosic fibers. In this
pulp company, he could dedicate an important time of his
life studying the chemistry of the wood and pulp components.
For this reason, Sixta knows very much the fundamentals of
the wood and pulp carbohydrates, lignin, extractives and
minor constituents. His dedication to the science and technology
is enormous. He knows, as few people in the world, to associate
science in its most advanced level, to the practical applications
of the pulp technologies. He has been very active in researching
natural polymers, macromolecules, lignocellulosic materials,
cell wall structure and cellulose regeneration to the manufacture
of fibers. When Lenzing decided to introduce itself as an
environmentally friendly company in Europe, and leader in
such kind of issues, the R&D program was directed also
to TCF bleaching and to other pulping processes, with focus
in organosolv-like pulping. Sixta started to study the ECF
and TCF bleaching processes, new ways to delignify and to
manufacture pulp, and the optimization of the filaments /
yarn production based on cellulose derivatives (as Lyocell,
a new fiber developed by Lenzing). As a result, several papers
have been published by his group in this respect, and patents
have been granted. In parallel to his R&D activities
at Lenzing, Dr. Sixta also has classes and lectures in several
universities (Graz, Linz, Vienna)
The first Sixta contact with the eucalyptus
goes back to late 80's, when he made to me a request for pre-hydrolysis
kraft pulping data in Riocell. At that time, Riocell was an
important dissolving pulp manufacturer in the world scene,
utilizing the wood from eucalyptus and black wattle (Acacia
mearnsii). Since Lenzing established a research priority in
the pre-hydrolysis kraft pulping process and in the eucalyptus,
Sixta and his team started to also focus their programs in
these issues. The first of his projects with the eucalyptus
was co-advising a thesis by Mrs. Gabriele Schild, a study for
comparing several pulping process with the woods of eucalyptus
(pre-hydrolysis kraft, pre-hydrolysis ASAM, pre-hydrolysis
soda AQ, and acid sulfite).
In early 90's, the Austrian
Lenzing and the Brazilian Klabin decided to join forces to
revitalize a pulp
mill in Brazil, former Celulose da Bahia, converting this facility
to the production of bleached dissolving pulp. A joint venture
was created for the production of TCF bleached pre-hydrolysis
kraft pulp from the eucalyptus. The Bacell project was born
for this achievement. From 1992 till the pulp mill start up
in 1996, a research group was created, including technical
people from Lenzing, Klabin and Riocell. Some of the group
members: Taavi Siuko, Alberto Lima, Walter Peter, Vera Maria
Sacon, Herbert Sixta and Celso Foelkel. It was like a "tsunami" in
terms of knowledge development. The great involvement of all
our people with suppliers, customers, universities, technical
institutes powered fantastic developments in terms of creativeness
and new developments. After Bacell mill starting up, Sixta
extended his participation in this project, working for mill
process optimizations and to develop added value new pulp grades
to Bacell, orienting products to the manufacture of Lyocell
and cellulose acetate. Unfortunately, from this time onwards,
I was somewhat distant from this process. Few months later,
I left Riocell to start my own business and my contacts with
Sixta and Bacell became scarce. Today, our ways are usually
crossed in international conferences or by reading papers written
by each other.
From 1998 until 2000, Dr. Sixta was directly
involved in an European Union project on comparative evaluation
of different concepts of organosolv pulping for dissolving
pulps, where several pulping processes were tested on different
European hardwoods. The project had the leadership of the University
of Hamburg. The pulping processes that have been tested were
the following: Acetosolv, Formacell, Milox and some variations
of the acid sulfite process. One of the woods under investigation
was the one from E.globulus coming from the Spanish ENCE. Clearly,
E.globulus gave superior dissolving pulps over all other hardwood
species, both in quality and yield. In the years from 2000
to 2004, Dr. Sixta headed several projects where the use of
different eucalyptus species (from Asia and South America origin)
were thoroughly investigated for the manufacture of paper and
dissolving grade pulps. Similarly to previous studies, the
eucalyptus woods proved to be the preferred hardwood for both
types of pulps, when compared to other hardwoods.
From 2004 onwards, in his academic activities,
he started to advise two theses about the kinetics of the pulping
reactions along the delignification of E.globulus wood, both
for paper and dissolving grade processes. The emphasis of these
studies were focused on the residual lignin structure, changes
in the cellulose ultra-structure and water / pulp interactions.
All this experience with the eucalyptus has been accumulated
over 17 years, with many studies, projects, papers, speeches
Lenzing, he is the head of the company R&D center. His
laboratories are amazing, with very good facilities. Lenzing
allows the lab to provide services to third and interested
parties, something that deserves to be watched in a glance.
Please, have a close look in the Lenzing R&D center in
the following online leaflet:
Perhaps you may be attracted by some services you are not finding in other
places. Remember that this lab is very specialized for studies in molecular
architecture of the wood and pulp components.
One of the most significant
undertaking in Sixta's career was the recent publication
of his magnificent
book "Handbook of Pulp", in two volumes . Over 1350
pages, with high standard and quality, describe the pulping
science and technologies. Dr.Sixta is the book editor, but
he has personally written a great part of the book chapters.
These two volumes, recently released to the market by Wiley-VCH,
are today the most updated literature about the pulping technology
for the wood. According to Herbert, when we were talking about
his book, he mentioned to me that he always had his mind turned
to Brazil during the time he was writing the chapters about
dissolving grade pulps, both pulping and bleaching. Definitively,
we had together a great time developing pulping technologies,
great to know that this book rewards part of these technological
Thanks Herbert, for everything you have done and are still
doing to the pulp science and technology, in special to the
pulping and bleaching areas. Thanks also for your election
of the eucalyptus as your preferred wood species for the researches.
Some of the Dr. Sixta's technical papers are available in
euca-links as follows:
novel method for the determination of carbonyl groups in
cellulosics by fluorescence labeling. (English)
Parte 01: http://eurocarb12.cermav.cnrs.fr/workshop_PotthastA.pdf
Parte 02: http://pubs.acs.org:80/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/bomaf6/2002/3/i05/abs/bm020030p.html
Preparation and alkaline degradation of model compounds related
to branched xylan. (English)
Analysis of extractives from Eucalyptus urophylla by gas chromatography. (English)
Patente: Process for the chlorine free bleaching
of cellulosic materials with ozone. (English)
Determination of extractives in dissolving pulps (Interlaboratory
Comprehensive kinetic study on kraft pulping of Eucalyptus
globulus. Part 1: Delignification and degradation of
carbohydrates (O Papel, 2007) (English and Portuguese)
Comprehensive kinetic study on kraft pulping of Eucalyptus
Part 2: Formation and degradation of hexenuronic acid (O Papel, 2007) (English
of Pulp (2 volumes) (English)
on Pulping Chemistry - Introduction (an online demo
provided by the publisher):
(Suggested Websites for your Visit)
- Centro de Investigación y Documentación
del Eucalipto / Center for Investigation and Documentation
of the Eucalyptus
is a center of research and documentation about the eucalyptus.
It is located in Spain. CIDEU is the result of a partnership
between the Spanish
ENCE pulp company and the University of Huelva. Its mission is to inform the
society, in an appropriate manner, about the advantages, uses, technological
and scientific achievements and advances about the eucalyptus. Definitively,
something very needed, and also useful to all of us, who are friends of the
eucalyptus. CIDEU provides support to technical studies, and cooperation in
the organization of events and activities close to the communities. It has
an online publication (Alerta Informativa) and technical bulletins that may
be easily obtained by interested parties. The website is very rich, and it
gives the impression that a lot more is to come. The website has also an English
Some interesting data and papers that are possible to be read
and downloaded at the CIDEU website are:
and information about "El eucalipto":
y uso de la madera de especies de rapido crecimiento"/
"Production and utilization of the fast growing wood species":
article: "El eucalipto en la sociedad y el medio
forestal"/ "The eucalyptus in the society and at
the forest environment", por Jorge Serradilla Santiago:
- Centro de Economia Aplicada (Center for Applied Economy)
- ESA Luiz de Queiroz - USP
is the Center for Advanced Studies in Applied Economy of ESALQ/USP.
It aims to provide support to the Brazilian agribusiness,
with studies and projects about applied economy and social issues.
Among the different segments of the agribusiness, CEPEA has an
excellent section about Forestry and Forest Products. This section
coordinator is professor Carlos Jose Caetano Bacha. The website
makes available papers and studies, and a very good monthly newsletter
about current forest product prices (wood, pulp, paper, saw timber,
etc.) in selected regions in Brazil. The website has summarized
versions in English, French, Spanish and German.
The Forestry and Forest Products section:
Available papers about saw timber:
The monthly newsletters about forest products prices in Brazil:
Embrapa Florestas - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa
Florestal / National Center for Forestry Research
Embrapa Florestas / Embrapa Forestry
is an unit of EMBRAPA- Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria
Organization for Agricultural and Zootechnical Research). It is
located in Colombo, Parana, Brazil, since 1984, when the National
Center for Forestry Research was created. This research unit performs
R&D, and provides technical support, information and documentation
about Brazilian forests, forest genetic resources and forest products
utilization. The website is rich in publications, both for sale
or for free download. However, the list of publications is more
easily reached when someone uses the search mechanism available
in the website. Please, test the search mechanism with the keyword:
Eucalyptus. After that, try to find what you may eventually need.
Embrapa Florestas website:
Professor Dr. Christian Luiz
da Silva's website
NOur dear friend professor Dr. Christian Luiz da Silva is one of the most
renowned names in the Brazilian applied economic sciences. His expertise
is very wide, but he has dedicated a great part of his career studying value
and productive chains, associated to segment competitiveness. He has several
books published in this respect, and he is one of the few people in Brazil
evaluating with sound details the value chain of the Brazilian printing and
writing paper sector. To know more about Dr. Silva and his studies and thoughts,
please visit his website: http://www.christian-silva.ecn.br
Dr. Christian's articles about the competitiveness and value chain of the
Brazilian P&W paper segment are available at:
Professor Dr. Pedro Fardim's
Our dear professor Pedro Fardim is one of the bright Brazilian minds and
intelligences who have been exported to abroad. However, he continues very
much Brazilian, keeping close contact with Brazil, and helping the development
of the Brazilian pulp and paper sector. Today, Dr. Fardim works as professor
and researcher at Abo University, in Turku / Finland. His expertise are studies
about surfaces and charges, among others, those from fibers and papers.
His website provides useful information about the surfaces, chemistry
and charges of cellulosic fibers, and the interactions with fibers
Have a look on this website, it is really interesting:
Know also the Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology at the
Abo Akademi University: http://www.abo.fi/fak/tkf/tra/index_eng.html
Mini Article by Celso Foelkel
Best Available Technologies and Best Environmental Practices to
the Production of Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulps
Celso Foelkel's viewpoint
Recent and modern pulp mills
are being installed in the Southern Hemisphere, using the
woods of Eucalyptus and/or
Pinus to the manufacture of bleached kraft pulps. Other mills
are being built and others are in advanced level of engineering
project. All of them are state-of-the-art pulp mills. Surely,
there are differences between one and another, but the basic
concepts are relatively similar. People working in these pulp
mills are very proud of the facilities they have and the performances
being achieved. For these reasons, I'm hearing very often the
phrase "this is the best and more environmentally friendly
mill in the world". I understand the reasons for this
exultation and joy. Today's mills are much better than those
built in the 80's and 90's: they are more efficient, they have
better operational efficiency and better overall performances.
However, this feeling that they are "so good and so environmentally
friendly" is very dangerous. It has the power to blind
the technical people and mill managers to other opportunities
to become even better, in the continuous improvements process.
Any mill has many other opportunities to become even more environmentally
friendly, no doubts about. On the other hand, there is not
a single mill in the world that could be labeled "the
best bleached kraft pulp mill in the world for environmental
reasons": one may be better in a point, another one in
other points, and so on. I have even seen some ingenuous pulp
company executives and CEOs stating that the mills they manage
have no environmental impacts. Really, something so candour
that becomes dangerous to the sector. Any pulp mill has an
environmental impact: what is important is to know and to control
and mitigate it.
the main problem we have to identify the BATs ("Best Available Technologies") or the "best
environmental practices" are the reference literatures
we have available to list and to define them. The reference
documents for doing this are relatively old in this era of
fantastic technological developments and innovative scenario.
document released by the EC - IPPC (European Commission -
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control -
Bref 2001 -ftp://ftp.jrc.es/pub/eippcb/doc/ppm_bref_1201.pdf
has already more than 5 years. It was published in December 2001, but the
draft document submitted for comments was released on February 2000. Another
reference document is the guidance report by the World Bank, that lists
the best technologies that this bank considers qualified to deserve the
bank support in terms of financing the undertaking. This document was released
in 1998, it is now out-of-date and in a process of review by the WB and
by the IFC - International Finance Corporation
Finally, we also have a document submitted by Greenpeace, suggesting what
they call the most healthy and cleaner technologies to the pulp sector.
This is a controversy document, but it has some operational and technological
suggestions that could be better watched and evaluated by the sector
there is the consensus that some technologies are vital and
indispensable in any new pulp mill or any efficient and competitive
undertaking in the bleached pulp segment. They are in reality,
technological obligations that a mill need to fulfill to
play in this market. We could list the following: modified
cooking preceded by pre-impregnation of the wood chips, oxygen
delignification, ECF bleaching sequence, efficient washing
of the pulp along the fiberline, low odor recovery boiler,
multi-stage evaporation plant to concentrate black liquor
to about 80% solids, secondary or tertiary wastewater treatment
plant, biomass fuel replacing the utilization of fossil fuels,
flash drying of the lime mud in the lime kiln area, fluidized
bed power boiler, condensate stripping and burning of volatile
odorous gases, etc. In my view, all these technologies are
merely obligations, they do not give to the mill using them
any advantage in relation to the others. All new mills should
there are other technologies and practices that are being
implemented by some of the modern mills, and other process
tecniques in the way of being implemented by someone, that
are really differentiated procedures. This mean that we have
available today new cleaner and even more effective technologies.
Most of these procedures are feasible both technically and
economically, they are really cost-effective. New rooms are
been discovered and are being used for further improvements
in pulp mills, and other are in learning curves. Definitively,
we are in a continuous process for environmental improvements,
but in some cases, we are obliged to ask for courage to some
mill managers and to plant designing engineers. What we need
to improve is to use more and more the concepts for cleaner
production and eco-efficiency: prevention, reusing, segregating,
recycling, closing cycles, and to attack the environmental
problem at the origin, in the place it is being generated.
Please, just go to the use of end-of-pipe techniques as a
complement, and not as a solution. End-of-pipe measures are
only costs, they do not represent gains to the company, only
expenses. For example, we are still mixing good quality waters
with dirt effluents, and for this reason, giant wastewater
treatment plants are still being built in the pulp mills.
We are still generating a huge tonnage of solid wastes, and
landfilling them. They will be always a kind of environmental
liability to the company. Most of these solid residues could
be incorporated back to the pulp process, or to be converted
in valuable by-products. Even not composting or selling these
solid wastes to third parties , we could reduce to a minumum
their generation, solving the problem at the origin.
understand that we are plenty of new opportunities to introduce
in our pulp mills. They could be added in new mill projects
or in existing mills. The mills using them will come closer
to the minimum impact concept, according to today's standards.
They may be even included "in the group of the best
environmentally sound bleached pulp mills in the world".
An option for reflection and action. In a simple list, I'm
bringing some of these technologies and practices that are
not very much stressed or even mentioned in the previous
reports about BAT's or best practices. The list will be provided
by operational area, and at the end, some overall concepts
are also reported.
a paved wood yard for log storage. Wood quality will be
better, solid wastes generation will decrease and the water
running from this area, even the rain water, will be much
better in quality.
the bark, branches and wood residues to use them as biomass
fuel. Another option is to compost them as organic matter
source together with other mill solid wastes. Please, never
discard so valuable material in a landfill.
only recovered water in all operations at your wood yard
and wood chip preparation areas.
pulping and washing area
your pulp very well, with a minimum carry-over of caustic
soda and organic matter to the bleaching line. The same
washing efficency is welcome in the bleaching line. When
engineering your pulp mill, design the washing section
with 10 to 15% reserve in capacity in relation to the designed
back to the process all knots and shives from digesting
and screening, using preferably a small batch digester
for doing this operation.
the great majority of the clean condensates from evaporation
to wash the unbleached pulp or the pulp in the initial
phase of the bleaching line. This means more efficiency
in saving water and steam in the mill.
ECF-Light bleaching sequences, since they allow you better
water closure in this area.
as much as you can your water cycle, in order to guarantee
a maximum of 10m³/adt of total effluent generation
from the bleaching line.
filters for retaining the valuable fibers present in the
bleaching line effluents and filtrates. This giant flow
of effluent without fibers will become a low solids effluent
and does not need to go to a primary clarifier in the wastewater
the filtrate from Eo or Eop stage to wash the unbleached
or delignified pulp. You may reduce your bleaching effluent
flow to close to half.
the heat from bleaching line effluents, using heat exchangers
implemented at the bleaching area. With this procedure,
the raw effluent temperature will be reduced to a level
that no additional equipment for temperature reduction
will be needed.
not purge the electrostatic precipitator ashes to the effluent.
Introduce a new system for solubilization and selective
crystallization of the sodium chloride.
your recovery boiler and evaporation plant with 10% minimum
extra capacity in relation to designed mill capacity, to
cope with emergencies due to spills and/or extra needs
for liquor evaporation or solids burning.
case feasible, have a methanol recovery system and use
the methanol as biofuel.
a very good stripping column for condensate distillation
and separation of volatile and no condensable odorous gases.
Do not save money in this system, buy the best.
the non condensable gases in the recovery boiler, but keep
a captive burner to be used in case of trips or stops in
the recovery boiler operation.
a very good system to collect and to burn the low concentration
fugitive odorous emissions.
- Burn the emissions from the smelt tank in the recovery boiler.
Design your electrostatic precipitators
with extra capacity and with a spare chamber. Pulp mills
should not have plumes in the recovery boiler, power boiler
and lime kiln stacks. Plumes of water steam are only justified
in cold and wet days.
the reuse of all clean condensates by the other mill areas.
The dirt condensates are also to be used to the manufacture
of white liquor.
heat exchangers to recover the heat from the hot evaporation
the sludges from the wastewater treatment plant in the
biomass power boiler. Another option is to compost them.
the biomass fuel as dry as possible. Develop a sound management
of the biomass, including a suitable and covered storage
area. Bark presses are also welcome to improve the calorific
value of the biomass.
a system to recover the sulfuric acid that is present in
the sodium sulfate generated as by-product in some chlorine
dioxide generation technologies. Doing this, caustic soda
and active alkali from black liquor will be saved in the
an appropriate system to chill the chlorine dioxide solution.
not install a chlorine dioxide generator that also generates
elemental chlorine in the manufactured solution.
sales and a market to the sodium hypochlorite, in case
this chemical be generated at the chemical plant.
the effluents from this area. Do not blend the effluent
from the last stage of the centricleaners with the good
quality waters that you have in this area. Try to recover
and to recycle the residual water from the forming machine
at different areas in your pulp mill. It is unacceptable
to discard so good water.
not throw away good fibers. Recover the fiber losses from
this area and give them back to your process.
unnecessary drainage’s and have a spill tank of good
size in this area.
Wastewater treatment management
the effluents at their origin. Do not blend clean effluents
with dirt ones. Clean waters as sealing waters, turbo-generator
waters, hydraulic units waters, water from boiler purges,
are differentiated in quality. These waters must be recovered
to the pulp process, and not discarded to the wastewater
differentiated wastewater treatment to clean effluents.
Constructed wetlands is a good choice to some of them.
For example: the effluent from the woodyard could deserve
this type of treatment, and the treated effluent by this
procedure could be recycled back to the process.
sound utilization to the sludges (composting or burning
as low quality fuels).
secondary biological wastewater treatment as a minimum
standard. In case a tertiary treatment be required with
flocculation followed by flotation or sedimentation, please,
do not forget to add disc filters to recover the micro-flocs
that tend to leave the area suspended in the effluent flow.
an anoxic zone in the biological secondary treatment. This
zone is needed to reduce to close to nil the chlorate ion
content in the final effluent.
a safety pond, covered by an impermeable membrane, with
capacity for 24 hours of operation (minimum). This lagoon
is to be utilized only for emergencies in the wastewater
treatment plant, and occasionally, when the spill control
system does not succeed in retaining the spills in the
not install in any case, conventional cooling towers to
chill the untreated effluent. They throw about 3 to 5%
of the effluent flow to the atmosphere, as a foggy plume.
Untreated effluent are not supposed to be thrown to the
air. The best way to reduce effluent temperature is to
recover the heat at the place the heat is being lost. Indirect
contact heat exchangers are the preferred type of equipment
for this task.
specifications (moisture content in most cases) for each
of the generated solid waste in the mill.
Optimize the sludge pressing. Use the
help of blended sawdust to improve this operation efficiency.
the generation of solid wastes at the origin, in the place
they are being generated.
the solid wastes. Treat them separately, according to the
best practices and technologies for each one. Try to discover
uses for them at the mill or develop markets for them (raw
- Have a small landfill, to force the solid waste management
in the direction of prevention and recycling.
and recover the dirt water and sludges from the water treatment
plant. Find a suitable use for the sludge from this area.
Have a water pond to receive all the recovered
clean waters (sealing, turbo-generators, boiler purge, discarded
virgin condensates, etc) and the water from rain (storm water).
All these waters are so good that they may replace part of
the incoming water taken from the river or water source.
Feed the water treatment plant also with these waters.
the best-in-the-class spill control and recovery system.
Place good size tanks to receive the spills in strategic
areas as: recovery boiler (water from the washing procedure
of the recovery boiler), causticising, evaporation plant,
pulping and washing areas). The first option to the spill
is not wastewater treatment plant, this will be the last
not give option (don't build the ducts) to have industrial
effluent in the following areas: digesting, washing, causticising,
chemical plant, recovery boiler, power boiler. All collected
spills and even the rain water from these areas must be
collected and recovered by the own generating area. The
only acceptable alternative is to evaporate the spill and
to send it to the recovery boiler.
a maximum of 20 m³/adt as final effluent. This is
quite feasible now-a-days.
low sulfur fuels.
a very efficient automation for online environmental control
the generation of water vapor and water fog from your mill.
The vapors that are released to the atmosphere from the
hot water cooling towers, drying machine, etc, are seen
as pollution by the community. Use demisters or try to
find equipment’s to do the same job, but without
the generation of this type of emissions.
friends, with these measures being implemented, we are approaching
and getting closer to a minimum impact bleached kraft pulp
mill: no odor, no noise, little effluent and solid wastes generation.
And also, with proud and happy people working in them. This
is the 2007 reality. The real world will be different and better
in 5 or 10 years more. I promise to provide another list like
this in the future, under the new reality to come. Technology
and human behavior are improving and changing. These are being
the driving forces for mankind: changes.
Newsletter are technical information texts written
and made available to all people involved with the forestry
and utilization of the eucalyptus
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2005-2007
Eucalyptus Newsletter is a Celsius
and it was made possible through sponsoring support provided
by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and
Paper and Botnia. The opinions expressed in the texts
are those of the author or coming from the referenced
technical literature or websites suggested as euca-links.
They do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.
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