Year of Forests
Man has always had an affinity and even a passion for
forests. We always had a connection with forests, not just interest and
curiosity, but admiration and a strong sentimental attachment to them.
After all, the forests gave shelter, food and livelihood to our primitive
ancestors. However, while we enjoy and dedicate affection for the trees,
we need to consume products and services from forests. Because of uncontrolled
population growth and the needs to meet the growing requirements of increasing
number of people on the planet, forests began to be voraciously consumed
and with this, great reserves of natural ecosystems have been and are
being destroyed every single day. However, there are still many remaining
forests. Also, the environmental culture that exists today on citizens
and on companies in the world forest-based business is quite different
from that merely known as extractivism of some decades ago. There is
a good future waiting for us and not an irreversible ecological disaster.
That's for sure (at least in my opinion). In my point of view, there
is not just a light at the end of the tunnel, but an illuminated forest
of high biodiversity, full of trees, wildlife, flora and many other natural
resources. But a hard-work is being demanded for reaching such.
With the aim of increasing respect and awareness of humans in relation
to forests, UN - United Nations decided to pay tribute to them in the
way of a global campaign. The objective was very clearly drawn: raise
awareness among world citizens for the protection, respect and sustainable
management of world forests. The forest sustainability is also needed
to guarantee the sustainability of humans, since there is an intimate
interaction between these two components of nature.
Trying to prevent increased deforestation, the UN General Assembly declared
the year 2011 as the IYOF - International Year of Forests, inviting the
governments of many nations, the United Nations system, the private sector,
NGO’s - Non Governmental Organizations and all world citizens to
engage in the effort to protect and to respect forests. It is being recommended
a joint effort for the global adoption of sustainable forest management
for all types of forests, from the forests with protection objectives
as well to the industrial planted forests. The idea is not just promoting
forest conservation - purely and simply - but to favor the use of the
benefits that forests can provide to humans, with no harm or adverse
impacts to biodiversity, soils and water, air and all other components
of these ecosystems.
The results have been absolutely amazing - there was a
huge adhesion of almost all governments and a large number of private
and public companies,
associations, research institutes, NGO’s, celebrities, etc. In
almost all parts of the world it is being possible to find the commemorating
and distinctive IYOF logo: a simple and unique art, including the drawing
of a tree composed by all Nature wealths represented by the flora, fauna,
climate, people and economic activities of our society.
In Brazil, the IYOF has been highly celebrated by public institutions,
research & business associations and forest-based companies. The
Brazilian pulp and paper sector has been one of the segments that showed
high adherence and it is strongly promoting and highlighting the Brazilian
Brazil is considered one of the main forestry barns of the planet, both
with a huge area of natural forests that the country houses in the several
different biomes (Amazon Forest, Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, Caatinga,
etc.) as well as the high productivity plantation forests - mostly with
For you to learn more about the International Year of Forests and about
the forests of Brazil and those from Earth, we recommend that you browse
the selection of articles and websites we have prepared to you. Also,
we recommend that you download to your virtual library two books of exceptional
value to mirror the forest situation in the world (2011 - State
of the world's forests, FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization) and Brazil
(Brazil's forests in brief 2010: data from 2005 - 2010, from Brazilian
Forestry Service). Read carefully and keep these two documents for future
comparisons. In the next edition of the IYOF, we will be able to see
the changes to show that awareness worked or started work (hopefully).
However, awareness is not achieved with just a short campaign of a year.
There is much more to be done.
I have the belief that we are to receive your help, by cooperating also
in campaigning for a better world, richer in forests, and with people
and businesses more environmentally eco-efficient and environmentally
We need the forests, but they rely more heavily on us, not just on our
awareness, but most on our actions to ensure to them the most adequate
levels of protection and sustainable forest management.
reading and literature related to the IYOF - International Year of
is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the
appropriate downloading’s of the materials of your interest from
the several of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions
provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites
and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference
due to the modernization of their websites.
Nations Celebrating Forests for People. International Year of Forests. Accessed on 21.11.2011:
http://www.un.org/en/events/iyof2011/ (in English)
http://www.un.org/en/events/iyof2011/videos.shtml (Videos) (in English)
http://www.un.org/en/events/iyof2011/photographs.shtml (Photo gallery)
http://www.un.org/en/events/iyof2011/logo.shtml (Event celebrating logos)
Um Ano Internacional das Florestas. (2011: An International Year
of Forests). Ministry of Environment. Brazilian Government. Accessed
http://www.anodafloresta.com.br/p/sobre.html (in Portuguese)
http://www.anodafloresta.com.br/p/florestas-br.html (Brazilian forests)
http://www.anodafloresta.com.br/p/floresta-e-voce.html (The forest protects
you) (in Portuguese)
Forests. United Nations Environment Programme. Accessed on 21.11.2011:
http://www.unep.org/forests/ (in English)
International Year of Forests. FAO – Food
and Agriculture Organization. Acesso em 21.11.2011:
http://www.fao.org/forestry/iyf2011/en/ (in English)
http://www.fao.org/forestry/iyf2011/toolkit/en/ (Toolkit to communicators)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Qjby6uLAic (Celebrating video) (in English)
Internacional das Florestas. (International Year of Forests). Forests
at Embrapa. Accessed on 21.11.2011:
Internacional das Florestas. (International Year of Forests). Portuguese
Government. Accessed on 21.11.2011:
http://www.florestas2011.org.pt/ (in Portuguese)
Internacional das Florestas. (International Year of Forests). E.
Carvalhaes. Website SouAgro. Accessed on 21.11.2011:
http://souagro.com.br/elizabeth-de-carvalhaes-ano-internacional-das-florestas (in Portuguese)
plantadas: grandes aliadas do planeta. (Planted forests: vital allies
of the planet). BRACELPA – Brazilian
Pulp and Paper Association. Video in Portuguese. Accessed on 21.11.2011:
forests: vital allies of the planet. BRACELPA – Brazilian
Pulp and Paper Association. Video in English. Accessed on 21.11.2011:
http://www.bracelpa.org.br/bra2/?q=en/node/422 (in English)
florestas e proteger o planeta. (Planting forests is to protect the
planet). BRACELPA – Brazilian
Pulp and Paper Association. Video in Portuguese. Accessed on 21.11.2011:
http://www.bracelpa.org.br/bra2/sites/default/files/emkt/floresta.htm (in Portuguese)
Year of Forests. Futura Channel. YouTube videos. Accessed
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ORkjLFvcwco (“Headpiece” in
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3zGXozRWdOY (“Headpiece” in
2011 – International
Year of Forests in Australia. yForests. Accessed on 21.11.2011:
http://www.internationalyearofforests.com.au/ (in English)
Bunchen lanca video sobre Ano Internacional das Florestas. (Gisele
Bunchen launches video about the International Year of Forests). Planeta
Sustentavel. Accessed on 21.11.2011:
http://planetasustentavel.abril.com.br/noticias/gisele-bundchen-video-ano-florestas-dia-amazonia-639032.shtml (in Portuguese)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xjM70vCdPrc (YouTube videos) (in English)
Brasil e o Ano Internacional das Florestas. (Brazil and the International
Year of Forests). F. Barbosa. IPADES - Institute of Applied Research
in Sustainable Economic Development. 04 pp. Accessed on 21.11.2011:
http://www.ipades.com.br/artigos/IPADES-O-BRASIL-E-O-ANO-INTERNACIONAL-DAS-FLORESTAS.pdf (in Portuguese)
of the world’s forests. FAO – Food
and Agriculture Organization. Forestry Department. 179 pp. (2011)
http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i2000e/i2000e.pdf (in English)
http://www.fao.org/forestry/sofo/en/ (Other previous editions) (in English)
products. Annual market review 2010/2011. D. Clark. UNECE – United
Nations Economic Commission for Europe / FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations. 174 pp. (2011)
http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/publications/timber/FPAMR_2010-2011_HQ.pdf (in English)
is the International Year of Forests. BRACELPA BR Pulp & Paper
News. pp. 01. (2011)
http://www.bracelpa.org.br/bra2/sites/default/files/brppn/BRP&PN-005.pdf (in English)
adere ao “Ano Internacional das Florestas”. (BRACELPA
adheres to the International Year of Forests). BRACELPA – Brazilian
Pulp and Paper Association. (2011)
http://www.bracelpa.org.br/bra2/?q=node/428 (in Portuguese)
Internacional das Florestas. International Year of Forests. E. Carvalhaes.
O Papel (March): 16 – 17. (2011)
1302091603_836041ed67a92a8af2c3e623a9898fb1_1390908626.pdf (in Portuguese and in English)
do Brasil em resumo 2010: dados de 2005 – 2010. (Brazil's
forests in brief 2010: data from 2005 – 2010). Brazilian Forestry
Service. 152 pp. (2010)
http://www.ciflorestas.com.br/arquivos/doc_florestas_resumo_22648.pdf (in Portuguese)
Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases
articles written by Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz
Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz is one of the most talented and productive
researchers on insect pests of Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil.
Her numerous research and papers published on dispersion models,
risk management, entomological assessments, insect/plant interactions,
environmental conditions, pest control, integrated pest management,
induction of resistance, etc., etc. have impressively collaborated
for the better understanding and to prevent and to combat some very
harmful pests to Eucalyptus, through innovative integrated management
techniques in terms of forest plant health. Her preference and expertise
fall on the insects of the family Psyllidae, commonly known as psyllids,
including the renowned and dangerous Eucalyptus-shell-psyllid.
Dr. Dalva was born in the city of Patos de Minas / MG in 1961. She
graduated in Forest Engineering at the UFV - Federal University of
Vicosa (1985); immediately started working to achieve her Master
of Science at the same university (1988). Her master's research was
focused on ants in Eucalyptus and it was titled "Resistance
of Eucalyptus spp. to the leaf cutter ants Atta sexdens
rubropilosa and Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera:
Formicidae)”, having the teaching
guidance of the prestigious Dr. Mauro Renato Brandi. Her Ph.D. was
obtained in 2003 at the Federal University of Parana, also in the
Forest Entomology concentration area, under the guidance of Dr. Keti
Maria Rocha Zanol. The research was carried out in a very broad sense,
and it was dedicated to the species of insect pest Ctenarytaina
spatulata (psyllid-of-Eucalyptus-young-branches), one of the main species of
psyllids attacking Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. Her results
and conclusions have helped to understand the morphology, population
dynamics, resistance and damage to Eucalyptus grandis. The thesis
entitled "Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997 (Hemiptera:
morphology, biology, dynamics, and damage resistance in Eucalyptus
grandis Hill. ex Maiden" was provided in the digital format
by Dr. Dalva and with that, we placed it available to the general
public interested in this important pest. The link to the web address
can be found below in this issue which honors the scientific achievements
by Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz.
Recently, Dr. Dalva completed her postdoctoral studies at Curtin
University of Technology (http://www.curtin.edu.au), Australia, having
performed studies and researches on Forest Entomology, especially
with the shell-psyllid. Her research work in Australia was entitled: "Predicting
the geographical distribution of Glycaspis brimblecombei", whose
goals were related to the development of modeling systems to predict
the distribution and dispersion of this psyllid.
Currently, Dr. Dalva is a researcher at Embrapa - Brazilian Agricultural
Research Corporation, more specifically at Embrapa Forestry, Colombo/Parana,
working with plant health and forest protection, with emphasis on
issues of forest entomology. Her curriculum vitae, published in the
Lattes Platform of CNPq - National Council for Scientific and Technological
Development can be seen with rich information on:
We asked Dr. Dalva on her feelings and thoughts about the current
state-of-the-art of forest protection in Brazil, involving the Eucalyptus. After all, this country has great expectations for the substantial
growth on the planted area with Eucalyptus trees to feed rapidly
growing industries such as pulp and paper, furniture, wood panels,
agro-renewable energy, etc.
Dalva promptly answered with her wisdom with the following remarks:
"Eucalyptus is a native genus from Australia, with rapid growth
trees and multiple uses. These properties make these trees as some of the trees
planted around the world. Brazil has favorable conditions for the Eucalyptus cultivation and the different species of this genus are planted from North to
South in this country, with
an area of over 4.75 million hectares (and growing). As the plantation area grew,
the problems with insect pests started to become
more serious. The presence of native species of Myrtaceae in Brazil allows the
hosting for abundant insect fauna; thus, facilitating the establishment of pests
related to that culture. In addition, there has been a progressive increase in
the entrance of exotic pests, such it has been observed since the 50's, with
the detection of Phoracanta sp. and Gonipterus spp.
known insect group in Brazil, but very common in Australia, is
made up of insects of the Psyllidae family, which came
to Brazilian territory in the
90's. Currently there are four important species: Ctenarytaina spatulata,
Ctenarytaina eucalypti, Blastopsylla occidentalis, and Glycaspis brimblecombei. The latter,
introduced in 2003, caused great losses of productivity in forests located
in Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo, even those of highly productive
Another exotic species, Epichrysocharis burwelii, has been detected
in Brazil in 2004, attacking Corymbia citriodora. In 2008, two new introductions
caused major concerns to foresters: the Eucalyptus bronze bug (Thaumastocoris
(Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) and the gall wasp (Leptocybe invasa)
the mentioned insects, other pests that attack Eucalyptus have
great potential to be introduced in Brazil and to cause
harm, some of which are already
in other countries and can quickly reach Brazil. Among them, it may be mentioned:
Ophelimus spp. - introduced in Chile, Spain, Iran, Morocco, Italy, Kenya
and Uganda. It attacks in these countries mainly E. globulus and E.
Chilecomadia valdiviana Lep. Cossidae - is a borer insect, a native of Chile
and Argentina, with a wide range of hosts, including E. nitens, E. camaldulensis
and E. gunnii.
Xyleutes magnifica (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) – a species native from Australia
and attacks several hosts.
In addition, several species of the superfamily Psylloidea are insect
pests in Australia, such as: Creiss costatus, C. corniculatus,
Cardiaspina fiscella, C. densitexta and C. retator. If these insects gets way
to enter in Brazil, they may cause great damage, mainly because they
attack E. grandis, E. saligna and E. urophylla, which are the main
components of the genetic basis of the clones planted in Brazil.
The spread of insect pests is facilitated by the
vast clonal areas in homogeneous stands distributed throughout
the country. Thus, monitoring
of pests is essential for early detection of new pests and to speed
up decision-making process regarding control measures. New monitoring
methodology and prediction tools are being improved for forecasting
insect expansion and the risks plus damages related to these pests".
We thank very much Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz for answering so promptly
and carefully to our requests, so we were able to offer to our readers
a part of her vast scientific production. We have elaborated, as
shown below, a selection of eucalyptic literature which had the participation
of Dr. Dalva as author or coauthor. They are around 40 articles,
in which you can browse and obtain copies from the provided euca-links.
Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz has also a large number of articles published
and referred to as being written by Dalva Luiz de Queiroz Santana
(Santana, DLQ). Moreover, Dr. Dalva researches are not restricted
to Eucalyptus, but include many other forest species and genera,
as Pinus, Acacia, Tabebuia, Enterolobium, Bactris, Tipuana, Grevilea,
Araucaria, Ilex, Toona, Cocos, Piptadenia, Psidium, Euterpe, Leucaena, etc. Dr. Dalva also features numerous papers on the biology (micro-life)
of the soil, with emphasis on micro and meso-fauna. Our selection
of research papers is more devoted to articles about the Eucalyptus to be in accordance to the objectives of this newsletter, but you
can find many other studies of this remarkable researcher with other
kinds of trees and even with Eucalyptus (which were not included
of eucalyptic articles written by Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz
and her team of researchers**
**Image of the adult psyllid Blastopsylla
occidentalis, kindly provided by Dr. Dalva Luiz de Queiroz
is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make
the appropriate downloading’s of the materials of
your interest from the several of our references and euca-links.
Often, some institutions provide valuable material for a short period
of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the URL address
of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.
You can also find the admirable scientific production by Dr. Dalva
and any of the hundreds of researchers from the Embrapa - Brazilian
Agricultural Research Corporation at the devoted website specialized
in the scientific and technological production from Embrapa:
searching for the production by D.L. de Queiroz and D.L.Q. Santana
the following results are obtained, to which I suggest your careful
attention and navigation for improved results:
PRODEMB&unidade=TODAS&fraseBusca="dalva luiz de queiroz"
PRODEMB&unidade=TODAS&fraseBusca="dalva luiz de queiroz santana
PRODEMB&unidade=TODAS&fraseBusca="queiroz D. L. de"
Please, check out and enjoy reading, learning from
the teachings and scientific discoveries by Dr. Luiz de Queiroz Dalva
about insect pests in Eucalyptus plantations:
em viveiros de eucalipto. (Pests in Eucalyptus nurseries). D.L.
Queiroz; J.I. Rodriguez Fernandez; J.C. Zanuncio. In: Producao
de mudas de eucalipto. Capitulo 5 – Production of Eucalyptus seedlings. Chapter 5. Embrapa Florestas. 34 pp. (2010)
do eucalipto. Pragas de importancia economica. (Eucalyptus crop
cultivation. Pests of economic importance). L.R. Barbosa; D.L.
Queiroz; W. Reis Filho. Systems of Production 4. 2nd Edition. (2010)
FontesHTML/Eucalipto/CultivodoEucalipto_2ed/Pragas.htm (in Portuguese)
do eucalipto. Manejo integrado de pragas. (Eucalyptus crop cultivation.
Integrated pest management). L.R. Barbosa; D.L. Queiroz; W. Reis
Filho. Systems of Production 4. 2nd Edition. (2010)
Eucalipto/CultivodoEucalipto_2ed/Pragas_Manejo.htm (in Portuguese)
do eucalipto. Controle biologico. (Eucalyptus crop cultivation.
Biological control). L.R. Barbosa; D.L. Queiroz; W. Reis Filho.
Systems of Production 4. 2nd Edition. (2010)
Eucalipto/CultivodoEucalipto_2ed/Pragas_Controle.htm (in Portuguese)
and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera,
Psyllidae) for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in
Brazil. D.L. Queiroz; K.M.R. Zanol; E.B. Oliveira; N.
Anjos; J. Majer. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 54(1): 149-153.
de Glycaspis brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp.,
em Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brasil. (Registering Glycaspis
brimblecombei in Eucalyptus spp.,
at Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil). M.O. Breda; J.V. Oliveira; A.N.M.
Carvalho; D.L. Queiroz. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira 30(63): 253 – 255.
Coccinellidae, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773): New record
in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. M.Q. Rezende;
J.L.A. Campos; L.M.B. Coelho; D.L.Q. Santana. Check List -
Journal of Species Lists and Distribution. 02 pp. (2010)
Modelos de distribuicao e gestao de risco de insetos-praga de eucalipto
no Brasil. (Distribution models and risk management of insect pests
of Eucalyptus in Brazil). R. Zanetti; D.L. Queiroz; E.C. Queiroz;
M.C. Garrastazu; B.V. Fernandes; J.I. Rodrigues Fernandez. 23rd
Brazilian Congress of Entomology. (2010)
20DE%20INSETOS-PRAGA%20DE%20EUCALIPTO%20NO%20BRASIL (in Portuguese)
Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae):
modelagem ecologica de uma especie invasora no Brasil. [Thaumastocoris
peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae): ecological modeling of an invasive
species in Brazil]. D.L. Queiroz; J.I. Rodriguez Fernandez; R.
Zanetti; M.C. Garrastazu; B.V. Fernandes; E.C. Queiroz. 23rd Brazilian
Congress of Entomology. (2010)
ESP%C9CIE%20INVASORA%20NO%20BRASIL (in Portuguese)
populacional de Ctenarytaina spatulata (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em
Eucalyptus grandis com novos registros de ocorrencia. [Population
dynamics of Ctenarytaina spatulata (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus
grandis with new records of occurrence]. D.L. Queiroz; K.M.R. Zanol;
N. Anjos; D.P. Andrade. Acta Biologica Paranaense 38(3-4): 157
- 178. (2009)
Dinamica-populacional-de-Ctenarytaina-spatulata....pdf (in Portuguese)
exoticas e potenciais a eucaliptocultura no Brasil. (Exotic pests
and potentials to the Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil). D.L. Queiroz.
9th Simposium on Management of Plant Diseases. In: Manejo Fitossanitario
de Cultivos Agroenergeticos. Brazilian Society of Plant Pathology.
p. 239-249. (2009)
da resistencia de clones de Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN ao psilideo-de-concha
Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). [Evaluation
of the resistance of clones of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn to
the shell psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera:
J.M.M. Camargo; D.L.Q. Santana; R.A. Dedecek; K.M.R. Zanol; R.C.
Melido. I Brazilian Congress of Energy Forest Plantations. 04 pp.
do manejo de residuos da industria e da colheita de eucalipto na
fauna do solo. (Influence of the industrial waste and of the Eucalyptus harvesting residues managements on soil fauna). D.L.Q. Santana;
A.F.J. Bellote; H.D. Silva; G.C. Andrade. I Brazilian Congress
of Energy Forest Plantations. 04 pp. (2009)
Efeito da aplicacao de diferentes fontes e doses de silicio, em
plantio comercial de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, na inducao de resistencia
a Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). [Effects
of different sources and doses of silicon in commercial plantations
of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in the induction of resistance to Glycaspis
brimblecombei (Moore) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)]. J.M.M. Camargo;
D.L.Q. Santana; K.M.R. Zanol; R.A. Dedecek; C.R. Rodrigues; R.C.N.
Melido. XXII Brazilian Congress of Entomology. (2008)
Efeito da aplicacao de silicio em plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis na inducao de resistencia ao psilideo-de-concha Glycaspis
brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). [Effect of silicon on plants of Eucalyptus
camaldulensis in the induction of resistance to the shell psyllid
Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)]. D.L.Q. Santana;
J.M.M. Camargo; R.A. Dedecek; K.M.R. Zanol; R.C.N. Melido; C.R.
Rodrigues. XXII Brazilian Congress of Entomology. (2008)
no Brasil: 3- Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor, 1985 Hemiptera:Psyllidae. (Psyllids in Brazil: 3 - Blastopsylla
occidentalis Taylor, 1985
Hemiptera:Psyllidae). D.L. Queiroz. Embrapa Florestas Technical
Communication # 204. 04 pp. (2008)
no Brasil: 2- Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1980) (Psilideo
das ponteiras do eucalipto). [(Psyllids in Brazil: 2- Ctenarytaina
eucalypti (Maskell, 1980) (Eucalyptus branch tops psyllid)]. D.L.
Queiroz. Embrapa Florestas Technical
Communication # 207. 05 pp. (2008)
Psilideo-dos-ponteiros-do-eucalipto – Ctenarytaina
spatulata (Hemiptera:Psyllidae). [Eucalyptus branch tops psyllid:
Ctenarytaina spatulata (Hemiptera:Psyllidae)]. D.L.Q. Santana.
Embrapa Florestas Technical
Communication # 185. 04 pp.(2007)
Introduced Eucalyptus psyllids in Brazil. D.L.Q. Santana; D. Burckhardt.
Journal of Forest Research 12(5): 337 – 344. (2007)
(Corymbia citriodora) - Epichrysocharis burwelli Schauff (Hymenoptera:
Eulophidae). [Micro-wasp of citriodora eucalypt (Corymbia
- Epichrysocharis burwelli Schauff (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)].
D.L.Q. Santana; N. Anjos. Embrapa Florestas Technical
Communication # 188. 04 pp. (2007)
de Ctenarytaina spatulata (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus
grandis. (Biology of Ctenarytaina spatulata (Hemiptera,
Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus grandis). D.L.Q. Santana; K.M.R. Zanol. Acta Biologica
Paranaense 35(1-2): 47 - 62. (2006)
bionomicos de Glycaspis (Glycaspis) brimblecombei (Moore,1964)
(Hemiptera: Psyllidae) e seu controle com fungos entomopatogenicos. [Bionomic aspects of Glycaspis (Glycaspis) brimblecombei (Moore,
1964) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its control with entomopathogenic
fungi]. R.M. Favaro. Co-advising: D.L.Q. Santana. Master Dissertation.
UFPR – Federal University of Parana. 53 pp. (2006)
Introduced Eucalyptus psyllids in Brazil. D.L.Q. Santana. International
Forestry Review 7(5): 255. (2005)
em eucaliptos no Brasil. (Eucalyptus psyllids in Brazil). D.L.Q.
Santana. Embrapa Florestas Technical Newsletter # 109. 14 pp. (2005)
externa das ninfas e adultos de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera,
Psyllidae). [External morphology of the nymphs and adults of Ctenarytaina
spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae)]. D.L.Q. Santana; K.M.R.
Zanol. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 49(3): 340 – 346.
causados por Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1977 (Hemiptera:
Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus grandis Hill.
ex Maiden. [Damage caused by Ctenarytaina
spatulata Taylor, 1977 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus
grandis Hill. ex Maiden]. D.L.Q. Santana; K.M.R. Zanol; P.C. Botosso; P.P.
Mattos. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira 50: 11 – 24. (2005)
ambientais, economicos e sociais dos danos causados por Ctenarytaina
spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em plantios de Eucalyptus
grandis no Brasil. [Environmental, economic and social damage caused
by Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus
grandis in Brazil]. H.R. Rodigheri; D.L.Q. Santana. Embrapa Florestas
Technical Newsletter # 85. 04 pp. (2004)
dos psilideos do eucalipto. (Monitoring psyllids in Eucalyptus).
D.L.Q. Santana. Embrapa Florestas leaflet. (2004)
Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) e seus
inimigos naturais no Parana. [Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its natural enemies in Parana]. D.L.Q. Santana; R.C.Z. Carvalho;
R.M. Favaro; L.M. Almeida. XX Brazilian Congress of Entomology.
Dinamica populacional de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor,
Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus grandis Hill. Ex. Maiden. [Population
dynamics of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997 (Hemiptera:
Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus grandis Hill.
Ex. Maiden]. D.L.Q. Santana; K.M.R. Zanol; R.M. Favaro. XX Brazilian
Congress of Entomology. (2004)
Efeito do manejo do solo e do residuo da exploracao florestal na
populacao de formigas em plantios de Eucalyptus grandis, em Sao
Miguel Arcanjo, SP. (Effect of soil and forest harvesting residue
managements in the population of ants in Eucalyptus grandis plantations,
in Sao Miguel Arcanjo, SP). R.M. Favaro; D.L.Q. Santana; H.D. Silva;
R.A. Dedecek; A,F,J, Bellote; J.L. Gava. XX Brazilian Congress
of Entomology. (2004)
resumosdeposteres/RESUMOS/resumo_1542.html (in Portuguese)
spatulata Taylor, 1997 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae): morfologia, biologia,
dinamica, resistencia e danos em Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex Maiden. [Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae): morphology,
biology, dynamics, and damage resistance in Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex Maiden]. D.L.Q. Santana. Ph.D. Thesis. UFPR – Federal
University of Parana. 135 pp. (2003)
psilideo-de-concha (Glycaspis brimblecombei) em eucalipto. [The
shell psyllid (Glycaspis brimblecombei) in Eucalyptus]. D.L.Q.
Santana; A. Menezes Junior; H.D. Silva; A.F.J. Bellote; R.M. Favaro.
Embrapa Florestas Technical Communication # 105. 03 pp. (2003)
do eucalipto. Pragas. (Eucalyptus planting. Pests). D.L.Q. Santana.
Embrapa Florestas. Systems of Production 4. 1st Edition. (2003)
spatulata, Taylor: agua no solo, nutrientes
minerais e suas interacoes com a seca dos ponteiros do eucalipto. (Ctenarytaina spatulata,
Taylor: water in the soil, mineral nutrients and their interactions
with branch tops dryback in Eucalyptus). D.L.Q. Santana; A.F.J.
Bellote; R.A. Dedecek. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 46: 57 – 68.
Abstract: Influencia do manejo do solo e do residuo da exploracao
florestal na fauna de solo em plantios hibridos de eucalipto em Mogi
of soil and forestry residue management in the soil fauna in plantations
of Eucalyptus hybrids in Mogi Guacu). R. Favaro; D.L.Q. Santana; H.D.
Silva; A.F.J. Bellote. I Event of Scientific Inniciation/Undergraduate
Research at Embrapa Florestas. (2002)
First record of an Eriophyid mite from Eucalyptus in Brazil, with
a complementary description of Rhombacus eucalypti Ghosh
and Chakrabarti (Acari:
Eriophyidae). C.A.H. Flechtmann; D.L.Q. Santana. International
Journal of Acarology 27(2): 123 - 127. (2001)
01647950108684240?journalCode=taca20#preview (in English)
complexo gomose da acacia-negra. (The gummosis complex of black
wattle). A.F. Santos; A. Grigoletti Junior; C.G. Auer; D.L.Q. Santana.
Embrapa Florestas Technical Newsletter # 44. 08 pp. (2001)
populacional de Ctenarytaina spatullata em Eucalyptus
municipio de Colombo, PR. (Fluctuation of the population of Ctenarytaina
spatullata in Eucalyptus grandis at the municipality of Colombo,
PR). D.L.Q. Santana. Embrapa Florestas. Ongoing Research. 03 pp.
CNPF-2009-09/44322/1/pesq-andam-87.PDF (in Portuguese)
de Ctenarytaina spatulata e de teores de magnesio foliar com a
seca de ponteiros de Eucalyptus grandis. (Association of Ctenarytaina
spatulata and magnesium content on leaves with the dryback of Eucalyptus
grandis branch tops). D.L.Q. Santana; F.M. Andrade; A.F.J. Bellote;
A. Grigoletti Junior. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 39: 41 – 49.
eucalypti (Maskell, 1890) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em
eucaliptos no Brasil. [Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890) (Hemiptera,
Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus in Brazil]. D.L.Q. Santana; E.T. lede;
S.R.C. Penteado; D. Burckhardt. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 39:
139 – 144. (1999)
intra-especifica de eucaliptos a formigas cortadeiras. (Interspecific
resistance of Eucalyptus to leaf cutting ants). D.L.Q. Santana;
L. Couto. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 20: 13 – 21. (1990)
do eucalipto introduzidas no Brasil. (Eucalyptus pests introduced
in Brazil). D.L.Q. Santana; A.L.J.L. Rocha. Embrapa Florestas (Undated)
Images of four important species
of Eucalyptus attacking psyllids very well studied by Dr. Dalva
Luiz de Queiroz and obtained by searches at Google Images:
_upl=1805l7875l0l8174l4l4l0l0l0l0l329l908l2-1.2l3l0 (Glycaspis brimblecombei – Shell
2125l2125l0l3280l1l1l0l0l0l0l196l196l0.1l1l0 (Ctenarytaina spatulata – Young
2022l2022l0l3464l1l1l0l0l0l0l328l328l3-1l1l0 (Ctenarytaina eucalypti – Eucalyptus psyllid)
392l7262l0l7582l3l3l0l0l0l0l314l895l2-1.2l3l0 (Blastopsylla occidentalis – New
branches and branch tops psyllid)
Friends of the Eucalyptus
Engineer Manoel de Freitas
The forest engineer Manoel
de Freitas has been one
of the greatest icons of Brazilian forestry. His professional experience,
and particularly, his personal efforts to promote technological development
through integration of forestry companies with outstanding universities
are factors which mirror his outstanding personality. I have a great
friendship and admiration for Manoel, whom I know from the beginning
of my career, as far we have nearly the same age and have graduated
engineers about the same time. His first job came to happen in 1970,
in the forest sector, at the former Champion Papel e Celulose (now
International Paper do Brasil). At that time, Champion was one of
the leading companies in the Brazilian Eucalyptus forestry and one
of the associate members of IPEF - Institute of Forestry Research
and Studies. With that, and both of us having the same "professional
godfather", the great and unforgettable Dr. Ronaldo Algodoal
Guedes Pereira (former president of Champion and former professor
at ESALQ - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"),
our roads were frequently crossing, such as in ESALQ, in IPEF, in
SBS - Brazilian Society of Forestry and in dozens of conferences
and events that happened in the Brazilian forestry sector. From 1997
to 2000, I was his vice-president in his "nth" management
term as IPEF’s president. Throughout this entire period, I
was able to understand a lot about his professional logic, very similar
to mine: the continuous search for synergies and interactions in
the pursuit of the common good development.
Manoel de Freitas was born in Sao Paulo state, in the city of Itarare,
in 1946, but he also lived a part of his childhood in Votuporanga/SP.
In 1965, when attending the Physical Education course in the city
of Curitiba, he discovered by chance that there was a new academic
career in Brazil: Forest Engineering. He became interested in it
and changed his professional objectives: we may have lost a great
trainer of Olympic talents, but we won a great planter of trees and
supporter of hundreds of students of Forest Engineering.
From 1966 to 1969, he studied forestry at the Federal University
of Parana in Curitiba; and as soon as he got the graduation, he had
already achieved his first job placement at Champion, where he developed
a long and successful career. He held virtually all positions at
Champion forest management and its affiliates (AMCEL – Amapa
Florestal e Celulose, Inpacel and International Paper do Brasil).
When he retired in 2002, Champion had been acquired by International
Paper on a global level, what happened in 2000. So, although four
companies have been part of his professional life (Champion; Inpacel,
which was owned by Champion for four years; AMCEL and International
Paper do Brasil), in fact, Manoel de Freitas is one of those characters "who
devoted himself with body and soul to a single company”, from
the beginning of his career until retirement, in the life style of
the great Japanese managers.
However, his retirement was premature - the Brazilian law afforded
such an opportunity and it ended up happening too early. The fighting
spirit, good health and age were incompatible factors with a retirement
dedicated to leisure activities and rest. So, in 2003, he established
the forestry company Manoel de Freitas Forestry Consulting, which
allowed him to extend his career for many other Brazilian and international
companies: Ramires Reflorestamentos, Caxuana Reflorestamento, Votorantim
Celulose e Papel, ArborGen, Aracruz Celulose, Suzano, MecPrec, GMR
Florestal, etc. Internationally, he has had customers in countries
such as Chile, Argentina, Peru, United States, England and Uruguay,
Of course, to tailor his resume to all the forestry and business
activities he had, Manoel extended his academic background, having
studied Business Administration at the PUC/Campinas and Environmental
Management at Metropolitan College of Campinas. Not to mention the
dozens of courses and conferences in which he participated (in many
of them as speaker).
His affection and dedication to the Eucalyptus came soon after he
started working at Champion, as these trees were the key raw materials
of the company for the manufacture of kraft pulp and printing and
writing papers. However, the silviculture of other species came to
enrich his experience, especially after starting his career as a
consultant. So, the pine and other native and exotic species have
been incorporated into his professional luggage and forest life experience.
Manoel de Freitas always speaks with great affection
about Champion, as it should be. He attributes to the company’s
philosophy a substantial part of his success in involvement and management
business and technical associations. Champion, despite being a multinational
company, encouraged this type of integration between university /
company and the exchange of knowledge and experience. Thus, in addition
to his eight years in the management of IPEF (as president and also
director of the Board), he had important performances in other associations,
such as Sao Paulo Association of Forest Engineers; SBS - Brazilian
Society of Forestry; Florestar (founder member and president for
five years), FUNBIO - Brazilian Fund for Biodiversity; and REFLORE/MS
- Association of South Mato Grosso Producers and Consumers of Planted
The fact that he played key executive positions in international
companies (Champion and International Paper do Brasil), and then
for acting as an international consultant, opened the doors to his
performance "in the four corners of the world," as he referred
to this. He had numerous opportunities for international travels
along his professional life, whether as a consultant, both also in
events and in the businesses in which he operated. With that, his
experience and holistic approach have been extended and helped to
make his knowledge and experience very diverse and wide.
Throughout his career, he had numerous articles published in magazines
and books, conferences, and he presented numerous lectures at events
in Brazil and abroad. In his modesty of someone from the interior
of Sao Paulo state, Manoel refers to his initial publications "as
not very useful today, because they cover situations and practices
no longer adopted by Brazilian modern forestry". However, he
forgets that those were the silvicultural practices that have contributed
to the changes to the development of the unique forestry technologies
nowadays practiced in Brazil.
Another issue that Manoel forgets to report (and I know very well)
was the always opening arms for receiving students and supporting
them with the researches at the Champion and International Paper
forestry facilities. Just search for Ph.D. theses and Master dissertations
at ESALQ / USP, UNESP, UFPR, UnB, etc. to realize how large has been
the number of students who had the opportunity to research and to
learn the science and forestry practices under Manoel de Freitas’ guidance
or from his staff’s.
When I asked him about his outstanding contributions to the Eucalyptus forestry,
he answered modestly that "he believes he has contributed
to the evolution of forestry, over his more than 40 years of activities
in the sector". He preferred not to highlight any of his accomplishments
or achievements, staying more in a position of leveraging and promoter
of forestry in Brazil. However, I know him well, so I would like
to highlight the important role he played in the selection and implementation
of the forestry unit Chamflora, in the municipality of Tres Lagoas
in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Manoel revealed to me in a chat,
that at that time three locations were studied for expansion of the
Champion forest business: Maranhao, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso
do Sul. The choice was Three Lagoas/MS, with wisdom and determination.
In 1988, the Champion top forestry executives had focused eyes and
operations to MS, with the leadership of our dear friend Dr. Ronaldo
Algodoal Guedes Pereira. It was up to Manoel to take important actions
in choosing the site, as well as to lead the purchase of lands and
to structure the whole project, from nursery to the planting of trees
from selected species, and all that had to be concerned. The first
45,000 hectares were purchased in two years and another 40,000 hectares
in the mid 90's. The plantations were started at the end of 1988. "When
we finished the 60,000 hectares planted in these full 85,000 hectares
land, I was used to say I knew every tree by name in Tres Lagoas,
such enormous was my involvement and connections with this project".
It is my opinion, my friend Manoel – Tres Lagoas should recognize
this fact, it could be even with a street with your name in a plate.
If they have not already done such, you deserve this with justice.
In relation to my question about what remains to be done on his way
to the future, Manoel has been more emphatic, saying that "in
spite of already being time to hang football boots, he continues
with great enthusiasm, the same as a newly graduated person".
For this reason, he dedicates much of his professional time to the
companies Ramires Reflorestamentos and GMR Florestal in Brazil, as
well as he works in transferring knowledge and for the development
of forestry technologies in Peru (where he has this kind of work
Manoel de Freitas has been honored with numerous awards,
distinctions and honors, such as those received from IPEF, SIF -
Society of Forestry
Research, CREA-SP, etc. He was also awarded as patron of many graduating
classes in forestry (USP, UNESP, UFPR, UnB). He highlights with well-deserved
pride that he has been the first forest engineer to be awarded with
the "Floresta Award", by the Federal University of Parana
in 2000 along the celebrations of the 40th anniversary of Forest
Engineering in Brazil. That is, nothing better and more rewarding
than being recognized at the university where we graduate, because
it gives a sense of accomplishment in response to the efforts and
dedication of our masters.
Manoel de Freitas is married to Elisabete, from Senges-Parana, and
the couple has three daughters (Charlote, Camile e Dubianca) and
a grandson (Guillermo) - "his greatest and most valuable assets
in his existence."
Thanks to a rescue effort of technical material prepared by our dear
friend Manoel de Freitas to this issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter,
we were able to bring to you this selection of lectures and articles
for navigation: a valuable asset to all those interested in technical
forestry in Brazil.
of articles and speeches by the forest engineer Manoel de Freitas:
It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate and make the appropriate
downloading’s of the materials of your interest from the several of our
references and euca-links. Often, some institutions provide valuable material
for a short period of time at their websites and, other times, they modify the
URL address of a given reference due to the modernization of their websites.
as novas fronteiras da floresta plantada. (Understanding the new
planted forests frontiers). M. Freitas. Revista Opinioes. (June/August).
e/ou preservacao? Fatores a considerar. (Development and/or preservation?
Factors to be considered). M. Freitas. Revista Opinioes. (December
2010/February 2011). (2011)
2011. (2011 forest perspectives). Interview with Manoel de Freitas.
Painel Florestal TV. (2011)
perspectivas-2011-manoel-de-freitas (in Portuguese)
investing. M. Freitas. Latin American Summit 2011-IQPC. PowerPoint
presentation: 13 slides. (2011)
a empresa florestal aproveitando conceitos aprovados no dia a dia. (Managing the forest company taking advantage of the approved concepts
in everyday life). M. Freitas. IPEF – Institute of Forest
Research and Studies. PowerPoint presentation: 19 slides. (2011)
02_Administrando%20empresa%20florestal.pdf (in Portuguese)
florestal, uma historia de meio seculo. (Forest engineering: a
half century history). M. Freitas. Revista Opinioes. (March/May).
perspectivas do setor florestal em MS. (The perspectives of the
forest sector in MS). Interview with M. Freitas. Ribas Florestal
2010. Youtube videos. Painel Florestal TV channel. (2010)
para um projeto florestal. (Eucalyptus/Pinus. The basis for
a forest project). M. Freitas. 2nd Mato Grosso do Sul Forestry
Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 35 slides. (2010)
das novas fronteiras florestais do Brasil. (Challenges of the new
forest frontiers in Brasil). M. Freitas. 1st Tocantins Forestry
Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 25 slides. (2010)
sobre o eucalipto destaca “onda verde”. (Approach to
the Eucalyptus highlights "green wave"). Informe Agropecuario
Newspaper. Edition nº 264. Sindicato Rural de Campo Grande
dos plantios florestais com eucaliptos. (Objectives of the forest
plantations with Eucalyptus). M. Freitas. Workshop about Systems
of Management for Eucalyptus Forests. PowerPoint presentation:
42 slides. (2008)
aspectos sociais, ambientais e economicos. (Eucalyptus: social,
environmental and economic issues). M. Freitas. Sindicato Rural
de Campo Grande Forestry Seminar. PowerPoint presentation: 33 slides.
de Pinus. (Silviculture of Pinus). M. Freitas. Week of Agronomy.
Sao Jose do Rio Preto. PowerPoint presentation: 34 slides. (2008)
mercado florestal. (The forest market). M. Freitas. Goiania/Goias.
PowerPoint presentation: 16 slides. (2005)
del desarrollo forestal brasileno. (Experiences of the Brazilian
forestry development). M. Freitas. FONDEBOSQUE – Fondo de
Promocion del Desarrollo Forestal. Peru. PowerPoint presentation:
39 slides. (2003)
forests in Brazil. M. Freitas. XX IUFRO World Congress.
sociais: a experiencia do Fundo Florestar em Sao Paulo. (Social
forestry: the experience of the Florestar Fund in Sao Paulo). E.P.
Castanho Filho; M. Freitas. 7th Brazilian Forestry Congress. 06
10_florestas%20sociais.pdf (in Portuguese)
imediata: um conceito em pratica. (Immediate forestry reestablishment:
a concept in practice). M. Freitas. Revista Silvicultura 44: 34 – 37.
11_reforma%20eucalipto.pdf (in Portuguese)
com Eucalyptus grandis na Champion Papel e Celulose S.A. (The program
with Eucalyptus grandis at Champion Papel e Celulose S.A.). M.
Freitas; A.P. Silva; A.S. Diniz; P.Y. Kageyama; M. Ferreira. Revista
Silvicultura 31: 537 – 539. (1983)
e controle de qualidade em florestas de Eucalyptus. (Evaluation
and quality control in Eucalyptus forests). M. Freitas; A.P. Silva;
R.A. Caneva; O. Beig. IPEF Technical Newsletter # 91. 08 pp. (1980)
comparativo do comportamento de alguns hibridos de Eucalyptus spp. (Comparative study about the behavior of some Eucalyptus spp. hybrids).
R.A. Brigatti; M. Ferreira; A.P. Silva; M. Freitas. IPEF Technical
Newsletter # 123. 07 pp. (1980)
uso da floresta como supridora de energia na Champion Papel e Celulose
S.A. (The utilization of the forest as energy supplier at Champion
Papel e Celulose S.A.). M. Freitas. IPEF Technical Series 1(2):
F.1 – F.7. (1980)
interplantio como alternativa para rotacoes sucessivas em Eucalyptus. (Interplanting as an alternative to successive rotations in Eucalyptus forestry). M. Freitas; A.P. Silva; F. Gutierrez Neto; R.A. Caneva.
IPEF 19: 1-16. (1979)
basica da madeira de plantacoes comerciais de eucaliptos, na regiao
de Mogi-Guacu (S.P.). (Wood basic density in comercial plantations
of Eucalyptus in the region of Mogi-Guacu-SP). C.A. Ferreira; M.
Freitas; M. Ferreira. IPEF 18: 106-117. (1979)
da densidade basica da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. em funcao
da idade e qualidade de local. (Variation of wood basic density of
Eucalyptus spp. as a function of forest age and site quality).
C.A. Ferreira; M. Freitas; M. Ferreira. I Wood Quality Congress.
IPEF/ABCP. IPEF Informative Bulletin # 20: B.1 - B.19. (1978)
de eucaliptais. (Eucalyptus forests reestablishments). M. Freitas.
IPEF Informative Bulletin # 16: C.1 – C.05. (1978)
As I said, I always had a great admiration
for the competence and the institutional and technical achievements
great friend of the Eucalyptus trees and forestry in Brazil. His
professional qualification, enthusiasm and dedication to forestry
are unquestionable. Therefore, I felt myself honored and privileged
to have had the opportunity to reveal a little about the life of
this great "Friend of the Eucalyptus" and sharing some of his
published technical studies throughout his career.
My dear friend Manoel de Freitas, thank you for your achievements,
valuing the Eucalyptus technological and scientific development in
the Brazilian forestry. Thank you also for everything you have done
and will continue doing for the science, technology and the image
of Brazilian forestry - and to the Eucalyptus, as well.
about Black Wattle - Acacia mearnsii – written
by Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher
Mauro Valdir Schumacher is one
of the most productive academic researchers I
know. His ability to generate and then to transmit
knowledge are immense, whether through the word
(courses, lectures and interviews) as in the
format of articles and technical texts. His areas
of expertise are the Forest Ecology and Forest
Nutrition, but he has worked in many other fields
of forestry, either in partnerships with other
academic researchers or forestry companies technician’s,
or in the advising of many undergraduate and
graduate students, or in writing books of interest
to the forestry sector. For his unquestionable
virtues as a teacher, researcher and writer,
Dr. Schumacher will be honored by both the PinusLetter
as "Great Author about the Pines",
as well as by the Eucalyptus Newsletter, as "Friend
of the Eucalyptus" (in a future issue).
Meanwhile, in spite of having the majority of
his research being devoted to these two forest
genera, he also has extensive research with the
species: Acacia mearnsii (black wattle), Araucaria
angustifolia (Brazilian pine or araucaria), Platanus
x acerifolia (platano), Ilex paraguaiensis (erva
mate), etc. In addition, as an expert in forest
nutrition and ecology, countless studies have
been performed by him with forest species coming
from natural native forests from Brazil.
We will prepare a more comprehensive biography
with more detailed information about Dr. Mauro
Schumacher’s career and professional
life, when we will introduce his work in favor
Eucalyptus, Pinus and Araucaria. This will
happen in coming issues of the PinusLetter
and the Eucalyptus
Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher holds a degree
in Forest Engineering from the Federal University
of Santa Maria, where he graduated in 1982.
after, he moved to Piracicaba (USP – University
of Sao Paulo), to work for his Master of Science,
under the guidance of our good friend Dr. Fabio
Poggiani. In 1992, he defended his Master dissertation
titled "Aspects of nutrient cycling and
microclimate in stands of Eucalyptus camaldulensis,
E. grandis and E. torelliana”. Thanks to
his enormous dedication, determination and enthusiasm
for forest science, he managed for an important
international opening to study for his Ph.D.
in Austria, in Vienna, Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur,
under the advising of the renowned Dr. Anton
Krapfenbauer. There, he has developed one of
the widest academic treatises on the cycling
of nutrients in Eucalyptus, studying the species E.
globulus, E. dunnii and E. saligna. He was
assisted with special support from the company
Riocell S.A., both in the form of a simple scholarship
supplement, as well as the logistics in the area
of forestry for the preparation of the experimental
part of his doctoral thesis entitled "Nutrient
cycling in different stands of Eucalyptus
saligna, E. dunnii and E. globulus in Rio Grande do Sul,
Brazil", defended with great success in
1995. These two works will become available (online)
to public in one of the upcoming Eucalyptus Newsletter,
when a tribute will be given to Dr. Mauro Schumacher
as a "Friend of the Eucalyptus".
Currently, Dr. Mauro Schumacher is an associate
professor at UFSM - Federal University of Santa
Maria, where he educates his students and develops
and manages forestry research in the excellent
Laboratory of Forest Ecology - Labeflo, one
of the most productive and well-equipped laboratories
of forest ecology in Brazil (http://www.labeflo.com.br/index.htm).
In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter,
we are bringing some of the many studies published
by Dr. Schumacher and his team about the tree
species Acacia mearnsii, one of his favorite
species on his multiple university research
studies. Among the subjects studied about the
he includes: nutrient cycling, ecology of forest
ecosystems, nutrition, interactions with other
systems and species, silvicultural practices,
forest wastes, etc. Perhaps, Dr. Mauro is one
of Brazilian researchers with more papers published
about the black wattle, either on forestry
or about ecological interactions. This is because
the black wattle is a leguminous tree that
nitrogen, including the parcel derived from
its symbiotic interactions. A huge attraction
a researcher in forest ecology and nutrition.
It would be of very high ecological value the
establishment of mixed forest systems including
black wattle, as proved by several of his studies.
I have also a great confidence in Acacia
mearnsii and on
its forestry and ecological value. So, in 2008,
I wrote the chapter 08 of the Eucalyptus
Online Book about it: "The Eucalyptus and
Leguminosae. Part 01: Acacia
this chapter at:
all these reasons, I decided to consolidate in this Eucalyptus
Newsletter edition a selection of articles written by
Dr. Schumacher’s qualified team of researchers
about this tree species with significant value to the
south of Brazil. In this region, black wattle is being
planted in thousands of hectares offering wood (for pulp & paper,
charcoal and biomass fuel, among others) and bark (for
tannin production). We have made a careful search on
the web about the papers by Dr. Mauro. We are also providing,
with his consent, some other articles from events which
were not open to the public on the web. These papers
were placed on the website www.celso-foelkel.com.br to
expand our selection for you. With this, we were able
to recover and prepare for you a selection of about 60
technical and scientific texts about the black wattle,
with the fundamental participation of Dr. Mauro Valdir
Schumacher. Definitely, we have an excellent and valuable
database on the black wattle for those who have more
interest in this species and on its forest potential
in Brazil. Most certainly, the reading of them will let
you know more about forestry, management, biomass, nutrition,
nutrient cycling and the sustainability of Acacia
mearnsii in Brazil. Because this species is also planted with
success in Australia and South Africa, we are convinced
that Dr. Schumacher’s articles are crossing the
oceans to collaborate with the black wattle forestry
in other lands and continents.
To learn a bit more about Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher’s
academic career, please, visit his curriculum as provided
by CNPq in the Lattes platform:
Enjoy this selection of references about Acacia mearnsii in the
literature and learn with Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher’s texts,
with strong participation of his team of researchers and collaborators
(students, peer-academic and trainees), such as: Marcos Vinicius
Winckler Caldeira, Juarez Martins Hoppe, Leonir Rodrigues Barichello,
Rubens Marques Rondon Neto, Luciano Farinha Watzlawick, Elias Moreira
dos Santos, Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel, Fabio Luiz Fleig Saidelles,
Flavia Gizele Konig, Jaime Sandro Dallago, Lisias Coelho, Francine
Neves Calil, Rudi Witschoreck, Joao Vianei Menezes da Silva, Gelson
Pase Dal Ross, Marcio Viera, among others.
of technical papers on the black wattle and authored
by Dr. Mauro Valdir Schumacher and his research
It is very important
that you immediately browse/navigate and make the
of the materials of your interest from the several
of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions
provide valuable material for a short period of time
at their websites and, other times, they modify the
URL address of a given reference due to the modernization
of their websites.
em povoamentos monoespecificos e mistos de eucalipto
e acacia-negra e do milho em sistema agrossilvicultural. (Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system).
M. Viera; M.V. Schumacher. Cerne 17(2): 259-265.
de povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De Wild.,
Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. (Biomass in Acacia mearnsii De Wild.
stand, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil). M.V.W. Caldeira;
F.L.F. Saidelles; M.V. Schumacher; T.O. Godinho,
Scientia Forestalis 39: 133-141. (2011)
Determinacao do ponto de amostragem para a quantificacao de macronutrientes
em Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Sampling point determination for macronutrients
quantification on Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). F.L.F. Saidelles; M.V.W. Caldeira;
M.V. Schumacher; R. Balbinot; W.N. Schirmer. Floresta 40: 49-62. (2010)
inicial e produtividade em plantios monoespecificos
e mistos de Eucalyptus urograndis e Acacia
mearnsii em sistema agrossilvicultural. (Initial growth and
productivity in monospecific and mixed stands of
Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii). M. Viera.
Adviser: M. V. Schumacher. Master Dissertation. UFSM – Federal
University of Santa Maria. 141 pp. (2010)
de serapilheira e de macronutrientes em um povoamento
de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) no Rio
Grande do Sul. [Litter and macronutrient deposition
in a stand of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.)
in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]. M. Viera;
M.V. Schumacher. Ciencia Florestal 20: 225-233. (2010)
misto de Eucalyptus urograndis e Acacia
mearnsii em sistema agroflorestal: I - Producao
de biomassa. (Mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia
mearnsii in an agroforestry system: I - Biomass production).
I.S. Kleinpaul; M.V. Schumacher; M. Viera; M.C. Navroski.
Ciencia Florestal 20: 621-627. (2010)
do ponto de amostragem para a quantificacao de micronutrientes
em acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). [Determination
of the sampling point for micronutrients quantification
in Acacia mearnsii De Wild]. F.L.F. Saidelles; M.V.W.
Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; R. Balbinot. Floresta
39(1): 77 – 87. (2009)
de equacoes para estimar carbono organico em plantacoes
de Acacia mearnsii de Wild. no Rio Grande do Sul
- Brasil. (Use of equations to estimate organic carbon
in Acacia mearnsii de Wild. plantations in Rio Grande
do Sul – Brazil). F.L.F. Saidelles; M.V.W.
Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; R. Balbinot. Revista Arvore
33: 907-914. (2009)
Plantio misto de Eucalyptus urograndis e Acacia mearnsii em
sistema agroflorestal. (Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii mixed
stands in an agroforestry system). I.S. Kleinpaul. Adviser: M.V. Schumacher.
UFSM – Federal University of Santa Maria. 88 pp. (2008)
e comprimento de raizes finas em povoamento de Acacia
mearnsii de Wild. estabelecido em area degradada
por mineracao de carvao. (Biomass and length of thin
roots in Acacia mearnsii De Wild. stands established
in a degraded area due to coal mining). D.E. Ceconi;
I. Poletto; T. Lovato; M.V. Schumacher. Floresta
38: 1-10. (2008)
Abstract: Distribuicao de probabilidade em analises nutricionais
de especies florestais. (Probability distribution in nutritional
analysis of forest species). A. Dal’Col Lucio; R.A.R. Rossato;
L. Storck; M.V. Schumacher; F.O. Fortes. Ceres 54(313): 214-224.
Quantificacao da biomassa de um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De
Wild. na regiao sul do Brasil. (Biomass quantification of an Acacia
mearnsii De Wild stand in the southern region of Brazil). L.R. Barichello;
M.V. Schumacher; H.L.M. Vogel. Ciencia Florestal 15(2): 129-135.
de micronutrientes na biomassa de Acacia mearnsii De
Wild. (Micronutrients content in biomass of Acacia
mearnsii De Wild). L.R. Barichello; M.V. Schumacher;
M.V.W. Caldeira. Revista Academica. Ciencias Agrarias
e Ambientais 3: 37-45. (2005)
da biomassa e altura de amostragem para a quantificacao
de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Biomass
determination and sampling point for nutrients quantification
in Acacia mearnsii De Wild). F.L.F. Saidelles. Adviser:
M.V. Schumacher. Ph.D. Thesis. UFSM – Federal
University of Santa Maria. 97 pp. (2005)
do uso de micronutrientes e sodio em tres procedencias
de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). [Nutritional
efficiency in micronutrients and sodium of three
Australian provenances of black wattle (Acacia
mearnsii De Wild.)]. M.V.W. Caldeira; R.M. Rondon Neto; M.V.
Schumacher. Revista Arvore 28(1): 39-47. (2004)
em um sistema silvipastoril com Acacia mearnsii De
Wild. na regiao sul do Brasil. (Biomass in a silvipasture
system with Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in the south
of Brazil). F.N. Calil; M.V. Schumacher; E.M. Santos;
R. Witschoreck. Biomassa & Energia 1(2): 165-171.
de diferentes tipos de substratos e recipientes no
desenvolvimento de mudas de acacia-negra (Acacia
mearnsii) e seu desempenho a campo. [Effect of different
substrates and recipient types in the development
of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) seedlings
and their development at the field]. J.M. Hoppe;
M.V. Schumacher; J.A.C. Vivian; J.V.M. Silva; G.P.D.
Ross; E. Moreira; M. Pipi; J. Krieger. 9th Rio Grande
do Sul State Forestry Congress. Nova Prata. 08 pp.
de Acacia mearnsii em diferentes densidades
(Growth of Acacia mearnsii in different planting
densities). J.M. Hoppe; M.V. Schumacher; G.P.D. Ross;
J.V.M. Silva; E.M. Santos. 9th Rio Grande do Sul
State Forestry Congress. Nova Prata. 06 pp. (2003)
da matocompeticao em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii. (Evaluation of the effect of weed control in a stand
of Acacia mearnsii). J.M. Hoppe; M.V. Schumacher;
J.V.M. Silva; G.P.D. Ross; J.A.C. Vivian. E.M. Santos.
9th Rio Grande do Sul State Forestry Congress. Nova
Prata. 05 pp. (2003)
de cinza de caldeira de biomassa como fonte de nutrientes
em Acacia mearnsii. (Utilization of power boiler
ash as source of nutrients to Acacia mearnsii). H.L.M.
Vogel; M.V. Schumacher; J.V.M. Silva; G.P.D. Ross;
E.S. Moreira. 8th Brazilian Forestry Congress. 08
inicial de Acacia mearnsii relacionado a
doses de N, P e K. (Initial plant growth of Acacia mearnsii related to dosages of N, P and K). M.V. Schumacher;
H.L.M. Vogel; J.V.M. Silva; G.P.D. Ross; E.S. Moreira.
8th Brazilian Forestry Congress. 10 pp. (2003)
e exportacao de micronutrientes em acacia-negra (Acacia
mearnsii De Wild) procedencia Batemans Bay (Australia).
[Content and exportation of micronutrients in black
wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) - Australian Batemans
Bay provenance]. M.V.W. Caldeira; R.M. Rondon Neto;
M.V. Schumacher; L.F. Watzlawick; E.M. Santos. Revista
Arvore 27(1): 9-14. (2003)
de carbono organico em povoamentos de Acacia
mearnsii De Wild. plantados no Rio Grande do
of organic carbon in stands of Acacia mearnsii De
Wild. planted in the state of Rio Grande do Sul).
M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; L.R. Barichello;
H.L.M. Vogel. Revista Academica. Ciencias Agrarias
e Ambientais 1 (2): 47-54. (2003)
de nutrientes via deposicao de serapilheira em um
povoamento de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De
Wild.) no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. [Nutrient return
via litter deposition in a black wattle (Acacia
mearnsii De Wild.) stand in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]. M.V.
Schumacher; E.J. Brun; L.M. Rodrigues; E.M. Santos.
Revista Arvore 27(6): 791-798. (2003)
Aspectos da ciclagem de nutrientes em um sistema
silvopastoril com Acacia mearnsii De Wild., no municipio
de Tupancireta, RS. (Aspects of the nutrients cycling
in a silvopasture system with Acacia mearnsii De
Wild., in Tupancireta, RS). F.N. Calil. Adviser:
M.V. Schumacher. Master Dissertation. UFSM – Federal
University of Santa Maria. 77 pp. (2003)
da biomassa e dos nutrientes em floresta de Acacia
mearnsii De Wild. na regiao sul do Brasil. (Quantification
of the biomass and the nutrients in Acacia mearnsii De Wild. forest in the south region of Brazil). L.
R. Barichello. Adviser: M.V. Schumacher. Master Dissertation.
UFSM – Federal University of Santa Maria. 58
of nutrient content in above-ground biomass of young
Acacia mearnsii De Wild., provenance Bodalla. M.V.W.
Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; P. Spathelf. Annals of
Forest Science 59: 833-838. (2002)
da biomassa aerea em um povoamento de Acacia
mearnsii. (Quantification of the above-ground biomass in a
stand of Acacia mearnsii). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V.
Schumacher; E.M. Santos. 8th Rio Grande do Sul State
Forestry Congress. Nova Prata. 07 pp. (2002)
espacial da gomose durante o inverno de 1999 em um
povoamento de acacia-negra com dois anos de idade.
(Space evolution of gummosis along the 1999 winter
in a stand of Acacia mearnsii with two years of age).
L. Coelho; E.A.M. Iensen; E.M. Santos; R. Balbinot;
M.V. Schumacher; J.M. Hoppe. 8th Rio Grande do Sul
State Forestry Congress. Nova Prata. 04 pp. (2002)
da eficiencia nutricional de tres procedencias australianas
de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). [Evaluation
of nutritional efficiency of three black wattle Australian
provenances (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.)]. M.V.W. Caldeira;
R.M. Rondon Neto; M.V. Schumacher. Revista Arvore
26(5): 615-620. (2002)
hipsometrica para Acacia mearnsii com diferentes
idades. (Hypsometrical relation for Acacia mearnsii with different ages). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher;
L.W. Scheeren; L.R. Barichello. Embrapa Florestas.
Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 45: 57-68. (2002)
de nutrientes em funcao do tipo de exploracao em
um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Nutrient
exports as function of harvesting system in a stand
of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). M.V.W. Caldeira; R.M.
Rondon Neto; M.V. Schumacher; L.F. Watzlawick. Floresta
e Ambiente 9(1): 97-104. (2002)
e exportacao de micronutrientes em um povoamento
de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) procedencia
Bodalla – Australia. [Accumulation and exports
of micronutrients in a stand of black wattle (Acacia
mearnsii De Wild.) Bodalla provenance – Australia].
M.V.W. Caldeira; R.M. Rondon Neto; M.V. Schumacher.
Revista Floresta 33(1): 73-78. (2002)
e redistribuicao de nutrientes nas folhas e nos galhos
em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii de Wild.
(Acacia-negra). [Nutrient concentration and retranslocation in the
leaves and branches in a stand of Acacia mearnsii de Wild. (black wattle)]. M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher;
L.M. Rodrigues. Embrapa Florestas. Boletim de Pesquisa
Florestal 45(1): 69-88. (2002)
do carbono organico em floresta de Acacia mearnsii em
diferentes idades. (Estimation of organic carbon
in forest of Acacia mearnsii at different ages).
M.V. Schumacher; H.L.M. Vogel; L.R. Barichello; M.V.W.
Caldeira. 2nd Latin Americal Symposium on Forest
Management. 13 pp. (2001)
da cinza sobre os teores de nutrientes no solo e
nas plantas de Acacia mearnsii. (Effect of ash on
the nutrient content in soil and plants of Acacia
mearnsii). J.S. Dallago; M.V. Schumacher; H.L.M.
Vogel. 1st Brazilian Symposium on Graduate Studies
in Forest Engineering. 12 pp. (2001)
atividade mineradora, seus impactos e aspectos de
sua recuperacao - uma revisao de literatura. (The
mining activity, impacts and aspects of recovery – A
literature review). F.L.F. Saidelles; F.G. Konig;
M.V. Schumacher. 1st Brazilian Symposium on Graduate
Studies in Forest Engineering. 13 pp. (2001)
mearnsii em sistemas silvopastoris. (Acacia
mearnsii on sylvipasture systems). F.N. Calil; M.V. Schumacher.
1st Brazilian Symposium on Graduate Studies in Forest
Engineering. 13 pp. (2001)
de biomassa aerea em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii. (Accumulation of above-ground biomass in a stand
of Acacia mearnsii). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher;
E.M. Santos; N. Tedesco; J.C. Pereira. Embrapa Florestas.
Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 42: 95-104. (2001)
da biomassa acima do solo de Acacia mearnsii De
Wild., procedencia Batemans Bay - Australia. (Quantifying
the above-ground biomass in Acacia mearnsii De Wild.
- Batemans Bay provenance – Australia). M.V.W.
Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; R.M. Rondon Neto; L.F.
Watzlawick; E.M. Santos. Ciencia Florestal 11(2):
e exportacao de B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn e Na em acacia-negra (Acacia
mearnsii De Wild) - procedencia Lake George Bunge
Dore - Australia. [Content and exportation
of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Na in black wattle (Acacia
mearnsii De Wild) - Lake George Bunge Dore – Australia].
M.V.W. Caldeira; R.M. Rondon Neto; M.V. Schumacher;
P. Spathelf. Floresta 31(1/2): 99-104. (2001)
de nutrientes em uma procedencia de Acacia mearnsii plantada
no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil. (Nutrient
content in a provenance of Acacia mearnsii planted
in Rio Grande do Sul state – Brazil). M.V.W.
Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; E.M. Santos. Embrapa Florestas.
Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 42: 105-121. (2001)
de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii De Wild. V. Quantificacao
do conteudo de nutrientes na biomassa aerea de Acacia
mearnsii De Wild. procedencia australiana. (Nutrient
cycling in Acacia mearnsii De Wild. V. Quantification
of the nutrient content in the above-ground biomass
in an Australian provenance of Acacia mearnsii).
M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; N. Tedesco; E.M.
Santos. Ciencia Rural 30 (6): 977-982. (2000)
do conteudo de nutrientes em um povoamento jovem
de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. estabelecido na regiao
sul do Brasil. (Estimation of nutrient content in
a young stand of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. established
in the southern region of Brazil). M.V.W. Caldeira;
M.V. Schumacher; E.M. Santos; N. Tedesco; J.C. Pereira.
Floresta 29(1/2): 53-65. (2000)
de mudas de Acacia mearnsii em funcao de
diferentes doses de vermicomposto. (Seedling growth of Acacia
mearnsii according to vermicompost different dosages).
M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; N. Tedesco. Scientia
Forestalis 57: 161-170. (2000)
da cinza de biomassa de caldeira como fonte de nutrientes
no crescimento de plantas de acacia-negra (Acacia
mearnsii De Wild.). [Use of ash from the biomass
power boiler as a nutrient source to the growth of
black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) seedlings].
J.S. Dallago. Adviser: M.V. Schumacher. Master Dissertation.
UFSM - Federal University of Santa Maria. 78 pp.
0489cdisserta__o_jaime_dallago_2_sum_rio.pdf (Part 1) (in
5373edisserta__o_jaime_dallago_3_desenvolvimento.pdf (Part 2) (in
da biomassa e comprimento de raizes finas em um povoamento
de Acacia mearnsii no municipio de Butia, RS. (Quantification
of biomass and thin root length in an stand of Acacia
mearnsii in the municipality of Butia-RS). M.V. Schumacher;
L. Copetti; A. Capra; J.I. Hernandes; F.J. Sutilli;
R. Balbinot. Forestry Update Cycle to the Southern
Cone. 05 pp. (1999)
de nutrientes em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii em
idade de corte. (Exports of nutrients in a stand
of Acacia mearnsii at harvesting age). J.C. Pereira;
M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; J.M. Hoppe; E.M.
Santos. Forestry Update Cycle to the Southern Cone.
07 pp. (1999)
da gomose da acacia negra em um povoamento no Rio
Grande do Sul. (Evaluation of black wattle gummosis
in a forest stand in Rio Grande do Sul state). L.
Coelho; E.A.M. Iansen; E.M. Santos; M.V. Schumacher;
J.M. Hoppe. Forestry Update Cycle to the Southern
Cone. 05 pp. (1999)
e redistribuicao de nutrientes nas folhas e no folhedo
em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De Wild.
no Rio Grande do Sul. (Concentration and redistribution
of nutrients in the leaves and in the litter of Acacia
mearnsii De Wild. stand in Rio Grande do Sul state).
M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V. Schumacher; J.C. Pereira; J.B.
Della-Flora; E.M. Santos. Ciencia Florestal 9(1):
entre as concentracoes de nutrientes nas folhas e
no folhedo em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De
Wild. (Comparison between concentrations of nutrients
in leaves and in litter for a stand of Acacia
mearnsii De Wild.). M.V.W. Caldeira; J.C. Pereira; M.V. Schumacher;
J.B. Della-Flora; E.M. Santos. Revista Arvore 23(4):
de tanino em diferentes povoamentos de Acacia
mearnsii De Wild. (Quantifying tannin in different stands
of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.). M.V.W. Caldeira; M.V.
Schumacher; E.M. Santos; J. Viegas; J.C. Pereira.
Embrapa Florestas. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal
37(01): 81-88. (1998)
da biomassa e do conteudo de nutrientes em diferentes
procedencias de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De
Wild.). [Quantification of biomass and nutrient content
in different provenances of black wattle (Acacia
mearnsii De Wild.)]. M.V.W. Caldeira. Adviser: M.V.
Schumacher. Master Dissertation. UFSM – Federal
University of Santa Maria. 96 pp. (1998)
de biomassa em um povoamento de Acacia mearnsii De
Wild. no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. (Biomass production
in a stand of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in the state
of Rio Grande do Sul). J.C. Pereira; M.V. Schumacher;
J.M. Hoppe; M.V.W. Caldeira; E.M. Santos. Revista
Arvore 21(4): 521-526. (1997)
de diferentes doses de bacsol e orgasol em sementes
de acacia-negra (Acacia mearnsii D. Wild.) e seu
desenvolvimento no viveiro. [Application of different
dosages of bacsol and orgasol in black wattle (Acacia
mearnsii De Wild.) seeds and their growth in the
nursery]. J.M. Hoppe; M.V. Schumacher; F.F. Quevedo;
R. Thomas; J.C. Vivian; T. Fontana. UFSM Technical
Report. 119 pp. (Undated)
inicial de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. relacionado
a doses de N, P e K. (Initial growth of Acacia
mearnsii De Wild. related to doses of N, P and K). M.V. Schumacher;
J.M. Hoppe; H.L.M. Vogel; J.V.M. Silva; G.P. Dal
Ross; E.M. Santos. Setaonline. Research Sheet # 12.
06 pp. (Undated)
compartimentalization in a silvopastoral system. F.N. Calil; M.V. Schumacher; R. Witschoreck. 10 pp.
da mato-competicao em plantio com mudas de Acacia
mearnsii De Wild. (Evaluation of weed control in
a seedling plantation of Acacia mearnsii). J.M. Hoppe;
M.V. Schumacher; J.V.M. Silva; G.P. Dal Ross; E.M.
Santos. Setaonline. Research Sheet # 9. 06 pp. (Undated)
do tipo de preparo de solo no crescimento de plantas
de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. atraves do plantio de
mudas. (Influence of the soil preparation in the
growth of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. seedlings). M.V.
Schumacher; J.M. Hoppe; R.S. Correa; J.V.M. Silva;
G.P. Dal Ross; H.L.M. Vogel; E.M. Santos. Setaonline.
Research Sheet # 15. 06 pp. (Undated)
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus by Ester Foelkel
Eucalyptus Wood for Structural Uses in the Civil Construction
The wood from planted forests is in continuous rise
as raw material for structural elements in the civil construction works
(Barr et al., 2010; Mello and Melo, 2004). The growing demand for sustainability
in various branches of civil engineering has made Eucalyptus wood to
be an option increasingly feasible, both economically and environmentally.
This can be explained by the rapid growth, the environmentally friendly
management and by the forest certification of most forest stands of
the genus in Brazil (Oliveira, 2009; Lobao, 2002).
The wood has been widely used in the past on structures for buildings;
and today is returning to gain ground in relation to the concrete and
iron, mainly for environmental reasons (Wikipedia, 2011; Postes Mariani,
Beams are horizontal structural elements of high relevance, being practically
present in all buildings, from the small to the large ones, making
the uniform distribution of loads among the supporting sections (Wikipedia,
2011; Lobao, 2002). These structures help to reduce tensions in concentrated
form and transmit the weights, especially the one from the slab to
the supporting pillars of the buildings. The beams are also capable
of supporting the bending due to the gaps, tolerating vertical gravitational
forces and helping in the stability and safety of the building. These
elements are also of high importance in case of winds and earthquakes
(which exerts horizontal forces), assisting in the redistribution of
forces to the columns and to other auxiliary parts of the structure
The wooden beams may be cylindrical trunks (used for small and rustic
buildings), or sawed, flattened, reconstituted, laminated or glued
wood (Cecchini, 2010). The pieces can be used in heavy constructions
for both the outside and for the internal areas (Nahuz, 2010). The
size, type of beams and dimensioning on a construction site will depend
largely on its purpose, requiring projects developed primarily by engineers
and architects to prevent the structural displacements that are used
to happen, while promoting elasticity (Cecchini, 2010; Wolenski et
al., Undated). Tecniwood (Undated) showed that the beams can be used
in various types of buildings such as offices, homes, swimming pools,
bridges, arbors, auditoriums, pavilions, as well as shopping malls
and other buildings intended for leisure. Cecchini (2010) commented
that the cost of works that require additional carpentry details can
increase, reaching 20% of the total.
Despite their enormous relevance, there are few studies involving the
Eucalyptus woods as raw materials for structural elements such as beams
(Barr et al., 2010). Thus, this paper aims to share technical knowledge
about this kind of structural elements, emphasizing the main types,
properties, advantages and disadvantages, as related to the durability
of the wood for the function.
Types of beams
Cecchini (2010) explained that the beams and pillars are nailed, plugged,
or connected by screwed fittings, creating a frame that corresponds
to the skeleton of a building. One of the main forms of beam differentiation
is by how they are linked to their supports, and can basically be classified
into (Wikipedia, 2011):
Cantilever beam - also called consoles, they have only one support
where it is fixed.
Dual supported beam - as the name implies, the support structure has
double supporting pillars.
Continuous beam arrangement - the beam receives multiple connections
along the length; having different rests for its support. These beams
are the more common in bridges manufactured in wood, concrete or mixed
types (made from different raw materials). This is because, despite
the supports, much of the part remains "free", allowing the
required displacements to prevent shearing and ensure the safety and
Another classification is based on the raw materials used for beam
formation. Currently, there are concrete, steel, solid wood, reconstituted
wood or hybrids that combine multiple layers of different products
in the beams construction (Oliveira, 2009; Tecniwood, Undated).
The reconstituted wood beams, in turn, can be made of OSB (oriented
strand boards), MDF (sheets of medium density fiberboards) or wood
veneer (laminated glued wood) (Aprilanti, 2010; Fagundes , 2003). The
latter author points out that the wooden beams and glued laminated
wooden beams have wood plates of a maximum of 45 mm thickness which
are glued together under high pressure and using waterproof adhesives.
This gives high mechanical resistance to the pieces (Lobao and Gomes,
2006). They are in great demand for the distribution of weights in
floor coverings (simple bending), in porches (biaxial bending) and
pillars (compound bending) (Tecniwood, Undated).
Lobao and Gomes (2006) evaluated the adhesion quality of lamellar beams
made of Eucalyptus wood with two different wood densities. There were
no differences in strength between the bonded specimens and solid wood
for the lower density, but the results were superior to the pieces
containing blades which were glued parallel to the direction of the
Advantages of the wooden beams
In addition to environmental benefits, there are several others that
make the wood to be an advantageous alternative to steel and concrete
for the use as structural elements in the civil construction industry.
The treated wood beams can be more resistant to fire than steel or
concrete. Pinto and Calil Jr. (2003) explained that due to the slow
degradation of the fibers in the beam core and because the poor thermal
conductivity showed by charcoal, these facts prevent the wood beams
inner layers to be damaged by the high temperatures.
In addition, the wooden beams provide a better feeling of comfort,
especially due to thermal and acoustic insulation that wood provides.
The beams of this product are also more aesthetically attractive and
can better resist corrosive environments such as pools and locations
close the sea.
Barr and others (2010) carried out a case study comparing the performance
and advantages of concrete and wooden beams in medium-sized buildings.
The authors concluded that the latter has greater benefits especially
in ecological terms, but the maintenance of these structures should
be performed frequently and the wood is recommended to be recycled
at the end of its life cycle.
According to Cecchini (2010) the wood is lighter than concrete, facilitating
the labor performance to assemble the beams and provides also a cleaner
work. The same author commented that the initial cost of construction,
by requiring more details and care with fittings, may be more expensive;
but after that, the rapid assembly of beams can make costs to be virtually
the same when comparing the wooden with the concrete structures. With
regard to the latter, the wood also causes less environmental impact,
spending a lot less energy to be produced and processed. This makes
Eucalyptus trees to be very potential for the purpose, mainly because
this wood is a recyclable and renewable natural resource. As soon Eucalyptus forests are harvested, there is the planting of new individuals in
the same area, ensuring new reserves of this product for future generations
(Barr et al. 2010; Oliveira, 2009; Postes Mariani, Undated; Tecniwood,
Undated). Eucalyptus can be grown commercially near urban centers or
close to the processing factories, reducing the cost of log transportation,
and later, the cost of the beams (Calil Jr. and Brito, 2010). The beams
can also be made from wastes from sawmills, such as those prepared
with wood veneers or reconstituted wood. This gives added value to
the wastes of other wood processing industries (Lobao and Gomes, 2006;
Fagundes, 2003). The use of glued and reconstructed wood is one of
the few ways to get long beams, winning spans exceeding 6 meters (Cecchini,
2010; Azambuja and Mattos, Undated).
The Eucalyptus wood, although less dense than those of some native
species traditionally used in civil construction, does not imply in
differences in the quality of the beams. Thus, Eucalyptus wood cooperates
to the reduction of the use of many Brazilian native trees from natural
forests (Calil Jr. and Brito, 2010; Oliveira, 2009; Mello and Melo,
Baeta and Sartor (1999) recorded the mechanical properties of Eucalyptus
citriodora wood and the woods from other endemic species from Brazil,
all commonly used in buildings. The authors compared the mechanical
properties and specific gravities of several wood species, concluding
that they had good qualities for structural uses, including the Eucalyptus.
However, each utilization deserves a specific evaluation, and the authors
show in detail the ways to evaluate these structural calculations.
Structural timber products are very sensitive to moisture and timber
should be avoided in places where there is continuous and direct contact
with the water. The ideal is to carry out treatments using preservative
products, extending the service life of the Eucalyptus wooden pieces
even for periods exceeding 20 or more years. Treatment of wooden beams
under pressure prevents the attack of biological agents able to detract
mechanical strength and aesthetics, such as termites and fungi (Postes
The use of hybrid beams (containing in addition to wood, other materials
such as concrete, steel or glass fibers) is an alternative to reinforce
the structure in areas with high humidity (Cecchini, 2010; Oliveira,
2009). The hybrid beams are generally more resistant than those with
only one material, which allows the use of wider distances between
them (larger gaps) (Azambuja and Mattos, Undated). The use of multiple
materials in a single beam can also help to compensate for the defects
of the wood, especially those responsible for the decrease of tensile
Miollo cited by Oliveira (2009) studied the resistance of hybrid beams
containing Eucalyptus wood by comparing the results with those of other
pure materials. The author reported that the use of glass fibers can
make the beams 134% stiffer and 28% stronger.
Properties of beams made from Eucalyptus wood
The beams may have different formats in their sections, also known
as beam profiles (models of beams). They are found in structural engineering
in designed profiles such as "I-beam” profile, "H-beam" profile, "U" profile, "T" profile,
and "L" profile. The first two are the most commonly used
in buildings, especially because most structures are far from neutral
axis, increasing the stiffness of them. Thus, the “I-beam” profile
can give bending strength to the axis, either up or down, being considered
highly efficient because of the high resistance when related to its
weight (Cunha and Matos, 2010). The other profiles are used in more
specific cases of the civil engineering (Wikipedia, 2011).
To any type of beam profile, mathematics calculations are needed to
determine the maximum weight that the beam can support, while transferring
stresses. The shear stresses are the main characteristics being studied
for the beams. The site of application of the beams can also be calculated
by the bending moment (Wikipedia, 2011; Pinheiro et al., 2010; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j1hYUFcRzqk).
The Brazilian standard NBR 7190/07 sets out the tests that should be
used for finding allowable stresses that are supported with safety
by the beams. Several engineering calculations must be performed, but
the simple bending is the most used and takes into account the purpose,
the average density and stiffness of the wood lot, as well as the wood
moisture content (Lobao, 2003).
According to Azambuja and Mattos (Undated) there are three factors
to be observed in the timber beams. They are: limitations of stress
(including stresses derived from bending moment and tangential shear
stress), limitations of deformations and evaluations of the stability
of the structures.
The concerns about the quality of wood for structural elements of buildings
have always existed. It is for this reason that studies are needed
to the new and current generation of technologies. They are expected
to minimize the defects of Eucalyptus wood and reduce the variation
of mechanical properties of them. These studies should be encouraged.
In addition, incentives are required for additional researches, aimed
to clarify the properties of composite beams in a wide range of beam
profiles, as well as the assessment of reconstituted wood for the purpose
Several technical papers related to the evaluation of the properties
for Eucalyptus beams have been developed and are available in the literature.
Here, we have some of the results in a summarized way:
Aprilanti (2010) analyzed the influence of joints in laminated beams
of Eucalyptus grandis in relation to their resistance. Tests were performed
in the specimens such the non-destructive static bending and the modules
of elasticity in the static bending. It was found that the cut of the
piece causes considerable differences in the stiffness of the beams,
which was explained by the change of stress flow throughout their extension.
This may lower the strengths of the piece, because the cut acts like
a crack or a defect in the wood.
Calil Jr. and Brito (2010) assessed the properties of various Eucalyptus wood species such as flexural modulus of elasticity and flexural strength
limit, comparing them to existing works in literature. E. citriodora
(Corymbia citriodora) was the species with data more similar to those
found and considered theoretical values for properties in accordance
to Brazilian standards. However, less dense wood species showed variations
in elastic modulus up to 47%.
Santos et al. (2009) further developed the existing knowledge on the
type I-beams for reconstituted wood through the study of their properties.
Theoretical values of the modulus of elasticity, the bending moment
and vertical displacement were compared to experimental results obtained
for two types of beams. One that had plywood as core and the other
with OSB. The pieces containing plywood resulted in values very similar
to those found in the literature; however, the resistances of the beams
containing OSB were slightly superior.
Bartholomeu and Goncalves (2007) evaluated the quality of wood of two
species of Eucalyptus with different moisture contents for making beams.
To this purpose, they have studied the longitudinal velocity of ultrasound
waves, comparing the survey data with those already existing in the
literature. The results were more consistent for E. citriodora than
for E. grandis in saturated samples (30% moisture).
Pedrosa (2003) studied the properties of "I-beams" manufactured
with reconstituted wood (laminated and OSB), having Pinus taeda and E.
citriodora as wood supply. The tests aimed to evaluate the contribution
of each type of raw material in the performance of these structural
elements. The author pointed to the OSB the best results, resulting
in a better uniformity in the analyzed properties such as modulus of
elasticity, modulus of rupture and deflection. The beams of laminated
plywood from one of the tested species had greater variability in results
than the others – those with OSB were more uniform.
Durability of Eucalyptus wooden beams
Much of the wooden structural elements are subject to chemical attack,
physical and biological agents that cause the deterioration of their
properties, and can therefore affect both the quality of the building
and even in the safety (Calil Jr. and Brito, 2010; Postes Mariani,
Undated). The durability of the beams is an extremely important quality
test, requiring the beams to show good performance during the entire
life. Brito (2011) identified three factors that influence the durability
of wooden structural elements, which are: correct detailing and execution
of the project; the use of preventive treatments in wood; and regular
maintenance / repairs on structures.
The proper use of wood for this purpose, associated to the necessary
calculations for dimensioning beams and structures for avoiding excessive
pressure on the elements can extend lifespan (Lobao, 2002).
One of the main ways to increase the longevity of the wood is through
its preventive treatment with preservative substances. Currently in
Brazil, most treatments of the beams are performed in Wood Preservation
Plants (WPP's) that follow the NBR's # 8456, 9480, 12083, using the
process of vacuum/pressure in dedicated autoclaves for the uptake of
chemicals compounds to the interior of the timber porosity (Postes
Mariani, Undated; Uniao Madeiras, Undated; Cobrire, Undated). The treatments
with chemicals can reduce the attack of insects and microorganisms
in the woods, turning their lives longer and better in performance.
The durability of the treated Eucalyptus wood can be extended up to
50 years, as far it receives the appropriate treatment, inspections
and repairs. After the addition of the preservative chemical, other
finishing steps may be applied to timber with products to give hydro
repellency and sunscreen, especially for beams that are exposed to
bad weather conditions (Postes Mariani, Undated)
The Eucalyptus woods are increasingly being used as structural elements
at the civil construction industry. Therefore, the knowledge of their
features and properties is extremely relevant to guarantee the best
utilization, increasing durability and strengths.
Wooden beams made of reconstituted wood or mixed materials are in continuous
rise in the markets. If well used, they can deliver numerous economic
and environmental benefits. More incentives for researching of new
technologies and the improvement of the Eucalyptus wood properties
for beams manufacturing should be promoted. This would help reducing
the price of these structural elements making them more accessible
to low-income people, besides promoting additional durability and sustainability
of literature and suggestions for additional reading
Look below some technical texts, news, speeches, theses
and scientific papers that deal with the use of Eucalyptus wood for
making beams to be used in civil engineering works. Many of these technical
and scientific texts were used for the preparation of this article.
In them, you can also check the main advantages, disadvantages and
properties of Eucalyptus wood used for this purpose.
It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate
and make the appropriate downloading’s of the materials of
your interest from the several of our references and euca-links.
Often, some institutions
provide valuable material for a short period of time at their websites
and, other times, they modify the URL address of a given reference
due to the modernization of their websites.
use of wood in construction. A triple bottom line assessment of
the use of laminated wood in construction relative to reinforced
concrete. C. Barr; A. Lam; W. Wei. NewSub. UBC-Vancouver.
25 pp. (2011)
APSC261_SustainableAlternativesBuilding_Group02.pdf (in English)
com pecas de madeira de florestas plantadas. (Structures with wooden
pieces from planted forests). L.D. Brito. CIMAD. Painel Florestal.
e resistencia de vigas estruturais de madeira laminada colada e com
perfil I compostas por diferentes adesivos. (Bending stiffness and
resistance of structural glulam beams of I type composed of different
adhesives). A.B. Cunha; J.L.M. Matos. Ciencia Florestal 20(2): 345-356.
achar eucalipto tratado. (Where to find treated Eucalyptus wood).
M. Cecchini. Dicas da Arquiteta – Tips of the architect. (2010)
da madeira de florestas plantadas na construcao civil e no mobiliario:
tendencias e perspectivas. (Use of wood from planted forests in construction
and furniture making: trends and perspectives). M.A.R. Nahuz. MS
Florestal. PowerPoint presentation: 41 slides. (2010)
em vigas – Capitulo 13. (Shear in beams – Chapter 13).
L.M. Pinheiro; C.D. Muzardo; S.P. Santos. USP – College of
Engineering of Sao Carlos. 12 pp. (2010)
de um corte na borda tracionada de uma viga macica simulando uma
emenda de topo na lamina inferior de vigas laminadas coladas. (The
influence of a cut in the tensioned edge of a solid beam simulating
a butt joint at the bottom lamination of glued laminated beams).
M.D. Aprilanti. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao
Paulo. 109 pp. (2010)
de projeto e construcao de estruturas com pecas rolicas de madeira
de reflorestamento. (Handbook for the design and construction with
cylindrical pieces of wood obtained from plantation forests). C.
Calil Junior; L.D. Brito. USP – University of Sao Paulo. EESC – College
of Engineering of Sao Carlos. LaMEM – Laboratory of Wood and
Wooden Structures. 332 pp. (2010)
do teor de umidade nas propriedades de adesao da madeira de Corymbia
citriodora. (Influence of moisture content on the adhesion properties
of Corymbia citriodora wood). J.P. Motta; R.C. Alves; J.T.S. Oliveira.
Meeting of Scientific Initiation and Graduated Studies. UNIVAP – University
of Paraiba Valley. 04 pp. (2009)
teorico e experimental de vigas de madeira em perfil I: efeito do
tipo de alma na resistencia, rigidez e deslocamento vertical. (Theoretical
and experimental behavior of wooden I-beams: effects of web type
on strength, stiffness and deflection). A.M.L. Santos; C. Henrique;
S.D. Menezzi; G. Bortoletto Júnior. Scientia Forestalis 37(82):
hibridas feitas com laminas de eucalipto coladas, reforco de fibra
de vidro (na base) e ganchos metalicos (no topo) para ligar a estrutura
ao concreto. [Hybrid beams made with glued sheets of Eucalyptus, with glass fiber reinforcement (at the bottom) and metal hooks (on
top) to connect to the concrete structure). R. Oliveira. Madeira
e avaliacao de vigas de madeira laminada colada confeccionadas com
laminas de eucalipto. (Production and evaluation of glued laminated
wood beams with blades made of Eucalyptus). J.L. Miotto; A.A. Dias.
Revista Tecnologica, Special edition. p. 35-45. (2009)
do comportamento mecanico ao cisalhamento de conectores de barras
de aco com ganchos em vigas mistas de madeira laminada colada e concreto. (Evaluation of the mechanical behavior to shear in rod-type fasteners
in glued-laminated-timber and concrete connections). E.P. Carvalho.
Ph.D. Thesis. UFMG – Federal University of Minas Gerais. 173
de juntas coladas de madeira serrada de Eucalyptus sp. (Behavior
of glued joints of Eucalyptus sp. sawn wood). O.B. Plaster; J.T.S.
Oliveira; C.P. Abrahao; R.L. Braz. Cerne 14(3): 251-258. (2008)
do modulo de elasticidade a flexao em vigas de eucalipto saturadas
e secas ao ar utilizando a velocidade longitudinal de ultra-som. (Prediction of the flexural modulus of elasticity in Eucalyptus saturated
and air-dried wood beams using the longitudinal velocity of ultrasound).
A. Bartholomeu; R. Goncalves. IV Pan American Conference on Non-Destructive
Essays. Buenos Aires. 07 pp. (2007)
da adesao de madeira de eucalipto em corpos de prova colados em dois
diferentes planos e densidades. (Quality of bonding on Eucalyptus wood specimens glued in two different densities and shear planes).
M.S. Lobao; A. Gomes. Revista Cerne 12(2): 194-200. (2006)
mecanica de viga cajon. (Mechanical characterization of girder).
V.H.V. Riveros. Monography of Course Graduation. Wood Engineering.
Universidad Austral de Chile. 58 pp. (2006)
of laminated veneer lumber made from blackbutt (Eucalyptus
pilularis). J. Carrick, K. Mathieu. 10th DBMC - International
Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components.
09 pp. (2005)
em edificacoes. Obras civis. (Anchoring in buildings. Civil works).
CEHOP – State Company for Housing and Public Works. 13 pp.
systems using Eucalyptus logs for ecological parks in
central Brazil. R.L. Mello; J.E. Melo. EWPA – Engineered
Wood Products Association. 04 pp. (2004)
advances for the application of Eucalyptus as structural
wood. J.A. Santos; A.C.M. Pinho. Silva Lusitana 12(1):
43 – 50. (2004)
experimental de um modelo reduzido de uma ponte mista de madeira-concreto
utilizando vigas de madeira rolica. (Experimental analysis
of a limited model of mixed-material bridge of timber-concrete using
log timber). P.G.A. Segundinho; J.A. Matthiesen. IX Brazilian Meeting
on Woods and Wooden Structures. Cuiaba. 15 pp. (2004)
de madeira. (Wood structures). F.A.R. Gesualdo. Class-room handouts.
Federal University of Uberlandia. 98 pp.(2003)
de vigas “I” constituidas por flanges de PLP e almas
de compensado de Pinus taeda L. e Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden, e alma
de OSB de Pinus spp. (Performance of “I” beams made up
of LVL flanges and core of Pinus taeda L. Maiden, Eucalyptus
dunnii plywoods or Pinus spp. OSB). A. L. Pedrosa. Master Dissertation.
UFPR – Federal University of Parana. 119 pp. (2003)
teorico e experimental sobre a degradacao termica e os gradientes
termicos da madeira de Eucalyptus de uso estrutural exposta
(Theoretical and experimental study on the thermal degradation and
thermal gradients of Eucalyptus structural wood exposed to the fire).
E.M. Pinto; C. Calil Junior. Minerva 3(2): 131-140. (2003)
de vigas retas em MLC com emendas de topo e bisel – parte II.
(Behavior of straight wooden glued laminated beams with scarf and
butt joints - part II). A.M. Nascimento; R.M.D. Lucia; F.C. Baeta.
Floresta e Ambiente 10(2): 19 – 29. (2003)
da producao de madeira serrada e geracao de residuos do processamento
de madeira de florestas plantadas no Rio Grande do Sul. (Diagnosis
of lumber production and generation of waste from wood processing
from forest plantations in Rio Grande do Sul). H.A.V. Fagundes. Master
Dissertation. UFRGS – Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul.
173 pp. (2003)
Uso sustentavel na construcao civil. (Wood: sustainable use in the
civil construction industry). G.J. Zenid et al. IPT. 60 pp. (2003)
experimental de vigas com emendas de topo coladas com cobrejuntas
de madeira de eucalipto. (Experimental evaluation of beams with end-grain
joints and side members made with Eucalyptus wood). M.S. Lobao. Ph.D.
Thesis. UFV – Federal University of Vicosa. 64 pp. (2002)
vigas laminadas. (Laminated beams project). Ritim - Red Instituciones
de Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Industria Maderera. 02 pp. (2002)
dos materiais e dimensionamento de estruturas para construcoes rurais.
(Resistance of materials and design structures for rural buildings).
F.C. Baeta; V. Sartor. Rural Constructions. UFV – Federal University
of Vicosa. 46 pp. (1999)
da madeira comercial do hibrido de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake
x Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden na confeccao de vigas
laminadas coladas. (Use of commercial timber from the hybrid Eucalyptus
urophylla ST Blake x Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in the production of
glued laminated beams). I.R. Nielsen. Master Dissertation. UFPR – Federal
University of Parana. 123 pp. (1998)
da madeira em construcoes rurais. (The utilization of wood
in rural buildings). C. Calil Junior; A.A. Dias. Revista Brasileira
de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental I: 71-77. (1997)
de flexao nas vigas. (Bending stresses in beams). S.S.O. Buffoni.
UFF – Fluminense Federal University. 20 pp. (Undated)
de tratamentos de preservacao de madeiras. (Treatment methods for
preserving wood). C.R. Gurski. UNIUV - Uniao da Vitoria University
Center. 26 pp. (Undated)
method of an Eucalyptus laminated timber edification. E.V.M.
Carrasco; C.M. Teixeira; C. Paoliello. WSU – Washington State
University. 07 pp. (Undated)
laminated beams. Technical data. Technical data. Superspan
Timber Structural Systems. (Undated)
de madeira laminada e colada submetidas a flexao simples. (Glued
laminated wooden beams subjected to simple bending). E. Azambuja;
A.P.M. Mattos. Tecnicas e Estruturas II. FAU – PUCRS. (Undated)
lameladas coladas. (Lamellar glued wooden beams). Tecniwood. 05 pp.
de madeira lamelada-colada. (Beams of glued-laminated timber). Tecniwood.
02 pp. (Undated)
Verificacao da validade sobre a hipotese de pequenos deslocamentos
em vigas de madeira do genero Eucalyptus. (Checking the validity
about the hypothesis of small displacements in beams of Eucalyptus wood). A. L. Christoforo; A.R.V. Wolensnki; T.H. Panzera; P.C.M.
Lamim Filho; F.B. Batista. Fascículos UNESP 29(1). (Undated)
images on beams, rafters, columns and girders obtained from Eucalyptus wood (just
for referencing images and technical information - should not be
understood as commercial suggestions for trade)
12172l13781l0l14547l5l5l0l0l0l0l375l672l2-1.1l2 (“Eucalyptus wood
beam”. Google Images)
618l5851l0l6314l23l22l0l15l15l0l287l1540l0.3.4l7l0 (“Vigas de madeira
de eucalipto”. Google Images)
1414l8898l0l10779l27l26l0l22l0l0l314l905l0.1.2.1l4l0 (“Caibros de
madeira de eucalipto”. Google Images)
1280&bih=521 (“Colunas de madeira de eucalipto”. Google
of producers and manufacturers (just
for referencing images and technical information - should not be
understood as commercial suggestions for trade):
%20DE%20EUCALIPTO.html (Floresta Representacoes de Madeiras. Products)
option=com_content&view=article&id=51&Itemid=63 (Kaska Woods.
Eucalyptus wooden beams)
Article by Celso Foelkel
Principles, Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management
to the Plantation Forests
maintenance of the productive capacity of forest areas has always
been a major concern for the forest plantation companies. With the
pursuit and utilization of appropriate management techniques, the
goal is to ensure the perpetuity of forest productivity, without
depleting it. Foresters are very much interested in developing the
ability of a given ecosystem to remain productive in the long run.
However, productivity is only one of many requirements to the sustainable
management of forests. This is because planted forests are a lot
more than simply areas of growing trees for industrial or domestic
timber production. They are complex ecosystems that involve not only
the area of the planted trees, but an entire and intricate ecological
mosaic, including permanent preservation areas (riparian areas, wetlands,
river banks, springs, etc.), legal reserve areas and other areas
containing agricultural crops in the surroundings. In these complexity
of areas, there are not just trees to enjoy the natural resources,
but also other plants (flora, ranging from higher plants to micro-soil
plant life), animals (from micro-fauna to superior animals, and also
people), and even minerals (clays , sand, rocky outcroppings, etc.).
Finally, they are complex ecosystems and
the responsibility of the
user of this ecosystem is not to harm, but to improve it.
Until the mid 90's, there was not a clear view of how to proceed
to improve forest management in a way to cause minimum negative environmental
impacts on these ecosystems as well as how to improve the sustainability
of these complex ecosystems. The main concern was to cultivate the
plantations in the same way as done in other agricultural activities
- planting, managing the operations and harvesting the trees. At
most, there was a concern to keep the soil productivity, at least
in the medium term.
During the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
- UNCED, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, a major worldwide event known
as "Earth Summit" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_Summit),
it was released an important document entitled "Declaration
of Forests", a kind of suggestions book to guide the protection
and empowerment of the world's forests. However, it was considered
that protection and conservation was not to be obtained just by prohibitions.
Forests have always been major producers of goods and services to
humanity. Shortly, there was a need to protect forests, while maintaining
production of these essential benefits to humans.
Soon after Earth Summit, several groups of nations with similar forest
characteristics have begun to mobilize themselves to discuss how
to measure, evaluate and develop what was called forest sustainability.
In 1993, a working event happened in Montreal (Canada) with the presence
of a dozen non-European nations to discuss criteria for the sustainable
development of boreal and temperate forests, which were common to
these countries. This gave rise to various working groups for the
generation of criteria and indicators for this type of forests, in
what was called the "Montreal Process". This process had
several developments and the addition of new members.
There were also other intergovernmental processes (between nations)
• Helsinki process – to
develop principles, criteria and indicators on forest sustainability
to the European forests;
ITTO process – International Tropical Timber Organization – same
objectives, but to the tropical forests;
Tarapoto process – to the Amazon forests, including several
countries of this region.
These processes have formed the basis for dialogue and understanding
among stakeholders to the creation of the principles, criteria and
indicators in order to ensure the health of the forest environments,
whether of natural occurrences or plantation forests.
A common understanding that became soon clear was that these processes
could not speak on forest sustainability without privileging the
fundamental connection between forests and people. Therefore, no
country would achieve the sustainability of its forests without the
effective participation of people. Therefore, transparency and dialogue
with interested parties were considered vital to the improvement
of the principles, criteria and indicators (P&C&I). For this
reason, it must become clear that all these P&C&I are much
more than simply management or performance standards. They house
a whole conceptual process and developments that begin in the basic
principles of adherence and end on the indicators that are the necessary
evidences to ensure that proper forest management is being practiced.
Despite having been created according to conceptual purposes, they
were transferred to the effective practice from the time they were
incorporated into the forest certification systems.
The certification of forests (or forest green label) started to be
developed from the early 90's and it was consolidated in a worldwide
basis at the end of that decade, with several local and global initiatives.
The highlights were initiatives and programs such as FSC - Forest
Stewardship Council, PEFC - Programme for the Endorsement of Forest
Certification Schemes, American Sustainable Forest Initiative, ISO
14001 - Bridge document on guidelines for sustainable forests; WBCSD
- World Business Council for Sustainable Development (Sustainable
Forest Management), etc. In addition, there were several initiatives
of nongovernmental organizations and private initiatives, such as
SGS Forestry (Qualifor), Rainforest Alliance (SmartWood) and SCS
- Scientific Certification Systems (Forest Conservation Programme),
among others. Also, forest certification schemes have emerged in
many countries, including the Cerflor system in Brazil.
Those programs and forest certification systems had sought the involvement
of main stakeholders, including actors from environmental, social
and productive sectors. With that, the seeds of larger worldwide
programs have been launched, with global involvement and strong participation
of society. Remember friends, forest ecosystems are rich in fauna,
flora, minerals, but also in people. This engagement was facilitated
by the leverage provided by the Internet, which has been a remarkable
tool for public consultations, discussions, dissemination of information,
Definitely, this type of process has been successful and has been
able to show two very important things, even the most incredulous
• Even stakeholders with dramatically differing viewpoints can work
together to achieve agreed upon results;
• The involvement of the whole society adds great value and provides
the necessary credibility to improve the major of all assets we have,
which is Nature - in this case, in the format of forest ecosystems
(productive or conservation).
We always had some kind of confusion between what are defined as
principles, criteria and indicators for SFM - Sustainable Forest
Management. Some processes prefer to work with just two levels instead
of three and to define only criteria and indicators. There were numerous
discussions at technical, scientific and conceptual levels to the
election of the P&C&I. They are vital both to define the
limits of good forest management, such as to support the programs
for forest certification. The P&C&I provide a logical framework
for the establishment and construction of rules and procedures about
what to do for the proper forest management. They also help in comparing
and search for compatibility between the various forest certification
Let's try to separate these three hierarchical levels according to
our best judgments about:
› Principles: they are broader guidelines, which define the primary
framework oriented to forest sustainability. They are guidelines
that express the first-order wisdom about things related to SFM -
Sustainable Forest Management. They refer to the vital functions
of forests and their management environments and “principles
should last forever".
are second-order deployments of the principles, in order to operationalize
them, without, however, provide elements
for measuring or checking. They are patterns to provide functionality
to the principles. The criterion should indicate the degree of agreement
is expected to meet the principle. The set of criteria must be exhausting
for each principle to make sure that the principle will be obeyed
or reached. They can be changed and adjusted with the aim not to
› Indicators: are components of the forest ecosystem that can be measured or
that provide clear evidences that the principles and
criteria are being followed. In some cases, they are numeric (quantitative),
in others only evidences (qualitative). They must, therefore, be
elements that are verifiable in the ecosystem at the productive,
social and environmental issues. Indicators should allow reaching
a verdict about how, when and where the efforts for the achievement
of SFM are being allocated. They indicate the status or conditions
followed by a criterion.
Some schemes have also established what they have
called as Verifiers or Checkers. These are limits or required specifications
the P&C&I. For example, a verifier may be the maximum dosage
of herbicides to be applied per hectare and the indicator is the
measured amount actually applied, which may or may not conform to
the specification of the verifier.
The purpose of the P&C&I is to build a framework of wisdom,
knowledge, information, data and evidences to encourage and to guide
actions and operations in the adoption of SFM. They also intend to
give the required credibility to the whole process. With an appropriate
set of P&C&I it is possible to:
To express, disseminate and make public the sustainable forest
management to communities and stakeholders;
To evaluate the performance of the forest management;
the impacts of management interventions;
To register data, evaluations, etc.;
To understand the changes are going on in the forest ecosystem;
To provide guidelines for the construction of the best operational
To build or to adapt the management strategies;
To innovate with
regard to the forest practices in order to make them more sustainable;
build a wide common understanding about the existing interactions;
To guarantee effectiveness, efficacy and eco-efficiency
to the operational practices.
These hierarchical levels sometimes bring confusion
to users. For this reason, some certification systems have
decided to convert them
into just two levels, as mentioned earlier: criteria and indicators – this
has the aim to facilitate the understanding by stakeholders.
However, they must do this without changing the vital objectives
of the process.
Anyway, the indicators are just the tools for
operational assessment. They are vital parts to assist the implementation
and the maintenance
of any forest certification system. Even if a forest company
does not want to obtain the green label (the third party certificate
SFM), but wants to practice a sustainable forestry, it should
work with the P&C&I. Today, empiricism and goodwill are
not enough. We must have access to the wisdom about the forests,
or planted. The whole process relies on the best that science
has offered (or will even offer). Today, almost everything is
on the web to the knowledge of interested parties. Therefore,
a company that does not aim to have its forests certified may
a set of forest management indicators with focus on sustainability
and not only in productivity indicators of the areas actually
planted with trees.
Indicators of forest productivity are very commonly utilized
by foresters in management. They may be indicators of machinery
m³ of timber harvested by the harvesting machine per hour) or
persons (example: number of seedlings produced per man-hour in the
nursery). They may also be related to productivity and growth of
forests (example: MAI - Mean Annual Increment in m³/ha.year).
The indicators for forest sustainability are created having as basic
foundations the P&C of SFM.
Prior telling you about what are the basic principles of sustainable
forest management (or appropriate forest management, as some prefer),
I would like to offer to you two examples of this hierarchy of levels
of sustainability discussed so far.
› Principle: Conservation of ecological diversity
› Criterion: To save and/or to raise the population of endangered
species in the forest management unit
› Indicator: Survey of fauna endangered species in the areas
of forest fragments, natural corridors and plantations
› Verifiers: minimum frequencies of individuals of the endangered
species in relation to the normal figures available to the biome
and region in which the management forest unit is located
› Principle: Maintenance of health, integrity,
functions and vitality of the forest ecosystem
› Criterion: Regeneration ability of the
natural forests must be assured
› Indicator: Forest corridors and fragments
of natural forests must remain untouchable and preserved and
well-distributed in the
forest management unit
› Verifier: minimum ratio between untouchable
and preserved areas and the effective commercially oriented
The management of the forest plantations is performed according
to the same principles and criteria developed to the natural forests.
However, there are specific adjustments to the plantations peculiarities.
In particular, indicators and verifiers are developed locally, depending
on the operational features of the region and its conditions, etc.
They vary depending on the topography, the level of mechanization,
the design of the forest eco-mosaic, the water regime in the region,
hydrology and design of micro-basins and watersheds, soil types,
Good science and appropriated knowledge on forestry techniques plus
the knowledge about impacts and socio-environmental interactions
are vital in this process. The goal is to produce forests with minimal
negative impacts and excellent positive effects. This means that
we need to produce wood and other forest products to meet the demands
of society for these goods and services. However, we must do this
in a sustainable manner, ensuring that forest sites will keep their
productivity and will be enriched in terms of other ecosystem components,
such as fauna, flora, water, soil, etc.
To combine production outputs with sustainability, the forest
company should not only focus on productivity and production
in the area
actually planted with commercial trees, but to focus on a wide
and varied range of P&C&I for SFM. It should develop
its indicators and verifiers with wisdom, determination, knowledge
The forest management with a focus on sustainability should have
the unit of forest management (which may be a farm, or a micro-basin,
for example) as the scope, where the various components and members
of the forest eco-mosaic can be followed up, assessed, measured,
monitored and managed.
The technologies and silvicultural practices should be designed
and utilized to comply with the P&C. Indicators and verifiers
will provide the tools to test, to demonstrate and to improve
The producers of planted forests, usually very active as stakeholders
of this process, are in reality the most important drivers to
the development of operational techniques and innovations for
SFM. With this in mind, SFM will become better and more eco-efficient.
Because sustainability is an endless process, there will always
be new challenges, new technologies, new ways of doing forestry
harvesting trees, etc.
Ultimately, since we need to manage our forest units based on
the wisdom and the best available knowledge, the main target
to design all forest management on the basis of the fundamental
principles already defined by the different processes (Montreal,
They were developed (and are being continuously improved) based
on the dialogue between stakeholders and are primarily the following,
according to our understanding of the different processes that
Conservation of ecological and biological diversity
(biodiversity), involving the diversity of ecosystems, species,
Maintenance (and even increase) of the productive
capacity of forest ecosystems (both in terms of wood, biomass
or other forest
Maintenance of health, vitality, integrity and ecosystem
Perpetuity of the dynamic balance between inputs and
outputs of energy and nutrients in the forest site;
and maintenance of the quality of the forest soils;
and maintenance of water resources in the region;
Minimization of environmental impacts:
ecological diversity, water resources, soils, ecosystems, fragile
and unique landscapes,
Maintenance and expansion of multiple social and environmental
benefits of forests to meet the increased needs of society;
that the human beings have the central focus in sustainable
Contribution of sustainable forest management
for reduction of poverty and the generation of jobs;
to the legal requirements, to guarantee the institutional and
economic success of sustainable forest management;
and respect for the aspects related to the national sovereignty
in the design and implementation of
Innovation capacity to ensure the continuous
improvement of the SFM in order to be able to deliver products
and services in
more sustainable forestry processes;
Search for the continuous
enhancement of forest management through science, experience,
local and traditional knowledge, etc.;
Responsibility in terms
of land rights and land use;
Community relations and workers'
Rights of indigenous people and other communities associated
with the forest management unit;
Preservation of archaeological,
paleontological and cultural and scenic sites;
Preservation of forest areas of high
to the efficient use of multiple products and services obtained
Development of a management
plan for the forest management
unit that is suitable to the intensity of the operations;
of appropriate monitoring, tracking and assessing plans in
accordance to the scale and intensity of the
Guarantee that plantation forests will provide
to meet the global demands for forest products without causing
losses with respect to all the sustainability principles applicable
Ensuring opportunities so that stakeholders will have
a voice in the debates and in the operationalization of the SFM;
of transparency, non-discrimination, unbiased
activities and participation and collaboration;
Guarantee that forest
operations are focused on eco-efficiency with minimum wastes,
losses, reworks, etc.;
Focus on the aspects
of the renewability of forests and their positive aspects to
mitigate climate change;
the maintenance of forest contribution to
sinking, storage and cycling of organic carbon;
global acceptance for sustainable forest
management through educational programs, knowledge and information
to these sustainable forestry principles established in
international processes, and also by inter compositions
dialogues between NGO’s and the productive sectors, there
are several more aggressive motions claimed by radical environmental
in relation to forest plantations as a forestry design for timber
production. Some of these organizations even deny and reject
the certification of plantation forests, arguing that these plantations
are not forests but "just agriculture in the form of extensive
monocultures." Obviously, these entities have their reasons,
but they tend to focus just on the areas of silviculture and
not on the whole forest eco-mosaic. These organizations have
demands in terms of P&C. They also would like to be heard
on their demands, which are mainly associated with:
of the monoculture monotony;
Minimization in the exposure
of areas harvested by clear-cutting (or even prohibition
of clear cutting);
Landscape management (preventing the
formation of clearings by the harvesting, for example);
Orientation of the forest management of plantation forests
to natural models (similar to those used by nature itself.
For example, natural regeneration rather than planting
seedlings obtained in nurseries,
Giving priority to the protection of natural resources
and processes which are in evolution by nature;
(or even untouchability) of the banks of genetic heritage
Minimization of human interventions in
the forest site (adoption of longer rotation with thinning’s
rather than clear-cutting at early ages);
of the "Precautionary Principle" in
all situations of uncertainty or conflict;
Guarantee of active
engagement of forest communities in decisions regarding
the use of land and of the forest
Creation of a preliminary plan for delimitation
all the protected areas prior to start to generate the
plan of the area to be planted with commercial purposes
(first the environment must be located, and later the productive
Maintenance of natural areas as reference (protected
natural areas without any human intervention, except those
to be made by
the forest researchers);
Public disclosure of all the observations
and new knowledge about SFM;
Respect and dialogue with
Prohibition of drainage of wetlands,
Prohibition of the use of GMO’s
- Genetically Modified Organisms;
Minimization of the use
of pesticides, chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals;
of the area of plantation forests compared to the area
of preserved native forests;
Utilization of forestry techniques
with minimum action on soil, water, etc. (minimum cultivation,
Nevertheless, the great truth is
that most of these NGO’s
recommendations have been also adopted and evaluated
by researchers from academia and by foresters
from the forest companies. We cannot
forget that the environmental culture has permeated heavily
on forestry companies and universities - the
search for sustainability has favored
this change of culture in all organizations. This has
favored to the better understanding of these
suggestions and to the incorporation
of some of these concepts to current forest management
practices. Ultimately, we can say that the current
models of SFM have already
incorporated many of the recommendations of environmental
groups but without taking this to extremes. With
that, the processes are
being improved step-by-step and the new designs of forest
management are achieving improved levels of sustainability.
After all, nature
also has several ecosystems that are similar to the monocultures,
with large areas of the same type of ecosystem. Similarly,
monoculture with clear-cutting is gradually migrating
to other more complex systems
(multiple products and agroforestry), with longer rotations,
and intermediate harvesting.
The things are dynamic - science will provide new opportunities and
forestry will find new ways and designs for further improvements.
Indeed, in about 20 years from now, we will surely find much better
SFM models in relation to those accepted today. They will be increasingly
closer to the lessons learned and offered by Mother Nature. The research
and continued pursuit of innovation will help us to find these new
SFM models, and this is going always to happen, because it is an
endless process. All this can and should happen with the participation
of interested parties and must be done without harming the achievement
of the benefits that plantation forests provide. Among them, there
is the mission of creating products and services to society, thereby
cooperating to the protection and preservation of the remaining natural
forests on the planet. Doing such, we will always be moving towards
the desired and required sustainability.
of literature and suggestions for additional
Next, we are providing to you
a selection of websites and texts / lectures that
have the mission to expand the knowledge on this
topic, which is vital to the success of the forest-based
industry, especially for those based on planted
It is very important that you immediately browse/navigate
and make the appropriate downloading’s of
the materials of your interest from the several
of our references and euca-links. Often, some institutions
provide valuable material for a short period of
time at their websites and, other times, they modify
the URL address of a given reference due to the
modernization of their websites.
Rio Forest Certification Declaration. Accessed on 24.11.2011:
of the Rio Forest Certification Declaration) (in English)
and indicators for sustainable forest management. FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization.
Accessed on 24.11.2011:
documents on Sustainable Forest Management) (in English)
Montreal process) (in English)
Helsinki process) (in English)
ITTO process) (in English)
Tarapoto process) (in English)
- Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification. Accessed on 24.11.2011:
(Website) (in English)
and toolkits) (in English)
standards) (in English)
guides) (in English)
Sistema Brasileiro de Certificacao Florestal. (Cerflor: Brazilian System for Forest Certification).
INMETRO – National Institute of Metrology,
Standardization and Industrial Quality. Accessed
standards) (in Portuguese)
Brasil. Conselho Brasileiro de Manejo Florestal.
(FSC Brazil. Brazilian Forest Stewardship Council).
Accessed on 24.11.2011:
and criteria) (in Portuguese)
http://www.fsc.org.br/index.cfm?fuseaction=noticia&IDnoticia=73 (Frequent questions) (in Portuguese)
to FSC International website) (in English)
- Institute of Forest and Agricultural Management
and Certification. Accessed on 24.11.2011:
passos_para_certificacao_fsc.zip (Guidebook to FSC certification) (in Portuguese)
manejo_florestal_sustentavel.zip (Social indicators to the Sustainable
Forest Management) (in Portuguese)
guide to the sustainable forest management according to the FSC system) (in
interino Rainforest Alliance/SmartWood para avaliacao
do manejo de plantacoes florestais no Brasil. (Interim Rainforest Alliance / SmartWood standards
to assess the management of forest plantations
in Brazil). IMAFLORA - Institute of Forest and
Agricultural Management and Certification. Accessed
certification. Rainforest Alliance. Accessed
America’s SFI - Sustainable Forestry Initiative.
Accessed on 24.11.2011:
of the program) (in English)
http://www.afandpa.org/whatwebelieve.aspx?id=1902 (AF&PA – American
Forest and Paper Association incentives to the program)
SFI – Sustainable
Forestry Initiative. Forest certification in
Canada. Accessed on 24.11.2011:
for sustainable forest management in Canada. CSA – Canadian Standard Association. Accessed
for areas up to 4.000 hectares) (in English)
for larger areas) (in English)
forestry. Principles, criteria, indicators. South
Africa Department of Agriculture, Forestry and
Fisheries. Accessed on 24.11.2011:
Greenpeace International. Archives. Accessed on
html/content/reports/FSCmonitoring_guide.pdf (Guide to monitoring FSC certifications)
fiction- genetically engineered trees) (in English)
good wood guide) (in English)
- World Rainforest Movement. Accessed on 24.11.2011:
Criteria & indicators
for sustainable forest management. ITTO – International
Tropical Timber Organization. Accessed on 24.11.2011:
of guides and publications on P&C&I to tropical forests)
sustainable forest management certifications
standards: a meta-analysis. M.R. Clark; J.S.
Kozar. Ecology and Society 16(1). 24 pp. (2011)
para avaliacao de plantacoes florestais no Brasil. (Standard for assessment of forest plantations
in Brazil). SGS Qualifor. 74 pp. (2010)
de boas praticas florestais. (Code of good forest
practices). Portucel Soporcel Group. 97 pp. (2010)
que e desenvolvimento sustentavel. (What sustainable
development is...). J. Goldemberg. Revista Opinioes.
busca da sustentabilidade. (The search of sustainability).
M.A. Fujihara. Revista Opinioes. (September/November).
- Sustentabilidade na rede de valor do eucalipto.
Floresta plantada a papel. (Brazil - Sustainability
in the Eucalyptus value network. From planted
forest to paper). C. Foelkel. Workshop Ecolabelling.
UNEP/MDIC. Sao Paulo. PowerPoint presentation:
59 slides. (2008)
Sustentabilidade%20SECEX_UNEP%202008.pdf (in Portuguese)
de sustentabilidade na pratica agroflorestal:
um estudo de caso no sitio Sao Jose, Sertao
de Taquari, municipio de Paraty – RJ. (Indicators of sustainability in agroforestry:
a case study at sitio Sao Jose, Sertao de Taquari,
Paraty municipality – RJ). G.M. Pollmann.
Monograph of Course Graduation. UFRRJ – Federal
Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. 46 pp.
e indicadores de sustentabilidade para bioenergia. (Criteria and indicators of sustainability to
bioenergy). A. Moret; D. Rodrigues; L. Ortiz.
FBOMS - Brazilian Forum of NGOs and Social Movements
for Environment and Development. 11 pp. (2006)
forest certification handbook. R. Nussbaum; M.
Simula. Earthscan. 300 pp. (2005)
e indicadores de sustentabilidade em fomento
florestal no estado do Espirito Santo. (Diagnosis
and indicators of sustainability in forest fostering
in the state of Espirito Santo). P.R.S. Oliveira.
Master Dissertation. UFV – Federal University
of Vicosa. 140 pp. (2003)
e indicadores de sustentabilidade em florestas
manejadas por comunidades. (Criteria and indicators
of sustainability in forests managed by communities).
B. Ritchie; C. McDougall; M. Haggith; N.B. Oliveira.
CIFOR – Center for International Forestry
Research. 134 pp. (2001)
e indicadores de sustentabilidade para o manejo
de florestas tropicais. (Criteria and indicators
of sustainability to the management of tropical
forests). A.P.C. Gomes. Master Dissertation.
UFV – Federal University of Vicosa. 118
e indicadores para a sustentabilidade da Floresta
Amazonica: o processo de Tarapoto. (Criteria
and indicators to the sustainability of the Amazon
Forest: the Tarapoto process). R. Deusdara Filho;
N.J. Zerbini. Brasil Florestal 71: 42 - 48 .
de certificacao florestal do FSC – Forest
Stewardship Council – para o manejo florestal. (Standards of forest certification to the forest
management as recommended by FSC – Forest
Stewardship Council). FSC – Forest Stewardship
Council. 33 pp. (2000)
de indicadores de sustentabilidade para sistemas
agroflorestais. (Definition of sustainability
indicators to agro-forestry systems.). O. Daniel.
Ph.D. Thesis. UFV – Federal University
of Vicosa. 123 pp. (1999)
business of sustainable forestry: strategies
for an industry in transition. M.B.
Jenkins; E.T. Smith. Island Press. 356 pp.
The%20business%20of%20sustainable%20forestry%3A&f=false (in English)
for developing, testing and selecting criteria
and indicators for sustainable forestry management. R.
Prabhu; C.J.P. Colfer; R.G. Dudley. The Criteria & Indicators
Toolbox Series. CIFOR – Center for International
Forestry Research. 183 pp. (1999)
do 2º Workshop sobre Monitoramento Ambiental
em Areas Florestadas. (Memories of the 2nd Workshop
on Environmental Monitoring of Planted Forest
Areas). IPEF – Institute of Forest Research
and Studies. (1998)
florestal: iniciativas, definicoes e recomendacoes. (Forest monitoring: initiatives, definitions
and recommendations). L.C.E. Rodriguez. IPEF
Technical Series 12(31): 09 – 22. (1998)
de florestas plantadas no Brasil: indicadores
sociais e economicos. (Monitoring of planted
forests in Brazil: social and economic indicators).
L.C.E. Rodriguez. IPEF Technical Series 12(31):
23 – 32. (1998)
de sustentabilidade das plantacoes florestais. (Indicators of sustainability to the forest plantations).
F. Poggiani; J.L. Stape; J.L.M. Goncalves. IPEF
Technical Series 12(31): 33 – 44. (1998)
de sustentabilidade de florestas naturais. (Indicators
of sustainability to the natural forests). F.B.
Gandara; P.Y. Kageyama. IPEF Technical Series
12(31): 79 - 84. (1998)
and indicators for sustainable forest management:
new findings from CIFOR’s forest management
unit level research. R. Prabhu; C.
Colfer; G. Shepherd. ODI Rural Development
Forestry Network. 15 pp. (1998)
development of criteria and indicators for
sustainable forest management. FAO – Food
and Agriculture Organization. (1997)
development of criteria and indicators for sustainable
forest management (in
criteria and indicators for assessing the sustainability
of forest management: genetic criteria and
indicators. G. Namkoong; T. Boyle;
H.-R. Gregorius; H.l. Joly; O. Savolainen;
W. Ratnam; A. Young. CIFOR – Center for
International Forestry Research. 15 pp. (1996)
forest management: an analysis of principles,
criteria and standards. R. Nussbaum;
S. Bass; E. Morrison; H. Speechly. IIED – International
Institute for Environment and Development.
131 pp. (1996)
florestal para um mundo sustentavel. (Forest
sustainability to a sustainable world). C. Foelkel
website. Grau Celsius. 08 pp. (Undated)