ICEP’s – International
Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp
and Speeches from the First Colloquium – I ICEP – Vicosa/MG – Brazil
the ICEP’s or International
Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp
The ICEP - International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp has been acclaimed
as one of the best technical events about science and technology on
production of pulp for papermaking. There are good reasons for this
fact, but the top three for sure are the following:
• Eucalyptus is the pulp fiber of the moment, the fastest growing trees
and where the best available technologies are being applied to such
type of industry;
The groups of speakers and guests, who apply to present their technical
papers at IECP’s, are of the highest quality and international
• There is a highly qualified scientific management committee for each
event to ensure that all quality specifications, both technical, scientific
and logistics are reached.
This event was actually designed from an informal chat that happened
in Portugal, among a group of researchers who were attending the 28th
Congress of EUCEPA, which took place at Lisbon in April 2003. The lead
was soon taken over by UFV - Federal University of Vicosa, one of the
most renowned global centers for studies and researches on the pulping
of Eucalyptus. Dr. Jorge Luiz Colodette has polished and provided the
right shape to the idea, with the supporting received from his friend,
Dr. Jose Livio Gomide.
At that time, there were huge question-marks about the pulping and
the bleaching of Eucalyptus kraft pulp. Just a few years before, the
hexenuronic acids had been discovered; changes were rapidly occurring
in the technologies for cooking and bleaching; as well as the water
circuits were being closed. Thus, there were new problems to be solved.
One was the brightness reversion of pulp, which was the main driver
for the first colloquium to be immediately held. The original idea
was not really for a big event, but only for a technical meeting involving
some renowned world researchers. The event was assigned to happen in
the city of Vicosa, far from airports and hard to be reached by road.
The original idea was not to be an event for a large number of people.
It was assumed that in addition to the invited speakers, the number
of other technical participants was not to be very large. It was a
surprise to note that for an event created so quickly, that almost
150 participants and about 30 excellent research papers were easily
obtained. Surely, this was greatly due to the full involvement of professors
Dr. Jorge Luiz Colodette and Dr. Jose Livio Gomide, two of the most
knowledgeable and world great experts on the pulps of Eucalyptus. In
addition, the organization achieved important support for the dissemination,
organization and technological issues. SIF - Society of Forest Investigations,
ABTCP – The Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association and
the web-portal CeluloseOnline have acted as supporters since the first
event, and in the second, it was also added ATCP Chile – The
Chilean Pulp and Paper Technical Association. On top of this, it should
be highlighted the excellent support offered by UFV - Federal University
of Vicosa to all events in Brazil, an educational organization, that
since the 70's, is engaged in an intense scientific and technological
development in the Eucalyptus pulp and paper segment.
The first colloquium took advantage of the need for an opening ceremony
for the new education and research units of the LCP/UFV - Laboratory
of Pulp and Paper (http://www.lcp.ufv.br).
So, both events happened simultaneously in September 2003. A double
meaning, a double bet on
the future - both successfully achieved thanks to motivated and qualified
In the opening page for introducing the 5th ICEP - that happened in
2011 in Porto Seguro / Brazil - the event page (http://www.5thicep.com)
had some important considerations that I’m taking the chance
to bring them for your reading, with some minor updates from my side:
"The Eucalyptus is becoming the most important source of fiber
for papermaking in the world. It is predicted that by 2015 the production
of market pulp will reach around 65 million tonnes, with approximately
33 million from hardwoods, and 60% of these being originated from Eucalyptus. The great interest in Eucalyptus wood and fibers comes from the low
cost of production in certain regions, primarily due to higher forest
productivity and high pulp yield. In addition, more recently, the amazing
quality of Eucalyptus fibers has been valued by the market. The use
of Eucalyptus fibers to manufacture several grades of papers previously
made only with long fibers is growing sharply. The technical and scientific
advances achieved in the production of Eucalyptus fibers from the forests
to the end-products have improved the understanding of their applications
in different types of papers, making these fibers the preferred ones
in worldwide basis. Unlike pulp fibers derived from a mixture of species,
the use of a single species may provide specific benefits and well-defined
attributes to papermakers. In this regard, Eucalyptus market pulps
produced from clonal plantations have emerged as the most desirable
fibers in the markets, not only for the production of printing and
writing papers, but also for the manufacture of many other new products.
South America is currently the world's largest producer of Eucalyptus bleached kraft market pulp (14 million tons in 2010). In addition,
most new mill projects designed to manufacture Eucalyptus pulps are
expected to be installed in South America. Our continent is becoming
the world's hub of production and distribution of the Eucalyptus pulp.
Therefore, South America should seek initiatives in researching, development
and innovation in production and use of Eucalyptus pulp.
An important initiative in this direction was the creation of the International
Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp (ICEP), in 2003, which soon has become
an important scientific forum for discussions on the production and
use the Eucalyptus pulps. The first ICEP was held in Vicosa, Brazil,
in 2003, to discuss the production of Eucalyptus pulp with emphasis
on its bleachability and brightness stability. The second ICEP took
place in Concepcion, Chile, in 2005, and focused on the quality of
the wood and application of biotechnology. The third ICEP took place
in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2007, with the main topics being the
quality of Eucalyptus fibers and their products. The fourth ICEP took
again place in Concepcion, Chile, and had as its main themes the advances
in productivity and quality of Eucalyptus forests and fibers. The fifth
ICEP was held in Porto Seguro, Brazil, focusing on biorefinery processes,
integrated with the Eucalyptus pulp industry, with the complementary
production of liquid and solid fuels, chemicals and other materials".
All the huge bank of knowledge generated from these events could in
no way be restricted to just few technicians. In the 2011 edition of
ICEP, I had the privilege and the full support, as well as the authorization
from Dr. Jorge Luiz Colodette, to offer to the scientific and technical
eucalyptic community, through our Eucalyptus Newsletter, the presentations
and technical articles from all colloquiums so far held. We are beginning
this issue with the articles/speeches from the first of them, exactly
the one that opened the doors for researchers and technicians in the
Eucalyptus pulp and paper sector, to have a regular forum to discuss
about technology of plantation forests, wood, pulp, papermaking fibers
and the fundamental role of the Eucalyptus: the ICEP's.
All of us, who love the Eucalyptus as a fiber source for papermaking,
we are sincerely grateful to our distinguished teachers and friends
Jorge Colodette and Jose Livio Gomide for their leadership in this
process and for the generous acceptance for having this knowledge shared
with the world Eucalyptus community. Our most sincere thanks to both,
on behalf of the thousands of Eucalyptus Newsletter readers. We would
also like to thank the other organizers and supporters of these events.
Stay tuned, in upcoming editions of Eucalyptus Newsletter, we will
bring the materials from the other colloquiums.
Enjoy your reading.
Articles and Speeches of the First International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp
Eucalyptus: Algumas questoes em aberto. (Eucalyptus:
some open questions). C. Foelkel. PowerPoint presentation: 40 slides.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/celso_foelkel.pdf (In Portuguese)
Hexenuronic acid, Klason lignin and viscosity of pulp predicted
by NIR spectroscopy. A.F. Caldeira; S.L. Santos; V. Sacon. 08 pp.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/alessandra_caldeira.pdf (In Portuguese)
da densidade e do teor de carboidratos totais da madeira de eucalipto
no desempenho da linha de fibra. (Importance of wood density
and total carbohydrate content of Eucalyptus wood on the performance
of the fiberline). A. Mokfienski; J.L. Gomide; J.L. Colodette; R.C.
Oliveira. 14 pp.
comparativa de filtrados de branqueamento ECF e TCF de polpa kraft
de eucalipto. (Comparative treatability
filtrates from Eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching). A. H. Mounteer.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/ann_mounteer.pdf (In Portuguese)
Utilizacao de antraquinona na polpacao kraft: uma experiencia
em escala piloto e industrial. (Use of anthraquinone in kraft pulping:
an experience in pilot and industrial scale). A.F. Milanez. 23
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/augusto_milanez.pdf (In Portuguese)
Influence of wood pulping conditions and unbleached pulp composition
and structure on the ECF bleachability of hardwood kraft pulps. C.
Pascoal Neto; D.V. Evtuguin; A.I.D. Daniel; A.J.D. Silvestre; F.P.
Furtado; P. M. Sousa. 12 pp.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/carlos_pascoal_neto.pdf (In English)
ECF bleaching of softwood and Eucalyptus pulps - A comparative
study. L. Meuller; C. Blom; L. Holtinger; N. Fujiwara.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/lennart_meuller.pdf (In English)
de selecao de clones para maximizar rendimento e qualidade da celulose. (Selection of criteria in Eucalyptus clones to maximize
pulp yield and quality). C. Ferreira; M. Fantini Junior; R.C. Oliveira;
J.L. Colodette; J.L. Gomide. 14 pp.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/claudio_ferreira.pdf (In Portuguese)
com ozonio em pH neutro - Um novo conceito. (Ozone bleaching at neutral
pH – A new concept). F. Carvalho; D. Asbahr;
A.A.R. Godoy. 18 pp.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/fernando_carvalho.pdf (In Portuguese)
de sulfato de magnesio na linha de branqueamento da Bahia Sul. (Utilization of magnesium sulfate in the bleaching line
of Bahia Sul Celulose). E. Salvador; V. Manfredi; P.G. Caldas; F.A.
Silva. 08 pp.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/elias_salvador.pdf (In Portuguese)
de pitch em fabrica de celulose kraft de eucalipto - Um novo conceito. (Pitch control in an Eucalyptus kraft pulp mill – A
new concept). S. Kramarski; A.A. Marques; V.M. Gabrielli; R.C. Oliveira.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/sila_kramarski.pdf (In Portuguese)
hypotheses for brightness reversion of hardwood pulps. G. Gellerstedt;
O. Dahlman. 10 pp.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/Goran_Gellerstedt.pdf (In English)
da conversao do branqueamento Standard/ECF nas propriedades do papel
e no andamento das maquinas da Ripasa S.A. (Impacts of
the conversion of the standard bleaching line to ECF in the paper
and in the paper-machine runnability at Ripasa S.A.). F. Scucuglia;
F. Barbosa; I.M.B. Gomes; I.G. Trovo; K.G. Salomao; R.A. Lima.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/fernando_scucuglia.pdf (In Portuguese)
of process parameters on brightness reversion - A multivariate analysis
approach. J. P. Ferreira; C. VanZeller;
V. Lucas; G. Söderstam.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/pinho_ferreira.pdf (In English)
Tecnica para estabelecimento da qualidade tecnologica
de madeira de eucalipto visando a producao de celulose kraft. (A technique
to the evaluation of Eucalyptus wood technological quality
oriented to the production of kraft pulp). J. L. Gomide; H.
Leite. 13 pp.
principais da instabilidade de alvura de polpas kraft de eucalipto. (Main causes for the brightness instability in bleached
Eucalyptus kraft pulps). K.M.M. Eiras; J.L. Colodette; M.M. Lima; G.T.
Araujo; O.L.M. Keuller. 13 pp.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/katia_eiras1.pdf (In Portuguese)
de polpa kraft de eucalipto – O papel do peroxido
de hidrogenio. (Bleaching Eucalyptus kraft pulps – The role of
hydrogen peroxide). J.L.D. Siqueira; L.L. Silva Filho; R. Seccombe.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/dutra_siqueira.pdf (In Portuguese)
do fator kappa na estabilidade de alvura de polpas kraft branqueadas
de Eucalyptus spp. (Effect of kappa factor on the brightness
stability of Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulps). M.M. Costa; M.J. Oliveira;
C.A. Santos; C. Leporini Filho. 10 pp.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/marcelo_costa.pdf (In Portuguese)
of cooking conditions on pulp yield and other parameters. N.H. Shin;
B. Stromberg. 11 pp.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/nam_shin.pdf (In English)
of hardwood xylan dissolution on fibre charge and pulp yield. O.
Dahlman. 10 pp.
for bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulps – Impact on
bleachability and pulp properties. L.-A. Lindström P.-E.
Larsson. 09 pp.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/lars-ake.pdf (In English)
for improving the pulping process. P. Axegard. 06 pp.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/icep01/peter_axegard.pdf (In English)
de ultrafiltracao na reciclagem de agua na industria de celulose
e papel. (Utilization of ultrafiltration in the
recycling of water in the pulp and paper industry). C.R. Oliveira;
Silva; M.D. Rabelo; A.F. Tiesehausen; H. Rossoni; A.F. Milanez.
in Portuguese and in English)
termodinamico das interacoes entre corantes naturais e os carboidratos
da polpa celulosica. (Thermodynamic study
between natural dyes and pulp carbohydrates). E. Frinhani;
R.C. Oliveira; L.H. Silva. 01 pp.
in Portuguese and in English)
do conteudo de lignina lixiviavel e de acidos hexenuronicos da polpa
na performance da deslignificacao
com oxigenio. (Effect of leachable lignin content and hexenuronic acids
in the performance
the oxygen stage delignification). K.M. Eiras; A.H. Mounteer;
G. Venturim; J.L. Colodette; J.L. Gomide. 01 pp.
in Portuguese and in English)
with WDF in Eucalyptus globulus. J. Gonzalez Molina; R. Mendez. 01
(Summary in Portuguese and in English)
de surfactantes para melhoria da polpacao kraft de eucalipto. (Utilization
of surfactants to
of the Eucalyptus kraft
pulping). J.L. Gomide; D.J. Silva. 01 pp.
(Summary in Portuguese and in English)
tecnicos e economicos do uso de antraquinona em polpacao alcalina. (Technical and economic aspects
in alkaline pulping). J.M. Almeida; D.J. Silva.
(Summary in Portuguese and in English)
para ajuste do pH e controle de oxidantes residuais de polpa kraft
for pH control and
residual oxidant abatement on bleached kraft pulps).
Y.A. Minchola Robles;
J.L. Colodette; M.A.A. Teixeiras. 01 pp
Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases
written by Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede
Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede is currently one
of the outstanding researchers in the group of renowned Brazilian
have great knowledge and publications in relation to pests in forest
plantations for both pine species as well as Eucalyptus. Biologist
from UFPR - Federal University of Parana, Dr. Iede discovered his
passion for insects when, as a graduate student, began as a trainee
in the area of entomology at that university. This happened in 1975.
Since then, he has been dedicated to agricultural and forestry entomology.
Shortly after completion of his graduation studies (1977), he began
his master’s program in the same UFPR - Federal University
of Parana, where he studied the borer of the soybean plant tops as
a subject of his master dissertation, successfully completing the
master's degree in 1980. In 1979, he was hired by Embrapa (Brazilian
Agricultural Research Corporation) to work on an international project
involving the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organization - CSIRO, acting in the interest of collecting insects
for bio-controlling weeds. Dr. Iede also has expertise in programs
of biological control of insects by the University of California
(1982). In 2003, he received his Ph.D. in Biological Sciences (Entomology)
at the Federal University of Parana.
Edson Tadeu Iede was integrated as a researcher at Embrapa Florestas
- Colombo / Parana in 1982, where he remains until today, for nearly
thirty years working with forest pests. His scientific, educational
and administrative productions are relevant; as well it is his great
ability to interact with Brazilian forestry society by means of lectures
and papers in partnership with the outstanding team from Embrapa
Florestas and from other research institutes.
To all those, who are interested to know more about his career and
other relevant publications Dr. Iede has on forest pests, please,
visit his curriculum at the Lattes Platform. There, you may discover
his main research lines and topics, as well as the articles he has
published with the corresponding sources of quotations:
http://buscatextual.cnpq.br/buscatextual/visualizacv.do?id=K4780721J8 (Dr. Iede’s Lattes Platform Curriculum)
http://pbct.inweb.org.br/pbct/researcher/1558/ (E.T. Iede, researcher
In issue number 26 of our digital publication PinusLetter, Dr. Edson
Tadeu Iede was honored for his scientific contributions to the forest
species of Pinus (http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/pinus_26.html#tres).
Although much of his scientific production on forest pests has up to
now occurred to conifers, Dr. Iede has several valuable publications
on pests of Eucalyptus and on exotic quarantine pests to Brazil. Now,
about one year after having released his biography and scientific production
in PinusLetter, we are pleased to bring to you his publications on pests
of Eucalyptus in this current edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter.
A selection of eucalyptic articles written by Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede and
his research team
na silvicultura. (Insect pests in silviculture). An interview
with Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede. Painel Florestal TV. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XtfyMqK5b8M (In Portuguese)
influencia de fatores bioticos e abioticos na ocorrencia de pragas
em plantacoes florestais. (The influence of biotic and abiotic factors
on the occurrence of pests in forest plantations). E.T. Iede. Tocantins
Florestal. PowerPoint presentation: 41 slides. (2010)
http://www.painelflorestal.com.br/_arquivos/diversos/09nov_06_edson_tadeu.pdf (In Portuguese)
florestais de importancia quarentenaria para o Brasil: guia para
seu reconhecimento. (Forest insects of quarentine importance to
Brazil: a guide to their identification and recognition). R. Penteado;
E.T. Iede; W. Reis Filho; L.R. Barbosa; P. Strapasson; A.M. Linzmeier;
C.F. Castro. Embrapa Florestas. 82 pp. (2010)
http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/29864/1/Insetos-florestais.pdf (In Portuguese)
e identificacao das principais familias de insetos de importancia
quarentenaria associados a materiais
de propagacao e/ou madeira.
(Recognition and identification of major families of insects of quarantine
importance associated with propagating material and/or wood). S.R. Penteado;
L.R. Barbosa; E.T. Iede; W. Reis Filho; P. Strapasson; A.M. Linzmeier;
M.J. Thomazini. Embrapa Florestas. Documentos nº 193. 40 pp. (2009)
http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/32499/1/Doc193-2.pdf (In Portuguese)
caracterizacao de danos e ocorrencia de grilos em plantios de eucaliptos. (Biology, characterization of
damage and occurrence of
crickets in Eucalyptus plantations). L.R. Barbosa; E.T. Iede; F. Santos.
Embrapa Florestas. Documentos nº 189. 27 pp. (2009)
http://www.cnpf.embrapa.br/publica/seriedoc/edicoes/Doc189.pdf (In Portuguese)
de danos de Gryllus sp. em plantas de eucalipto, em laboratorio. (Characterization of damage from Gryllus sp. in an Eucalyptus plants,
in the laboratory). L.R. Barbosa; E.T. Iede; F. Santos. Pesquisa Florestal
Brasileira 59: 63-68. (2009)
http://www.ipef.br/eventos/2010/protef16/18-grilos.pdf (PowerPoint presentation
at PROTEF 16 by L.R. Barbosa - 2010/IPEF) (In Portuguese)
florestas plantadas e suas principais pragas no Brasil. (Planted
forests and the main pests in Brazil). E.T. Iede. Agrolink. (2009)
http://www.agrolink.com.br/colunistas/ColunaDetalhe.aspx?CodColuna=743 (In Portuguese)
Especies florestais invasoras do Brasil. (Forest invasive species in
Brazil). E.T. Iede; S. Ziller; U. Ribas Junior; I. Bognola. Red de
Paises del Cono Sur sobre Especies Forestales Invasoras. PowerPoint
presentation: 16 slides. (2008)
http://www.guyra.org.py/pdf/especies-invasoras/ei-do-brasil.pdf (In Portuguese)
(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) especie potencialmente
quarentenaria para o Brasil. [Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera:
Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) - potentially quarantine
forest species to Brazil]. E.T. Iede; W. Reis Filho; S.R. Chiarello.
Embrapa Florestas. Comunicado Tecnico nº 194. 07 pp. (2007)
http://www.cnpf.embrapa.br/publica/comuntec/edicoes/com_tec194.pdf (In Portuguese)
das pragas quarentenarias florestais no comercio internacional - Estrategias
e alternativas para
o Brasil. (Importance of quarentine
forest pests in the international trade – Strategies and alternatives
to Brazil). E.T. Iede. Embrapa Florestas. Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento
nº 22. 35 pp. (2005)
http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/CNPF-2009-09/43209/1/BPD22.pdf (In Portuguese)
eucalypti (Maskell, 1890) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae)
em eucaliptos no Brasil. [Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae)
in Eucalyptus in Brazil]. D.L.Q. Santana; E.T. lede; S.R.C. Penteado;
D. Burckhardt. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal nº 39: 139-144. (1999)
http://www.cnpf.embrapa.br/publica/boletim/boletarqv/boletim39/santana1.pdf (In Portuguese)
pests (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) in South American eucalypt plantations.
D. Burckhardt; D.L.Q. Santana; A.L. Terra; F.M. de Andrade; S.R.C. Penteado;
E.T. Iede; C.S. Morey. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen
Gesellschaft. 72: 1-10. (1999)
6538200000020001400005&pid=S0717-65382000000200014&lng=es (In English)
de ponteiros do eucalipto em Arapoti-PR. (Dry pointers in Eucalyptus at Arapoti-PR). L.M.A. Maschio; F.M. Andrade; M.S.P. Leite; A.F.J. Bellote;
C.A. Ferreira; E.T. Iede; A.M.B. Nardelli; C.G. Auer; A. Grigoletti Junior;
M. Wiechetek. IUFRO Conference on Silviculture and Improvement of Eucalypt.
pp. 353-359. (1997)
TODAS&fraseBusca=iede&posicaoRegistro=156&formFiltroAction=N&view=136236 (In Portuguese)
to implementation of phytosanitary standards in forestry. FAO – Food
and Agriculture Organization. PowerPoint presentation: 21 slides. (Undated)
http://www.fao.org/forestry/25890-0b9549ada54967057421cd77ba8a116aa.ppt (In English)
on Eucalyptus written by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Junior
Francides Gomes da Silva Junior is
a forest engineer, a 1990 graduate of UnB - University of Brasilia,
with a Master Degree
in wood technology by USP - University of Sao Paulo (1994) and Ph.D.
in Chemical Engineering by UNICAMP – State University of Campinas
(1997). He is currently an Associate Professor at the College of Agriculture "Luiz
de Queiroz" – at the University of Sao Paulo. There, he is
responsible for courses and researches in science and technology of pulp,
paper, and chemistry & quality of the wood; also working on the new
sciences related to the biorefineries. To all these issues, he performs
at the levels of graduation and postgraduate studies in forestry. His
academic production is very important, both about the use of wood of
Eucalyptus, as well as Pinus and other forest genera of importance to
the Brazilian forest-based sector.
We recently launched in our digital publication PinusLetter number 32
(http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/pinus_32.html#quatro) a biography on
Dr. Francides’ professional career, as well as some of his publications
with coniferous species, especially about the Pinus. Now, at this Eucalyptus
Newsletter, we are offering you to read Dr. Francides’ academic
publications written together his team about the Eucalyptus and some
other relevant species to the forestry sector.
For a better knowledge of the research projects, areas of academic and
administrative activities, participation in national and international
events, guidance and participation as member in stalls for theses and
dissertations defenses, professional associations, and generation of
patents, please, observe Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Junior’s
Lattes platform curriculum or the curriculum available at ESALQ website:
http://buscatextual.cnpq.br/buscatextual/visualizacv.jsp?id=K4785392A1 (Dr. Francides’ Lattes Curriculum - CNPq)
- Dr. Francides’ Curriculum)
Enjoy this selection of references taken from the online literature and
learn with the knowledge offered by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Junior
and his team.
A selection of eucalyptic articles written by Dr. Francides Gomes da
Silva Junior and his research team
do metanol celulosico obtido a partir do licor negro de processo
kraft de polpacao. (Quantification of the cellulosic methanol
obtained from the black liquor originated at kraft pulping process).
L.P.S.P. Vasconcellos; F.G. Silva Jr.; O. Bahia Filho. XXI TECNICELPA/VI
CIADICYP Meeting. 08 pp. (2010). A courtesy by Dr. Francides Gomes da
09_ciadicyp%202010%20metanol.pdf (In Portuguese)
Qualidade da madeira
de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla e genotipagem
a partir de marcadores moleculares TRAP e microssatelites
para estudos de associacao. (Wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis x
Eucalyptus urophylla and genotyping from TRAP and microsatellite molecular markers
for association studies). F.T.P. Guedes. Adviser: F.G. Silva Junior.
Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 61 pp. (2010)
tde-26112010-143303/es.php (In Portuguese)
/tde-26112010-143303/publico/Fernanda_Guedes.pdf (In Portuguese)
da qualidade da madeira das especies Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia
nitens, Eucalyptus globulus e Populus tremuloides. (Quality evaluation of the woods from the species Acacia crassicarpa,
Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus globulus and
F.S. Antunes. Adviser: F.G. Silva Junior. Master Dissertation. USP – University
of Sao Paulo. 83 pp. (2009)
11150/tde-23062009-094257/pt-br.php (In Portuguese)
11150/tde-23062009-094257/publico/Fernanda_Antunes.pdf (In Portuguese)
Pulping. (Polpacao). F.G.Silva Jr.; J.O. Brito. In: Panorama de la Industria
de Celulosa y Papel en Iberoamerica 2008. Chapter II. 42 pp. (2008)
http://www.riadicyp.org.ar/images/stories/Libro/capitulo2.pdf (In Portuguese)
Bio-polpacao: pre-tratamento de cavacos com xilanase e seus impactos
no cozimento. (Biopulping: pre-treatment of wood chips with
xilanase and impacts on pulping). T. Simunskas; F.G. Silva Junior; A.
Bassa; V.M. Sacon; V.A. Valdevite. XVI International Symposium of Scientific
Initiation - USP – University of Sao Paulo. (2008)
?numeroInscricaoTrabalho=2126&numeroEdicao=16 (In Portuguese)
Brazilian Eucalyptus and Pinus species - Bleaching evaluation.
A.G.M.C. Bassa; M.R. Silva; A. Bassa; V.M. Sacon; F. Schmidt; F.G. Silva
Jr. TAPPI Engineering, Pulping and Environmental Conference. 36 pp. (2008).
A courtesy by TAPPI.
01_mixed%20brazilian%20euca%20and%20pines.pdf (In English)
pulping of Eucalyptus with anthraquinone, polysulfide and surfactant. F.G. Silva Junior. Tappi Engineering, Pulping and Environmental Conference.
45 pp. (2007). A courtesy by TAPPI.
http://www.tappi.org/content/events/07epe/papers/07EPE69.pdf (In English)
03_kraft%20pulping%20with%20AQ.pdf (In English)
Avaliacao da madeira de Betula
pendula, Eucalyptus globulus e de hibrido de Eucalyptus
grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla destinadas a producao de
polpa celulosica kraft. (Evaluation of the wood of Betula pendula,
Eucalyptus globulus and of hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus
raw-materials for kraft pulp production). F. A. S. Duarte. Adviser: F.
G. Silva Junior. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo.
108 pp. (2007)
11150/tde-04072007-104504/pt-br.php (In Portuguese)
11150/tde-04072007-104504/publico/FrancismaraDuarte.pdf (In Portuguese)
of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla and Pinus
for production of kraft pulping using the Lo-Solids process. A.G.M.C. Bassa; F.G. Silva Jr.; V.M. Sacon; E. Patelli. TAPPI Engineering,
Pulping and Environmental Conference. 50 pp. (2007). A courtesy by TAPPI.
http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/02_mixtures%20euca%20and%20pine.pdf (In English)
forest to product: new solutions for rapid, comprehensive wood and
fibre analyses. G.E. Sherson; K.L. Woo; H.F. Jang; S. Huntley; J.
Drummond; V. Lawrence; F.G. Silva Jr. III ICEP - International Colloquium
on Eucalyptus Pulp. 12 pp. (2007). A courtesy by Dr. Francides Gomes
da Silva Jr.
outros/11_Francides_III%20ICEP.pdf (In English)
The effect of alkali charge on Eucalyptus
spp. kraft pulping. A.G.M.C.
Bassa; F.A.S. Duarte; F.G. Silva Jr. TAPPI Engineering, Pulping and Environmental
Conference. 10 pp. (2006). A courtesy by TAPPI.
05_Alkali%20charge%20on%20pulping%20euca.pdf (In English)
Avaliacao do efeito dos extrativos da madeira na polpacao kraft de
folhosas e coniferas. (Evaluation of
the effect of wood extractives
in kraft pulping of hardwoods and softwoods). T.E.S. Segura; F.G. Silva
Jr. XIV International Symposium of Scientific Initiation - USP – University
of Sao Paulo. 01 pp. (2006)
http://www.usp.br/siicusp/Resumos/14Siicusp/1708.pdf (In Portuguese)
Resumo?numeroInscricaoTrabalho=1708&numeroEdicao=14 (In Portuguese)
Qualidade da madeira para polpa celulosica kraft de Eucalyptus
globulus plantados no Uruguai. (Wood quality for kraft pulping for Eucalyptus
globulus planted in Uruguay). F. Resquin; L.E.G. Barrichelo; F.G. Silva
Junior, J.O. Brito; C.A. Sansigolo. Scientia Forestalis 72(7): 57-66.
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/scientia/nr72/cap07.pdf (In Portuguese)
de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus
globulus e Pinus taeda para producao
de celulose kraft atraves do Processo
Lo-Solids®. (Mixtures of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus
urophylla, Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus taeda wood chips for the production of
kraft pulps using the Lo-Solid® pulping process). A.G.M.C. Bassa.
Adviser: F.G. Silva Junior. Master Dissertation. USP – University
of Sao Paulo. 170 pp. (2006)
11150/tde-08032007-162226/publico/AnaBassa.pdf (In Portuguese)
11/11150/tde-08032007-162226/pt-br.php (In Portuguese)
Influence of alkali charge on hexenuronic acid formation and pulping
efficiency for Lo-Solids cooking of Eucalyptus. F.S. Almeida; F.G. Silva
Jr. TAPPI Engineering, Pulping, and Environmental Conference. 13 pp.
(2004). A courtesy by TAPPI.
06_alkali%20charge%20and%20HexAcds.pdf (In English)
da carga alcalina no processo de polpacao Lo Solids para madeira
de eucalipto. (Influence of alkali
charge in the Lo-Solids pulping
process for the wood of Eucalyptus). F.S. Almeida; F.G. Silva Jr. 37th
Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association.
23 pp. (2004). A courtesy by ABTCP.
19_carga%20alcalina%20polpacao%20lo-solids%20euca_Texto.pdf (In Portuguese)
da carga alcalina no processo de polpacao Lo Solids para madeira
de eucalipto. (Influence of alkali
charge in the Lo-Solids pulping
process for the wood of Eucalyptus). F.S. Almeida; F.G. Silva Jr. 37th
Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association.
PowerPoint presentation: 48 slides. (2004). A courtesy by ABTCP.
20_carga%20alcalina%20polpacao%20lo-solids_PPT.pdf (In Portuguese)
da carga alcalina no processo de polpacao Lo-Solids® para
madeiras de eucalipto. (Influence of alkali charge in the Lo-Solids® pulping
process for the wood of Eucalyptus). F.S. Almeida. Adviser: F.G. Silva
Junior. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 131
http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/11/11150/tde-06112003-135906/pt-br.php (In Portuguese)
http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/11/11150/tde-06112003-135906/publico/fabio.pdf (In Portuguese)
Influencia de comprimentos de cavacos
de hibrido de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla na densidade
aparente e qualidade de fibras para obtencao
de polpa celulosica. (Influence of the wood chip length for the hybrid
Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla in the bulk density and in the fiber
quality for pulp production). R.T. Medeiros; L.E.G. Barrichelo; F.G.
Silva Jr.; A.A. Castro Neto. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical
Association. PowerPoint presentation: 35 slides. (2003). A courtesy by
%20cavacos%20e%20qualidade%20madeira%20e%20fibras_PPT.pdf (In Portuguese)
Polpacao kraft convencional e modificada para madeiras
de Eucalyptus grandis e hibrido (E. grandis x E. urophylla). [Conventional
kraft pulping for the woods of Eucalyptus grandis and hybrid (E.
grandis x E. urophylla)]. A. Bassa; F.G. Silva Jr.; L.E.G. Barrichelo; V.M. Sacon.
35th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical
Association. 23 pp. (2002). A courtesy by ABTCP.
http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/23_polpacao%20kraft%20convencional%20e%20modificada%20eucaliptos.pdf (In Portuguese)
Lo Solids de eucalipto: efeito do ritmo de producao. (Lo-solids
pulping of Eucalyptus: effect of the production rate). F.G. Silva Jr.;
T.J. McDonough. O Papel (January):69-81. (2002). A courtesy by ABTCP.
20lo-solids%20eucalipto%20e%20ritmo%20producao.pdf (In Portuguese)
Otimizacao do estagio de dioxidacao no branqueamento de polpas de
eucalipto. (Optimization of the chlorine dioxide stage
in Eucalyptus pulp bleaching). F.G. Silva Junior; F.A.S. Duarte; O. Mambrim Filho.
X International Symposium of Scientific Initiation. USP – University
of Sao Paulo. (2002)
r?numeroInscricaoTrabalho=2145&numeroEdicao=10 (In Portuguese)
pulping of Eucalyptus: the effect of the production rate.
F.G. Silva Jr.; T.J. McDonough; J. Li. VII Symposium on the Chemistry
of Lignins and other Wood Products. p. 191-195. (2001). A courtesy by
Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Jr.
outros/14_Superbatch%20pulping%20eucalyptus.pdf (In English)
da madeira de hibrido de Eucalyptus grandis x E.urophylla e selecao
precoce. (Wood quality of the hybrid
Eucalyptus grandis x E.urophylla and early selection). G.S.B. Alencar; L.E.G. Barrichelo; F.G. Silva Jr.
34th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical
Association. 06 pp. (2001). A courtesy by ABTCP.
precoce%20em%20e.urograndis%20para%20qualidade%20madeira.pdf (In Portuguese)
como auxiliar de polpacao kraft. Desmistificando conceitos e tecnicas
de aplicacao. (Anthraquinone
as an aid to kraft pulping. Demystifying
concepts and application techniques). D. Morais; F.G. Silva Jr. Seminar
about Pulping Processes for Wood. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper
Technical Association. PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides. (2000). A
courtesy by ABTCP.
28_antraquinona%20auxiliar%20polpacao.pdf (In Portuguese)
do efeito da antraquinona e surfactante sobre a polpacao kraft de
Eucalyptus sp. (Evaluation of the effect of anthraquinone and surfactant
on the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus wood). F.G. Silva Jr.; N. Duran; L.I.
Mei. O Papel (May): 60-65. (1998). A courtesy by ABTCP.
31_efeito%20AQ%20e%20surfactante%20na%20polpacao.pdf (In Portuguese)
kraft e polpacao kraft-AQ: deslignificacao e espectroscopia de fotoeletrons. (Kraft pulping and kraft-AQ pulping:
and photoelectron spectroscopy). F.G. Silva Jr.; N.E.D. Caballero; L.H.I.
Mei. 31st Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical
Association. p. 601-613. (1998). A courtesy by ABTCP.
kraft do eucalipto com adicao de antraquinona, polisulfetos e surfactante. (Kraft
pulping of Eucalyptus with the addition of anthraquinone,
polysulfides and surfactant). F.G. Silva Jr. Adviser: Dra. L.H.I. Mei.
Ph.D. Thesis. UNICAMP – State University of Campinas. 184 pp. (1997).
http://libdigi.unicamp.br/document/?code=vtls000121332 (In Portuguese)
da selecao precoce de Eucalyptus urophylla em funcao da qualidade
da madeira destinada a
producao de celulose. (Potential
of early selection of Eucalyptus urophylla as a function of the quality
of the wood for pulp production). F.G. Silva Jr.; E.P. Braga. 30th Annual
Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association.
p. 281-292. (1997). A courtesy by ABTCP.
33_potencialidade%20selecao%20precoce%20eucalipto.pdf (In Portuguese)
industriais da Votorantim Celulose e Papel na polpacao kraft com
uso de antraquinona e surfactante. (Industrial experiences
at Votorantim Celulose e Papel about the addition of anthraquinone and
surfactant as aids in kraft pulping). F.G. Silva Jr.; A. Resende; E.
Tonelli; J.T. Santos; A. Zolio. 30th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian
Pulp and Paper Technical Association. p. 191-204. (1997). A courtesy
34_polpacao%20kraft%20antraquinona%20surfactante.pdf (In Portuguese)
do estagio Eop no branqueamento de polpa de eucalipto. (Optimization
of the Eop bleaching stage for Eucalyptus pulp). F.G. Silva Jr.; A. Resende.
O Papel (October): 68-72. (1997). A courtesy by ABTCP.
35_otimizacao%20estagio%20EOP.pdf (In Portuguese)
da madeira de eucalipto para producao de celulose. (Eucalyptus wood quality for pulp production). F.G. Silva Jr. ABTCP/ESALQ. PowerPoint
presentation: 25 slides. (1997). A courtesy by ABTCP.
36_qualidade%20madeira%20eucalipto%20para%20celulose.pdf (In Portuguese)
ECF bleaching sequences for Eucalyptus. J.C.G. Muner; F.G. Silva Jr.;
L.N. Santos; A. Resende; E. Tonelli. TAPPI International Pulp Bleaching
Conference. 02 pp. (1996). A courtesy by TAPPI.
07_ecf%20bleaching%20euca%20pulps.pdf (In English)
of the kraft process in soda-DDA (di-sodium salt of 1,4 -
dihydro - 9,10-dihydroxy anthracene) for Eucalyptus. F.G. Silva Jr.;
L.E.G. Barrichelo. TAPPI Pulping Conference. 08 pp. (1995). A courtesy
08_Soda%20DDA%20process.pdf (In English)
do processo kraft em soda-DDA (sal disodico de 1,4 dihidro - 9,10
dihidroxi antraceno) para madeira de eucalipto. [Conversion of
the kraft process in soda-DDA (di-sodium salt of 1,4 - dihydro - 9,10-dihydroxy
anthracene) for Eucalyptus wood]. F.G. Silva Jr.; L.E.G. Barrichelo.
28th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical
Association. p. 211-225. (1995). A courtesy by ABTCP.
37_processo%20soda%20DDA.pdf (In Portuguese)
de qualidade da madeira da Votorantim Celulose e Papel - VCP. (The
program for wood quality at Votorantim Celulose
e Papel – VCP). F.G. Silva Jr.; J.C.G. Muner; C.F. Valle. 28th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian
Pulp and Paper Technical Association. p. 515-529. (1995). A courtesy
38_programa%20qualidade%20madeira%20VCP.pdf (In Portuguese)
Influencia dos cavacos de Eucalyptus
dunnii sobre o processo de producao
de celulose kraft de Eucalyptus grandis. (Influence of the Eucalyptus
dunnii wood chips on the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus grandis). F.G. Silva
Jr. O Papel (June): 19-21. (1994). A courtesy by ABTCP.
/39_influencia%20cavacos%20E.dunnii.pdf (In Portuguese)
do processo kraft em soda-dda (sal di-sodico de 1,4-dihidro-9,10-dihidroxi
antraceno) para madeira de eucalipto.
[Conversion of the kraft process
in soda-DDA (di-sodium salt of 1,4 - dihydro - 9,10-dihydroxy anthracene)
for Eucalyptus wood]. F.G. Silva Junior. Adviser: L. E. G. Barrichelo.
Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 194 pp. (1994)
da qualidade da madeira de hibridos de Eucalyptus grandis x E.
camaldulensis visando a producao de celulose. (Evaluation
wood quality for hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis x E. camaldulensis oriented
to the production of pulp). F.G. Silva Jr.; I.M.B. Gomes; L.E.G. Barrichelo;
S. Oda. 7th Brazilian Forestry Congress. 05 pp. (1993). A courtesy by
SBS – Brazilian Silviculture Society.
16_Hibridos%20grandisxcamaldulensis.pdf (In Portuguese)
of Dr. Francides’s and
his research team about other forest and agricultural raw materials
for pulp production
radial das caracteristicas anatomicas, densidade aparente, teores
de extrativos, lignina e holocelulose na madeira de Piptadenia
gonoacantha (Mart.) Macbr. [Radial variation of anatomical features,
density, content of extractives, holocellulose and lignin in the wood
of Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) Macbr]. E.L. Longui; I.L. Lima; F.G.
Silva Junior; A. Bufolo; I.M.S. Suckow; S.M.B. Florsheim. Scientia Forestalis
38: 341-353. (2010)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/scientia/nr87/cap02.pdf (In Portuguese)
da madeira de acacia para producao de polpa celulosica kraft. (Potential of the Acacia wood for the production of kraft pulp). T.E.S.
Segura; M. Zanao; F.G. Silva Jr. XXI TECNICELPA/VI CIADICYP Meeting.
08 pp. (2010). A courtesy by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Jr.
10_ciadicyp%202010%20acacia.pdf (In Portuguese)
da madeira de especies do genero Acacia plantadas no Brasil. (Quality of the woods from species of the
Acacia genus planted in Brazil).
G.S.B. Alencar. Adviser: F.G. Silva Junior. Ph.D. Thesis. USP – University
of Sao Paulo. 132 pp. (2009)
11/11150/tde-23062009-102705/pt-br.php (In Portuguese)
11/11150/tde-23062009-102705/publico/Glaucia_Barbosa_Alencar.pdf (In Portuguese)
da biorefinaria na industria de celulose e papel. (Perspectives
of biorefineries to the pulp and paper industry). F.G. Silva Jr. Madeira
2010. PowerPoint presentation: 35 slides. (2010). A courtesy by BESC
17_BiorefinariasMadeira2010ppt.pdf (In Portuguese)
e tecnologias de cozimentos batch e continuos. (Concepts and technologies for batch and continuous
cooking). F.G. Silva Jr. Seminar
on Pulping Technologies. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical
Association. PowerPoint presentation: 51 slides. (2007). A courtesy by
18_tecnologias%20cozimentos%20batch%20e%20continuos.pdf (In Portuguese)
Producao de polpa celulosica a partir de linter de algodao. (Production of cellulosic pulp from
cotton linter). F.G. Silva Junior;
M.G. Silva. XIV International Symposium on Scientific Initiation. University
of Sao Paulo – SIICUSP. (2006)
?numeroInscricaoTrabalho=3335&numeroEdicao=14 (In Portuguese)
de polpa celulosica a partir de engaco de bananeira. (Pulp production from banana stem). M.L.P.
Soffner. Adviser: F.G. Silva Junior.
Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 70 pp. (2001)
11149/tde-13122001-114259/pt-br.php (In Portuguese)
11/11149/tde-13122001-114259/publico/soffner.pdf (In Portuguese)
polifuncionais como inibidores de corrosao de aco inoxidavel 304
nos filtros das etapas de branqueamento
com peroxido de hidrogenio. (Polyfunctional chelating agents as inhibitors of corrosion on 304 stainless
steel filters in the stages of bleaching with hydrogen peroxide). H.
Vilca-Melendez; I.V. Aoki; O. Moraes; J.M. Almeida; F.G. Silva Jr. 33rd
Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association.
09 pp. (2000). A courtesy by ABTCP.
29_quelantes%20polifuncionais%20corrosao%20branqueamento.pdf (In Portuguese)
production of hemicellulases by aerobic fungi on medium containing
residues of banana plant as substrate. R.G. Medeiros; M.L.P. Soffner;
J.A. Thome; A.O.G. Cacais; R.S. Estelles; B.C. Salles; H.M. Ferreira;
S.A. Lucena Neto; F.G. Silva Junior; E.X. Ferreira Filho. Biotechnology
Progress 16(3): 522-524. (2000)
Biotechnology%20Progress/2000/no.3/2000v16n3p.522-524.pdf (In English)
anatomica de madeiras nativas de matas ciliares do centro-oeste brasileiro. (Anatomical characterization of native woods from riparian
forests located at center-western Brazil). J.E. Paula; F.G. Silva Junior;
A.P.P. Silva. Scientia Forestalis 58: 73-89. (2000)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/scientia/nr58/cap06.pdf (In Portuguese)
do beneficiamento do engaco de bananeira Musa sp. para producao de
polpa celulosica. (Evaluation of processing the stalk/stem
of banana tree - Musa sp. - for production of pulp). M.C.A.P. Soffner; F.G. Silva
Jr.; J.O. Brito; L.L. Pereira. Seminar on Non-Conventional Pulping Processes.
ABTCP/ESALQ. 07 pp. (1999). A courtesy by ABTCP.
30_engaco%20%20bananeira%20producao%20polpa.pdf (In Portuguese)
Purification and characterization of a low-molecular-weight xylanase
produced by Acrophialophora nainiana. F. Ximenes; M.V. Souza; J. Puls;
F.G. Silva Junior; E.X. Ferreira Filho. Current Microbiology 38(1):18-21.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9841776 (In English)
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus by Ester Foelkel
The Wood of Eucalyptus Used
for the Construction of Bridges
The wood is part of mankind daily-life since the beginning of human
development (Calil Jr. et al., 2006). The arrival of the latest technologies
and the relevant environmental concerns have caused to occur a new
search for more environmentally friendly alternative materials for
using in homes, buildings, road networks, bridges, electricity networks,
among other civil engineering works (Giuliano, 2009; Fonte, 2004; Gesualdo,
2003). Therefore, the use of the wood from fast-grown plantation forests,
such as the environmentally certified Eucalyptus forests, is increasing
considerably. In addition, most secondary roads in Brazil do not have
asphalt coverage, and their bridges also present little or no concrete
structures. These bridges, which typically have small or medium size,
are mostly built on wood. Many of them were made by carpenters without
preparing a prior required project or even by professionals without
the proper qualifications in engineering construction on wood. In many
cases, it was also utilized native forest timber with inefficient or
absent preservative treatments. This made the life span of many bridges
to be short, causing the population to have the erroneous idea that
these wooden raw materials would not be too resistant or durable for
larger buildings (Gesualdo, 2003; Abdalla, 2002). However, studies
have demonstrated the potential of wood of some species of Eucalyptus:
they are being applied to bridge construction and are considered a
full reality. This has led to greater confidence and a gradual growth
of opportunities for the Eucalyptus timber for this purpose (Giuliano,
According to Dias (2007) and Barboza (undated) a bridge is defined
as a civil work which is intended to cross a barrier (usually water
bodies) giving continuation to a transportation route, or better, joining
one point to another. Fonte and Calil Jr. (2007) showed that there
is a huge deficit and there is a great need for repairing many bridges
of small and medium size in Brazil, most of them built with woods.
The country depends almost exclusively on highways for driving its
production and to supply the huge population. So, the knowledge of
wood properties and the use of new technologies are essential to guarantee
comfort and safety to the Brazilian economy in addition to the logistics
Consequently, the goals of this technical article are to present the
main advantages and disadvantages of using Eucalyptus wood in the construction
of bridges, and the available types commonly found in Brazil, as well
as the species of the genus that are mostly used for this function.
The text also aims to provide knowledge about research findings that
are related the use of Eucalyptus woods for bridges, as well as what
could be done to solve the structural and conservative problems existing
and accumulated over the years of continuous bridges utilization.
Advantages and disadvantages of the Eucalyptus timber bridges
Giuliano (2009) reported that the use of Eucalyptus wood to build
bridges has many advantages. One of the most significant is that the
environmental investment in net energy for obtaining the raw material
is almost negligible when compared to concrete. This generates great
energy savings and reduced fossil carbon emissions when using wood.
In addition to be less expensive, the bridges of treated good quality
timber, if properly designed and maintained, are to have good behavior
and performance. They are definitively a great alternative to brickwork
Eucalyptus wood also makes its contribution for preserving the environment,
since it can be planted and produced in sustainable
ways. This is because timber of planted forests may be environmentally
certified as renewable resources, managed properly and with minimum
environmental impact. After the harvesting of the Eucalyptus forests,
the area may be replanted or managed to ensure the supply of the
raw material for future generations (Calil Jr. et al., 2006). Eucalyptus
is currently one of the most planted trees in Brazil, fitting perfectly
well to the environmental conditions of the country, which leads
to rapid growth of the forests. Eucalyptus wood is available in essentially
all regions of the country, ensuring appropriate acquisition costs.
The stable supply of this wood on the markets also brings environmental
benefits by reducing the use of wood from native forests, which are
increasingly scarce and safeguarded by law. Another benefit is the
easy workability and lower basic density of Eucalyptus wood, making
it increasingly employed in bridge structures and other civil industry
The wood, even after the preservation chemical treatment, is not considered
a contaminant to the environment (Mullin e Pedoja, 2003). Treatments
for preservation are essential, especially in terms of extended longevity.
Soriano and Mascia (1999) found that the main problems of the Brazilian
wooden bridges are a lack of care and of maintenance repairs. Many
of the bridges checked by the authors presented some kind of structural
problems, such as rotting wood of the elements on their structures.
Fiorelli and Dias (2005) have assessed the conditions of the structural
system of wooden bridges made with untreated Eucalyptus wood in the
western Sao Paulo state region. Properties such as spans, dimensions,
degradation and moisture levels were tested. Much of the unevenness
of the bridges has been associated to the fact they had lack on conservation
and absence of cup holders. Other identified non-conformities were
found at headwaters, foundation (piles) and the stringers (beams).
Another major constraint in the use of wood bridges is the lack of
knowledge, both about the Eucalyptus wood itself, as well as on expertise
by technicians to the preparation of structural engineering projects
in wood. This causes many of the bridges to be poorly sized, granting
excessive load on them (Souza, 2004; Gesualdo, 2003). The wood, if
well preserved, is even stronger than some materials, even to fire,
and can bring economic benefits in the long term (Calil Jr. et al.,
2006). However, wood, even after proper preservation, needs repairing
and painting works. If this is regularly done, this material can have
a life expectancy greater than 50 years (Calil Jr. et al., 2006).
there is a real need to implement technological advances for promoting
conservation measures and restoration of existing wooden
bridges on secondary roads (Minnesota, 2011; Ribeiro and Goes, 2009;
Calil Jr. et al., 2006). Another way to solve the problems of timber
bridges is the creation of specialized training courses and other ways
to transfer knowledge from recent research findings about the conservation
of wooden bridges to engineers, architects, carpenters and the population
in general, those who are bridge users as well (Minnesota , 2011).
Eucalyptus wood in bridges – properties and factors to deserve
Abdalla (2002) reported that the species of the eucalypt Corymbia
(Eucalyptus) maculata, Eucalyptus paniculata, Eucalyptus punctata,
Eucalyptus tereticornis and Corymbia (Eucalyptus) citriodora, when
tested in the state of Sao Paulo, have presented ideal characteristics
to be used in any type of structural construction work in civil engineering.
In the case of Corymbia citriodora, some authors have also tested different
harvesting ages for the forest. The average values of physical and
mechanical properties of wood were different with respect to the harvesting
age of trees (Sales apud Abdalla, 2002). Therefore, the use of Eucalyptus wood for use in structures can better be performed when there is a
an adequate scientific study of physical and mechanical properties
for each species, verifying the conditions for growth as well as the
ideal age for harvesting and processing the wood (Oliveira apud Abdalla,
2002). The same author studied some mechanical properties of green
wood at the breast height diameter (BHD) of Eucalyptus species. The
results indicated excellent potential mainly for E. paniculata,
E. tereticornis and C. citriodora to the function.
citriodora (lemon eucalypt) has been the species mostly studied
and used for the construction of various types of timber bridges. Many
studies have been performed around the world in search of the ideal
conditions of Eucalyptus wood for building bridges. This has helped
building confidence and awareness in the engineering teams which are
responsible for timber bridges in many countries.
Mina and Dias (2008) performed a study about wooden stakes from C.
citriodora to the structuring of short vain bridges. The mechanical
properties were evaluated, such as compression and bending strengths
of the wood samples without the presence of defects. Tests were also
made about the performance of stakes when immersed in the soil. Both
experiments demonstrated the potential of Eucalyptus wood as foundations
Despite the many advantages of wood, we must remember that wood is
a hygroscopic material, adapting to the existing moisture content in
the environment, even after the preservative treatment. Thus, natural
drying or re-wetting may come to happen, generating non-conformities
in the wooden pieces. When there are high levels of moisture in the
soil (a common situation on the banks of water courses), there is swelling
of the wood (with later drying in dry season), corresponding to variation
in its dimensions. This property can affect the potential of cargo
load in the bridge. To solve this problem, usually they are added beams
(steel) in the beginning of the bridge structures. Such a measure helps
to retain the swelling or shrinkage of the structural part made in
wood (Soriano and Mascia, 1999).
Moreover, when the Eucalyptus wood comes into contact with the ground,
it becomes more sensitive to xylophagous fungi and insects attacks.
Therefore, treatment of the wood becomes essential, with a number of
allowed chemicals registered through MAPA (Ministry of Agriculture,
Livestock and Supply). Another very effective measure to protect the
wood is by concreting the treated stake, the part that is stuck into
the ground, leaving it protected against the action of detracting organisms
Different environmental factors can also favor the non-treated Eucalyptus wood degradation, such as exposure to high temperatures, the sun and
the presence of oxygen (Soriano and Mascia, 1999).
The durability of wood is not only determined by the preservative
treatment but also the utilization of the bridge in accordance to its
cargo capacity. Its proper use is also related to life durability.
In addition, frequent maintenance should be performed to avoid future
problems (Abdalla, 2002).
Types of wooden bridges
There are several structural systems that can be used on wooden bridges.
According to Calil Jr. and Goes (2002) the most common systems are:
beam bridges, plate or deck bridges, porched bridges, arched bridges,
suspended bridges and cable-stayed bridges. The first two are the most
used in Brazil. There are other forms of classification for wooden
bridges. One is according to the type of the main raw material such
as sawn-timber bridges, round-wood bridges, laminated wooden bridges
and wood-concrete composite bridges (Abdalla, 2002).
The other category
for classifying bridges is related to the technological age of the
structural elements. This classification was created by
Abdalla apud Almeida (2002) exclusively to the Brazilian wooden bridges.
The first generation of bridges is the one that presents primitive
and structural arrangements that leads to low durability because it
has structural support columns in direct contact with moisture and
water; and this type of manufacture undermine their links. The second
generations has been built with greater concerns about the structure,
but still retain some pathogenicity’s that jeopardize the durability.
The third generation corresponds to the most modern bridges; they have
all the structural requirements necessary for long life, safety and
stability. They have constant use of new technologies and the study
of wood properties, especially C. citriodora for the development of
the bridge projects. Such measures make possible to have suitable structures
with longer durability and higher quality levels.
By following the definitions given by Calil Jr. and Goes (2002), the
main features of the bridges of Eucalyptus wood most used in Brazil
are described in the following items: Bridges in beams; Bridges in
Bridges in beams
This type of bridge
presents as major element the beams, which are also known as stringers.
They are responsible for the structure of
the bridge, holding planks of lumber in its cross-section direction.
The beams can be either round-wood or glue-laminated wooden beams,
or even lumber, lattices, panels, among others. The bridges using round-wood
are considered more rustic and cheaper because they use the format
of the tree trunk itself to the formation of the beams. This ensures
increased speed of construction and better utilization of the wood,
which can be reused after the substitution the beams. Thus, the natural
round-wood reduces transportation costs, manpower and industrialization,
which brings economic and technical advantages for wooden bridges,
making them more competitive in the markets. The round-wood needs to
be free from defects and biotic attacks, and the most straight as possible
in its longitudinal axis to form the beams. The Eucalyptus wood should
be treated through preservative process with vacuum / pressure. The
round-wood is placed in the same direction as the traffic of the vehicle
wheels, supported at the ends, which guarantees the support and distribution
of loads. Saw-timber pieces are nailed with self-screwing screws on
the wooden beams to help the traffic of users. The beams can also be
arranged in the form of wood trusses ("interlaced") with
screwed connections or not. The trusses can increase stiffness, and
allow easy modulation of bridges with prefab parts. The maximum span
that bridges with round-wood beams may have is been reported as 12
meters. However, when we have beams with trusses, this may increase
according to the used and engineered structure. These bridges are usually
made for only one lane of vehicle traffic.
According to Soriano and Mascia (1999), a great percentage of the
rural footbridges (pedestrian walkways) and secondary road bridges
have stringers made of wood, often untreated. The direct exposure to
moisture in the soil and rain water makes the environment propitious
for the infection by fungi to detract the longevity of wood. Many bridges
used for landscaping in gardens also show beams and have walkway shapes.
They usually have only timber as raw material (Dias, 2007). For all
these reasons, monitoring of these bridges of untreated wood should
be done with frequency.
Bridges in plates/decks
This type of bridges can use multiple structural systems. Of these,
the wood- concrete decks are the most common, but are also frequent:
pre-stressed boards and simple multicellular pre-stressed decks.
The following is a description of the main features of each, according
to Calil Jr. and Goes (2002):
on mixed wood-concrete plates:
these bridges there are slabs of concrete which are attached
to the structure
the wooden bridge. The concrete slab receives effort
loads, making the bridge more rigid and resistant, while protecting
the structural elements (beams, stakes, etc.) against abrasion,
fire and from moisture and deterioration. The concrete slab is
to absorb the vibrations of transport and acts as an acoustic
insulation. Bridges in mixed wood-concrete slabs can support
twice the cargo
load and are three times more rigid than one made just from wood.
board may have a mixed wooden beam shaped like a "T" to
support the concrete slab or the latter can be coupled to an
of layers of lumber. Round-wood logs, packed next to each other,
can also support the concrete slab. The wood-concrete system
is of two
types: rigid or flexible. In the first, a glue or resin binds
the two different materials altogether, avoiding even small movements.
second type (flexible), there are connectors such as nails and
screws to couple the two materials, ensuring more economy in
wood beams receive metal shear connectors to support
the bending developed by the concrete during the
transit of cargo loads (Astori et al. 2006; Soriano
and Mascia, 1999). These connectors prevent the vertical
separation between wood and concrete, ensuring a
safe traffic on the bridge. A layer of asphalt is
used above the concrete, allowing better surface
for the traffic of cars, avoiding cracks and, at
the same time, generating an extra protection to
the wooden structures of the bridge. Generally, bridges
are built with mixture of these two basic materials:
wood and concrete. However, the steel may also benefit
the transfer of efforts, both in vertical and in
Brazil, Souza (2004) recommended the utilization
of concrete as an urgent measure to increase the
load capacity of simple beam timber bridges. The
wooden board can be replaced by reinforced concrete,
giving increased rigidity to the bridges. To increase
the sustaining potential of wooden bridges, steel
beams have been interconnected with the wooden beams.
This bridge had increased ability to support the
traffic of heavy load vehicles (Wenceslau, 2009).
the fact that the expenses with concrete and steel
are higher than the construction of a bridge entirely
with wood, the benefits they offer can extend the life
of the bridge in up to 3 times. However, everything
needs proper conservation steps to be carried out periodically
in the structures. This type of bridge is widely used
in countries like Canada, USA, Australia and Switzerland
(Soriano and Mascia, 1999).
- Bridges on simple pre-stressed plates:
can be defined as the artifice of introducing in a civil structure,
a previous state of tensions in order to improve its strength
or its performance under the influence of the effort requests
such a structure will suffer. The pre-stressed bridges emerged
in 1976 in Canada when there was a need for adjustments of old
nailed laminated wooden deck bridges. The wood was still in good
condition, unlikely the nails, leading to replacement of nails
by bars of high strength steel, which were responsible for the
pre-stressing (Abdalla, 2002).
The pre-stressed wooden bridges (http://www.scielo.br/pdf/eagri/v27n2/a26v27n2.pdf)
only started to be studied with more details in Brazil in the beginning of
the 90’s (Fonte and Calil Jr, 2007). Laminated wood of Corymbia citriodora was
used to build the first transversally pre-stressed bridge in South America.
Fonte (2004) tracked the behavior of the bridge and through load tests, analysis
of rigidity of the board, among other tests, concluded that the eucalypt wood
was able to be used for the purpose.
Another study conducted with tensioned laminated wooden board was published
in 2007 by Lelles. The wood was originated from Eucalyptus sp.
and the pre-stressing was done with steel bars. The author evaluated the
potential of Eucalyptus wood in a system of pre-stressed bridges
for highway and road utilization. Final tests were made to record the deflection
on the longitudinal and transverse direction in relation to the traffic
run. The results indicated a reliable pre-stressing, good enough to guarantee
rigidity and stability of wooden board and bridge.
on multicellular pre-stressed plates or decks:
bridges are considered the wooden bridges that have the most
advanced building technologies up to this time (Goes, 2005).
They were developed in order to increase the vain of pre-stressed
bridges, since the simple pre-stressed plates could reach a maximum
of 9 meters span. In this way, a system of upper and lower blades
connected to a central beam was created, being this central beam
referred as the soul or vein. It may increase the stiffness of
the board, allowing reaching up to 25 meters span. The center
beam is usually made from reconstituted wood or high strength
plywood both able to absorb high shear stresses. The main utilized
panels are Glued Laminated Wood, Laminated Veneer Lumber and
Parallel Strand Lumber. The plywood should be well glued in order
to acquire the required dimensions of height and width.
(2005) commented that wooden sawn blades are laid one next to
the other and subsequently compressed in the transverse direction
by pre-stressing bars with high strength. This gives high strength
and elasticity to the system. Despite the higher initial costs,
the stability and the capacity to cover larger openings make
this type of bridge a good selection by engineers in North America
and in many other places (Goes, 2005).
The majority of the studies in technological development and academic
research have proven the potential of wood of some species of Eucalyptus to the use in structural civil works, including the construction of
bridges subjected to intense traffic of vehicles (Calil Jr. and Goes,
2002). However, the future use of this raw material for these functions
depends on the transfer and acquisition of more knowledge by engineers,
architects, designers, workmen and carpenters, especially regarding
the performance of wood and the most appropriate structural designs
The incentive for new research aimed at improvements in technology
for development of new systems for timber bridges within the standards
in force in each region should also be enhanced (Minnesota, 2011; Abdalla,
2002). To do so, cooperation between government, forest companies,
research institutes, regulatory organizations and construction industry
should be promoted and strengthened, in search of the dissemination
in information, so that the bridges of Eucalyptus wood may be implemented
in all parts of the world fulfilling their environmental, economic
and social advantages.
The population must also be better informed about the benefits of
Eucalyptus wood bridges, helping in its conservation and avoiding the
overload of them by the inappropriate use in some specific situations.
References from literature and suggestions for reading
Following, please find some technical texts, reports, presentations
and some scientific research results that address the use of Eucalyptus wood for making bridges. Some of these materials have been used as
references for writing the present technical article.
Seminar "Stretch Wood Bridges". University of Concepcion. Chile. Presentations. Accessed on 31.05.2011:
tensados-en-madera-universidad-de-concepcion/ (In Spanish)
USFS timber bridge manual. Minnesota Department of Transportation.
Accessed on 31.05.2011:
inspection/USFS-TimberBridgeManual/index.html (Chapters of the manual made available in pdf format) (In English)
http://www.dot.state.mn.us/bridge/ (“Bridge home”, a
webpage with several documents) (In English)
de adequacao do projeto estrutural de pontes de madeira da regiao
de Campo Mourao. (Finding the adequacy of the structural
design of timber bridges in the region of Campo Mourao). W.F. Ribeiro;
J.L.N. Goes. XIV SICITE - UTFPR. 04 pp. (2009)
sicite/sicite2009/artigos_sicite2009/21.pdf (In Portuguese)
estuda a utilizacao de vigas de madeira como reforco para pontes. (Research studies the use of wooden beams as reinforcement
for bridges). A.C. Contato; C. Venceslau; B. Assumpcao. Conexao Ciencia
-a-utilizacao-de-vigas-de-madeira-como-reforco-para-pontes/ (In Portuguese)
bridge deterioration issues and performance measures. J.P.
Wacker. ASCE/SEI Enhancing Bridge Performance Workshop. USDA Forest
Service. PowerPoint presentation: 22 Slides. (2008)
Presentation_Timber_Enhancing_Bridge_Performance.pdf (In English)
reliability of stress-laminated timber bridges. A.B. Cheung; M. Lindquist; C. Calil Junior. EWPA – Engineered
Wood Products Association. 08 pp. (2008)
http://www.ewpa.com/Archive/2008/june/Paper_051.pdf (In English)
handbook for the design and construction of timber bridges. C. Calil Junior. EWPA – Engineered
Wood Products Association. 08 pp. (2008)
http://www.ewpa.com/Archive/2008/june/Paper_049.pdf (In English)
de madeira para fundacoes de pontes de madeira. (Wooden
stakes for foundations of wooden bridges). J.S. Mina; A. A. Dias.
Cadernos de Engenharia de Estruturas 10(44): 129-155. (2008)
http://www.set.eesc.usp.br/cadernos/nova_versao/pdf/cee44_129.pdf (In Portuguese)
de madeira de eucalipto de pequenas dimensoes na fabricacao de
uma ponte protendida com madeira laminada colada.
(Use of Eucalyptus wood of small dimensions in the manufacturing of pre-stressed bridge
with a glued laminated wood). J.G. Lelles. Ph.D. Thesis. UFV – Federal
University of Vicosa. 94 pp. (2007)
2008-02-27T055128Z-994/Publico/texto%20completo.pdf (In Portuguese)
sized-eucalyptus-wood-339353.html (Summary) (In Portuguese)
2ª Competicao de pontes de madeira - Eucalipto. (2nd Competition
on wooden bridges – Eucalyptus). UEPG – State University
of Ponta Grossa. Youtube. Channel carolbm7. (2008)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3-G_pJG-dgsVídeo (Eucalyptus) (In Portuguese)
de ponte em arco usando LVL. (Model arch bridge
using LVL). UFSM – Federal University of Santa Maria. Youtube.
Channel gbflorestal. (2008)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNGQlJ6WqHk (In Portuguese)
para jardim. (Garden bridges). A. Dias. Blog Estruturas de
http://estruturasdemadeira.blogspot.com/2007/02/pontes-para-jardim.html (In Portuguese)
protendidas de madeira: alternativa tecnico-economica para vias
rurais. (Pre-stressed timber bridges: technical and economic
choice for rural roads). T.F. Da Fonte; C. Calil Junior. Engenharia
Agricola 27(2): 552-559. (2007)
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/eagri/v27n2/a26v27n2.pdf (In Portuguese)
de diseno para puentes con sistema de arcos de madera laminada
y tablero tensado. (Design
criteria for bridges with arches
system made with laminated wood and tensioned panel). J. Marcus.
CTT Madera – Center of Technology Transfer for Wood. 17 pp.
http://www.cttmadera.cl/wp-content/uploads/2007/04/criterios-de-disenio.pdf (In Spanish)
http://www.cttmadera.cl/ (CTT Madera website) (In Spanish)
bridges. Technical guide. The Technical Department for Transport,
Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety. France. 176 pp. 55
http://www.setra.equipement.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/US_0743A_Timber_bridges.pdf (In English)
de projeto e construcao de pontes de madeira. (Project manual to the construction of timber
bridges). C. Calil Junior et al. LaMEM – Laboratory
of Wood and Timber Structures. EESC – USP. 237 pp. (2006)
45194/version/1/file/Manual+de+Pontes+-+2006.pdf (In Portuguese)
http://www.usp.br/agen/wp-content/uploads/Manual-de-Pontes-de-Madeira.pdf (In Portuguese)
estrutural de ponte protendida transversalmente de eucalipto
citriodora. (Structural performance of cross pre-stressed bridge
manufactured with lemon Eucalyptus). T.F. Fonte; C. Calil Junior.
Cadernos de Engenharia de Estruturas 8(33): 149-178. (2006)
http://www.set.eesc.usp.br/cadernos/pdf/cee33_149.pdf (In Portuguese)
carretero de estructura mixta de hormigon-madera. (Highway bridge of mixed concrete-wood structure
media). R.E. Astori; R.S.
Barrios D’Ambra; L.E.F. Kostesty. Comunicaciones Cientificas
y Tecnologicas. Universidad Nacional del Nordeste. Argentina. 04
07-Tecnologicas/2006-T-085.pdf (In Spanish)
behavior of multicellular pre-stressed timber deck. J.L.N. Goes; A.A. Dias. EWPA – Engineered
Wood Products Association. 04 pp. (2006)
http://www.ewpa.com/Archive/2006/aug/P40.pdf (In English)
para avaliacao da degradacao de elementos construtivos de pontes
de madeira – estudo de
caso na regiao oeste paulista. (A method for assessing the degradation
of building elements of timber
bridges - case study in western Sao Paulo state). J. Fiorelli; A.A.
Dias. Revista Madeira Arquitetura e Engenharia 17(6): 1806-6097.
Metodo_para_avaliacao_da_degra.pdf (In Portuguese)
de pontes de madeira com tabuleiro multicelular protendido. (Study of wooden bridges with pre-stressed
multicellular deck). J.L.N.
Goes. Ph.D. Thesis. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 184 pp.
tde-15072005-181026/pt-br.php (In Portuguese)
de estacas de madeira para fundacoes de pontes de madeira. (Study of wooden stakes for foundations
of wooden bridges). A.J.S.
Mina. Ph.D. Thesis. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 177 pp.
-142632/publico/2005DO_AlexandreJSMina.pdf (In Portuguese)
protendidas de eucalipto citriodora. (Pre-stressed
timber bridges made from citriodora lemon eucalypt). T.F. Fonte.
USP – University of Sao Paulo. 145 pp. (2004)
ThalitaFernandesFonte.pdf (In Portuguese)
bridges and walkways. Design and construction guide. Southern Pine by Design. Southern Pine Council.
12 pp. (2004)
http://www.americanpoleandtimber.com/pdf/Pedestrian_Bridges_walkways.pdf (In English)
e aplicacoes de barras de aco coladas, como conectores em placas
mistas de madeira e concreto
para tabuleiros de pontes. (Studies
and applications of glued-in steel rods on shear connectors in mixed
wood-concrete deck bridges). J.C. Pigozzo. Ph.D. Thesis. USP – University
of Sao Paulo. 384 pp. (2004)
2004DO_JulioCesarPigozzo.pdf (In Portuguese)
seguras e baratas. Novas tecnicas de construcao e tratamento
quimico adequado tornam as pontes de madeira uma boa opcao ao
concreto. (Beautiful, safe and inexpensive. New construction techniques and
proper chemical treatment of wood bridges make a sound option to
the concrete). S. Antenor. Fapesp Pesquisa Online. Edition 98. (2004)
?art=2447&bd=1&pg=1&lg= (In Portuguese)
de estruturas mistas na recuperacao da capacidade de carga das
pontes de madeira do Estado
de Mato Grosso do Sul. (Utilization
of composite structures in the recovery of the carrying capacity
of timber bridges in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul). C.R. Souza.
Master Dissertation. UNESP – Sao Paulo State University. 150
de investigacion de puentes de madera. (Research program
in timber bridges). S. Mullin; E. Pedoja. XIV Congreso Nacional de
Ingenieria Civil. 11 pp. (2003)
http://www.enconstruxxion.com.ar/IMG/pdf/dise_o_puentes_de_madera.pdf (In Spanish)
de madeira. (Wooden structures). F.A.R. Gesualdo. Class-room
hand-outs. Federal University of Uberlandia. 98 pp. (2003)
http://usuarios.upf.br/~zacarias/Notas_de_Aula_Madeiras.pdf (In Portuguese)
testing of timber hardwood bridge beams. J. Laskewitz; C. Thomas.
Low Volume Roads Conference. 14 pp. (2003)
http://www.roads.co.nz/ChCh2003/Beam%20Testing%20paper.pdf (In English)
of timber bridges. Final Report. R. Seavey; T. Larson.
University of Minnesota. 55 pp. (2002)
http://www.lrrb.org/pdf/200234.pdf (In English)
emergencial das pontes de madeira para o estado de Sao Paulo. (Emergency program for the timber bridges in the state of
Sao Paulo). C. Calil Jr.; J.L.N. Goes. Minerva 2(1): 33-40. (2002)
http://www.fipai.org.br/minerva%2002(01)%2004.pdf (In Portuguese)
de ensaio de ligacoes de estruturas de madeira por chapas com
dentes estampados. (Method of testing of timber structures connections
using plates with embossed teeth). L.T. Baraldi; C. Calil Jr. Estruturas
de Madeira 18. 142 pp. (2002)
http://www.set.eesc.usp.br/cadernos/pdf/cee18.pdf (In Portuguese)
de pontes de madeira protendidas transversalmente formadas por
vigas-T. (Analysis of transversely
pre-stressed wooden bridges
composed by T-beams). N.M.P. Alves. Master Dissertation. USP – University
of Sao Paulo. 157 pp. (2002)
http://www.set.eesc.usp.br/pdf/download/2002ME_NiveaMaraPAlves.pdf (In Portuguese)
de madeira de Eucalyptus em estruturas de pontes. (Utilization of Eucalyptus wood in bridges
structure). A.C.P.B. Abdalla. Master
Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 135 pp. (2002)
11/11149/tde-23072002-161649/pt-br.php (In Portuguese)
de madera con tableros tensados. (Timber bridges with tensioned
panels). M. Giuliano; P. Dechent; L. Valenzuela; M. Salgado. 6th
International Congress ProVial. Chile. 16 pp. (2002)
32MarsellaSalgadopuentesdemadera.pdf (In Spanish)
protendidas de madeira. (Pre-stressed timber bridges). F.S.
Okimoto; C. Calil Junior. Cadernos de Engenharia de Estruturas 18:
http://www.set.eesc.usp.br/cadernos/pdf/cee18_25.pdf (In Portuguese)
mistas em concreto e madeira em pontes. (Mixed structures
in concrete-wood for bridges). J. Soriano; N.T. Mascia. E-Civilnet.
Revista Techne. (1999)
http://www.ecivilnet.com/artigos/estruturas_mistas.htm (In Portuguese)
da madeira em construcoes rurais. (Using wood in rural
constructions). C. Calil Junior; A.A. Dias. Revista Brasileira de
Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental 1(1): 71-77. (1997)
http://www.agriambi.com.br/revista/v1n1/071.pdf (In Portuguese)
protendidas de madeira: parametros de projeto.
(Pre-stressed timber bridges: design parameters). F.S. Okimoto.
UFSCar – Federal University of Sao Carlos. 196 pp. (1997)
FernandoSergioOkimoto.pdf (In Portuguese)
Pontes. (Bridges). A.S.R. Barboza. Course Structures in Concrete.
Federal University of Alagoas. 06 pp. (Undated)
ec2/CONCEITOS%20GERAIS.pdf (In Portuguese)
bridges in South America. C. Calil Junior. National Center
for Wood Transportation Structures. 13 pp. (Undated)
http://www.woodcenter.org/docs/calil96a.pdf (In English)
madera y tecnologia para la construccion de puentes en madera.
(The wood and technology to build timber bridges). P. Castro. Construccion.
Revista MM 48. 08 pp. (Undated)
http://www.revista-mm.com/ediciones/rev48/construccion.pdf (In Spanish)
protendidas de madeira. (Pre-stressed timber bridges). F.S.
Okimoto; F.A.R. Lahr. Revista Techne 51. (Undated)
http://revistatechne.com.br/engenharia-civil/51/imprime32387.asp (In Portuguese)
Images about timber bridges (the
websites of manufacturers and for sales of goods should be considered
only for technical preview of
technologies and products but not as commercial references):
eucalyptus+bridges&spell=1&biw=1259&bih=519 (Wooden Eucalyptus bridges)
de madeira" + eucalipto)
e&gs_upl=2672l7219l0l10l10l0l9l0l0l375l375l3-1 (“Puente de madera” +
Article by Celso Foelkel
The Environmental Labelling and the Ecoefficiency as Vital Managerial
Tools for the Construction of Sustainability in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Production Chain
Sustainability seems to be the word of the moment
to be pronounced with emphasis and pride by entrepreneurs, managers,
government officials and also by technical people of our
mills in the pulp and paper industry. Due to the enormous
visibility and opening about the subject that emerged during
the past decade, many people in our plants began to believe
that they are practicing sustainability and are located in
peaceful and comfortable position on the sustainability roads
as related to their businesses, industries and even at their
homes. Also, a lot is being spoken and written about sustainability,
whether in forums, events, television programs, books, magazine
articles, etc. Also, much exaggeration exists about this,
so much that the term "greenwashing" has emerged
to indicate that there is also very inappropriate and improper
green marketing, with false statements and actions about
sustainability. This is so real that a recent survey by the
consulting firm Kantar Worldpanel pointed out that most of
the Brazilian population does not trust the sustainability
actions announced by companies in this specific country.
To 74% of interviewed people, the green campaigns, as displayed
by the companies, lack on clear evidences of being true;
while 35% of those surveyed find it difficult to believe
in the corporate statements. Only 26% of those interviewed
people trusted and valued the messages provided by the companies.
The survey also showed that the major factor in causing distrust
is the fact that Brazilians do not see the outcomes from
the reported actions announced as sustainable. One has to
believe or not, without having clear and objective evidences
that the company really practices sustainability. Maybe the
problem is not just communication, but real proofs and evidences
that the actions for sustainability are indeed adopted and
practiced by companies.
On the other hand, I have seen, with a certain apprehension, some
industry leaders claiming that their companies are already very sustainable
and have certifications to prove this fact, requiring no further
efforts than they have done in recent times. They are usually referring
to the certifications such as: forest certification (FSC or CERFLOR/PEFC),
environmental management system (ISO 14001), corporate social responsibility
(ISO 26000 and others), and occupational health and worker safety
(OHSAS 18000). I am very happy and proud that many of our industry
leading companies have already made this huge effort to get appropriate
levels of sustainability in such a short period of time. The discipline
and organization that certifications inject into an organization
in terms of procedures, strategic targets and audits bring important
gains in environmental and social performances, as well as in productivity
and operating results. They can also help to demonstrate to the society
that the company is striving to have policies and practices in search
However, dear friends, it turns out that sustainability is an endless
process. We will never be 100% sustainable because the world and
the society are continuously changing as a function of advances in
science, knowledge, technology and population growth. This process
is always being submitted to significant changes with alterations
of criteria and performance indicators. So, even though we may stay
nowadays in a prominent position in relation to indicators of sustainability,
we will always have to keep focused on the road to sustainability,
because we saw that this route never ends and the criteria amendments
are common, frequent and necessary.
In this brief article, I would like to raise some few reflections
to this important process of continuously seeking sustainability
as an endless process with inexhaustible motivation to those involved.
There are many thoughts and reflections that could be touched, but
since I do not want to be too long, I will just focus on some of
them: continuous improvement, ecoefficiency and voluntary certifications/environmental
The first of my thoughts is dedicated to our industry
leaders and their commitments to sustainability. If they stay in
position and start to believe that what the company has made is good
enough, they are to transmit this accommodation to their employees.
This will reduce the positive pressure that everyone steadily needs
in the company for better performances (continuous improvement),
whether in terms of economic, social and/or environmental issues.
The accommodation position will lead to worse and less sustainable
performances, no doubt about this. We must always have a dissatisfaction
with the today for working to conquer a better tomorrow – this
has to be constantly, but without undervaluing what was so hardly
gained as a result of the team work along the history of the company.
second is of my recommendations is to adopt the practice of ecoefficiency
in all operations, from the simplest
to the most complex
ones. Ecoefficiency is a simple and magic word to indicate that we
can produce more and better, with lower consumption of raw materials,
which are all natural resources. Being more ecoefficient, we are
reducing impacts on the environment in all of the resources (physical/chemical,
biological, anthropogenic, etc.). We are also to reduce wastes and
pollution, and thus, the operating costs. I strongly believe in ecoefficiency
- I have written much about this topic. In a next moment, as soon
as I finish writing all the chapters on ecoefficiency (they should
be 16 in total), I am to release through the Eucalyptus Online
Book, I’ll offer to you a summary of my ideas about ecoefficiency
in the pulp and paper sector with an article in a future Eucalyptus
Newsletter. For now, if you give me the privilege of seeing what
has been published till now on this topic, please, access the link:
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/disponiveis.html and http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/available.html.
I also understand that it should be crucial to the managers not
to become happy and fully satisfied with the achieved certifications.
My suggestion is to always search for others, with additional levels
of challenges. Certainly, provided these labels are granted through
organizations with credibility, quality, value and public recognition.
Environmental certifications and labels are important driving forces
for motivating the entire company to reach them. For example, green
stamps (eco-labels) are now available to be conquered by our industry.
This is very valid to some types of papers, but unfortunately not
available yet for all paper grades and even for market pulp. The
great advantage is that the eco-labels constitute guarantees of improved
environmental performance over the entire manufacturing process,
covering the life cycle of the product. They are also promoting sustainable
consumption to ordinary citizens, therefore, my enthusiasm for them.
The pulp and paper sector needs to wake up more for voluntary environmental
labelling - fortunately a few companies have already realized this.
Thanks to a unique, effective and determined initiative
involving more than 3.5 years of hard-work from some motivated
partners, Brazil is entering from the year 2011 onwards in the eco-labelling
age to the papers manufactured in the country. Initially, the labels
may be achieved by the copy and graphic papers and by some grades
of tissue papers for hygienic purposes. We have international standards
and criteria for these types of papers. ABNT - Brazilian Association
of Technical Standards is bringing these criteria to local conditions.
This is to provide the opportunity for local companies to strive
achieving more sustainable performance and to demonstrate this to
their customers through the conquest of the "ABNT hummingbird
eco-label" to their products. Those companies exporting these
types of papers are suggested to run for the achievement of eco-labels
in countries or regions where they export to. Those who export papers
to Europe are recommended to work for the "Flower eco-label" granted
by the European Union. In the near future, the ABNT Brazilian eco-label
will be internationally recognized through a process of mutual recognition
(so is the case of the forest label CERFLOR - Brazilian Forest Certification
An eco-label for an end product, such as paper, is not just an environmental
label for the wood or cellulosic fibers. It is also a guarantee that
these paper products are manufactured according to criteria in much
broader scope and analyzed throughout all manufacturing cycle, performing
well in criteria as:
the use of fibers sourced from forests that are certified or
the production of pulp and paper follows the best existing industrial
the attainment of the lower levels of industry water and air
loads, and the minimum generation and best management
of solid wastes;
adoption of lower levels of energy consumption (thermal and electricity)
in the manufacturing sector of the specific
guarantee that the production has minimal generation of greenhouse
gases such as carbon dioxide derived from fossil
commitment to ensure that hazardous chemicals to human health
and ecosystems are not used in the manufacturing process
(and that could thereby remain as residuals in the manufactured
paper or effluents).
Furthermore, the granting of the eco-label is not
for all of the manufacturers, just for the ones with the best environmental
- this is definitely the difference - only the good ones in all items
of the criteria will be able to receive and to market the conquered
environmental label. This selection is achieved by continuous evaluation,
updating and modernization of the criteria which applicants must
be in compliance with. No doubt, something that several of our Brazilian
companies producing paper can achieve, but not all, as already mentioned.
Most likely, all applicants are to make some modifications and improvements
in processes, methods and equipment’s, chemicals and fuels,
etc. But, don’t you agree that the search for sustainability
and the evidences that the operations are more sustainable will reward
In addition to the already mentioned factors, there are newcomers
in the environmental scene, such as the ecological footprints, as
the carbon footprint, water footprint, etc. New certifications, labels
and indicators will emerge, for the better environment - the timing
is clearly favorable to them. We have several other points to demand
improvements such as energy efficiency, closed water cycles, waste
recycling, minimizing generation of pollutants, etc. The volunteer
labels and the third party certifications are strong drivers to the
process of sustainability and for internal and external motivation
in business. Likewise, it is the determination of our business leaders
in keeping alive and active the process for the search of sustainability.
about determination, I would like to share with you my enthusiasm
for having been participating as representative of ABTCP - Brazilian
Pulp and Paper Technical Association, in the same way as our
dear friend Mr. Afonso Moura, in the process for development
of environmental labelling for paper products in Brazil. The
same shall be reinforced about our motivated friends Mr. Antonio
Jose Juliani (with his fundamental leadership in this well-managed
process through SECEX - Secretariat for Foreign Trade - MDIC
- Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade) and Mr.
Guy Ladvocat (ABNT – Brazilian Association of Technical
Standards). All the tasks, challenges and well-planned
works were included within a project on environmental labelling
that UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme created to encourage
environmental labelling in developing countries. Along these few
years, we had some difficult routes to be travelled, but that resulted
in the success of the recently launched Brazilian eco-label for
copy and graphic papers, the green procurement of papers by the
Brazilian government, and the conquest of the EU Flower label by
paper company. Furthermore, we had extensive involvement and participation
in the project from a paper manufacturer company - International
Paper do Brasil. This company and its top managers were able to
glimpse, since the early beginning of this project, the chance
achievements in terms of eco-labels for the paper products they
export to Europe.
All technical materials that were developed during this period are
made available in this section as literature references. In this
case, the new entrants in the process of environmental labelling
may have an abbreviation to their way and thus have greater access
to the knowledge about the Brazilian and European eco-labels.
Before placing my final point on these few reflections,
I would like to reinforce the concept that the sustainability
ends. We may be temporarily in good and appropriate conditions
in terms of sustainability, but "we will not be sustainable" for
very long if this quest is discontinued. This is perhaps the greatest
virtue of this alive and permanent process - the demand for continuous
improvement in search of a better future for everyone living in the
planet. Let’s also remember that the future is always tomorrow,
and yesterday, the past. And yet, that today is exactly the present
moment, when we should do what must be done for not regretting tomorrow.
References in the literature and suggested readings on the topic
environmental labelling for the pulp and paper industry
Rotulagem Ambiental - Projeto SECEX/Uniao Europeia/PNUMA. (Environmental
labelling – Project SECEX/European Union/UNEP). MDIC/SECEX – Ministry
of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
area=5&menu=2512&refr=2514 (In Portuguese)
Palestras sobre Rotulagem Ambiental / Speeches about Eco-Labelling. C. Foelkel; A.J. Juliani; G. Ladvocat; A. Moura. Website Grau Celsius.
Accessed on 29.06.2011:
http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_palestras3.html (An event
held on 2010) (In Portuguese)
I Oficina Regional de Rotulagem Ambiental para Paises da
America do Sul / Mercosul. (I Regional Workshop on Environmental Labelling
for Countries of South America / Mercosul). MDIC/SECEX – Ministry
of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade. UNEP – United
Nations Environment Programme. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
interna.php?area=5&menu=2759&refr=2512 (An event held on 2010) (In Portuguese)
http://www.abntonline.com.br/rotulo/Principal.aspx?MateriaId=90&E=1 (An event held on 2010) (In Portuguese)
Curso de Capacitacao em Rotulagem Ambiental. (Training Course on
Environmental Labelling). MDIC/SECEX – Ministry of Development,
Industry and Foreign Trade. Brasilia. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
area=5&menu=2515&refr=2512 (An event held on 2010) (In Portuguese)
http://www.abntonline.com.br/rotulo/Principal.aspx?MateriaId=89&E=1 (An event held on 2010) (In Portuguese)
Workshop Internacional sobre Rotulagem Ambiental. (International
Workshop on Environmental Labelling). MDIC/SECEX – Ministry
of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
http://www.mdic.gov.br/sitio/interna/interna.php?area=5&menu=2514 (An event held on 2010) (In Portuguese)
Rotulo Verde Colibri da ABNT - Associacao Brasileira de Normas
Tecnicas. (Hummingbird green label - ABNT – Brazilian Association
of Technical Standards). Accessed on 29.06.2011:
http://www.abntonline.com.br/rotulo/ (Website environmental quality
from ABNT) (In Portuguese)
http://www.abntonline.com.br/rotulo/Criterios.aspx (Criteria documents
under evaluation) (In Portuguese)
http://www.abntonline.com.br/Rotulo/Dados/Images/file/Flux%20ciclo%20de%20vida.pdf (Considerations and text about life cycle thinking) (In Portuguese)
http://www.abntonline.com.br/rotulo/EccoInfo.aspx (The seven sins
on environmental labelling – “greenwashing”)
%20gr%C3%A1ficos.pdf (ABNT eco-label for copy and graphic papers) (In Portuguese)
Eco-labelling printing & writing paper in Brazil. UNEP Eco-labelling
project partners. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
& page_id=11EBFD61-6D1A-40A5-8A6B-309092CB0564 (Training modules – speeches
and educational material) (In English)
label&file=DFE79655-726F-41A1-A58B-82C3C7113FEC (Project flyer) (In English)
58D91894-26A5-4EEE-8B76-814CB647BDE2 (Speeches of the workshop which was held on June 2008 in Sao
Paulo) (In English
UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme. Eco-labelling. Accessed
http://www.unep.fr/scp/ecolabelling/ (In English)
http://ecolabelling.unep.fr/sites/eco-label/ (Project “Enabling
Developing Countries to Seize Eco-labelling Opportunities”)
Project “Enabling Developing Countries to Seize Eco-labelling
Opportunities”) (In English)
label&page_id=83CF26A5-928F-4F9B-AC89-BFA73986F2FA (Project library with several documents) (In English)
European Eco-label. European Commission. Green label "Flower".
Accessed on 29.06.2011:
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/index_en.htm (Website describing
the EU Flower eco-label) (In English)
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/ecolabelled_products/categories/copying_paper_en.htm (About eco-labelling copy and graphic papers) (In English)
ecolabelled_products/categories/pdf/copying_paper/usermanual.pdf (User manual for candidates to eco-labelling copy and graphic papers.
Version 2011) (In English)
ecolabelled_products/categories/tissue_paper_en.htm (About eco-labelling tissue papers) (In English)
ecolabelled_products/categories/pdf/tissue/tissue_um_2001.pdf (User manual for candidates to eco-labelling tissue papers. Version
2011) (In English)
Green Shop for the European Eco-label. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
http://ec.europa.eu/ecat (Eco-labelled products catalogue) (In English)
Internacional de Cooperacao Brasil-Uniao Europeia para Superacao
de Barreiras Tecnicas. (International
Forum of Cooperation between
Brazil and the European Union for Overcoming Technical Barriers).
Support Project for the international Insertion of Brazilian Small
and Medium Enterprises – PAIIPME. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
http://www.paiipme.com.br/forum/Apresentacoes.php (Presentations of the event which was held in 2010) (In Portuguese)
http://www.paiipme.com.br/forum/apresentacoes/AntonioJuliani.pdf (Presentation Antonio Juliani) (In Portuguese)
Carlos Santos Amorim Junior) (In Portuguese)
Celso Foelkel) (In Portuguese)
Rodrigo Davoli) (In Portuguese)
sobre sustentabilidade nas empresas. (Myths about sustainability
in business enterprises). HSM Web Portal. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
sustentabilidade/mitos-sobre-sustentabilidade-nas-empresas (In Portuguese)
nao acredita em acoes de sustentabilidade. (Brazilians
do not trust on related actions about sustainability). Painel Florestal.
Accessed on 29.06.2011:
brasileiro-nao-acredita-em-acoes-de-sustentabilidade (In Portuguese)
and environmental issues in the kraft pulp industry. C. Foelkel.
V ICEP – International
Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. PowerPoint presentation: 52 slides.
20and%20Environmental%20Issues_ICEP%202011_Final2.pdf (In English)
ways to green your paper. P. Riebel. Pulp & Paper
International (January): 31-33. (2011)
http://www.ppimagazine.com/ppiissue/201101?pg=33&pm=2&fs=1#pg33 (In English)
http://www.ppimagazine.com/ppiissue/201101?pg=33&pm=2&fs=1#pg35 (In English)
http://www.blogdopapeleiro.com.br/?page_id=127 (Also available at
Blog do Papeleiro) (In English)
processo de certificacao do papel tissue, com base nas normas
brasileiras. (The process of tissue paper certification
scope of the Brazilian standards). A.C. Barros. I Latin American
Symposium on Tissue Paper. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper
Technical Association. PowerPoint presentation: 25 slides. (2010)
%A3o%20do%20papel%20tissue_Antonio%20Carlos%20Barros_ABNT.pdf (In Portuguese)
Oportunidades para a rotulagem ambiental. Setor de celulose
e papel. (Brazil. Opportunities for environmental labelling. Pulp
and paper sector). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius Website. PowerPoint presentation:
48 slides. (2010)
01_Setor%20papel%20e%20celulose%20e%20eco-label_Celso_Foelkel.pdf (In Portuguese)
01_Setor%20papel%20e%20celulose%20e%20eco-label_Celso_Foelkel.pdf (In Portuguese)
information and eco-labelling roadmap package. Printing
and writing papers from Brazil. D. Scheer; D. Speda. 54 pp. (2009)
=2C395DC3-9927-4993-917D-B7A991DD105F (In English)
de cooperacao SECEX/UE/PNUMA-ECOLABEL. (Cooperation project
SECEX/EU/PNUMA-ECOLABEL). A. Juliani. II Symposium on Qualifying
and Certifying Information Technologies. PowerPoint presentation:
11 slides. (2009)
_Ambiental_com_a_Uniao_Europeia_-_Ecolabel.pdf (In Portuguese)
Challenges and opportunities. D. Scheer. Workshop
Eco-labelling. UNEP/MDIC. Sao Paulo. PowerPoint presentation: 16
138404AE-E2F1-4010-9E83-FDA8BB879A30 (In English)
eucaliptos e os selos verdes. (The Eucalyptus and the eco-labels).
C. Foelkel. Eucalyptus Newsletter nº 13.
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newspt_jan08.html#quatorze (In Portuguese)
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newseng_jan08.html#quatorze (In English)
- Sustentabilidade na rede de valor do eucalipto. Floresta
plantada a papel. (Brazil - Sustainability in the value network
of the Eucalyptus. Planted forests to end-product papers).
C. Foelkel. Workshop Ecolabelling. UNEP/MDIC. Sao Paulo. PowerPoint
59 slides. (2008)
Sustentabilidade%20SECEX_UNEP%202008.pdf (In Portuguese)
and eco-labelling: a new opportunity to the pulp and paper
industry. C. Foelkel. Workshop UNEP/INWENT. Bonn/Germany. PowerPoint
presentation: 42 slides. (2007)
http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/Palestras/InWEnt2007Final.pdf (In English)