Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,
Dear friends, here we are again, now with the issue number
of our Eucalyptus Newsletter.
hope it may fulfill your expectations and interests, both through
the general sections of the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapter
of our virtual Eucalyptus Online Book about "Industrial Solid
Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Processes.
Part 03: Sludges & Sludges" which is made available and
provided to your direct link access, in the Portuguese version. Please,
enjoy the topics we are presently delivering through this Eucalyptus
Newsletter edition, thanks.
The section "The Friends
of the Eucalyptus" shows
once again an enormous technical relevance to the eucalyptic forestry
sector. That's because it has the mission to share with you at least
a portion of the dedicated and productive professional career of our
dear and competent friend Forest Engineer M.Sc. Rubens Cristiano
Damas Garlipp, one of the most renowned Brazilian foresters, and someone
I define himself as one of the best ambassadors for the Brazilian planted
and fast-growing forests. I have a great friendship, a professional
respect and a great admiration for his dedication, determination and
skills; and also for the dimension of Rubens Garlipp's professional
career. I am very happy with the opportunity to bring some of his many
forestry accomplishments and to present what he has done and still
is doing for the Eucalyptus. I am glad with this opportunity to introduce
him to you all, displaying some of his achievements with the Eucalyptus.
In this edition, we are back with the section "The
World of the Eucalyptus". The region being honored this time is
a new incoming-in-forestry Brazilian state, recently joining the plantation
forest development in the country - the state
of Piaui. I am absolutely
certain that you will be surprised with the competence and quality
with which this beautiful state is managing its Plan for Forestry Development
for the Region of the Parnaiba River Valley. For this reason, the sections
Euca-Links and Online
Technical References will be closely related
to the state of Piaui, providing links and references to texts and
websites about this state.
On the other hand, in the section "Curiosities
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus", the agronomist
M.Sc. Ester Foelkel tells, for sure, something very useful and curious to you - "Pruning
the Urban Eucalyptus".
Our mini-article starts a series of about four to
five articles describing and discussing indicators of performance for
our pulp and paper mills and planted forests, an initiative of ABTCP
- Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association in its efforts to
strengthen and enhance the competitiveness of Brazilian companies from
this specific sector. We are starting by writing our thoughts on the
theme "environmental performance
indicators for the bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulp mills".
We hope this newsletter issue may be very useful to all of
you, since the thematic selection was made in a way to bring interesting
and diversified topics about the Eucalyptus.
In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus
Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus
Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following
here for registration.
We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus
Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI,
RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE,
AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel
Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales, Papermakers' Wiki
and Åbo Akademi - Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology.
They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus
in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain,
Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland and South
Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are
helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much
to our partners for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus.
more about all of our today’s partners and meet them at the URL address:
Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus are
currently being sent to an extensive "mailing list" through
our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association,
a number that today is equivalent to several thousands of registered
addresses. This happens in addition to the accesses made directly to
the websites www.abtcp.org.br; www.eucalyptus.com.br and www.celso-foelkel.com.br,
or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book chapters
are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal from now is
very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus
Online Book & Eucalyptus
Newsletter that they will be always on the first page,
when any single person in the world, using a search engine like Google,
Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the word Eucalyptus. This service
aims to better inform stakeholders and interested parties about the
Eucalyptus, with relevant information and a lot of credibility, too.
I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your
friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them.
Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius
Degree, ABTCP, International
Paper do Brasil and
from the supporting partners.
Our best wishes and a friendly hug to all of you,
and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have
prepared to you this time.
this Present Edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter
Online Book - Chapter 20 (in Portuguese)
Friends of the Eucalyptus - Forest Engineer M.Sc. Rubens Cristiano
World of the Eucalyptus: State of Piaui - Brazil
- State of Piaui - Brazil
Technical References - State of Piaui - Brazil
about Events and Courses
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - Pruning the Urban Eucalyptus - by Ester Foelkel
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Performance Indicators for the Bleached Eucalyptus
Kraft Pulp Mills
Online Book - Chapter 20 (in Portuguese)
downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 10.3 MB) just click below
over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps
even easier, is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save
target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer
archives. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your
computer, please visit http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_eng.html and
find the instructions how to get it.
Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.
Solidos Industriais do Processo de Fabricacao de Celulose e Papel
de Eucalipto. Parte 03: Lodos & Lodos" - "Industrial
Solid Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Manufacturing
Processes. Part 03: Sludges & Sludges"
If a problem occurs with the automatic redirection to the chapter, copy the
URL address below and place it in your browser (Internet Explorer, Google Chrome,
Mozilla Firefox, etc.). You may find the chapter at:
Friends of the Eucalyptus
Engineer M.Sc. Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp
In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, I am delighted
to introduce to you another great friend of the Eucalyptus, and also
a dear friend of mine and of the Brazilian forestry. He is a well-known
person in the entire forest sector in Brazil, and in many other countries,
because the highlighted role he has played for years as a Brazilian
ambassador of the planted forests and forestry - the forest engineer M.Sc.
Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp.
Rubens won this deserved projection for how well he has performed many functions
and has participated in very important projects for the Brazilian forestry. His
position, for over 15 years, as superintendent director of SBS - Brazilian Society
of Silviculture (http://www.sbs.org.br)
has allowed him to participate in important national and international forums
of the world forestry, helping to build important mechanisms that were important
to guarantee the success of the Brazilian forest sector. Among them, I would
highlight: sector plans, legislation, certification, forest fostering, competitiveness,
technical development, forest management, biodiversity conservation, dialogue
with stakeholders, aspects of non-timber forest products, plantation forestry
image, forestry statistics, etc., etc.
Rubens Garlipp, as he
is commonly known and referred to in the Brazilian forest segment,
was born in the city of Campinas, in 1953. There, he attended high
school education. As a teenager, he had several options for professional
careers, whether as a physician doctor, an archaeologist or engineer.
The forestry was emerging as a career in Brazil, when Garlipp started
to inquire about this new profession in 1971 - at that time, Rubens
was about to enter to university and was demanding an own decision.
Although he had been very successful in entrance examinations at the
academy for both medicine and forestry, after a better reflection,
he concluded that medicine was not his true vocation. At the time,
forestry presented to him as a profession with a great future, combining
disciplines with which he was able to identify himself. Moreover, Rubens
was already showing interest in businesses that were related to forests.
Rubens decided for taking university studies on forestry at ESALQ - Superior
College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz", University of Sao Paulo.
graduating in 1975. There, in 1974, I got the privilege to have had Garlipp as
my undergraduate student, teaching to him the fundamentals of the pulp and paper
science and technology. Along that time, he had several practical options for
improvements in the career, both at the university and in training periods at
forest companies. Upon graduating, he had immediate options for employment in
a forest company and in Embrapa, but he decided to continue studying in a master
course program in forestry, in the same ESALQ. His selection was the branch of
Forest Economics, and his teacher and advisor was our dear friend Professor Dr.
Ricardo Berger. Even before completing his master's degree, Rubens was hired
in 1978 by IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies, to assist the member
companies of this institute in the states of Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do
Sul, as well as to develop the area of forest economics at the institute. At
that time, he was living, working and talking to many authorities from forestry
companies and other institution's of education and research. This fact definitely
helped Garlipp to quickly develop his knowledge and career. IPEF was, he says,
his "second university", where he learned much about the profession
and about people relationship's.
The result of this hybrid operation between IPEF and graduate studies at the
ESALQ is that his master dissertation was developed from research grants and
IPEF projects at associated companies. Meet this innovative work for that time,
de florestas plantadas como fonte alternativa de energia em substituicao
ao oleo combustivel industrial no estado de Sao
Paulo. (Biomass from planted forests as alternative source
of energy in replacement of industrial fuel oil in the state of Sao
Paulo). R.C. D. Garlipp. Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP. 197 pp.
Portuguese with summary in English)
working in IPEF and as a graduate student at ESALQ, Garlipp had the
opportunity to teach two courses for undergraduate students in this
college, as a visiting professor - Forest Economics and Management
of Natural Resources. This occurred in 1980 and 1981. Despite the insistence
of the great Dr. Helladio do Amaral Mello to continue as a professor
at ESALQ, as soon as he completed his master's thesis, he received
an impossible-to-say-no invitation from Suzano Paper and Pulp Co. The
purpose was to manage a comprehensive program of forestry research,
which had been approved for funding by FINEP - Financing of Studies
and Projects Bank. The big question to decide was - to follow a career
in academic teaching/researching or to work in a forest company in
the industrial side? The challenging option for the new was inevitable
- he accepted the offer from Suzano for coordinating the research program
on innovative topics at the time: tissue culture, cloning, hybridization,
soil/water/plant relationships, new cultivation techniques and forestry
replacement, etc. With the knowledge he had in forest economics, he
would be able to collaborate with broader forms of researching, by
introducing the variables results and financial/economic feasibilities
Within this scenario of rapid growth and changes, another challenge soon arose.
Suzano Co. conceived, in joint-venture with Vale do Rio Doce Co., a new plant
for production of pulp and paper at Mucuri, Bahia. The new company was called
Bahia Sul Celulose, nowadays incorporated by Suzano. Participating since the
early beginning for planning the operation of the new company, the biggest
challenge was to ensure a plantation in appropriate size and productivity to
feed the large pulp mill with Eucalyptus wood. Existing forests needed to be
managed and new forests would be planted, all that very quickly. Garlipp was
assigned to be manager of the forestry division at Bahia Sul Celulose in 1988,
and the start-up of the new pulp mill was scheduled to happen 3 years later.
Then, everything entered in frenzy activities to: obtaining permits; preparation
of environmental impact studies; development of genetic materials and silvicultural
methods appropriate for the region; purchase of machinery and equipment; establishment
of nurseries; selection and hiring of sub-contractors; etc., etc. Anything
that encourages and gives pleasure in forestry was happening to him, and quickly.
Moreover, everything related to Eucalyptus, the selected raw material to feed
the Bahia Sul Celulose pulp and paper mill.
In 1993, Garlipp left Suzano group, after 12 years of dedicated work. He immediately
formed his consulting firm Garlipp Forestry Advisory Co., which continues alive
and healthy till today. Shortly afterwards, in 1994, he was invited by then
President of SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture , Mr. Jorge Humberto Teixeira
Boratto, to assume a major executive position at SBS. In SBS, the Garlipp's
world widened considerably. Besides going to work again with great personalities
of the Brazilian and international forest sector, he had to learn to negotiate
and to deal to the success on the institutional roles that forest sector had
taken. Among these roles, I would stress: enhancement of the activity and of
the forest engineering career; valuing the activity of planting forests; promotion
of forestry and plantation forestry; searching competitiveness to the forest
segment; promoting the forest sector image among the main stakeholders from
society. He also has placed much focus on: rescuing reliable statistics of
the sector; to revive the SBS magazine Silvicultura; to care for the continuous
monitoring of the Brazilian forest legislation through the electronic tool
However, his greatest challenge along the 90's was the
development and the starting-up of CERFLOR - the Brazilian Program of
Forest Certification, designed by SBS with the support of universities,
research institution's, Embrapa Florestas, regulatory bodies and associations
from the forest sector. The result is known by everyone in Brazil - CERFLOR
is a reality and world-wide known through its mutual recognition by the
PEFC - Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes.
The life of the forest engineer Rubens
Garlipp has always been somehow related to the Eucalyptus. As a child,
he was used to play
with its dry fruits, which he called "whipping-tops", to make
them turn in his playing games. It was also common to him enjoying the
Corymbia citriodora nice scent, a species very common in parks and streets
in towns of the Brazilian interior lands. Choosing the forest engineering
as a career, working in IPEF and then at Suzano and Bahia Sul Celulose,
practically put Garlipp to live with, to depend on and to help the Eucalyptus. For this reason and for his continuous work in SBS, Garlipp has given
his great contribution to the Eucalyptus trees to grow in importance
and in image on the Brazilian economy. However, since the time of IPEF,
and also in the SBS, he also began to devote himself to other forest
species, including those of the genus Pinus. Important part of SBS members
were from companies in Southern Brazil and had in Pinus their forestry
basis. At SBS, he worked for launching good literature on these two important
geni, having contributed to the publication of two important fundamental
books, one about the Eucalyptus and another on Pinus:
cultura do eucalipto no Brasil. (Eucalyptus cultivation
in Brazil). A.L. Mora; C.H. Garcia. SBS - Sociedade Brasileira de
78.4 MB. 114 pp. (2000)
Arquivo%2003_A%20Cultura%20do%20Eucalipto%20no%20Brasil.pdf (In Portuguese
cultura do Pinus no Brasil. (Pine cultivation in
Brazil). F.J.N. Kronka, F. Bertolani; R. H. Ponce. SBS - Sociedade
Brasileira de Silvicultura - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. 160
this way, and for everything he has done, Garlipp became not only a
great friend of the Eucalyptus, but a friend of the pines and many
other forest species growing in plantations in Brazil. In addition,
natural forests are another special chapter to him - for greater sustainability,
he does not see how to separate the strategic importance of natural
forests associated to forest plantations. The revitalization and conservation
of areas of natural forests not only helps to preserve biodiversity,
but also to provide forest goods and services of relevance to society
and to the environment. Several of his speeches and articles focus
much on this issue; and most recently, the wonderful book "The
value of the forests", launched by Editora Terra das Artes, shows
this very clearly and emphatically. One of his beliefs is that one
of the most important ways to protect and grow the area of natural
forests and biodiversity in Brazil is by planting commercial forests
in degraded areas with eroded soils. Thus, an area nearly the same
size with native forests will be rehabilitated, preserved and protected
by plantation forestry companies in the form of permanent preservation
areas and legal reserves.
Rubens Garlipp's most important areas of professional activities are been:
• Designing, management and analysis of investments in forestry projects;
Evaluation of programs and mechanisms to support and to promote the grow of forestry;
Forest certification (processes, management standards, chain of custody);
Operational quality and forest management audits;
Forest policy and legislation;
Dissemination of forest-based activity, spreading the concepts of production,
conservation and sustainable use of renewable natural resources;
Representation, institutional collaboration and mutual exchange of knowledge
in Brazil and abroad.
speaking about internationalization of the Brazilian forestry, Rubens
Garlipp kicks back to the mid 1990's, shortly after the "World
Environmental Summit" in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. Since then, the
forest sector discovered that the pressures from buyers of forest products
markets were becoming increasingly demanding in terms of certifications,
sustainability, environmental labeling and legal restrictions. Brazil
should participate in international forums of discussions on these
issues under penalty of turning on an isolated island and getting threats
on its competitive position. The SBS choice was to engage itself to
the relevant organizations dealing with such dialogues - those that
could be considered opinion formers to develop the criteria for good
forest management. With this in mind, the election of partnerships
went to: IUFRO (International Union of Forest Research Organizations),
FSC (Forest Stewardship Council), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
and ITTO (International Tropical Timber Organization). Since then,
there were also several international conventions and treaties that
required participation and negotiations by the Brazilians: Biodiversity,
Climate Change; Combating Desertification, Endangered Species; and
even more, the need to be active on the development of the Principles
of Forests. As a result of these processes, it emerged the need to
develop standards for good forest management, with the establishment
of criteria and indicators of sustainability at the national, regional
and local level in the own forest management unit.
SBS participated in all these forums, usually by the action of Rubens Garlipp
and other skilled foresters selected among its members. I even had the opportunity
to be with Rubens Garlipp in some of these forums, then representing the BRACELPA
or ABECEL. I could say that even to convince our Brazilian forest peers it
was a difficult and arduous task, but things went very well thanks to the efforts
of all. The Brazilian option was to promote forest certification and that the
schemes would be internationally and mutually recognized; thus the grant of
third party forest labels, with audit processes would bring the required credibility.
Thus, the SBS participated in and supported the development of the criteria
for ISO 14061 (forest bridge-document - http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=29516)
to assist forestry companies in the implementation of ISO 14001. Likewise,
SBS participated in the formulation of the criteria and indicators for the
FSC label, and coordinated CERFLOR with ABNT until its inclusion in the Brazilian
System of Conformity Assessment, when the management of that program was transferred
and assumed by INMETRO, just to be in the hands of a neutral entity, which
operates in accordance with the principles of certification and accreditation
with internationally accepted credibility. Apart from all involvement in forest
certification, SBS also had the demands of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests
and Intergovernmental Forum on Forests, coordinated by CSD (Commission on Sustainable
Development) of the United Nations Organization, where Garlipp integrated the
Brazilian delegations through the invitations of the MMA - Ministry of Environment
and MRE - Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
To create the proper weight and required ballast for
the Brazilian positions, SBS had to do its own homework together with
other industry associations, such as BRACELPA (Brazilian Pulp and Paper
Association), ABTCP (Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association),
AMS (Minas Gerais Association of Silviculture), former ABECEL (Brazilian
Pulp Exporting Association), Dialogue for the Atlantic Forest and Pampa
Biomes, ABNT (Brazilian Technical Standards Association), INMETRO (National
Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality), CONAMA
(National Environmental Council), ABIMCI (Brazilian Association for Mechanically
Processed Timber), AIMEX (Association of Para Wood Exporters), ABIPA
(Brazilian Association of Wood Panels) FNABF (National Forum of Forest-Based
Activities), CEDEFOR (Sustainable Forest Development Council of Mercosur)
and other associations representing industry and research institutes.
had also many other participation in government and industry forums,
representing the Brazilian forest sector. Some more that can be cited:
CONAFLOR/MMA (Coordinating Committee of the National Forestry Program);
CGFLOP/Brazilian Forest Service (Coordinating Committee for the Management
of Public Forests); Competitiveness Forum in the Productive Chain of
Wood and Furniture Industry; the Technical Commission on Seeds and
Seedlings of Native and Exotic Tree Species, among others.
it is easy and clear to see that the past 15 years have been plenty
of negotiations, dialogue and search for convergence and consensus,
both in Brazil and abroad. It is for these reasons that I always refer
to Rubens Garlipp as one of the great ambassadors of the Brazilian
forest sector, with an outstanding international role to Brazil and
its forestry companies
On the other hand, people are driven by dreams and accomplishments.
Then, I asked Garlipp about what he considered to be most important
in his professional achievements along his career, and he replied as
have acquired a global and holistic view of the forest-based activity
(most probably because he worked with research, education, planning,
operation, management and institutional relationship, and the opportunity
to know the activity in different countries);
to have integrated commissions, boards, working groups, public and private
organizations with reliable and qualified people - in Brazil and abroad;
to have had the opportunity of advising and participating in international
and intergovernmental negotiations on forestry;
to have built a network of relationships with professionals recognized
for their skills, knowledge, ability, importance and representativeness
in Brazil and abroad;
sometimes having received the recognition/tribute from colleagues (For
example: the award Forest Engineer of the Year, in 2006, awarded by ESALQ
- Superior College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" and by
the Alumni Association of Former Students of ESALQ - ADEALQ).
I also asked him what he considered to have made of high relevance to the forest-based
sector, so I got the following response:
• "My role in the processes and forest certification systems, to ensure
that standards and indicators for forest management could incorporate the advances
offered by science to forestry in Brazil, in line with our reality. I think I've
helped to disclose, to display, to communicate, to establish and disseminate
good management - in all its aspects - and certification as a mechanism for strengthening
and enhancement of forest products in Brazil;
My action for the improvement of programs, policies and forestry legislation
in Brazil (National Forestry Program; Financing Facilities; Forest Fostering;
Development & Management of Public Forests; Federal and State Laws, etc.);
A recent contribution is the book "O Valor das Florestas - The Value of
Forests", released in July 2010, to which he is one of the organizers and
On the other hand, his contributions to the Eucalyptus, more specifically,
have been the following:
• to communicate and to inform the realities about the Eucalyptus to legislators,
public officials, prosecutors, opinion leaders, international organizations,
farmers, businessmen, students and general public; disclosing the environmental,
social and economic benefits derived from a good management on a forestry activity
based on scientific knowledge accumulated by decades of research in Brazil;
to seek to clarify and demystify the reality on the Eucalyptus through: lectures;
magazine articles; interviews in newspapers, radio and television; providing
information on the Internet; book chapters; exchange visits of national and international
institution's to communicate the procedures of forest management; supporting
the publication of thematic books; participating in public hearings; formulating
institutional position papers - in Brazil and abroad - everything to promote
the Eucalyptus image and its products and helping to avoid unreasonable and inappropriate
restrictions to its cultivation.
Rubens Garlipp is married to the pediatrician Maria Aparecida, and the couple
also has a couple of children: Cristiano (27 year-old), graduated in Social
Sciences and studying Physical Education, and Carime (24), newly formed medical
doctor. He considers the family his greatest motivation and the major of his
rewards. He is also a great admirer and even fanatic about soccer/football
and he is fan of the Ponte Preta and Santos soccer teams, two of the most prestigious
clubs of the Brazilian football.
Finally, I asked him what was still missing and to be done in his professional
life, and the reply was very rich and curious:
"Planting my own forest (in home of forger, is the skewer is made of
and keep learning (there is a saying that states: the one who is happy with
he has, does not deserve what he gets! Surely this does apply to knowledge).
I also want to apply all gained expertise to the development, implementation
and evaluation of new programs oriented to sustainability under new management
and production models and designs, in special for forest plantations, that will
increasingly be playing multiple roles to meet the demands of society for wood
and other products and services."
For all these issues and achievements, Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp feels
very happy and proud to have been able to add his share of contribution to
the Brazilian forest sector. He considers that one of the most important things
that he added in the sector was his collaboration for the internationalization
of the concepts for good management in plantation forests, generating environmental,
social and economic benefits. He also feels very happy to see that the Brazilian
forest sector is not only a leader in productivity with the Eucalyptus plantations,
but also values its environmental practices and acts with social responsibility.
To learn more about Rubens Garlipp's professional life and some of his achievements,
please, browse his curriculum vitae and speeches, articles, and texts that
are provided just ahead. Then, it will be simple to realize why he is being
awarded as "Friend of the Eucalyptus" at the present edition of
the Eucalyptus Newsletter.
Cristiano Damas Garlipp's Curriculum vitae - Complete. 2010
%20VITAE%20Rubens%20Garlipp%20_COMPLETO.pdf (In Portuguese)
Cristiano Damas Garlipp's Curriculum vitae - Executive Summary.
of book chapters that have been written by Rubens C.D. Garlipp:
O valor das florestas. (The value of forests). M.A. Fujihara; R. Cavalcanti;
A. Guimaraes; R.C.D. Garlipp. Terra das Artes Editors. 352 pp. (2009)
More information about the book at:
Portuguese - Podcast of Rubens Garlipp's interview to Mr. Jose Luiz Menegatti
- Jovem Pan radio station about the book "O valor das florestas")
Portuguese - Valorizar eh preciso - To value is required - about the
book "O valor das florestas" - O Papel magazine - ABTCP
- Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association)
Eucalipto. (Eucalyptus) J.E. Pinto Junior; R.C.D.
Garlipp. In: Agricultura tropical: quatro decadas de inovacoes tecnologicas,
institucionais e politicas. Vol. 1: Producao e produtividade agricola.(Tropical
agriculture. Volume 1 - Agricultural production and productivity). EMBRAPA
Technological Information. p. 801- 822. (2008)
Summary and more details about this book are available:
A selection of Rubens C.D. Garlipp's speeches,
articles and written texts:
Thanks to the discerning and apprehensive selection and retrieval of technical
materials prepared by our dear friend Garlipp for this edition of the Eucalyptus
Newsletter, we have about 85 of his articles and especially his magnificent
speeches for being browsed through this list we have prepared: a huge cultural
and technological heritage to the forestry sector in Brazil, and worldwide.
das florestas plantadas para atendimento das futuras demandas da sociedade. (Functions of planted forests to meet the future demands of society).
R. Garlipp. Madeira 2010 Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 31 slides.
interview to Painel Florestal web portal - in Portuguese)
Valorizacao do papel e da comunicacao impressa: papel socio-ambiental
das florestas plantadas. (Valuation of paper products and the printing
communication: socio-environmental role of planted forests). R. Garlipp.
SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 26
%20PAPEL%20E%20DA%20COMUNICA%C7%A6O%20IMPRESSA.pdf (In Portuguese)
papel das florestas plantadas para atendimento das demandas futuras
da sociedade. (The role of planted forests to meet the future demands
of society). R. Garlipp; C. Foelkel. Position Paper SBS - Brazilian
Society of Silviculture. XIII World Forestry Congress. 18 pp. (2009)
Las funciones de los bosques plantados hacia las futuras demandas
de la sociedad. (Functions of planted forests to meet the future demands
of society). R. Garlipp; C. Foelkel. Position paper SBS - Brazilian
Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 30 slides. XIII World
Forestry Congress. (2009)
Palestra%20FAO%20Buenos%20Aires.pdf (In Spanish)
la ordenacion responsable de los bosques plantados: sintesis de Brasil. (Towards the responsible management of planted forests: Brazilian
R. Garlipp. XIII World Forestry Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 12 slides.
Panorama da industria florestal no Brasil. (Forest industry overview in
Brazil). R. Garlipp. Timberland Investing Latin America Summit. PowerPoint
presentation: 60 slides. (2008)
importance of planted forests in Brazil. R. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian
Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 36 slides. (2008)
Import%E2ncia%20florestas%20plantadas.pdf (In English)
de los bosques plantados en Brasil. (The importance of planted forests
in Brazil). R. Garlipp. Taller Regional FAO - Buenos Aires. PowerPoint
presentation: 33 slides. (2008)
sustentavel para os grandes consumidores de produtos de origem florestal:
o que mais nos aguarda? (Sustainable management for the major consumers
of forest products: what else awaits us?). R. Garlipp. Madeira 2008
Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 44 slides. (2008)
e numeros do Brasil florestal. (Facts and figures of the
Brazilian forestry). General coordination R. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian
of Silviculture. 93 pp. (2008)
e crescimento economico sustentado do setor florestal: o meio ambiente
para a economia. (Challenges and sustained economic growth in the forestry
sector: the environment for the economy). R. Garlipp. FIESP event.
SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 27
florestal no ambito do sistema brasileiro de avaliacao da conformidade.
(Forest certification under the scope of the Brazilian system of conformity
assessment). R. Garlipp; M.T. Resende. International Seminar of Wood
Construction Workers. PowerPoint Presentation: 57 slides. (2008)
do setor florestal. (Sustainability of the forest sector). R. Garlipp.
BRACELPA/MMA/SBS Meeting. PowerPoint presentation: 42 slides. (2007)
Sustentabilidade do setor florestal: indicadores e parametros. (Sustainability
of the forest sector: indicators and parameters). R. Garlipp. Technical Meeting
about Wood and Forest Products. IPT/SBS. PowerPoint presentation: 55 slides.
A empresa e o profissional do seculo 21. (The forest company and the professional
of the 21st century). R. Garlipp. UFSCAR. PowerPoint presentation: 30 slides.
importancia da atividade florestal no Brasil. (The importance of the
forest activity in Brazil)R. Garlipp. II Forum of the Southwestern
Goias Forest Sector. PowerPoint presentation: 46 slides. (2007)
florestal no Brasil: visao geral e perspectivas. (Forest fostering
in Brazil: general overview and perspectives). R. Garlipp. II Meeting
of Veracel Planted Forest Producers. PowerPoint presentation: 62 slides.
mitos e verdades. (Eucalyptus: myths and realities). R. Garlipp. Seminar
on MS Planted Forests. PowerPoint presentation: 52 slides. (2007)
Crescimento do setor florestal no Brasil. (Growth of the Brazilian
forestry sector). R. Garlipp. Workshop on Forest Plantations - ESALQ/IPEF.
PowerPoint presentation: 47 slides. (2007)
global: florestas. (Global warming: forests). R.C.D. Garlipp; C.A.
Bantel. AEAARP Environmental Week. PowerPoint presentation: 53 slides.
O fomento florestal na visao da Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura. (Forest
fostering under the view of the Brazilian Society of Silviculture). R. Garlipp.
National Forum on Forest Fostering. PowerPoint presentation: 36 slides. (2006)
e perspectivas do fomento florestal no Brasil. (Situation and future
perspectives of forest fostering in Brazil). R. Garlipp. RJ State Seminar
on Forest Fostering. PowerPoint presentation: 21 slides. (2006)
Fomento: mecanismo estrategico e de novas oportunidades. (Forest
fostering: strategic mechanism and new opportunities). R.C.D. Garlipp.
Opinioes Magazine (June/August). (2006)
Impulsionando a produtividade e a producao agricola: desenvolvimento
das florestas cultivadas no Brasil. (Boosting agricultural productivity
and production: development of planted forests in Brazil). R. Garlipp.
IWTAD International Workshop. PowerPoint presentation: 44 slides.
plantadas e conservacao da biodiversidade no Brasil. (Planted forests
and biodiversity conservation in Brazil). R. Garlipp et al. Position
Paper IPEF/SBS/ESALQ-USP. PowerPoint presentation: 22 slides. (2006)
geral da cadeia produtiva do eucalipto: tendencias e perspectivas.
(General overview of the Eucalyptus production chain: trends and perspectives).
R. Garlipp. Forum of Sustainable Development at Salesopolis - Potentialities
of the Eucalyptus. PowerPoint presentation: 42 slides. (2006)
aspectos sociais e ambientais dos plantios florestais. (Social and
environmental aspects of plantation forestry). R. Garlipp. 63rd Official
Week of Engineering, Architecture and Agronomy. PowerPoint presentation:
34 slides. (2006)
CERFLOR - Certificacao florestal. (CERFLOR - Forest certification). R. Garlipp.
SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. 06 pp. (2006)
Eficiencia, gestao, contratos e sustentabilidade na industria baseada
em florestas plantadas. (Efficiency, management, contracts and sustainability in the industry
based on plantation forestry). R. Garlipp. XLIII SOBER Congress. PowerPoint
presentation: 26 slides. (2005)
da reserva legal: visao da SBS. (Importance of the legal reserve: the
SBS viewpoint). R. Garlipp. Workshop about Legal Reserve. IPEF/DCF/DEAS/ESALQ-USP.
PowerPoint presentation: 26 slides. (2005)
negocio economico e social. (Forests: social and economic business).
R. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation:
46 slides. (2005)
Manejo florestal sustentavel e negocio florestal. (Sustainable forest management
and forest business). R. Garlipp. II Forestry Workshop. PowerPoint presentation:
34 slides. (2005)
florestal permite avaliar e monitorar operacoes florestais. (Forest
certification allows to evaluate and monitoring forest operations).
R. Garlipp. Visao Agricola nº 4. 02 pp. (2005)
- Programa brasileiro de certificacao florestal. (CERFLOR - Brazilian
program for forest certification). R.C.D. Garlipp. Opinioes Magazine
contribuicao do processo de certificacao florestal nos ganhos sociais,
e ambientais. (The contribution of the forest certification process
on social, economic and environmental gains). R. Garlipp. Brazilian
Forum of Planted Forests. CEDAGRO. PowerPoint presentation: 46 slides.
problema ou solucao. (Eucalyptus: problem or solution). R. Garlipp.
Public Hearing. Sao Paulo State House of Representatives. PowerPoint
presentation: 22 slides. (2004)
ambientais e sociais da certificacao florestal. (Environmental and
social contributions of the forest certification). R. Garlipp. Seminar
at Cuiaba/MT. PowerPoint presentation: 49 slides. (2004)
Demanda e uso da floresta de eucalipto. (Demand and utilization of the Eucalyptus forests). R. Garlipp. 8th Eucalyptus Festivities at Salesopolis. PowerPoint
presentation: 27 slides. (2004)
economica das florestas plantadas no Brasil e a contribuicao da pesquisa
em Ciencia do Solo. (Economic importance of plantation forestry in
Brazil and the contribution from the Soil Science). R.C. Garlipp. Informative
Bulletin. Brazilian Society of Soil Science. Vol 29. 03 pp. (2004)
forestales en Brasil: desarrollo y contribuciones economicas, sociales
y ambientales. (Forest plantations in Brazil: development and economic,
social and environmental contributions). R.C. Garlipp. Workshop on
Forestation and Afforestation in Ecuador. PowerPoint presentation:
38 slides. (2003)
Plantaciones%20forestales%20en%20Brasil.pdf (In Spanish)
- Programa brasileiro de certificacao florestal: situacao e perspectivas. (CERFLOR - Brazilian program of forest certification: present status
and perspectives). R. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture.
PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides. (2003)
forestry: sustainability, markets and trends. R. Garlipp. CAMCORE Technical
Meeting. PowerPoint presentation: 27 slides. (2003)
39_2003_Brazilian%20forestry%20model.pdf (In English)
on conservation forests. R. Garlipp. IFIR 9 - Conservation Forests
Session. PowerPoint presentation: 32 slides. (2002)
40_2002_Conservation%20forests.pdf (In English)
the Brazilian forest certification system. R. Garlipp. ITTO Workshop
on Forest Certification Schemes. PowerPoint presentation: 19 slides.
41_2002_CERFLOR%20palestra%20ITTO.pdf (In English)
plantadas e CDM (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo): oportunidades
de desenvolvimento sustentavel. (Planted forests and CDM - Clean Development
Mechanism: opportunities for sustainable development). R. Garlipp.
4th Environmental Week. FIESP/CIESP. PowerPoint presentation: 35 slides.
Plantaciones forestales en Brasil: una actividad sustentable. (Forest plantations
in Brazil: a sustainable activity). R.C. Garlipp. CICOTEC Brasilia. PowerPoint
presentation: 59 slides. (2001)
42_2001_Plantaciones%20forestales%20Brasil.pdf (In Spanish)
e competitividade do setor florestal. (Competence and competitiveness
of the forestry sector). R.C. Garlipp. 34th ABTCP Annual Congress.
PowerPoint presentation: 60 slides. (2001)
produtivas. A visao da industria. Plantacoes florestais. (Chains of
production. The viewpoint of the industry. Planted forests). R.C. Garlipp.
1st ABTCP EXPOCELPA Sul. PowerPoint presentation: 11 slides. (2001)
florestais: qualificacao (Plantacoes florestais). (Forest projects:
qualification and skills in plantation forestry). R. Garlipp. 3rd Environmental
Week. FIESP/CIESP. PowerPoint presentation: 21 slides. (2001)
do setor florestal brasileiro sobre a restricao ao uso de pesticidas.
(The viewpoint of the Brazilian forestry sector about the restrictions
to the use of pesticides). R.C. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society of
Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 10 slides. (2001)
Setor florestal privado brasileiro e os desafios para o seu desenvolvimento.
(The Brazilian private forest sector and the challenges for development). R.C.
Garlipp. I Iberian American Symposium on Forest Management and Economics. PowerPoint
presentation: 57 slides. (2001)
mutuo entre sistemas de certificacao de manejo florestal sustentavel. (Mutual recognition among systems for certification of sustainable
forestry management). R. Garlipp. Silvicultura 82: 14-15. (2000)
Forum de competitividade da cadeia produtiva de madeira e
moveis: madeira e florestas. (Competitiveness forum of the chain of production for
wood and furniture: wood and forests). R. Garlipp. MDIC. PowerPoint
presentation: 19 slides. (2000)
Oferta e demanda de madeira de florestas plantadas. (Offer and demand for the
wood from planted forests). R.C. Garlipp. FEMADE/Curitiba. PowerPoint presentation:
11 slides. (2000)
OGM's na area florestal. (GMO's in the forest sector). R.C. Garlipp. Seminar
on Genetically Modified Organisms in Forestry and Agriculture. IPEF/ESALQ/USP.
PowerPoint presentation: 11 slides. (2000)
CERFLOR: Rumo a implementacao. (CERFLOR: towards implementation). R. Garlipp.
Silvicultura 84: 05-06. (2000)
Competitividade da cadeia produtiva de madeira e moveis. (Competitiveness in
the chain of production for wood and furniture). R.C. Garlipp; A. Maffeis.
Silvicultura 83: 16-21. (2000)
O setor florestal e o codigo florestal. (The forest sector and the forestry
code). R.C. Garlipp. CONAMA Technical Meeting. PowerPoint presentation: 22
decorrentes do Protocolo de Kyoto para pesquisas em produtos florestais. (Opportunities
derived from Kyoto Protocol for researching forest products). R.C. Garlipp.
Seminar "Needs of Research in Forest Products". ITTO/LPF. PowerPoint
presentation: 25 slides. (1999)
Sustentabilidade e certificacao florestal: o exemplo do Brasil. (Sustainability
and forest certification: the Brazilian case). R.C. Garlipp. International
Congress on Environment and Business Opportunities. 22pp. (1999)
ambiental e florestal como fatores de competitividade no mercado internacional. (Environmental and forest certification as key competitive factors
to international trade and markets). R.C. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society
of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 32 slides. (1999)
CEDEFOR - Conselho de Desenvolvimento Sustentado Florestal do Mercosul. (CEDEFOR
- Sustainable Forest Development Council of Mercosur). R.C. Garlipp; R. Dornelles.
Silvicultura 73: 16-21. (1997)
Incentivos fiscais: o Brasil parando no tempo. (Taxes incentives: Brazil
slowing down and stopping in the time). R.C. Garlipp; A.S. Oliveira. Silvicultura
72: 24-28. (1997)
mundo abraca as florestas. (The world hugs the forests). R.C. Garlipp. Silvicultura
67: 15-22. (1997)
Suecia em destaque. (Sweden in highlights). R.C. Garlipp; C. Dassie.
Silvicultura 68: 24-29. (1996)
Cinturao verde ao norte da Europa. (A green belt in Northern Europe). R.C.
Garlipp. Silvicultura 67: 24-28. (1996)
A nacao que "descobriu" o Brasil. (The nation that discovered Brazil).
R.C. Garlipp; F. Coucelo. Silvicultura 66: 20-24. (1996)
As acoes da Agenda 21 para florestas. (The actions of Agenda 21 to forestry).
J.H.T. Boratto; R.C. Garlipp. Silvicultura 59: 08-15. (1995)
Silvicultura brasileira influencia decisoes da ISO 14001. (Brazilian
silviculture influences decisions on the ISO 14001). R.C. Garlipp.
Silvicultura 61: 37-38. (1995)
O boom da certificacao: eh preciso garantir a credibilidade. (Forest
certification boom: it is required to guarantee the credibility). R.C.D.
Garlipp. Silvicultura 61: 15-22. (1995)
Em busca de politicas e solucoes para o setor florestal. (Searching policies
and solutions to the forest sector). R.C. Garlipp. Silvicultura 54: 39. (1994)
Preco maximo de terras para reflorestamento - sua importancia na
viabilizacao de empreendimentos florestais. (Maximum price/cost for forest lands: its
importance for making feasible the forest business). R. Berger; R.C.D. Garlipp;
R.S. Pereira. IPEF 23: 11-20. (1983)
de decisao face a diferentes alternativas de manejo de uma floresta
de Eucalyptus spp. (Decision-making facing different alternatives for
managing an Eucalyptus planted forest). R.A. Brigatti; R.C.D. Garlipp.
IPEF Technical Circular-Letter nº 142. 10 pp. (1982)
Custo-preco: uma alternativa financeira na avaliacao da producao
florestal. (Cost-price: a financial alternative in forest production evaluations).
R. Berger; R.C.D. Garlipp. IPEF Technical Circular-Letter nº 141.
08 pp. (1982)
Biomassa de florestas plantadas como fonte alternativa de energia
na substituicao do oleo combustivel industrial no estado de Sao Paulo. (Biomass
from planted forests as alternative source of energy in replacement of industrial
fuel oil in the state of Sao Paulo). R.C.D. Garlipp. IPEF Technical Circular-Letter
nº 125. 14 pp. (1981)
Comercializacao de madeira de algumas especies tropicais. (Trading
wood of some tropical species). R. Berger; R.C.D. Garlipp; S.M. Dourado.
IPEF Technical Circular-Letter nº 116. 21 pp. (1980)
Aspectos economicos do emprego de fertilizantes minerais na producao
de madeira de Eucalyptus saligna no estado de Sao Paulo. (Economic
issues in the utilization of mineral fertilizers in the production
of Eucalyptus saligna wood in the state of Sao Paulo). R. Berger; R.C.D.
Garlipp. IPEF 20: 49-58. (1980)
Portuguese with a brief summary in English)
Estudo preliminar sobre a viabilidade economica da substituicao
do oleo combustivel por madeira de eucalipto. (Preliminary study about
the economic feasibility for the replacement of fuel oil by Eucalyptus wood). R. Berger; R.C.D. Garlipp. IPEF Technical Circular-Letter nº 95.
07 pp. (1980)
Sintese economica da geracao de vapor para uso industrial.
Madeira versus oleo combustivel. (Economic evaluation of steam generation for
industrial utilization. Wood versus fuel oil). R. Berger; R.C.D. Garlipp.
IPEF Technical Series 1(2). 08 pp. (1980)
Aspectos economicos da produtividade e da idade de corte em
florestas de eucalipto. (Economic issues about the productivity and the harvesting
age in Eucalyptus forests). R.C.D. Garlipp. IPEF Technical Circular-Letter
nº 84. 13 pp. (1979)
Avaliacao tecnico-economica da producao de celulose de madeira nao-descascada
de Pinus caribaea e Eucalyptus grandis. (Technical-economical evaluation
in the production of kraft pulp from Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus
saligna woods containing the bark). J. O. Brito; L. E. G. Barrichelo;
R. C. D. Garlipp. Informative Bulletin IPEF 6(20): D.01 – D.51.
Recursos forestales: Brasil. (Forest resources: Brazil). R.C. Garlipp.
FAO - Chile. Project GCP/RLA/133/EC. 58 pp. (Undated)
always had and have a huge admiration for the competence and the technical
and institutional achievements of this great friend
of the Eucalyptus and of the planted and natural forests of Brazil. His
technical skills, enthusiasm and dedication to the Brazilian forestry
are unquestionable. Also, I have a friendship with Rubens of around three
decades, always receiving from him very much support - his personal or
via SBS, to my demands attempting for forest and pulp and paper sector
improvements. For all I know about and admire Rubens Garlipp, I felt
honored and privileged to tell you a little about the life of this great "Friend
of Eucalyptus" and to share some of his technical papers published
throughout his productive career.
My dear friend Rubens
Cristiano Damas Garlipp, thank
you for your accomplishments focusing on the Eucalyptus, pines, acacia,
bracatinga, natural forests and the goods, services and products of all
types of forests. Thank you also for everything you have done and will
continue doing for the science, technology and the institutional image
of the Brazilian forestry and forest engineering career.
World of the Eucalyptus
of Piaui - Brazil
state of Piaui is an excellent example on how to plan and implement
a comprehensive and effective project based on plantation forestry.
It may be said that in just about five years from the initial moves,
Piaui gained prominence in the area of Eucalyptus forestry plantations,
and perhaps is the most successful new entrant to the commercial forestry
in Brazil. Until recently, plantations were scarce and few people were
talking about, planting or researching this issue in the state. The
only thing that people could notice at that time, it was the success
that the Eucalypti were achieving, right after the Parnaiba River bridges,
entering to the neighboring state of Maranhao. There, it is possible
to find thrive forestry activities for the production of Eucalyptus wood for energy (firewood and charcoal) and for future projects of
new market pulp mills. Something similar with Eucalyptus plantations
is also happening in the not too far away from Piaui, the state of
Amapa. I believe that these good examples prompted and leveraged the
state government of Piaui and the public company CODEVASF - Company
for the Development of San Francisco and Parnaiba Rivers Valleys to
seek strategies aiming a forestry development plan for the Parnaiba
River Watershed, one of the most traditional Brazilian rivers and the
main source of drinking water for the Piaui state in its western side.
In order not to make mistakes by lack of technical knowledge, technological
support was brought from two traditional sources of knowledge and technologies
in the Brazilian forest sector: the STCP consulting company, and FUPEF
- Forest Research Foundation of Parana, both located in Curitiba. The
results were immediate, an excellent forestry program was created and
widely disseminated. From 2005/2006 till now, a series of measures
are leveraging this program, since they have been quickly implemented,
such as: to untie legal bureaucracy, to seek partnerships, to attract
investment through tax incentives, training people, funding sources,
creation of technical courses in chemistry and higher engineering education
in forestry, etc.
Things started to flow much better when Suzano Paper and
Pulp Company, one of the leading companies of this sector in Brazil,
was operating on lands in Northeastern Brazil, announced mega-projects
of two new Eucalyptus bleached marked pulp mills, in the states of Maranhao
and Piaui, each one with capacity of about 1.4 million tons a year. The
company already has expertise and technologies, as well as genetic material
of Eucalyptus species and clones adapted to local conditions. The selected
region was exactly the Midwestern state, near the state capital Teresina,
representing this Suzano project an area of 160.000-170.000 hectares
of land (estimated at 70% own and 30% rural farmers supplies). There
are 38 municipalities involved in this network of influence, according
to the Suzano's Environmental Impact Assessment Study. The state government
is optimistic by the generation of thousands of jobs and by the acceleration
on the regional economy. The main Piaui cities that this specific project
covers are: Elesbao Veloso, Nazaria, Amarante, Avelino Lopes, Barro Duro,
Palmeiras, Sao Pedro do Piaui, Valenca do Piaui, Sao Felix do Piaui,
Floriano and even Oeiras, ancient and historic former capital of the
state. However, the area that the state forestry program proposed as
being suitable and with preferred vocation for Eucalyptus plantations
is much greater than this: about 3.6 million hectares, both near Teresina,
as in the region of Urucui. Anyhow, this number for these regions may
suffer reevaluations, since not all areas of the selected regions are
suitable for reforestation and other ones classified as not suitable,
may be better qualified due to silvicultural technologies. The species
of eucalypts that are being recommended are oriented to two basic applications:
pulp/paper and energy. There is still a lot to do in terms of development
of genetic materials of species and clones specific to the conditions
of these regions. The species initially recommended are more plastic
and oriented to tropical regions with a clear dry season: Eucalyptus
urophylla, E.tereticornis, E.cloeziana, E.camaldulensis and E.urograndis
hybrid and also some E.camaldulensis hybrids. The expected forest growth
yields are not as high as those found in regions of high forest breeding.
The projections are about 35 m³/ha.year of correspondent logs with
bark for the leading companies and 30 for rural producers.
It has been widely reported that Suzano company has started its plantations
and the project is moving at full-steam. However, extensive projects
like this always bring some points of conflict with environmental groups,
public prosecutors, etc. Usually, these conflicts are factors that help
even the better design of plantations for improved and safer management,
with greater assurance of environmental quality. Of course, the expectations
of all stakeholders is that forest planting programs are to be made with
state-of-the-art technology and sustainability and will be certified
by the programs of environmental guarantee of good forest practices,
such as FSC - Forest Stewardship Council and CERFLOR / INMETRO (The Brazilian
program for forest certification).
is strategically located to take advantage of railways services (Ferrovia
Transnordestina - http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=263597 )
for transporting raw materials and manufactured wooden and pulp products
ready for sale, and for using the sea port of Itaqui in San Luis/Maranhao (http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porto_do_Itaqui )
or the sea port of Pecem in the state of Ceara (http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminal_Portu%C3%A1rio_do_Pec%C3%A9m)
for spreading of the international sales. Anyway, everything
goes well and the routes to the success seem to be drawn and paved.
The studies and environmental impact reports, environmental permits,
public hearings and public participation of stakeholders are given
the right accelerating movement with a lot of dialogue and transparency.
state of Piaui is one of the largest states in Northeastern Brazil
in territorial area, with 251,500 km² and an estimated population
of 3.2 million inhabitants. Its capital Teresina has shown a rapid
growth and planned development, what is even a very favorable point
for current business and future forest cluster to be implemented in
Piaui. This state, until recently, was considered one of the poorest
and most backward regions in Brazil. Its economy is being supported
by some extractive agricultural products, such as carnauba wax, cashew
nuts, leather, skins, meat and honey. Also subsoil resources add richness
to the state through the opal (semi-precious stone) and decorative
stones for construction. In the past and recent years, soybean crops
have grown in area and generating wealth in the state, currently growing
in area at an astonishing rate of about 15% annually, reaching today
around 350,000 hectares already planted. The attractiveness of the
savanna land ("cerrados") by this and other grains and oilseeds
has placed Piaui on the route of generating bioenergy and food products.
Moreover, tourism and artcrafts have emerged and are now worldwide
recognized. The state has a huge variety of natural ecosystems because
it is a transition region between major Brazilian biomes as Atlantica
Forest, the Cocais Forest, Cerrado, Caatinga and Amazon Rainforest.
You have a bit of everything that is beautiful in Nature, such as the
regions of Capivaras and Confusoes Mountains, the region of the Sete
Cidades ("Seven Cities"), the magnificent Delta of Parnaiba
River, and the seaside with beautiful beaches of warm waters, as Maramar
and Barra Grande. Another unusual thing in this state of Brazil is
the large amount of paleontological, archaeological and anthropological
sites, as it is well-known that the region sheltered ancient American
people who draw their primitive paintings by nearly all the dominant
rock formations in the state
Just ahead, we are offering for your browsing a lot of rich information about
this vibrant Brazilian state and soon to become another worldwide center
of Eucalyptus plantations. I have hopes and confidence that there is much
environmental responsibility in all this and that sustainability is not just
a word to be used in speeches or documents, but widely practiced by the public
and private companies and by the rural farmers, too. A state like Piaui,
which still houses many diverse and fragile biodiversity, deserves respect
from entrepreneurs, politicians, sociologists and even environmentalists.
One of the goals of this state forestry program is to exactly rebuild biodiversity
and natural resources, since the Eucalyptus forests are planted in mosaics
of Eucalyptus, native forests and agroforestry, using degraded and eroded
areas whose soils have been degraded by careless utilization over decades.
Hopefully, people involved in this program are to be persons with common
sense and social and environmental responsibility. In case not, I'll be one
of the first to bring this to public knowledge.
visit the websites and texts we are indicating just below, as well
as other valuable literature being available at the sections Euca-Links
and Online Technical References, all dedicated to Piaui, the Brazilian
state honored in this newsletter edition.
PLANAP - Plano de Acao para o Desenvolvimento Integrado da
Bacia do Parnaiba. (PLANAP - Action Plan for the Integrated Development of Parnaiba
River Watershed). CODEVASF - Company for the Development of San Francisco
and Parnaiba Rivers Valleys. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
publicacoes-atuais/planap/ (In Portuguese - with several links to diversified
technical texts and regional planning documents)
Estado do Piaui. (State of Piaui). IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography
and Statistics. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
sigla=pi&tema=extracaovegetal2008 (In Portuguese - Extraction from
Plant Resources and from Silviculture in 2008)
Portuguese - About the Piaui state)
Portuguese - Agricultural data in the year 2006)
Piaui. Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piau%C3%AD (In English)
Nordeste Atrai Novos Investimentos em Celulose. (Northeast attracts
new pulp investments). M. Faleiros. O Papel (March): 20-24. (2010)
Anuario Estatistico da ABRAF Ano Base 2009. (ABRAF Statistical Yearbook -
Base Year 2009). ABRAF - Brazilian Association of Planted Forests Producers.
Impactos Ambientais da Silvicultura no Bioma Cerrado. (Environmental
impacts of silviculture to the Cerrado biome). A.C. Fidelis; J.D. Lima.
V Simposio Nacional de Geografia Agraria. 11 pp. (2009)
Completos/Alex%20Camargo%20Fidelis.pdf (In Portuguese)
Agenda Estrategica do Setor de Florestas Plantadas. (Strategic agenda of
the planted forest segment). ABRAF - Brazilian Association of Planted Forests
Producers. Silvicultural Sector Board. 36 pp. (2009)
Desenvolvimento Florestal e Melhoria do Clima de Negocios em
Nivel Regional: Pecas-Chaves para o Novo Ciclo Mundial de Crescimento. (Forest
development and improvements of the business climate on the regional
level: key pieces for the new world growth cycle). I. Tomaselli; J.D.P.
Siqueira; R. Rodrigues. STCP Informative Newsletter nº 13: 18-23.
Desenvolvimento Florestal Pode Gerar 9.000 Empregos. (Forestry development
may generate 9,000 new jobs). A. Moreira. Piaui State Government. Information
Compromisso com o Crescimento e Desenvolvimento do Programa
Florestal do Estado do Piaui. (Commitment to the growth and development of the
Forestry Program of the State of Piaui). I. Tomaselli. 2006 Madeira
Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 27 slides. (2006)
madeira2006/painel4-palestra2.pdf (In Portuguese)
Novas Fronteiras para a Industria de Base Florestal. (New frontiers to the
forest base industry). STCP Informative Newsletter nº 10. 21 pp. (2006/2007)
Executivo do Programa de Desenvolvimento Florestal do Vale do Parnaiba
- Piaui. (Executive summary of the Forest Development
for the Parnaiba River Valley - Piaui). CODEVASF - Company for the
Development of San Francisco and Parnaiba Rivers Valleys. (2006)
publicacoes-atuais/pdf/livro_12.pdf (In Portuguese - Piaui forest program)
English - Piaui forest program)
Portuguese - Map of priority areas for tree plantations)
de Desenvolvimento Florestal do Vale do Parnaiba no Piaui. Componente
Florestas Plantadas. (Forestry Development Program to the Parnaiba
River Valley in Piaui state. Planted forests component). CODEVASF -
Company for the Development of San Francisco and Parnaiba Rivers Valleys & FUPEF
- Forest Research Foundation of Parana. 222 pp. (2005)
Arranjos Produtivos Locais do Piaui. (Local productive arrangements and clusters
in Piaui). CGEE - Centro de Gestao de Estudos Estrategicos - Center for Management
of Strategic Studies. 63 pp. (2004)
Cenarios de Producao de Bioenergia no Piaui. (Scenarios of bioenergy
production in the Piaui state). Bioenergy Program. SEPLAN Piaui.
24 pp. (Undated)
of Piaui state:
-2ITNbTGYXq9QSlheU6&ved=0CB8Q1QIoAA (Piaui map)
piaui.aspx?h=0&p=7&t=4 (Website Natureza Brasileira - cities of
1259/categorias/litoral/piaui.aspx?h=0&t=4 (Website Natureza Brasileira
- Coastal regions and Parnaiba river delta)
of Piaui - Brazil
this section, we are, as always we do, offering some relevant Euca-Links
to important websites available in the virtual web. Just click on the
addresses of the corresponding URLs to open them or save as favorites
on your computer. In this unique edition about the state of
the Euca-Links will be all related to companies, organizations, universities
and entities related to the study, business, usage and manufacturing
products from Eucalyptus at this specific state. If any organization
or company is eventually missing, please contact us and provide the
URL addresses, which we will evaluate to make an addition on some of
our upcoming editions.
FIEPI - Industry Federation of the state of Piaui. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
FIEPI has the coordination and represents the industrial sector in the state
of Piaui, being integrated to the CNI System - National Industry Confederation.
- The Water Foundation of Piaui. Environmental NGO. Accessed on
FUNAGUAS is an environmental and well-structured NGO, with a good number
of valuable information made available in its website, some of them showing
contrary arguments to the growth of the silviculture in the state. Accessed
Portuguese - Website)
Portuguese - Scientific papers)
Portuguese - Parnaiba river)
Portuguese - Ecological-Economic Zoning to the Low Parnaiba River Watershed)
Portuguese - Presentation of Ecological-Economic Zoning to the Low Parnaiba
State Government. Institutional State Government Website. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
Meio Ambiente do Piaui. (Piaui Environment). Blog about Environmental Issues
in the State. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
A blog rich in environmental information about Piaui, even considering it
has with some restrictions to the silviculture with Eucalyptus in the state.
Programa de Desenvolvimento Florestal do Vale do Parnaiba - Piaui. (Program
for the Forestry Development of the Parnaiba River Valley - Piaui). CODEVASF
- Company for the Development of San Francisco and Parnaiba Rivers Valleys.
Accessed on 09.09.2010:
CODEVASF is a public company, under the Ministry of National Integration,
which promotes the development and revitalization of the San Francisco and
Parnaiba river valleys to the sustainable use of their natural resources
and to structure productive activities for economic and social inclusion.
CODEVASF has been the great promoter and driver of Eucalyptus plantation
forestry in the state of Piaui, understanding that forest plantations and
forest management could help to restore sustainable conditions in areas which
have been degraded by farming and livestock production, besides offering
new alternatives for regional economic growth in the Piaui savanna. CODEVASF
action has been exemplary, seeking partnerships and bringing relevant technical
information to the newcomers in this area of business. The election of the
regions of Teresina and Urucui, both bordering the state of Maranhao, aims
to promote economic development in a region close to the state capital and
to take advantage of the experiences of neighboring Maranhao with forest
plantations. Access to the Itaqui sea port in Sao Luiz is also an important
factor for the international trade of products derived from forests, such
as wood, pulp and paper, etc.
Portuguese - CODEVASF website)
Portuguese - Forestry program)
acoes-florestais-na-bacia-do-parnaiba (In Portuguese - Required actions
to Parnaiba river valley)
Portuguese - Forestry program documents)
acoes-florestais-na-bacia-do-parnaiba/folder.pdf (In Portuguese - Forestry
Portuguese - Publications)
- Secretariat of Environment and Water Resources of the State of Piaui. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
Environmental institution of the state of Piaui, which handles and manages
licensing of projects, legislation, evaluation of environmental studies,
and environmental control and conservation of water resources in the
- Companhia Suzano de Papel e Celulose. (Suzano
Pulp and Paper Co.). Company's Institutional Website. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
Portuguese and English - General Website)
lumPageId=2C90884B1D4D68D1011FCDA346505AA8 (Digital publications)
lumChannelId=40288091199BCACB01199BD165C612A3 (Printed publications)
2C90884B2622D55D01276C6E9CD5576A (In Portuguese - Company's press-release
about its own forest plantations in Piaui state)
- Federal University of Piaui - Bom Jesus Campus. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
The Federal University of Piaui has recently created a program for the
forest engineering career in the Bom Jesus Campus.
Portuguese - UFPI - Campus de Bom Jesus)
Portuguese - Forest engineering career)
files/PPP%20de%20Engenharia%20Florestal.doc (In Portuguese - The project
of the forest engineering course at UFPI)
the city of Bom Jesus at Piaui state)
of Piaui - Brazil
this section, we are as usual offering some very good euca-links with
relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library.
You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or
to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for
the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they
are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they
are very much connected with the Eucalyptus. In this section, we are
trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that are
helping to build the foundations and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas
related to these magic trees.
In this edition, we are emphasizing some recent publications about forestry and
forest products with strong connection with the state of Piaui, the state being
honored in this edition in the section "The World of the Eucalyptus".
Among the materials that can be downloaded for reading, we have the excellent
hand-outs of the courses on engineering of planted forests that were offered
to interested parties by CODEVASF and STCP. These technical materials are definitively
of great quality and very useful to anyone interested in Eucalyptus. They deal
with: environmental impacts of Eucalyptus, forest seedling production,
planting techniques for forestry, forest management techniques, fire prevention
etc. In addition to these hand-outs, we are offering links to some recent publications
which we consider important to gather more knowledge about the plantation forestry
at Piaui. Among them, we highlight some reports on environmental impact assessment
studies of Eucalyptus plantations as a result of licensing procedures to Suzano
Pulp and Paper Co. in order to obtaining approval for plantations in the states
of Maranhao and Piaui.
We hope you enjoy this selection:
Apostila do Curso
e Combate a Incendios Florestais. (Hand-outs
the Course about "Forest Fires - Prevention and Fighting"). CODEVASF/STCP.
51 pp. (2010)
Apostila do Curso Tecnicas de Plantio de Florestas. (Hand-outs of the Course
about "Planting Techniques in Plantation Forestry"). CODEVASF/STCP.
39 pp. (2010)
EIA/RIMA - Estudo e Relatorio de Impacto Ambiental da Area de Implantacao do
Projeto Florestal da Suzano na Regiao de Timon - Estado do Maranhao. (Environmental
Impact Assessment Study and Report for the Suzano Company Plantation Forestry
Project in the Region of Timon - State of Maranhao). STCP Forestry Consulting.
in Portuguese - 174 pp.)
http://www.stcp.com.br/EIA_TIMON_vol_I_II.pdf (Complete Study in
Portuguese - 1004 pp.)
EIA/RIMA - Estudo e Relatorio de Impacto Ambiental da Area
de Implantacao do Projeto Florestal da Suzano na Regiao de Porto
Franco - Estado
do Maranhao. (Environmental Impact Assessment Study and Report for
the Suzano Company Plantation Forestry Project in the Region of Porto
Franco - State of Maranhao). STCP Forestry Consulting. (2010)
in Portuguese - 184 pp.)
Study in Portuguese - 1138 pp.)
- Estudo e Relatorio de Impacto Ambiental da Implantacao do Projeto
Florestal da Suzano no Estado do Piaui. (Environmental Impact Assessment
Study and Report for the Suzano Company Plantation Forestry Project
in the State of Piaui). STCP Forestry Consulting. (2009)
http://www.stcp.com.br/RIMA_Suzano_Piaui.pdf (Report in Portuguese -
http://www.stcp.com.br/EIA_Suzano_Piaui.pdf (Complete Study in Portuguese
- 945 pp.)
Apostila do Curso de Tecnicas de Manejo Florestal. (Hand-outs
of the Course about "Forest Management Techniques").
CODEVASF/STCP. 63 pp. (2009)
Apostila do Curso Tecnicas de Producao de Mudas Florestais. (Hand-outs
of the Course about "Forest Seedling Production Techniques"). CODEVASF/STCP.
66 pp. (2009)
Impactos Ambientais do Eucalipto. (Environmental Impacts of the Eucalyptus).
D. Gorniski. CODEVASF. 05 pp. (2009)
Zoneamento Ecologico-Economico da Bacia do Rio Parnaiba: um Foco nos
do Sul do Piaui e Maranhao. (Ecological-economic zoning of the Parnaiba River
Watershed: A focus on Cerrados/Savannas of Southern Piaui and Maranhao). I.O.
Rodrigues; R.B. Mattos; R.G.M. Botelho; A.H. Figueiredo. II International Symposium
on Tropical Savannas 06 pp. (2008)
e Distribuicao das Unidades de Conservacao do Estado do Piaui. (Categories
and distribution of conservation unit areas in the state of Piaui).
M.M.S. Mendes. Diversa 1(2): 35-53. (2008)
Condicoes de Uso Atual, Conservacao e Perspectiva de Utilizacao
Vegetacao no Semi-Arido Nordestino. (Conditions of current use, conservation
and perspective for sustainable utilization of the plant vegetation in the semi-arid
Northeastern Brazil). A.F. Bezerra and coworkers. Aridas Project. A Strategy
on Sustainable Development for Brazilian Northeastern Region. 172 pp. (Undated)
about Events and Courses
has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently
already happened events (congresses, seminars, conferences, workshops,
courses). The advantage provided to web readers is that the event organizers
have made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading
to all interested parties. This is a very good way to practice social
and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these
organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material
with the interested parties. I would like to emphasize the importance
of visiting the material of these suggested events. Most of them have
exceptional PowerPoint presentations, rich on data, photos, images
and references. By doing this visit you can learn a lot more about
the discussed topics. Other courses or events offer the entire book
of technical articles, true sources of knowledge to our readers. We
should also highlight the increasing availability of academic materials
placed in a public way by many university professors, who offer their
teaching hand-outs and classes materials for using by stakeholders
of the society via the web. On some of our newsletters issues, we are
to provide references of these types of courses, as well.
International Forum of the Forestry Agribusiness at the 2nd Forest
Fair. (In Portuguese)
Excellent event on forest-based industry issues, focused on aspects
of forestry, trade, business and sustainable use of timber and other products
(resins, mate-tea herb, honey, charcoal, etc.) originated from planted and
natural forests. In its second edition, the forum has again proved to be a
strong vehicle for the insertion of the forestry business in Southern Brazil
and Mercosur region, stimulating the forestry activity in these regions. Once
more, the forum and the exhibition were held at the magnificent and peaceful
city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, in April 2010. In addition to courses and
speeches, participants could interact with the many exhibitors at the fair,
which had a remarkable growth, compared with the previous edition of one year
ago. Several speakers and exhibitors brought their valuable contribution to
an interested and participative audience. I'm bringing my warmest greetings
and best wishes for continued success in future editions of these events to
my dear friends Roque Justen and Nilvia Rohrig, managing directors of Futura
Feiras e Empreendimentos, the company promoting and organizing the events;
and also to forest engineer Leonel Freitas Menezes, president of AGEFLOR -
Gaucha Association of Forest Companies. It is up to you dear readers, the task
of browsing the recommended websites, finding the more interesting lectures
and download them for reading.
Portuguese - Website - Forest Fair)
Portuguese - AGEFLOR - Gaucha Association of Forest Companies)
Portuguese - Photo gallery)
Portuguese, Spanish and English - Speeches - Please, pay
attention that we have 4 pages to browse to have access to
Events - MS Florestal and Ribas Florestal. (In Portuguese)
The promotion of forestry, the supply of knowledge and excellent information
on the potential of the plantation forestry business in the state of Mato Grosso
do Sul have been remarkable in recent months. Not long ago, I brought to you
readers a wide coverage about the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato
Grosso do Sul, in a special section "The World of Eucalyptus" (http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newspt_abril09.html#quatro).
From that time until the present days, much more has been happening at these
plantation forestry golden Brazilian states. Among the major developers and
promoters for the growth of knowledge about these states we may emphasize the
role of web portal Painel Florestal (http://www.painelflorestal.com.br)
and REFLORE/MS - Association of South Mato Grosso Producers and Consumers of
Planted Forests (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HZGM0T7-Pd8).
See what can be found on these two important events that happened in
the cities of Campo Grande and Ribas do Rio Pardo, in the MS state:
Portuguese - Several videos about the 2010 MS Florestal at
Painel Florestal TV channel in the YouTube website)
Portuguese - Several videos about the 2010 Ribas Florestal
at Painel Florestal TV channel in the YouTube website)
www.painelflorestal.com.br+download&meta=&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai (Some of the speeches presented at these two events may be found at this
- ANAVE EcoForum - ANAVE - National Association of the Pulp, Paper and Derivatives
Salespersons. (In Portuguese)
The ANAVE EcoForum has become an important forum for dialogue and discussions
about environmental and sustainability issues related to the pulp and paper
industry in Brazil. Please, visit the excellent speeches that have been made
available for downloading on different views and approaches about sustainability
at the P&P sector.
website - National Association of the Pulp, Paper and Derivatives
view&id=262&Itemid=107(Speeches presented in both 2010 and 2008
Brazilian Forestry Summer Course. Forest Production and Production
Forest Plantations. (In English)
International course on forest plantations productivity capacity, including
those with Eucalyptus, which occurred at the USP - University of Sao Paulo,
Department of Forest Sciences, ESALQ - Superior College of Agriculture "Luiz
de Queiroz". The course was a joint initiative of GIFN - Global Industrial
Forestry Network. GIFN members are the USP itself and also: University of Helsinki
- Finland, Universidad de la Republica - Uruguay and Stellenbosch University
- South Africa
GIFN - Global Industrial Forestry Network)
this edition: Pruning the Urban Eucalyptus
very common the presence of Eucalyptus trees, providing shade and
beauty (and often, pleasant scent) in plazas and sidewalks of the
avenues and streets in many cities in Brazil, and other countries,
too. Because they are fast-growing trees, many local citizens plant
them close to their homes, because they know they will be rewarded
with their shadows in a short length of time. Most Eucalyptus species
are not completely adequate for this purpose because the rapid and
predominantly apical growth leads to robust and high trees, which
often bring problems to power grids, sidewalks and even to the underground
piping. It is necessary to choose species of smaller sized trees,
which ramifies over, without a so dominant apical growth of the trunk
bud. Another problematic issue is that the Eucalyptus seedlings that
most people are just planting as urban trees are in general from
commercial species that were developed and genetically improved for
rapid growth of a vigorous and upright stem/trunk with almost no
side branches. In urban forestry, the ideal trees are those with
short main trunk and vigorous branches to provide shade. Therefore,
it is recommended to always evaluate the need of pruning the Eucalyptus trees planted in cities (urban Eucalyptus trees, as they are to be
called from now onwards). Pruning has the aim to maintain tree size
and shape, making them able to offer advantages and no problems to
those who are to receive their shadow, scent and the wonderful look
of their leaves, bark and flowers.
Most of the trees used in urban forestry are submitted to restrictions on some
factors that are essential to their development, such as water, light, nutrients,
soil compaction, and in especial, physical space. Since the early time of planting,
many of these trees used in urban forestry may start depreciating the civil
constructions made by citizens and by the government - so it is recommended
pruning them to guide and to manage their growth. This intervention in growth
is performed especially to avoid conflicts between the large trees and the
interests of modern man (Royal..., 2010). Another way to avoid this problem
would be the knowledge of the biology of each tree species, planting them only
when the required resources would be fulfilled; but even so, the pruning activity
is still a necessary and vital tool to manage urban forestry (Seitz, 1996;
Although currently the Eucalyptus are not so recommended by the municipalities
for being planted in streets and avenues, mainly due to their strong vitality;
they are trees commonly found in many urban centers. There are many parks and
recreational areas in large cities with lush, beautiful and imposing Eucalyptus trees with more than 50 years in age. Even in a city that grew wildly as Sao
Paulo, magnificent Eucalyptus trees are found near the Ibirapuera Park, among
many other locations in that huge city. The same situation happens in Santiago/Chile,
in Madrid/Spain, Lisbon/Portugal, Mexico City, San Francisco/California and
at many other places of this planet. We should learn more how to to cope with
these marvelous trees to better manage the problems arising from their size
and growth. After all, if they exist in many cities in the world, it is because
people appreciate and admire them, isn't it?
One of the major problem for most of the species of Eucalyptus and Corymbia, commonly known as eucalypts, is that their branches and twigs can damage electrical
wiring, mainly by the time they become adult trees (20-30 meters high). Another
common concern in the greening of cities is the risk of falling branches or
the entire tree itself, requiring continuous monitoring in an attempt to avoid
such risks (Associacao..., 2010; Silva, undated).
Adult Eucalyptus trees are often found in urban centers due to remnants of
rural areas that have turned into parks and squares in cities. In recent past,
such trees were present at those areas and were leftover to present days (Cardim,
2009). Furthermore, in the past, because of their rapid growth, the eucalypt
species have been widely used for urban forestry in many Brazilian cities.
This fact has led to the need of constant pruning to facilitate their management,
improve their appearance, reduce the amount of leaves that fall to the ground,
reduce unnecessary growth, and primarily, to prevent electrical accidents and
tree falls during storms. Pruning, if well-done, can also present advantages
for the own Eucalyptus trees by increasing air circulation in the crown, reducing
the incidence of some diseases, eliminating branches attacked by pest and disease
organisms, and encouraging new shoots, making trees healthier and leading to
maximum productive potential of the plant to induce flowering and fruiting
(BBC Garden Guides, 2010; Seitz, 1996; Silva, undated).
Thus, the main objective of this paper is to bring to you the main types of
urban Eucalyptus pruning, while pointing out the care and most suitable timing
for this operation. The knowledge of urban pruning can maximize the benefits
for both, man and Eucalyptus, leading to a more harmonious coexistence possible
in the cities. Pruning of Eucalyptus trees used in urban forestry differs in
much of the pruning of tree plantations for commercial wood production purposes.
In this latter type of pruning, the goal is the removal of lateral branches
while still thin and young, to prevent the formation of defects known as knots,
which appear in the timber when trees are harvested in the future. In a previous
edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, numbered as 25, this important issue
was addressed by Celso Foelkel in one of his specific mini-articles (http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newspt_jan10.html#quatorze).
This present article seeks to complement and supplement this subject, allowing
readers to know both aspects of this important silvicultural practice, which
is tree pruning.
of pruning for the urban Eucalyptus:
to Phipps (2010) there are various methods of pruning urban Eucalyptus, and they will be applied in accordance with human needs and the existing
trees and species. Following there are descriptions of the pruning
types noted by author:
pruning: it is a method well-suited to the species Eucalyptus
archeri, E. parviflora, E. coccifera and E. suberenulata,
common urban trees
in Australia and in the United States. It consists in the removal
of the apical third of the plant, aiming for managing the tree
formats, during the second year after planting, what means, in
the young trees.
pruning: a pruning type suitable to Eucalyptus trees that are considered
the principal objects of certain landscapes.
Therefore, it is a pruning to promote improvements in the aesthetics
Coppicing pruning: considered another very effective method of controlling
the height of urban Eucalyptus. It is a drastic pruning to eliminate
the main trunk near the ground (around 5 to 10 cm above the soil
level). It aims stimulating the emergence of new sprouts. Immediately
after sprouting, the operator has to select the most appropriate
one as the main new trunk, eliminating the remaining. Coppicing pruning
is recommended for small gardens, since it helps controlling and
promoting plant growth, and provides the emergence of abundant new
leaves. These young leaves are, for some people, more attractive
and ornamental than the already mature leaves, mainly due to different
color of the buds and the pleasant smell they show.
According to BBC Gardening Guide (2010), the technique is recommended
to be performed every two or three years, being especially suitable
for the species E. gunnii, E. globulus, E. dalrympleana and E.
pauciflora (Royal..., 2010). In Brazil, it is a very common
pruning technique, being adopted for all species of Eucalyptus and Corymbia used
in urban forestry and landscaping. For the case of Corymbia citriodora,
it is very interesting because the young leaves are more odorous,
serving as environmental fragrance. In another past edition of the
Eucalyptus Newsletter, the one numbered as 14, (http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newspt_abril08.html#seis),
there were presented several considerations about the Eucalyptus trees used
in landscaping and gardening.
(undated) noted that this type of drastic pruning can be done both
in young and in mature trees;
sprouting response may not be so pronounced for the latter.
The same author suggests the method of coppicing pruning,
when someone wants to have the tree development in a more shrubby
format (managing for even more trunks and main branches).
do so, it is required to eliminate the main stem of the plant
near the soil, choosing to manage about four sprouts of proper
force and positioning. The others should be eliminated at
the base of the new tree being formed. To better shape the plant,
the four selected new trunks can be pruned after a bit higher,
giving rise to new branches that will be managed and directed
so as to obtain a more leafy canopy.
Pollarding pruning: also considered a technique
widely used in Eucalyptus to control the height of
the tree, keeping it small and compact with plentiful foliage
(BBC Gardening Guide, 2010). The same author reported
that pollarding is a "higher" coppicing pruning. This means
the following: at the time the plant reaches a certain height, there
is a restriction of its development through the pruning of its top
(Royal..., 2010). The appropriate time to perform the pruning of
the top is about 2 meters in height, keeping the tree trunk at this
height with annual pruning. Top pruning of trees is recommended to
be done in young trees, from three to six years of age, leaving it
or not with some of the side branches below this 2 meters height.
Top pruning is also of very common application in Brazil. It should
however be aware of the way to drive the new shoots. In case all
are left to grow, we have some weak branches that will may eventually
fall off later by the action of winds or their own weights. This
continuous management is vital to avoid accidents and possible dangers
to the public (pedestrians, vehicles and residences). Eucalyptus trees,
when pruned in this way, demand much care and knowledge of the pruner,
since loosen and unstable shoots attached to the trunk
may become dangerous. Furthermore, there is an agreement among pruners
that this technique is not advised to old trees that have never been
pruned previously. Old trees have thick and lignified trunks that
will not form strong, well-attached and vigorous shoots.
designing pruning: according to Royal... (2010), besides the techniques
coppicing and top pruning, urban Eucalyptus may also be pruned in a way to develop a typical tree pattern
(architectural model of the genus) or by a multi-branched
shrub pruning (leaving the plant looking like a bush with heavy canopy).
The standard format of Eucalyptus pruned tree has a base
and a well-branched crown. Thus, it is usual to have a standardized
tree with 1 to 2 meters for the trunk height. Unfortunately,
this is not a very common procedure in Brazil for the Eucalyptus trees. The municipalities do not allow citizens to make urban
tree pruning (what is understandable considering the problems
that can cause unskilled pruners). However, most municipalities
do not care for doing more laborious pruning of these trees.
This ends up revolting many citizens, who see the city pruners
as teams of persons just making drastic pruning in Eucalyptus (coppicing) and with minimal care to manage latter the tree
crown format. Many citizens call it "killing pruning" because
of the unprepared and without management way as they are performed.
This type of situation occurs, but certainly there are also
exceptions, with municipal management of urban Eucalyptus trees
of excellent quality and technology. Sometimes these services
are outsourced to companies that have qualified agronomists
and foresters guiding and controlling the operations.
Treelogic (undated) notes that in Australia there are laws to prevent
such drastic pruning of adult Eucalyptus trees that have never previously
been pruned. The explanation for this might be the high mortality
rates observed in these old trees, mostly due to lack of vigor and
force of the remaining trunk after pruning, and the high incidence
of decay in the internal trunk xylem. We consider this very worthwhile
initiative; we should strive to make it valid here in Brazil, too.
According to REMADE (2010) and Singh (undated), the main types of
pruning carried out in urban trees in Brazilian cities are:
- formation or educational pruning: it begins to be done early in
the life of the tree to avoid the appearance of scars and defects
in the pruned trees. This pruning should follow the standard format
of each tree species. It aims to manage tree format not to bring
problems to the movement of pedestrians and cars. The branches that
may affect the weight balance of the tree are also removed during
pruning. According to Seitz (1996), the trees that are not pruned
often have multiple branches and this can increase the risk of falling
branches with accidents.
pruning: to remove dead, broken, damaged or ill branches,
all detracting the aesthetics of the tree or wood.
- safety pruning: in this type of pruning, evenvital branches for plant
development are removed, as they are coming into conflict with human
activities. The problematic branch can be harvested in two or three
steps, reducing the stress caused to the plant.
- root pruning: the main care when pruning the roots are related with
the stability of the tree. We should avoid pruning of thick roots near
the trunk, since for most species of trees, root regeneration capacity
is well below than for the trunk. According to Rahma (2010), pruning
of root that are damaging sidewalks must be followed by crown pruning
to balance the new tree structure.
- pruning for lowering the height: performed by top pruning and canopy
reduction for mature trees that are already interfering with the wiring
of public roads or to urban buildings.
The most recommended timing
for pruning the urban Eucalyptus:
According to Garden Guides (2010), the best time to perform Eucalyptus
trees pruning is during the summer season. The author explains that,
despite being larger exudations of sap, the tree recovery from drastic
pruning is more effective, what is ideal for humid climates. In environments
of extreme humidity, an early pruning during spring may encourage the
emergence of fungi diseases, and the plant is still subject to suffer
stress caused by late frosts.
In places with harsh winters, the wounds caused by pruning should have
time to heal before the arrival of cold weather. Otherwise, the frost
can cause irreversible damages to plants burning the pruned regions.
Thus, the late spring and summer are the periods of the year when the
pruning should be performed (Barclay, 2004). The same author has addressed
that in places that have year-round mild weather, there are no restrictions
on the season to perform the pruning.
The practice of drastic pruning of urban Eucalyptus are suggested to
happen soon after the winter or early spring, when the plant has its
metabolism stimulated by increasing temperatures and restarts to grow.
to be taken when pruning urban trees:
Eucalyptus trees are considered large plants, that if not pruned,
may damage gardens or sidewalks. Thus, pruning promotes the control
of plant height on this genus, allowing these trees to be used even
in relatively small areas, living harmoniously with other ornamental
species (Barclay, 2004; Seleshanko, undated).
The Eucalyptus trees, when pruned for aesthetic purposes, require some
specific care. Besides the correct time for pruning, the use of ideal
equipment, plus training and experience of the pruner are required
for the removal of branches, twigs and other plant parts with the least
harmful way as possible (REMADE, 2010; Iglesias, undated).
The main after pruning problem observed in urban Eucalyptus is the
loss of tree strength and vitality, mainly due to the damages in the
bark caused by injuries from improper equipment or inexperienced technicians,
in addition to injuries caused by frost and fungi. Such damage can
even lead to plant death (Barclay, 2004; Iglesias, undated). So, clean
cuts without damaging the bark and the orientation for pruning just
on dry,sunny and well ventilated days, help preventing problems caused
by fungi. Another strategy to avoid problems with microorganisms is
to treat the deepest caused injuries (cuts in large diameter branches)
with fungicides (Iglesias, undated).
A measure taken to avoid the lack of stability of the plant would be
to avoid the artificial pruning of thelower branches of the Eucalyptus trees, letting them dry on their own (natural pruning induced by girdling
a ring on bark) (Barclay, 2004).
after the pruning of healthy and already established Eucalyptus trees,
we expect a vigorous flow of shooting. Thus, monitoring the
tree and subsequent pruning in later years are also considered
as important steps as the initial pruning (Barclay, 2004). The same
author also commented that the ideal is to perform the pruning
the tree is still young, removing branches that could cause future
problems. The branches, when smaller, are easier to remove, requiring
less man-power and efforts to work on them, and also prevent further
stresses to the plant.
According to Iglesias (undated), top pruning below 2 meters high
in less vigorous Eucalyptus trees, younger than three years in
lead to the weakening of the plants, especially if they had not completed
the own settlement. Another caution is suggested by this author:
after several years of top pruning, a lateral pruning is advisable
lower branches in order to open the canopy. Pruning stimulates the
apical buds of lateral branches to grow. Thus, for improving the
aesthetic format of the tree, the removal of low positioned lateral
branches might become necessary.
The removal of branches very close to each other, as well as branches
that are inter-touching, or that are spiral in shape, or showing
signs of insect or disease damages is also necessary to improve the
of any kind of urban Eucalyptus (BBC Gardening Guide, 2010). The
lateral branches should be cut preferably as close to the trunk as
Most species of Eucalyptus have high vitality and cutting
the branches by half would stimulate the emergence of new sprouts
in them and
could cause future problems, such as thickening of the canopy (BBC
The main tools used to prune treesin urban forestry are similar to
those used for commercial forestry pruning: shears, scissors, clippers,
knives, hand-saws and chain-saws. The use of ladders, scaffolds,
ropes, lift or basket platforms and all the individual protection
(as the minimum required by law to protect the pruner) are also of
extreme importance. It is likely important to remember that all equipment
must be in perfect conditions, thus allowing the pruning performance
to be more efficient, safer and causing less damage to trees.
Most municipalities now require that the pruningbe performed by trained
professionals with accreditation for the service, preventing accidents
such as electric shock, insect stings, falls, among other risks (Associacao...,
2010; Silva, undated).
According to Royal... (2010) and Rhama (2010), there are municipal
laws that seek to control and regulate the urban pruning. In many
cases, they are different for each city. So, before pruning, you
should try to know these laws, including obtaining the required permits
from the municipality, before hiring technical expertise for pruning
operations, avoiding accidents and future problems (Associacao...,
Pruning is considered a high risk activity for both the operator
and pedestrians. Thus, the isolation of the area during the execution
of the task is a prudent and relevant requirement (Seitz, 1996).
past, the Eucalyptus trees have been widely used for urban forestry,
losing ground today for native fruit trees and other trees from native
flora, in especial to trees that grow less vigorously. This does
not prevent thatthe existing Eucalyptus trees, still numerous in
towns and cities, may receive our admiration for their magnificence,
beauty, shade and pleasant fragrance that provide to the environments
in which they are.
Eucalyptus trees, if well managed, can be used as urban trees in
parks and gardens, but extra care are required. Among them are: pruning
in early ages, and after this, a frequent and constant monitoring
to curb their rapid and vigorous development, both of the main stem
and secondary branches. If this is done effectively, the Eucalyptus can bring several benefits to the urban man, without interfering
in their interests and activities.
Because they are vigorous, Eucalyptus trees offer abundant woody
biomass as well as twigs, leaves and branches when pruned. We have
seen, with surprise, that many municipalities are still disposing
these magnificent plant debris in landfills, as if they were garbage.
This material, well separate and managed, can be used as biomass
fuel in boilers, kilns and even to fuel bakeries, pizzerias, etc.
It can also be shredded and composted, resulting in nutrient-rich
compost for use by municipalities in the own gardening and landscaping.
Anyway, it's all a matter of getting things done in an integrated
manner, with eco-efficiency, adequate knowledge and very good will.
To all those, who are admirers of ornamental urban Eucalyptus trees,
we are providing a selection of useful literature, by indicating
selected bibliographies and good information sources about the pruning
of these trees in the cities of Brazil and the world.
Please, enjoy reading:
Tipos de podas. (Types of pruning). Rhama Arvores e Paisagismo.
Accessed on 28.07.2010:
How to prune trees. BBC Gardening Guides. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
Pruning Eucalyptus. Gardenbanter.
Accessed on 28.07.2010:
181192-pruning-eucalyptus.html (In English)
How to trim a Eucalyptus tree. Overview. Garden Guides.
Accessed on 28.07.2010:
-eucalyptus-tree.html#ixzz0t7v797xL (In English)
de residuos da arborizacao urbana. (Waste management in urban tree
forestry). C. Albuquerque. Press release ESALQ/USP. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
Eucalyptus trimming. Tips on how to cut Eucalyptus plants. N.
Phipps. Gardening Know-How. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
Arborização urbana. (Urban
tree forestry). Associacao ASSBMMS - Association of Military
Firefighters. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
Arborizacao urbana. Arvore certa, lugar certo. (Urban tree cultivation. The
right tree at the right place). Blog Arvores Vivas. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
Eucalyptus: pruning. Royal Horticultural
Society. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
A absurda poda anual. (The absurd annual pruning). J. Lutzenberger.
Gaia Foundation. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
Maturing trees. Managing ageing trees in the urban
context. Treelogic. Tree Information Fact Sheet. 04 pp. (2010)
Meio ambiente: Poda na arborizacao. (Environment: pruning urban trees). REMADE
A historia do eucalipto na cidade de Sao Paulo. (The history of Eucalyptus in the city of Sao Paulo). R. H. Cardim. WordPress. (2009)
Compostagem de residuos da poda urbana. (Composting the urban pruning wastes).
C.L. Cortez; S.T. Coelho; R. Grisoli; F. Gavioli. Technical Note IX - CENBIO
- Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa. National Center of Reference in
Biomass. 17 pp. (2008)
Ask the gardener Bill Blackledge: Eucalyptus. BBC
Utilizacao do composto de residuos da poda da arborizacao urbana em
substratos para producao de mudas. (Utilization of the compost obtained from the pruning
residues of urban forestry in substrates for production of seedlings). A.P.
Baratta Junior. Master Dissertation. UFRRJ - Rural Federal University of Rio
de Janeiro. 62 pp. (2007)
A poda de arvores ornamentais: como e porque? (Pruning
ornamental trees: why and how to?). A. Fabiao. Superior
Chamber of Odivelas. Portugal. 12 pp. (2006)
Gardening problem? Ask Reg... BBC Gloucestershire's
gardening guru Reg Moule. (2005)
How to grow a Eucalyptus. I.
Barclay. The Hardy Eucalyptus Page. (2004)
Manual tecnico de arborizacao urbana. (Technical guide for the urban
trees cultivation). A.S.C. Barbedo & coworkers. Municipality of the city
of Sao Paulo. Secretariat of the Green and Environment. 48 pp. (2005)
meio_ambiente/manual_arborizacao.pdf (In Portuguese)
Eucalyptus assessment. City of Santa Monica. 17 pp.
ABSTRACT: Tecnica de poda na arborizacao urbana da cidade de Patos-PB. (Pruning
techniques for urban forestry in the city of Patos - PB). A. M. F. Nobrega;
J. A. Lira Filho; M. A. S. Medeiros; S. G. G. Farias. III Extension Meeting.
UFCG - Federal University of Campina Grande. 01 pp. (2004).
%20DE%20PODA%20NA%20ARBORIZAcaO.pdf (In Portuguese)
COURSE: "Treinamento sobre Poda em Especies Arboreas Florestais e de Arborizacao
Urbana". (Course: Training about Pruning of Forest Tree Species in Urban
Forestry). Event Proceedings. IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies.
A poda de arvores urbanas. (Pruning urban trees). R. A.
Seitz. First Course on Training about Pruning of Forest
Tree Species in Urban Forestry. 27 pp. (1996)
Podas de arbolado urbano. (Pruning of the urban trees).
INTA Santa Cruz Argentina. Agreement UNPA-INTA-CAP. 15
Poda e revitalizacao vegetal urbana. (Pruning and revitalization
of urban plants). J. S. Silva. Secretariat of Environment
of the city of Uberaba. 29 pp. (s/d)
Size control operations in garden eucalypts: sculpting Eucalyptus gunnii. G.
Iglesias. GIT-Forestry. (Undated)
Eucalyptus tree pruning in the U.K. K.
Seleshanko. Portal eHow. (Undated)
Programa Passeio Livre: conheca as regras para
arrumar a sua calcada. (Free walk program: know the rules to fix
your sidewalk). R.M.P. Lopes and coworkers. Municipality
of the city of Sao Paulo. 21 pp. (Undated)
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Environmental Performance Indicators for the Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft
performance indicators are qualitative or numerical indexes that
provide information to stakeholders and to the producers themselves
on the environmental performance of a particular activity, such
as industrial, agricultural or a service offer. They can be created
for industrial mills and factories, for planted forests and agriculture,
or even for hotels, restaurants, airports, etc. We can also create
some environmental performance indicators for our homes, following
monthly the water and electricity bills, trying to optimize consumption's
(and use of natural resources, off course, as a consequence).
Until recently, environmental performance indicators were mainly
limited to the legislated parameters and enforced by environmental
licensing organizations responsible for evaluation, control and monitoring
the industrial activities. They originally were concerned to these
parameters for controlling water and air impacts and solid waste
generation that a given company had to comply. The attention of the
company and supervisors were, in those cases, a lot focused on them
and little else. However, the world changed for the better - and
companies also changed accordingly.
The quest for sustainability and the need to show that the operations
are clean and of minimum eco-impact induced a move for a collective
effort in the industrial sectors. The procedures for certification
of companies by the standards of ISO 14000 series, include in their
normative recommendations that all the relevant negative impacts
on the environment have to be detected, and that they must be controlled
through appropriate indicators. These indicators must therefore be
established to monitor the company as a whole (in total) and also
the industrial sector units that have negative impacts to be also
controlled and monitored. Everything shall be in compliance to the
environmental management system designed to the company, according
to ISO 14001 recommendations.
The environmental performance indicators are no longer just indexes
for legal explanations to the regulatory bodies. They have been converted
into interesting management tools for the pursuit of excellence in
operations and to minimize negative and relevant environmental impacts.
Since air and water pollution and solid wastes represent significant
losses of chemical raw materials, cellulosic fibers, filler minerals
and energy, when we control our environmental performance indicators
in the search for eco-results, we are also improving the indicators
for mill productivity, such as those related to specific consumption's,
reworks and off-grades. Many pulp and paper companies are today working
based on the concepts of eco-efficiency and cleaner production (CP).
These management concepts have as aims: reducing wastes and losses,
and optimization of all use of inputs in operations. Thus, the numerous
monitoring measurements created by these programs also represent
environmental performance indicators.
Another relevant factor to the environmental performance indicators
gaining expression in business is being the fact that they now have
an enormous importance in commercial operations. Both at B2B and
B2C operations, customers have become concerned about how products
are manufactured, the impact caused by their specific productions
to the environment, and what are the consequences of such products
for human and ecosystem healths. These moves have led to the creation
of the popular green stamps or environmental labels in order to provide
credible information, additional safety and consumer choice/selection
in their purchases. However, in addition to consumers, other important
actors began to require (or even to impose) environmental performance
and sustainable performance. Among them are the banks, mainly those
financing industrial projects, and the buyers of shares in the stock
exchange markets - they want to support or buy shares of companies
that do not have a risk of serious environmental accidents, such
as the recent case of British Petroleum in the Gulf of Mexico. Other
important actors are the department stores, retail chains, etc. -
they also want to show their respect for the environment, working
with environmentally correct products. Finally and very importantly,
we have the green purchasing/procurement of public enterprises and
governments, which represent significant portion of global trade
for many products, including printing, packaging and sanitary papers.
This current scenario has driven to a lot of efforts in all industries
for the creation and dissemination of environmental performance indicators.
Exactly this move is also happening in the companies of the Eucalyptus paper and market pulp businesses.
It always existed on the part of some citizens, and it will continue
to exist for a longer time ahead, some kind of suspicion and anxiety
in relation to forestry and industrial operations impacts coming
from the paper and market pulp segments. These types of industrial
activities demand much use of natural resources and land areas for
timber production. For these reasons, and for mis-communication,
there are still misgivings and mistrustfulness by part of many citizens
and organizations of the civil society about the environmental realities
of our industry. If this antipathy exists in relation to our industry,
the right utilization of environmental performance indexes and the
clarity of communicating them may well be a way to minimize some
of these criticisms coming from uninformed citizens.
The main reasons for the creation and utilization of good-quality
environmental performance indicators are the following:
quantification of relevant parameters of the process that are responsible
for some sort of environmental impact;
classification of an existing industrial operation as "minimal
environmental impact" or "best available and environmentally-sound
qualification of the company's positive attitudes towards forestry
and environmental certifications, exemplary fulfillment of the relevant
legislation ("beyond compliance" - "beyond the legal
combination of many complex things in one very simple thing (it is
the case of the ecolabels, which transform the fulfillment of the
multi-performance environmental criteria in a single label to be
printed on the product packaging);
monitoring of how these indicators are changing over time;
identification of the company's position in relation to sector peers
encouraging and driving changes for continuous improvement;
competition among peers to establish and to show industry best practices
and best environmental performance to the public;
receiving rewards for good environmental performance, ecolabels granting,
achievement of eco-certifications, improved corporate image, etc.;
improving communication with stakeholders;
The environmental performance indicators may be, therefore, associated
with the use of clean technologies, eco-efficient operations and
also to sound management and commitment to producing with respect
to company's assets and natural resources. However, the performance
with sound values on the environmental indicators (or even the achievement
of a type 1 ecolabel) does not prove that the company is not polluting,
or that it is "environmentally friendly". It will rather
show that this specific company operates with much smaller and fewer
impacts than the other peers in the same segment and is being well-managed
through good eco-efficient practices
When an industrial company is committed to promote and to achieve
a good environmental performance, it'll quickly notice that it is
being improved in several other ways because of:
creation of competitive advantage in the markets where it operates;
improvements in the relationship with society and corporate image
obtaining cleaner, optimized and best practices operations, with
minimum losses and waste generation;
achievements of better mill economic results and improved productivity;
reaching more motivation, commitment and happiness to people, both
those of the company, as the neighboring populations. However, for
working these goals with people, the search for good performance
must be pleasant and committed to dialogue and transparency, and
not imposing and cruel.
reduction of stresses to the environment (water, energy, climate,
air, soil, etc.).
Since the indicators are not static issues, they are designed for
monitoring operations over time and for contributing to the establishment
of challenging targets. They help developing an environmentally responsible
attitude in managing the company . They also support to clarify the
society stakeholders on exactly the points that they would like to
know. Exactly what companies have tried to do through their corporate
sustainability reports. Currently, virtually all companies, whose
shares are traded at stock exchange markets, show and post their
own actions, data, strategies and commitments in the well-known environmental
and sustainability reports. Invariably, there is always a series
of environmental performance indicators that are open to the general
public. These indexes are related to the mill impact on water and
air pollution's and solid waste generation. What I have noticed is
that, in many cases, it seems that these reports are written for
those who have full knowledge of what are things such as TRS (Total
Reduced Sulfur Gases), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), AOX (Adsorbable
Halogen Compounds ), NOx (Nitrogen Oxides), POPs (Persistent Organic
Pollutants, etc.), etc. Often, there is a lack of a good terminology
glossary, explaining things in simpler language, stating the significance
and how samples are taken and in which manner these indicators are
measured. Something to deserve an improvement in some cases, because
we need clarity and transparency in the dialogue with stakeholders,
both through the web and printed reports.
When speaking about stakeholders, they are exactly those who have
many doubts and anxieties, and to them that our sustainability reports
are to be built/designed. The reports are to serve the interests
and curiosities coming from legislators, politicians, bankers, stock
buyers, farmers, teachers, researchers, journalists, environmentalists,
technical engineers, etc. I made a brief reflection on what the citizens
who are in these different stakeholder segments may be willing to
learn about our environmental performance in the pulp and paper industry.
I'm sharing with you this thought.
For example, I'm sure the biggest concerns specifically about the Eucalyptus market kraft pulp mills are related to:
origin of wood (FSC or CERFLOR/PEFC certification);
quantity or percentage of water that is being "eliminated" by
the factory (the difference between water intake and returned effluent
air pollution (odor and particles);
water pollution (organic material, hazardous pollutants such as chlorinated
organics, dioxins and furans; eutrophication-causing compounds such
as nitrogen and phosphorus);
generation and waste treatment (composting and recycling treating
stations, selective collection, etc.);
practices and internal rates of recycling (water, fiber, waste);
generation and disposal of hazardous products that may be dangerous
to the health of people and ecosystems;
presence (or absence) of any hazardous compounds in the bleached
paper or pulp (explaning also the bleaching procedure);
impact of operations on climate change, biodiversity, ozone layer,
acid rain, etc.
There are other environmental concerns on social and forestry issues,
but I will write about these other indicators in future editions
of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, please just wait a while, it will be
Our companies in the pulp and paper are seeking to work with a lot
of attention on these environmental issues. They need to be increasingly
transparent and clear about these items in conflict. Transparency
is vital and our companies today are aware and convinced about this.
The easiest and quickest way to show and to display an image of eco-efficiency
to society is the conquest of credible and reliable environmental
multi-criteria ecolabels, because these criteria are set in an open
process in conjunction with society stakeholders. These environmental
labels are called type 1 ecolabels. We have labels for greener forests
(FSC and CERFLOR/PEFC) and ecolabels to papers (Nordic White Swan,
German Blue Angel, European Union Flower, Brazilian Hummingbird,
etc.). We do not have defined criteria for market pulp ecoloabelling,
yet. However, it is just a question of to want starting a process
like this with the entities that manage ecolabels in different countries.
It's something to consider for market pulp, because ecolabels comprise
important indicators of better environmental performance in a single
label, as we have seen. The green labels are developed based on a
prior and simple assessment of the life cycle for the targeted product.
The aim is to find points in manufacturing, raw materials extraction
and final disposal and recycling where there are significant impacts
in order to establish key indicators of environmental performance.
Only the manufacturers of best environmental performance will be
awarded with environmental labels, and not all of them. This definitely
shows to stakeholders those companies that are practicing the best
environmental indexes for a given product category.
Among the criteria chosen by type 1 ecolabels (and unified by myself
with other indicators that I consider relevant), I'm bringing some
of the most needed qualitative indicators that may be created for
public communication by market pulp manufacturing companies:
relevant environmental certifications that the company has earned
clean technologies employed in the industrial process (ECF or TCF
bleaching, use of biomass fuel replacing fossil fuels, biological
treatment of wastewater, composting or recycling of solid waste,
absence of residual compounds that may be potentially harmful to
human health, animals and ecosystems, when someone is using the company's
However, these qualitative indicators need to be complemented with
quantitative indicators, which can always be monitored along the
year and informed to stakeholders by reporting them in the sustainability
reports. One of the goals of environmental indicators is to reveal
the company's position in relation to companies of best practices
and environmental performances. For this reason, it is necessary
that also be displayed on sustainability reports, not just the numerical
values found for these operations indexes, but the typical values
for benchmarking operations of best practices and clean technologies.
In case not happening this, the given and informed quantitative indicators
are sterile and void numbers - they are not compared to others, being
just figures. There are several sources where the best values in
the P&P sector could be obtained, among which I mention the criteria
of the Flower European Ecolabel for papers and the BREF reports on
Pulp and Paper - Reference document on best available techniques
in the pulp and paper industry - published by the European IPPC -
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau. Both are set
to be downloaded in the literature references section for reading,
at the end of this article.
The numerical or quantitative indicators of environmental performance
may be classified according to several criteria, for example:
source of fibrous raw material: percentage of wood from certified
forests (FSC and/or CERFLOR/PEFC);
legislated parameters for the industrial process: COD/BOD - chemical
and biological oxygen demands; chlorinated halogens and other chlorinated
organics; nitrogen and sulfur oxides; carbon dioxide from fossil
fuels; methane; particulate matter in the flue gases, etc.;
parameters representing the impact on the use of natural resources:
the specific consumption of steam, wood, electricity, water, fossil
generation of wastes, scraps and reworks: solid waste generation;
rates of onsite reprocessing, etc.;
levels of efficiency in the use of natural resources: energy efficiency;
recovery efficiency of calcium and sodium ions in kraft recovery
systems; efficiency in the manufacture of classified end-products,
There are other ways to rank the quantitative criteria and indicators,
based on their impacts on: Water (water pollution), Air (air pollution),
Soil (solid waste), Natural Resources (fossil fuels, water, biodiversity),
Energy (types of fuels and energy sources) and "Global Warning" (acid
rain, greenhouse effect, ozone layer, etc.).
For all these cases, the selected indexes should be valid and of
interest to stakeholders. They also need a lot of reliability. The
measurements are recommended to be performed at accredited laboratories,
engaged to metrologic and certified networks. If there are no clear
explanations on how to measure or to sample items for the quantitative
evaluation of these parameters, these are things to be scientifically
developed. There is no way to benchmark and to monitor things when
they are measured in different ways: this will just raise the confusion
level, creating additional misunderstanding to stakeholders and to
the companies themselves.
Recently, there are other figures that have become key indicators
of environmental performance for industrial companies: they are called "carbon
and water footprints". They are relevant to the forest-based
sector. For that, P&P companies are already doing and disseminating
successfully their calculations and impacts, whether positive or
Another care to be taken is not having too many indicators for public
demonstration. However, several other environmental performance indicators
can be created internally in pulp and paper mills, for internal monitoring
of areas and operations. On the other hand, for external and public
communication, it is better to focus on those more relevant indexes
and which are in line with what the stakeholders are willing to know
about our operations and impacts. The excessive number of irrelevant
information may even create confusion because some indicators may
show different trends than others and being misunderstood. Because
some indicators are interrelated, always make a relevant selection
of them to present to the general public in the sustainability reports
and on the company website.
My friends, even if a market pulp mill is designed and built according
to the best available technologies, it may have impacts to the environment,
and sometimes significantly. Everything will depend heavily on how
the pulp mill will be operated and on the environmental commitment
of the people who work there. In the cases of pulp and paper mills
that are distant from the best and most modern technologies, additional
efforts must be placed with a great focus on good environmental performance.
I'm quite convinced that even the not so young mills are able to
perform environmentally well; but in these cases, controls and commitments
must be much larger and highly practiced in daily operations by everyone
in the company.
Nowadays, the practice of dialogue, engagement and environmental
responsibility are crucial to any kind of pulp and paper mills, whatever
technological age they have: modern and state-of-the-art; or old,
deserving modernization and rebuilding. Therefore, our final recommendation:
we have to be eco-efficient. Environmental performance indicators
are valuable tools to reach eco-efficiency. We must always improve,
but to improve we need to want doing positive moves. To want anything,
it is needed to know what to do. For doing right things, it is important
to measure and to monitor vital indexes. All these steps could be
well-orchestrated in any of our pulp and paper mills. It depends
on the knowledge, good will and committed participation
I wish a lot of successes in the environmental achievements of all
of you. Be also effective in communicating your environmental performance
to stakeholders, among them I place myself very intense, curious
and even incisively.
Literature references and suggestions
- Indexes of Corporate Sustainability. BOVESPA - Sao
Paulo Stock Exchange. PowerPoint presentation: 37 slides. Accessed
- Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes. Dow Jones. Accessed
of sustainable development. ECIFM - The University of
Reading. Accessed on 16.09.2010:
dificuldade na escolha de indicadores ambientais de sustentabilidade
de uma organizacao. (The difficulty on choosing environmental
indicators of sustainability for an organization). J.A. Ferrari;
M.M. Machado; M. Pavan; A.B. Ribeiro; F.C. Sedeno; D.L. Tavares.
SENAC University Center. 06 pp. Accessed on 16.09.2010:
Portuguese with summary in English)
guia referencial sobre ecoeficiencia energetica para a industria
de papel e celulose kraft de eucalipto no Brasil. (A reference
guide on energy eco-efficiency to the Eucalyptus kraft pulp
and paper industry in Brazil). C. Foelkel. Eucalyptus Online
Book. Chapter 19. 140 pp. (2010)
the ecological criteria for the award of the E.U. Ecolabel
for copying and graphic paper. European Commission.
19 pp. (2010)
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Working Draft in Progress - Pulp and Paper – Reference
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D.L. Bachmann. O Papel.(June): 57-61. (2009)
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de avaliacao de desempenho ambiental com base nos conceitos de
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R.F.W. Neetzow; J. Oliveira; A.V. Souza. II International Workshop
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role of sustainable development in corporate decision-making. C.
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ambiental nas organizacoes – consideracoes
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on the indicators proposed by national and foreign institution's/
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Online Book & Newsletter are technical information
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