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Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,

Dear friends
, here we are again, now with the issue number 29 of our Eucalyptus Newsletter.

We hope it may fulfill your expectations and interests, both through the general sections of the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapter of our virtual Eucalyptus Online Book about "Industrial Solid Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Processes. Part 03: Sludges & Sludges" which is made available and provided to your direct link access, in the Portuguese version. Please, enjoy the topics we are presently delivering through this Eucalyptus Newsletter edition, thanks.

The section "The Friends of the Eucalyptus" shows once again an enormous technical relevance to the eucalyptic forestry sector. That's because it has the mission to share with you at least a portion of the dedicated and productive professional career of our dear and competent friend Forest Engineer M.Sc. Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp, one of the most renowned Brazilian foresters, and someone I define himself as one of the best ambassadors for the Brazilian planted and fast-growing forests. I have a great friendship, a professional respect and a great admiration for his dedication, determination and skills; and also for the dimension of Rubens Garlipp's professional career. I am very happy with the opportunity to bring some of his many forestry accomplishments and to present what he has done and still is doing for the Eucalyptus. I am glad with this opportunity to introduce him to you all, displaying some of his achievements with the Eucalyptus.

In this edition, we are back with the section "The World of the Eucalyptus". The region being honored this time is a new incoming-in-forestry Brazilian state, recently joining the plantation forest development in the country - the state of Piaui. I am absolutely certain that you will be surprised with the competence and quality with which this beautiful state is managing its Plan for Forestry Development for the Region of the Parnaiba River Valley. For this reason, the sections Euca-Links and Online Technical References will be closely related to the state of Piaui, providing links and references to texts and websites about this state.

On the other hand, in the section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus", the agronomist M.Sc. Ester Foelkel tells, for sure, something very useful and curious to you - "Pruning the Urban Eucalyptus".

Our mini-article starts a series of about four to five articles describing and discussing indicators of performance for our pulp and paper mills and planted forests, an initiative of ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association in its efforts to strengthen and enhance the competitiveness of Brazilian companies from this specific sector. We are starting by writing our thoughts on the theme "environmental performance indicators for the bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulp mills".

We hope this newsletter issue may be very useful to all of you, since the thematic selection was made in a way to bring interesting and diversified topics about the Eucalyptus.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales, Papermakers' Wiki and Åbo Akademi - Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus.

Know more about all of our today’s partners
and meet them at the URL address:

Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus are currently being sent to an extensive "mailing list" through our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, a number that today is equivalent to several thousands of registered addresses. This happens in addition to the accesses made directly to the websites; and, or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book chapters are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal from now is very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus Online Book & Eucalyptus Newsletter that they will be always on the first page, when any single person in the world, using a search engine like Google, Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the word Eucalyptus. This service aims to better inform stakeholders and interested parties about the Eucalyptus, with relevant information and a lot of credibility, too. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, International Paper do Brasil and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a friendly hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Present Edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 20 (in Portuguese)

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Forest Engineer M.Sc. Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp

The World of the Eucalyptus: State of Piaui - Brazil

Euca-Links - State of Piaui - Brazil

Online Technical References - State of Piaui - Brazil

References about Events and Courses

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - Pruning the Urban Eucalyptus - by Ester Foelkel

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Environmental Performance Indicators for the Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mills

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 20 (in Portuguese)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 10.3 MB) just click below over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps even easier, is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer archives. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit and find the instructions how to get it.

Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"Residuos Solidos Industriais do Processo de Fabricacao de Celulose e Papel de Eucalipto. Parte 03: Lodos & Lodos" - "Industrial Solid Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Processes. Part 03: Sludges & Sludges"

If a problem occurs with the automatic redirection to the chapter, copy the URL address below and place it in your browser (Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, etc.). You may find the chapter at:

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Forest Engineer M.Sc. Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp

In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, I am delighted to introduce to you another great friend of the Eucalyptus, and also a dear friend of mine and of the Brazilian forestry. He is a well-known person in the entire forest sector in Brazil, and in many other countries, because the highlighted role he has played for years as a Brazilian ambassador of the planted forests and forestry - the forest engineer M.Sc. Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp.

Rubens won this deserved projection for how well he has performed many functions and has participated in very important projects for the Brazilian forestry. His position, for over 15 years, as superintendent director of SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture ( has allowed him to participate in important national and international forums of the world forestry, helping to build important mechanisms that were important to guarantee the success of the Brazilian forest sector. Among them, I would highlight: sector plans, legislation, certification, forest fostering, competitiveness, technical development, forest management, biodiversity conservation, dialogue with stakeholders, aspects of non-timber forest products, plantation forestry image, forestry statistics, etc., etc.

Rubens Garlipp, as he is commonly known and referred to in the Brazilian forest segment, was born in the city of Campinas, in 1953. There, he attended high school education. As a teenager, he had several options for professional careers, whether as a physician doctor, an archaeologist or engineer. The forestry was emerging as a career in Brazil, when Garlipp started to inquire about this new profession in 1971 - at that time, Rubens was about to enter to university and was demanding an own decision. Although he had been very successful in entrance examinations at the academy for both medicine and forestry, after a better reflection, he concluded that medicine was not his true vocation. At the time, forestry presented to him as a profession with a great future, combining disciplines with which he was able to identify himself. Moreover, Rubens was already showing interest in businesses that were related to forests.

Rubens decided for taking university studies on forestry at ESALQ - Superior College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz", University of Sao Paulo. graduating in 1975. There, in 1974, I got the privilege to have had Garlipp as my undergraduate student, teaching to him the fundamentals of the pulp and paper science and technology. Along that time, he had several practical options for improvements in the career, both at the university and in training periods at forest companies. Upon graduating, he had immediate options for employment in a forest company and in Embrapa, but he decided to continue studying in a master course program in forestry, in the same ESALQ. His selection was the branch of Forest Economics, and his teacher and advisor was our dear friend Professor Dr. Ricardo Berger. Even before completing his master's degree, Rubens was hired in 1978 by IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies, to assist the member companies of this institute in the states of Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do Sul, as well as to develop the area of forest economics at the institute. At that time, he was living, working and talking to many authorities from forestry companies and other institution's of education and research. This fact definitely helped Garlipp to quickly develop his knowledge and career. IPEF was, he says, his "second university", where he learned much about the profession and about people relationship's.

The result of this hybrid operation between IPEF and graduate studies at the ESALQ is that his master dissertation was developed from research grants and IPEF projects at associated companies. Meet this innovative work for that time, immediately after:

Biomassa de florestas plantadas como fonte alternativa de energia em substituicao ao oleo combustivel industrial no estado de Sao Paulo. (Biomass from planted forests as alternative source of energy in replacement of industrial fuel oil in the state of Sao Paulo). R.C. D. Garlipp. Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP. 197 pp. (1982)
Available at: (In Portuguese with summary in English)

While working in IPEF and as a graduate student at ESALQ, Garlipp had the opportunity to teach two courses for undergraduate students in this college, as a visiting professor - Forest Economics and Management of Natural Resources. This occurred in 1980 and 1981. Despite the insistence of the great Dr. Helladio do Amaral Mello to continue as a professor at ESALQ, as soon as he completed his master's thesis, he received an impossible-to-say-no invitation from Suzano Paper and Pulp Co. The purpose was to manage a comprehensive program of forestry research, which had been approved for funding by FINEP - Financing of Studies and Projects Bank. The big question to decide was - to follow a career in academic teaching/researching or to work in a forest company in the industrial side? The challenging option for the new was inevitable - he accepted the offer from Suzano for coordinating the research program on innovative topics at the time: tissue culture, cloning, hybridization, soil/water/plant relationships, new cultivation techniques and forestry replacement, etc. With the knowledge he had in forest economics, he would be able to collaborate with broader forms of researching, by introducing the variables results and financial/economic feasibilities into them.

Within this scenario of rapid growth and changes, another challenge soon arose. Suzano Co. conceived, in joint-venture with Vale do Rio Doce Co., a new plant for production of pulp and paper at Mucuri, Bahia. The new company was called Bahia Sul Celulose, nowadays incorporated by Suzano. Participating since the early beginning for planning the operation of the new company, the biggest challenge was to ensure a plantation in appropriate size and productivity to feed the large pulp mill with Eucalyptus wood. Existing forests needed to be managed and new forests would be planted, all that very quickly. Garlipp was assigned to be manager of the forestry division at Bahia Sul Celulose in 1988, and the start-up of the new pulp mill was scheduled to happen 3 years later. Then, everything entered in frenzy activities to: obtaining permits; preparation of environmental impact studies; development of genetic materials and silvicultural methods appropriate for the region; purchase of machinery and equipment; establishment of nurseries; selection and hiring of sub-contractors; etc., etc. Anything that encourages and gives pleasure in forestry was happening to him, and quickly. Moreover, everything related to Eucalyptus, the selected raw material to feed the Bahia Sul Celulose pulp and paper mill.

In 1993, Garlipp left Suzano group, after 12 years of dedicated work. He immediately formed his consulting firm Garlipp Forestry Advisory Co., which continues alive and healthy till today. Shortly afterwards, in 1994, he was invited by then President of SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture , Mr. Jorge Humberto Teixeira Boratto, to assume a major executive position at SBS. In SBS, the Garlipp's world widened considerably. Besides going to work again with great personalities of the Brazilian and international forest sector, he had to learn to negotiate and to deal to the success on the institutional roles that forest sector had taken. Among these roles, I would stress: enhancement of the activity and of the forest engineering career; valuing the activity of planting forests; promotion of forestry and plantation forestry; searching competitiveness to the forest segment; promoting the forest sector image among the main stakeholders from society. He also has placed much focus on: rescuing reliable statistics of the sector; to revive the SBS magazine Silvicultura; to care for the continuous monitoring of the Brazilian forest legislation through the electronic tool Legiflor, etc.

However, his greatest challenge along the 90's was the development and the starting-up of CERFLOR - the Brazilian Program of Forest Certification, designed by SBS with the support of universities, research institution's, Embrapa Florestas, regulatory bodies and associations from the forest sector. The result is known by everyone in Brazil - CERFLOR is a reality and world-wide known through its mutual recognition by the PEFC - Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes.

The life of the forest engineer Rubens Garlipp has always been somehow related to the Eucalyptus. As a child, he was used to play with its dry fruits, which he called "whipping-tops", to make them turn in his playing games. It was also common to him enjoying the Corymbia citriodora nice scent, a species very common in parks and streets in towns of the Brazilian interior lands. Choosing the forest engineering as a career, working in IPEF and then at Suzano and Bahia Sul Celulose, practically put Garlipp to live with, to depend on and to help the Eucalyptus. For this reason and for his continuous work in SBS, Garlipp has given his great contribution to the Eucalyptus trees to grow in importance and in image on the Brazilian economy. However, since the time of IPEF, and also in the SBS, he also began to devote himself to other forest species, including those of the genus Pinus. Important part of SBS members were from companies in Southern Brazil and had in Pinus their forestry basis. At SBS, he worked for launching good literature on these two important geni, having contributed to the publication of two important fundamental books, one about the Eucalyptus and another on Pinus:

A cultura do eucalipto no Brasil. (Eucalyptus cultivation in Brazil). A.L. Mora; C.H. Garcia. SBS - Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura. 78.4 MB. 114 pp. (2000)
(In Portuguese and English)

A cultura do Pinus no Brasil. (Pine cultivation in Brazil). F.J.N. Kronka, F. Bertolani; R. H. Ponce. SBS - Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. 160 pp. (2005) (In Portuguese)

In this way, and for everything he has done, Garlipp became not only a great friend of the Eucalyptus, but a friend of the pines and many other forest species growing in plantations in Brazil. In addition, natural forests are another special chapter to him - for greater sustainability, he does not see how to separate the strategic importance of natural forests associated to forest plantations. The revitalization and conservation of areas of natural forests not only helps to preserve biodiversity, but also to provide forest goods and services of relevance to society and to the environment. Several of his speeches and articles focus much on this issue; and most recently, the wonderful book "The value of the forests", launched by Editora Terra das Artes, shows this very clearly and emphatically. One of his beliefs is that one of the most important ways to protect and grow the area of natural forests and biodiversity in Brazil is by planting commercial forests in degraded areas with eroded soils. Thus, an area nearly the same size with native forests will be rehabilitated, preserved and protected by plantation forestry companies in the form of permanent preservation areas and legal reserves.

Rubens Garlipp's most important areas of professional activities are been:

• Designing, management and analysis of investments in forestry projects;
• Evaluation of programs and mechanisms to support and to promote the grow of forestry;
• Forest certification (processes, management standards, chain of custody);
• Operational quality and forest management audits;
• Forest policy and legislation;
• Dissemination of forest-based activity, spreading the concepts of production, conservation and sustainable use of renewable natural resources;
• Representation, institutional collaboration and mutual exchange of knowledge in Brazil and abroad.

When speaking about internationalization of the Brazilian forestry, Rubens Garlipp kicks back to the mid 1990's, shortly after the "World Environmental Summit" in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. Since then, the forest sector discovered that the pressures from buyers of forest products markets were becoming increasingly demanding in terms of certifications, sustainability, environmental labeling and legal restrictions. Brazil should participate in international forums of discussions on these issues under penalty of turning on an isolated island and getting threats on its competitive position. The SBS choice was to engage itself to the relevant organizations dealing with such dialogues - those that could be considered opinion formers to develop the criteria for good forest management. With this in mind, the election of partnerships went to: IUFRO (International Union of Forest Research Organizations), FSC (Forest Stewardship Council), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and ITTO (International Tropical Timber Organization). Since then, there were also several international conventions and treaties that required participation and negotiations by the Brazilians: Biodiversity, Climate Change; Combating Desertification, Endangered Species; and even more, the need to be active on the development of the Principles of Forests. As a result of these processes, it emerged the need to develop standards for good forest management, with the establishment of criteria and indicators of sustainability at the national, regional and local level in the own forest management unit.

SBS participated in all these forums, usually by the action of Rubens Garlipp and other skilled foresters selected among its members. I even had the opportunity to be with Rubens Garlipp in some of these forums, then representing the BRACELPA or ABECEL. I could say that even to convince our Brazilian forest peers it was a difficult and arduous task, but things went very well thanks to the efforts of all. The Brazilian option was to promote forest certification and that the schemes would be internationally and mutually recognized; thus the grant of third party forest labels, with audit processes would bring the required credibility. Thus, the SBS participated in and supported the development of the criteria for ISO 14061 (forest bridge-document - to assist forestry companies in the implementation of ISO 14001. Likewise, SBS participated in the formulation of the criteria and indicators for the FSC label, and coordinated CERFLOR with ABNT until its inclusion in the Brazilian System of Conformity Assessment, when the management of that program was transferred and assumed by INMETRO, just to be in the hands of a neutral entity, which operates in accordance with the principles of certification and accreditation with internationally accepted credibility. Apart from all involvement in forest certification, SBS also had the demands of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests and Intergovernmental Forum on Forests, coordinated by CSD (Commission on Sustainable Development) of the United Nations Organization, where Garlipp integrated the Brazilian delegations through the invitations of the MMA - Ministry of Environment and MRE - Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

To create the proper weight and required ballast for the Brazilian positions, SBS had to do its own homework together with other industry associations, such as BRACELPA (Brazilian Pulp and Paper Association), ABTCP (Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association), AMS (Minas Gerais Association of Silviculture), former ABECEL (Brazilian Pulp Exporting Association), Dialogue for the Atlantic Forest and Pampa Biomes, ABNT (Brazilian Technical Standards Association), INMETRO (National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality), CONAMA (National Environmental Council), ABIMCI (Brazilian Association for Mechanically Processed Timber), AIMEX (Association of Para Wood Exporters), ABIPA (Brazilian Association of Wood Panels) FNABF (National Forum of Forest-Based Activities), CEDEFOR (Sustainable Forest Development Council of Mercosur) and other associations representing industry and research institutes.

Garlipp had also many other participation in government and industry forums, representing the Brazilian forest sector. Some more that can be cited: CONAFLOR/MMA (Coordinating Committee of the National Forestry Program); CGFLOP/Brazilian Forest Service (Coordinating Committee for the Management of Public Forests); Competitiveness Forum in the Productive Chain of Wood and Furniture Industry; the Technical Commission on Seeds and Seedlings of Native and Exotic Tree Species, among others.

Well, it is easy and clear to see that the past 15 years have been plenty of negotiations, dialogue and search for convergence and consensus, both in Brazil and abroad. It is for these reasons that I always refer to Rubens Garlipp as one of the great ambassadors of the Brazilian forest sector, with an outstanding international role to Brazil and its forestry companies

On the other hand, people are driven by dreams and accomplishments. Then, I asked Garlipp about what he considered to be most important in his professional achievements along his career, and he replied as follows:

• to have acquired a global and holistic view of the forest-based activity (most probably because he worked with research, education, planning, operation, management and institutional relationship, and the opportunity to know the activity in different countries);
• to have integrated commissions, boards, working groups, public and private organizations with reliable and qualified people - in Brazil and abroad;
• to have had the opportunity of advising and participating in international and intergovernmental negotiations on forestry;
• to have built a network of relationships with professionals recognized for their skills, knowledge, ability, importance and representativeness in Brazil and abroad;
• sometimes having received the recognition/tribute from colleagues (For example: the award Forest Engineer of the Year, in 2006, awarded by ESALQ - Superior College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" and by the Alumni Association of Former Students of ESALQ - ADEALQ).

I also asked him what he considered to have made of high relevance to the forest-based sector, so I got the following response:

• "My role in the processes and forest certification systems, to ensure that standards and indicators for forest management could incorporate the advances offered by science to forestry in Brazil, in line with our reality. I think I've helped to disclose, to display, to communicate, to establish and disseminate good management - in all its aspects - and certification as a mechanism for strengthening and enhancement of forest products in Brazil;
• My action for the improvement of programs, policies and forestry legislation in Brazil (National Forestry Program; Financing Facilities; Forest Fostering; Development & Management of Public Forests; Federal and State Laws, etc.);
• A recent contribution is the book "O Valor das Florestas - The Value of Forests", released in July 2010, to which he is one of the organizers and authors."

On the other hand, his contributions to the Eucalyptus, more specifically, have been the following:

• to communicate and to inform the realities about the Eucalyptus to legislators, public officials, prosecutors, opinion leaders, international organizations, farmers, businessmen, students and general public; disclosing the environmental, social and economic benefits derived from a good management on a forestry activity based on scientific knowledge accumulated by decades of research in Brazil;
• to seek to clarify and demystify the reality on the Eucalyptus through: lectures; magazine articles; interviews in newspapers, radio and television; providing information on the Internet; book chapters; exchange visits of national and international institution's to communicate the procedures of forest management; supporting the publication of thematic books; participating in public hearings; formulating institutional position papers - in Brazil and abroad - everything to promote the Eucalyptus image and its products and helping to avoid unreasonable and inappropriate restrictions to its cultivation.

Rubens Garlipp is married to the pediatrician Maria Aparecida, and the couple also has a couple of children: Cristiano (27 year-old), graduated in Social Sciences and studying Physical Education, and Carime (24), newly formed medical doctor. He considers the family his greatest motivation and the major of his rewards. He is also a great admirer and even fanatic about soccer/football and he is fan of the Ponte Preta and Santos soccer teams, two of the most prestigious clubs of the Brazilian football.

Finally, I asked him what was still missing and to be done in his professional life, and the reply was very rich and curious:

"Planting my own forest (in home of forger, is the skewer is made of wood) and keep learning (there is a saying that states: the one who is happy with what he has, does not deserve what he gets! Surely this does apply to knowledge). I also want to apply all gained expertise to the development, implementation and evaluation of new programs oriented to sustainability under new management and production models and designs, in special for forest plantations, that will increasingly be playing multiple roles to meet the demands of society for wood and other products and services."

For all these issues and achievements, Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp feels very happy and proud to have been able to add his share of contribution to the Brazilian forest sector. He considers that one of the most important things that he added in the sector was his collaboration for the internationalization of the concepts for good management in plantation forests, generating environmental, social and economic benefits. He also feels very happy to see that the Brazilian forest sector is not only a leader in productivity with the Eucalyptus plantations, but also values its environmental practices and acts with social responsibility.

To learn more about Rubens Garlipp's professional life and some of his achievements, please, browse his curriculum vitae and speeches, articles, and texts that are provided just ahead. Then, it will be simple to realize why he is being awarded as "Friend of the Eucalyptus" at the present edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter.

Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp's Curriculum vitae - Complete. 2010
(In Portuguese)

Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp's Curriculum vitae - Executive Summary. 2010
(In Portuguese)

Selection of book chapters that have been written by Rubens C.D. Garlipp:

O valor das florestas.
(The value of forests). M.A. Fujihara; R. Cavalcanti; A. Guimaraes; R.C.D. Garlipp. Terra das Artes Editors. 352 pp. (2009)
More information about the book at: (In Portuguese) (In Portuguese) (In Portuguese - Podcast of Rubens Garlipp's interview to Mr. Jose Luiz Menegatti - Jovem Pan radio station about the book "O valor das florestas") (In Portuguese - Valorizar eh preciso - To value is required - about the book "O valor das florestas" - O Papel magazine - ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association)

Eucalipto. (Eucalyptus) J.E. Pinto Junior; R.C.D. Garlipp. In: Agricultura tropical: quatro decadas de inovacoes tecnologicas, institucionais e politicas. Vol. 1: Producao e produtividade agricola.(Tropical agriculture. Volume 1 - Agricultural production and productivity). EMBRAPA Technological Information. p. 801- 822. (2008)
Summary and more details about this book are available: (In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

A selection of Rubens C.D. Garlipp's speeches, articles and written texts:

Thanks to the discerning and apprehensive selection and retrieval of technical materials prepared by our dear friend Garlipp for this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, we have about 85 of his articles and especially his magnificent speeches for being browsed through this list we have prepared: a huge cultural and technological heritage to the forestry sector in Brazil, and worldwide.

Funcoes das florestas plantadas para atendimento das futuras demandas da sociedade. (Functions of planted forests to meet the future demands of society). R. Garlipp. Madeira 2010 Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 31 slides. (2010)
(Speech in Portuguese)
(Video interview to Painel Florestal web portal - in Portuguese)

Valorizacao do papel e da comunicacao impressa: papel socio-ambiental das florestas plantadas. (Valuation of paper products and the printing communication: socio-environmental role of planted forests). R. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 26 slides. (2010)
(In Portuguese)

O papel das florestas plantadas para atendimento das demandas futuras da sociedade. (The role of planted forests to meet the future demands of society). R. Garlipp; C. Foelkel. Position Paper SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. XIII World Forestry Congress. 18 pp. (2009) (In Portuguese)

Las funciones de los bosques plantados hacia las futuras demandas de la sociedad. (Functions of planted forests to meet the future demands of society). R. Garlipp; C. Foelkel. Position paper SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 30 slides. XIII World Forestry Congress. (2009)
(In Spanish)
(In Spanish)

Hacia la ordenacion responsable de los bosques plantados: sintesis de Brasil. (Towards the responsible management of planted forests: Brazilian synthesis). R. Garlipp. XIII World Forestry Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 12 slides. (2009)
(In Spanish)

Panorama da industria florestal no Brasil.
(Forest industry overview in Brazil). R. Garlipp. Timberland Investing Latin America Summit. PowerPoint presentation: 60 slides. (2008) (In Portuguese)

The importance of planted forests in Brazil. R. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 36 slides. (2008)
(In English)

Importancia de los bosques plantados en Brasil. (The importance of planted forests in Brazil). R. Garlipp. Taller Regional FAO - Buenos Aires. PowerPoint presentation: 33 slides. (2008)
(In Spanish)

Gestao sustentavel para os grandes consumidores de produtos de origem florestal: o que mais nos aguarda? (Sustainable management for the major consumers of forest products: what else awaits us?). R. Garlipp. Madeira 2008 Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 44 slides. (2008)
(In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Fatos e numeros do Brasil florestal. (Facts and figures of the Brazilian forestry). General coordination R. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. 93 pp. (2008)
(In Portuguese)

Desafios e crescimento economico sustentado do setor florestal: o meio ambiente para a economia. (Challenges and sustained economic growth in the forestry sector: the environment for the economy). R. Garlipp. FIESP event. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 27 slides. (2008)
(In Portuguese)

Certificacao florestal no ambito do sistema brasileiro de avaliacao da conformidade. (Forest certification under the scope of the Brazilian system of conformity assessment). R. Garlipp; M.T. Resende. International Seminar of Wood Construction Workers. PowerPoint Presentation: 57 slides. (2008)
(In Portuguese)

Sustentabilidade do setor florestal. (Sustainability of the forest sector). R. Garlipp. BRACELPA/MMA/SBS Meeting. PowerPoint presentation: 42 slides. (2007)
(In Portuguese)

Sustentabilidade do setor florestal: indicadores e parametros. (Sustainability of the forest sector: indicators and parameters). R. Garlipp. Technical Meeting about Wood and Forest Products. IPT/SBS. PowerPoint presentation: 55 slides. (2007)
(In Portuguese)

A empresa e o profissional do seculo 21. (The forest company and the professional of the 21st century). R. Garlipp. UFSCAR. PowerPoint presentation: 30 slides. (2007)
(In Portuguese)

A importancia da atividade florestal no Brasil. (The importance of the forest activity in Brazil)R. Garlipp. II Forum of the Southwestern Goias Forest Sector. PowerPoint presentation: 46 slides. (2007)
(In Portuguese)

Fomento florestal no Brasil: visao geral e perspectivas. (Forest fostering in Brazil: general overview and perspectives). R. Garlipp. II Meeting of Veracel Planted Forest Producers. PowerPoint presentation: 62 slides. (2007)
(In Portuguese)

Eucalipto: mitos e verdades. (Eucalyptus: myths and realities). R. Garlipp. Seminar on MS Planted Forests. PowerPoint presentation: 52 slides. (2007)
(In Portuguese)

Crescimento do setor florestal no Brasil. (Growth of the Brazilian forestry sector). R. Garlipp. Workshop on Forest Plantations - ESALQ/IPEF. PowerPoint presentation: 47 slides. (2007)
(In Portuguese)

Aquecimento global: florestas. (Global warming: forests). R.C.D. Garlipp; C.A. Bantel. AEAARP Environmental Week. PowerPoint presentation: 53 slides. (2007)
(In Portuguese)

O fomento florestal na visao da Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura. (Forest fostering under the view of the Brazilian Society of Silviculture). R. Garlipp. National Forum on Forest Fostering. PowerPoint presentation: 36 slides. (2006)
(In Portuguese)

Situacao e perspectivas do fomento florestal no Brasil. (Situation and future perspectives of forest fostering in Brazil). R. Garlipp. RJ State Seminar on Forest Fostering. PowerPoint presentation: 21 slides. (2006)
(In Portuguese)

Fomento: mecanismo estrategico e de novas oportunidades. (Forest fostering: strategic mechanism and new opportunities). R.C.D. Garlipp. Opinioes Magazine (June/August). (2006) (In Portuguese)

Impulsionando a produtividade e a producao agricola: desenvolvimento das florestas cultivadas no Brasil. (Boosting agricultural productivity and production: development of planted forests in Brazil). R. Garlipp. IWTAD International Workshop. PowerPoint presentation: 44 slides. (2006)
(In Portuguese)

Florestas plantadas e conservacao da biodiversidade no Brasil. (Planted forests and biodiversity conservation in Brazil). R. Garlipp et al. Position Paper IPEF/SBS/ESALQ-USP. PowerPoint presentation: 22 slides. (2006)
(In Portuguese)

Visao geral da cadeia produtiva do eucalipto: tendencias e perspectivas. (General overview of the Eucalyptus production chain: trends and perspectives). R. Garlipp. Forum of Sustainable Development at Salesopolis - Potentialities of the Eucalyptus. PowerPoint presentation: 42 slides. (2006)
(In Portuguese)

Os aspectos sociais e ambientais dos plantios florestais. (Social and environmental aspects of plantation forestry). R. Garlipp. 63rd Official Week of Engineering, Architecture and Agronomy. PowerPoint presentation: 34 slides. (2006)
(In Portuguese)

CERFLOR - Certificacao florestal. (CERFLOR - Forest certification). R. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. 06 pp. (2006)
(In Portuguese)

Eficiencia, gestao, contratos e sustentabilidade na industria baseada em florestas plantadas. (Efficiency, management, contracts and sustainability in the industry based on plantation forestry). R. Garlipp. XLIII SOBER Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 26 slides. (2005)
(In Portuguese)

Importancia da reserva legal: visao da SBS. (Importance of the legal reserve: the SBS viewpoint). R. Garlipp. Workshop about Legal Reserve. IPEF/DCF/DEAS/ESALQ-USP. PowerPoint presentation: 26 slides. (2005)
(In Portuguese)

Florestas: negocio economico e social. (Forests: social and economic business). R. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 46 slides. (2005)
(In Portuguese)

Manejo florestal sustentavel e negocio florestal. (Sustainable forest management and forest business). R. Garlipp. II Forestry Workshop. PowerPoint presentation: 34 slides. (2005)
(In Portuguese)

Certificacao florestal permite avaliar e monitorar operacoes florestais. (Forest certification allows to evaluate and monitoring forest operations). R. Garlipp. Visao Agricola nº 4. 02 pp. (2005)
(In Portuguese)

CERFLOR - Programa brasileiro de certificacao florestal. (CERFLOR - Brazilian program for forest certification). R.C.D. Garlipp. Opinioes Magazine (August/October). (2005)
(In Portuguese)

A contribuicao do processo de certificacao florestal nos ganhos sociais, economicos e ambientais. (The contribution of the forest certification process on social, economic and environmental gains). R. Garlipp. Brazilian Forum of Planted Forests. CEDAGRO. PowerPoint presentation: 46 slides. (2005)
(In Portuguese)

Eucalipto: problema ou solucao. (Eucalyptus: problem or solution). R. Garlipp. Public Hearing. Sao Paulo State House of Representatives. PowerPoint presentation: 22 slides. (2004)
(In Portuguese)

Contribuicoes ambientais e sociais da certificacao florestal. (Environmental and social contributions of the forest certification). R. Garlipp. Seminar at Cuiaba/MT. PowerPoint presentation: 49 slides. (2004)
(In Portuguese)

Demanda e uso da floresta de eucalipto. (Demand and utilization of the Eucalyptus forests). R. Garlipp. 8th Eucalyptus Festivities at Salesopolis. PowerPoint presentation: 27 slides. (2004)
(In Portuguese)

Importancia economica das florestas plantadas no Brasil e a contribuicao da pesquisa em Ciencia do Solo. (Economic importance of plantation forestry in Brazil and the contribution from the Soil Science). R.C. Garlipp. Informative Bulletin. Brazilian Society of Soil Science. Vol 29. 03 pp. (2004) (In Portuguese)

Plantaciones forestales en Brasil: desarrollo y contribuciones economicas, sociales y ambientales. (Forest plantations in Brazil: development and economic, social and environmental contributions). R.C. Garlipp. Workshop on Forestation and Afforestation in Ecuador. PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides. (2003)
(In Spanish)

CERFLOR - Programa brasileiro de certificacao florestal: situacao e perspectivas. (CERFLOR - Brazilian program of forest certification: present status and perspectives). R. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides. (2003) (In Portuguese)

Brazilian forestry: sustainability, markets and trends. R. Garlipp. CAMCORE Technical Meeting. PowerPoint presentation: 27 slides. (2003)
(In English)

Perspectives on conservation forests. R. Garlipp. IFIR 9 - Conservation Forests Session. PowerPoint presentation: 32 slides. (2002)
(In English)

CERFLOR: the Brazilian forest certification system. R. Garlipp. ITTO Workshop on Forest Certification Schemes. PowerPoint presentation: 19 slides. (2002)
(In English)

Florestas plantadas e CDM (Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo): oportunidades de desenvolvimento sustentavel. (Planted forests and CDM - Clean Development Mechanism: opportunities for sustainable development). R. Garlipp. 4th Environmental Week. FIESP/CIESP. PowerPoint presentation: 35 slides. (2002)
(In Portuguese)

Plantaciones forestales en Brasil: una actividad sustentable. (Forest plantations in Brazil: a sustainable activity). R.C. Garlipp. CICOTEC Brasilia. PowerPoint presentation: 59 slides. (2001)
(In Spanish)

Competencias e competitividade do setor florestal. (Competence and competitiveness of the forestry sector). R.C. Garlipp. 34th ABTCP Annual Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 60 slides. (2001)
(In Portuguese)

Cadeias produtivas. A visao da industria. Plantacoes florestais. (Chains of production. The viewpoint of the industry. Planted forests). R.C. Garlipp. 1st ABTCP EXPOCELPA Sul. PowerPoint presentation: 11 slides. (2001)
(In Portuguese)

Projetos florestais: qualificacao (Plantacoes florestais). (Forest projects: qualification and skills in plantation forestry). R. Garlipp. 3rd Environmental Week. FIESP/CIESP. PowerPoint presentation: 21 slides. (2001)
(In Portuguese)

Visao do setor florestal brasileiro sobre a restricao ao uso de pesticidas. (The viewpoint of the Brazilian forestry sector about the restrictions to the use of pesticides). R.C. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 10 slides. (2001)
(In Portuguese)

Setor florestal privado brasileiro e os desafios para o seu desenvolvimento. (The Brazilian private forest sector and the challenges for development). R.C. Garlipp. I Iberian American Symposium on Forest Management and Economics. PowerPoint presentation: 57 slides. (2001)
(In Portuguese)

Reconhecimento mutuo entre sistemas de certificacao de manejo florestal sustentavel. (Mutual recognition among systems for certification of sustainable forestry management). R. Garlipp. Silvicultura 82: 14-15. (2000)
(In Portuguese)

Forum de competitividade da cadeia produtiva de madeira e moveis: madeira e florestas. (Competitiveness forum of the chain of production for wood and furniture: wood and forests). R. Garlipp. MDIC. PowerPoint presentation: 19 slides. (2000)
(In Portuguese)

Oferta e demanda de madeira de florestas plantadas. (Offer and demand for the wood from planted forests). R.C. Garlipp. FEMADE/Curitiba. PowerPoint presentation: 11 slides. (2000)
(In Portuguese)

OGM's na area florestal. (GMO's in the forest sector). R.C. Garlipp. Seminar on Genetically Modified Organisms in Forestry and Agriculture. IPEF/ESALQ/USP. PowerPoint presentation: 11 slides. (2000)
(In Portuguese)

CERFLOR: Rumo a implementacao.
(CERFLOR: towards implementation). R. Garlipp. Silvicultura 84: 05-06. (2000)
(In Portuguese)

Competitividade da cadeia produtiva de madeira e moveis. (Competitiveness in the chain of production for wood and furniture). R.C. Garlipp; A. Maffeis. Silvicultura 83: 16-21. (2000)
(In Portuguese)

O setor florestal e o codigo florestal.
(The forest sector and the forestry code). R.C. Garlipp. CONAMA Technical Meeting. PowerPoint presentation: 22 slides. (1999)
(In Portuguese)

Oportunidades decorrentes do Protocolo de Kyoto para pesquisas em produtos florestais. (Opportunities derived from Kyoto Protocol for researching forest products). R.C. Garlipp. Seminar "Needs of Research in Forest Products". ITTO/LPF. PowerPoint presentation: 25 slides. (1999)
(In Portuguese)

Sustentabilidade e certificacao florestal: o exemplo do Brasil. (Sustainability and forest certification: the Brazilian case). R.C. Garlipp. International Congress on Environment and Business Opportunities. 22pp. (1999)
(In Portuguese)

Certificacao ambiental e florestal como fatores de competitividade no mercado internacional. (Environmental and forest certification as key competitive factors to international trade and markets). R.C. Garlipp. SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. PowerPoint presentation: 32 slides. (1999)
(In Portuguese)

CEDEFOR - Conselho de Desenvolvimento Sustentado Florestal do Mercosul. (CEDEFOR - Sustainable Forest Development Council of Mercosur). R.C. Garlipp; R. Dornelles. Silvicultura 73: 16-21. (1997)
(In Portuguese)

Incentivos fiscais: o Brasil parando no tempo. (Taxes incentives: Brazil slowing down and stopping in the time). R.C. Garlipp; A.S. Oliveira. Silvicultura 72: 24-28. (1997)
(In Portuguese)

O mundo abraca as florestas. (The world hugs the forests). R.C. Garlipp. Silvicultura 67: 15-22. (1997)
(In Portuguese)

Suecia em destaque. (Sweden in highlights). R.C. Garlipp; C. Dassie. Silvicultura 68: 24-29. (1996)
(In Portuguese)

Cinturao verde ao norte da Europa. (A green belt in Northern Europe). R.C. Garlipp. Silvicultura 67: 24-28. (1996)
(In Portuguese)

A nacao que "descobriu" o Brasil. (The nation that discovered Brazil). R.C. Garlipp; F. Coucelo. Silvicultura 66: 20-24. (1996)
(In Portuguese)

As acoes da Agenda 21 para florestas. (The actions of Agenda 21 to forestry). J.H.T. Boratto; R.C. Garlipp. Silvicultura 59: 08-15. (1995)
(In Portuguese)

Silvicultura brasileira influencia decisoes da ISO 14001. (Brazilian silviculture influences decisions on the ISO 14001). R.C. Garlipp. Silvicultura 61: 37-38. (1995)
(In Portuguese)

O boom da certificacao: eh preciso garantir a credibilidade. (Forest certification boom: it is required to guarantee the credibility). R.C.D. Garlipp. Silvicultura 61: 15-22. (1995)
(In Portuguese)

Em busca de politicas e solucoes para o setor florestal. (Searching policies and solutions to the forest sector). R.C. Garlipp. Silvicultura 54: 39. (1994)
(In Portuguese)

Preco maximo de terras para reflorestamento - sua importancia na viabilizacao de empreendimentos florestais. (Maximum price/cost for forest lands: its importance for making feasible the forest business). R. Berger; R.C.D. Garlipp; R.S. Pereira. IPEF 23: 11-20. (1983)
(In Portuguese)

Tomada de decisao face a diferentes alternativas de manejo de uma floresta de Eucalyptus spp.
(Decision-making facing different alternatives for managing an Eucalyptus planted forest). R.A. Brigatti; R.C.D. Garlipp. IPEF Technical Circular-Letter nº 142. 10 pp. (1982) (In Portuguese)

Custo-preco: uma alternativa financeira na avaliacao da producao florestal. (Cost-price: a financial alternative in forest production evaluations). R. Berger; R.C.D. Garlipp. IPEF Technical Circular-Letter nº 141. 08 pp. (1982) (In Portuguese)

Biomassa de florestas plantadas como fonte alternativa de energia na substituicao do oleo combustivel industrial no estado de Sao Paulo.
(Biomass from planted forests as alternative source of energy in replacement of industrial fuel oil in the state of Sao Paulo). R.C.D. Garlipp. IPEF Technical Circular-Letter nº 125. 14 pp. (1981) (In Portuguese)

Comercializacao de madeira de algumas especies tropicais. (Trading wood of some tropical species). R. Berger; R.C.D. Garlipp; S.M. Dourado. IPEF Technical Circular-Letter nº 116. 21 pp. (1980) (In Portuguese)

Aspectos economicos do emprego de fertilizantes minerais na producao de madeira de Eucalyptus saligna no estado de Sao Paulo. (Economic issues in the utilization of mineral fertilizers in the production of Eucalyptus saligna wood in the state of Sao Paulo). R. Berger; R.C.D. Garlipp. IPEF 20: 49-58. (1980) (In Portuguese with a brief summary in English)

Estudo preliminar sobre a viabilidade economica da substituicao do oleo combustivel por madeira de eucalipto. (Preliminary study about the economic feasibility for the replacement of fuel oil by Eucalyptus wood). R. Berger; R.C.D. Garlipp. IPEF Technical Circular-Letter nº 95. 07 pp. (1980) (In Portuguese)

Sintese economica da geracao de vapor para uso industrial. Madeira versus oleo combustivel. (Economic evaluation of steam generation for industrial utilization. Wood versus fuel oil). R. Berger; R.C.D. Garlipp. IPEF Technical Series 1(2). 08 pp. (1980) (In Portuguese)

Aspectos economicos da produtividade e da idade de corte em florestas de eucalipto. (Economic issues about the productivity and the harvesting age in Eucalyptus forests). R.C.D. Garlipp. IPEF Technical Circular-Letter nº 84. 13 pp. (1979) (In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Avaliacao tecnico-economica da producao de celulose de madeira nao-descascada de Pinus caribaea e Eucalyptus grandis. (Technical-economical evaluation in the production of kraft pulp from Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus saligna woods containing the bark). J. O. Brito; L. E. G. Barrichelo; R. C. D. Garlipp. Informative Bulletin IPEF 6(20): D.01 – D.51. (1978) (In Portuguese)

Recursos forestales: Brasil. (Forest resources: Brazil). R.C. Garlipp. FAO - Chile. Project GCP/RLA/133/EC. 58 pp. (Undated)
(In Spanish)

I always had and have a huge admiration for the competence and the technical and institutional achievements of this great friend of the Eucalyptus and of the planted and natural forests of Brazil. His technical skills, enthusiasm and dedication to the Brazilian forestry are unquestionable. Also, I have a friendship with Rubens of around three decades, always receiving from him very much support - his personal or via SBS, to my demands attempting for forest and pulp and paper sector improvements. For all I know about and admire Rubens Garlipp, I felt honored and privileged to tell you a little about the life of this great "Friend of Eucalyptus" and to share some of his technical papers published throughout his productive career.

My dear friend Rubens Cristiano Damas Garlipp, thank you for your accomplishments focusing on the Eucalyptus, pines, acacia, bracatinga, natural forests and the goods, services and products of all types of forests. Thank you also for everything you have done and will continue doing for the science, technology and the institutional image of the Brazilian forestry and forest engineering career.

The World of the Eucalyptus

State of Piaui - Brazil

The state of Piaui is an excellent example on how to plan and implement a comprehensive and effective project based on plantation forestry. It may be said that in just about five years from the initial moves, Piaui gained prominence in the area of Eucalyptus forestry plantations, and perhaps is the most successful new entrant to the commercial forestry in Brazil. Until recently, plantations were scarce and few people were talking about, planting or researching this issue in the state. The only thing that people could notice at that time, it was the success that the Eucalypti were achieving, right after the Parnaiba River bridges, entering to the neighboring state of Maranhao. There, it is possible to find thrive forestry activities for the production of Eucalyptus wood for energy (firewood and charcoal) and for future projects of new market pulp mills. Something similar with Eucalyptus plantations is also happening in the not too far away from Piaui, the state of Amapa. I believe that these good examples prompted and leveraged the state government of Piaui and the public company CODEVASF - Company for the Development of San Francisco and Parnaiba Rivers Valleys to seek strategies aiming a forestry development plan for the Parnaiba River Watershed, one of the most traditional Brazilian rivers and the main source of drinking water for the Piaui state in its western side. In order not to make mistakes by lack of technical knowledge, technological support was brought from two traditional sources of knowledge and technologies in the Brazilian forest sector: the STCP consulting company, and FUPEF - Forest Research Foundation of Parana, both located in Curitiba. The results were immediate, an excellent forestry program was created and widely disseminated. From 2005/2006 till now, a series of measures are leveraging this program, since they have been quickly implemented, such as: to untie legal bureaucracy, to seek partnerships, to attract investment through tax incentives, training people, funding sources, creation of technical courses in chemistry and higher engineering education in forestry, etc.

Things started to flow much better when Suzano Paper and Pulp Company, one of the leading companies of this sector in Brazil, which already was operating on lands in Northeastern Brazil, announced mega-projects of two new Eucalyptus bleached marked pulp mills, in the states of Maranhao and Piaui, each one with capacity of about 1.4 million tons a year. The company already has expertise and technologies, as well as genetic material of Eucalyptus species and clones adapted to local conditions. The selected region was exactly the Midwestern state, near the state capital Teresina, representing this Suzano project an area of 160.000-170.000 hectares of land (estimated at 70% own and 30% rural farmers supplies). There are 38 municipalities involved in this network of influence, according to the Suzano's Environmental Impact Assessment Study. The state government is optimistic by the generation of thousands of jobs and by the acceleration on the regional economy. The main Piaui cities that this specific project covers are: Elesbao Veloso, Nazaria, Amarante, Avelino Lopes, Barro Duro, Palmeiras, Sao Pedro do Piaui, Valenca do Piaui, Sao Felix do Piaui, Floriano and even Oeiras, ancient and historic former capital of the state. However, the area that the state forestry program proposed as being suitable and with preferred vocation for Eucalyptus plantations is much greater than this: about 3.6 million hectares, both near Teresina, as in the region of Urucui. Anyhow, this number for these regions may suffer reevaluations, since not all areas of the selected regions are suitable for reforestation and other ones classified as not suitable, may be better qualified due to silvicultural technologies. The species of eucalypts that are being recommended are oriented to two basic applications: pulp/paper and energy. There is still a lot to do in terms of development of genetic materials of species and clones specific to the conditions of these regions. The species initially recommended are more plastic and oriented to tropical regions with a clear dry season: Eucalyptus urophylla, E.tereticornis, E.cloeziana, E.camaldulensis and E.urograndis hybrid and also some E.camaldulensis hybrids. The expected forest growth yields are not as high as those found in regions of high forest breeding. The projections are about 35 m³/ha.year of correspondent logs with bark for the leading companies and 30 for rural producers.

It has been widely reported that Suzano company has started its plantations and the project is moving at full-steam. However, extensive projects like this always bring some points of conflict with environmental groups, public prosecutors, etc. Usually, these conflicts are factors that help even the better design of plantations for improved and safer management, with greater assurance of environmental quality. Of course, the expectations of all stakeholders is that forest planting programs are to be made with state-of-the-art technology and sustainability and will be certified by the programs of environmental guarantee of good forest practices, such as FSC - Forest Stewardship Council and CERFLOR / INMETRO (The Brazilian program for forest certification).

The region is strategically located to take advantage of railways services (Ferrovia Transnordestina - ) for transporting raw materials and manufactured wooden and pulp products ready for sale, and for using the sea port of Itaqui in San Luis/Maranhao ( ) or the sea port of Pecem in the state of Ceara ( for spreading of the international sales. Anyway, everything goes well and the routes to the success seem to be drawn and paved. The studies and environmental impact reports, environmental permits, public hearings and public participation of stakeholders are given the right accelerating movement with a lot of dialogue and transparency.

The state of Piaui is one of the largest states in Northeastern Brazil in territorial area, with 251,500 km² and an estimated population of 3.2 million inhabitants. Its capital Teresina has shown a rapid growth and planned development, what is even a very favorable point for current business and future forest cluster to be implemented in Piaui. This state, until recently, was considered one of the poorest and most backward regions in Brazil. Its economy is being supported by some extractive agricultural products, such as carnauba wax, cashew nuts, leather, skins, meat and honey. Also subsoil resources add richness to the state through the opal (semi-precious stone) and decorative stones for construction. In the past and recent years, soybean crops have grown in area and generating wealth in the state, currently growing in area at an astonishing rate of about 15% annually, reaching today around 350,000 hectares already planted. The attractiveness of the savanna land ("cerrados") by this and other grains and oilseeds has placed Piaui on the route of generating bioenergy and food products. Moreover, tourism and artcrafts have emerged and are now worldwide recognized. The state has a huge variety of natural ecosystems because it is a transition region between major Brazilian biomes as Atlantica Forest, the Cocais Forest, Cerrado, Caatinga and Amazon Rainforest. You have a bit of everything that is beautiful in Nature, such as the regions of Capivaras and Confusoes Mountains, the region of the Sete Cidades ("Seven Cities"), the magnificent Delta of Parnaiba River, and the seaside with beautiful beaches of warm waters, as Maramar and Barra Grande. Another unusual thing in this state of Brazil is the large amount of paleontological, archaeological and anthropological sites, as it is well-known that the region sheltered ancient American people who draw their primitive paintings by nearly all the dominant rock formations in the state (

Just ahead, we are offering for your browsing a lot of rich information about this vibrant Brazilian state and soon to become another worldwide center of Eucalyptus plantations. I have hopes and confidence that there is much environmental responsibility in all this and that sustainability is not just a word to be used in speeches or documents, but widely practiced by the public and private companies and by the rural farmers, too. A state like Piaui, which still houses many diverse and fragile biodiversity, deserves respect from entrepreneurs, politicians, sociologists and even environmentalists. One of the goals of this state forestry program is to exactly rebuild biodiversity and natural resources, since the Eucalyptus forests are planted in mosaics of Eucalyptus, native forests and agroforestry, using degraded and eroded areas whose soils have been degraded by careless utilization over decades. Hopefully, people involved in this program are to be persons with common sense and social and environmental responsibility. In case not, I'll be one of the first to bring this to public knowledge.

Please, visit the websites and texts we are indicating just below, as well as other valuable literature being available at the sections Euca-Links and Online Technical References, all dedicated to Piaui, the Brazilian state honored in this newsletter edition.

PLANAP - Plano de Acao para o Desenvolvimento Integrado da Bacia do Parnaiba. (PLANAP - Action Plan for the Integrated Development of Parnaiba River Watershed). CODEVASF - Company for the Development of San Francisco and Parnaiba Rivers Valleys. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
(In Portuguese - with several links to diversified technical texts and regional planning documents)

Estado do Piaui. (State of Piaui). IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
(In Portuguese - Extraction from Plant Resources and from Silviculture in 2008) (In Portuguese - About the Piaui state) (In Portuguese - Agricultural data in the year 2006)

Piaui. Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed on 09.09.2010: (In English)

Nordeste Atrai Novos Investimentos em Celulose. (Northeast attracts new pulp investments). M. Faleiros. O Papel (March): 20-24. (2010)
(In Portuguese)

Anuario Estatistico da ABRAF Ano Base 2009.
(ABRAF Statistical Yearbook - Base Year 2009). ABRAF - Brazilian Association of Planted Forests Producers. (2010) (In Portuguese)

Impactos Ambientais da Silvicultura no Bioma Cerrado. (Environmental impacts of silviculture to the Cerrado biome). A.C. Fidelis; J.D. Lima. V Simposio Nacional de Geografia Agraria. 11 pp. (2009)
(In Portuguese)

Agenda Estrategica do Setor de Florestas Plantadas. (Strategic agenda of the planted forest segment). ABRAF - Brazilian Association of Planted Forests Producers. Silvicultural Sector Board. 36 pp. (2009) (In Portuguese)

Desenvolvimento Florestal e Melhoria do Clima de Negocios em Nivel Regional: Pecas-Chaves para o Novo Ciclo Mundial de Crescimento. (Forest development and improvements of the business climate on the regional level: key pieces for the new world growth cycle). I. Tomaselli; J.D.P. Siqueira; R. Rodrigues. STCP Informative Newsletter nº 13: 18-23. (2008/2009) (In Portuguese)

Desenvolvimento Florestal Pode Gerar 9.000 Empregos. (Forestry development may generate 9,000 new jobs). A. Moreira. Piaui State Government. Information Sector. (2007) (In Portuguese)

Compromisso com o Crescimento e Desenvolvimento do Programa Florestal do Estado do Piaui. (Commitment to the growth and development of the Forestry Program of the State of Piaui). I. Tomaselli. 2006 Madeira Congress. PowerPoint presentation: 27 slides. (2006)
(In Portuguese)

Novas Fronteiras para a Industria de Base Florestal. (New frontiers to the forest base industry). STCP Informative Newsletter nº 10. 21 pp. (2006/2007) (In Portuguese)

Resumo Executivo do Programa de Desenvolvimento Florestal do Vale do Parnaiba - Piaui. (Executive summary of the Forest Development Program for the Parnaiba River Valley - Piaui). CODEVASF - Company for the Development of San Francisco and Parnaiba Rivers Valleys. (2006)
(In Portuguese - Piaui forest program)
(In English - Piaui forest program)
(In Portuguese - Map of priority areas for tree plantations)

Programa de Desenvolvimento Florestal do Vale do Parnaiba no Piaui. Componente Florestas Plantadas. (Forestry Development Program to the Parnaiba River Valley in Piaui state. Planted forests component). CODEVASF - Company for the Development of San Francisco and Parnaiba Rivers Valleys & FUPEF - Forest Research Foundation of Parana. 222 pp. (2005)
(In Portuguese)

Arranjos Produtivos Locais do Piaui. (Local productive arrangements and clusters in Piaui). CGEE - Centro de Gestao de Estudos Estrategicos - Center for Management of Strategic Studies. 63 pp. (2004) (In Portuguese)

Cenarios de Producao de Bioenergia no Piaui. (Scenarios of bioenergy production in the Piaui state). Bioenergy Program. SEPLAN Piaui. 24 pp. (Undated)
(In Portuguese)

Images of Piaui state:
(Google Imagens)
(Piaui map)
(Website Natureza Brasileira - cities of Piaui)
(Website Natureza Brasileira - Coastal regions and Parnaiba river delta)


State of Piaui - Brazil

In this section, we are, as always we do, offering some relevant Euca-Links to important websites available in the virtual web. Just click on the addresses of the corresponding URLs to open them or save as favorites on your computer. In this unique edition about the state of Piaui, the Euca-Links will be all related to companies, organizations, universities and entities related to the study, business, usage and manufacturing products from Eucalyptus at this specific state. If any organization or company is eventually missing, please contact us and provide the URL addresses, which we will evaluate to make an addition on some of our upcoming editions.

FIEPI - Industry Federation of the state of Piaui. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
FIEPI has the coordination and represents the industrial sector in the state of Piaui, being integrated to the CNI System - National Industry Confederation.
(In Portuguese)

FUNAGUAS - The Water Foundation of Piaui. Environmental NGO. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
FUNAGUAS is an environmental and well-structured NGO, with a good number of valuable information made available in its website, some of them showing contrary arguments to the growth of the silviculture in the state. Accessed on 09.09.2010: (In Portuguese - Website) (In Portuguese - Scientific papers) (In Portuguese - Parnaiba river) (In Portuguese - Ecological-Economic Zoning to the Low Parnaiba River Watershed) (In Portuguese - Presentation of Ecological-Economic Zoning to the Low Parnaiba River Watershed)

Piaui State Government. Institutional State Government Website. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
(In Portuguese)

Meio Ambiente do Piaui. (Piaui Environment). Blog about Environmental Issues in the State. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
A blog rich in environmental information about Piaui, even considering it has with some restrictions to the silviculture with Eucalyptus in the state.
(In Portuguese)

Programa de Desenvolvimento Florestal do Vale do Parnaiba - Piaui. (Program for the Forestry Development of the Parnaiba River Valley - Piaui). CODEVASF - Company for the Development of San Francisco and Parnaiba Rivers Valleys. Accessed on 09.09.2010:

CODEVASF is a public company, under the Ministry of National Integration, which promotes the development and revitalization of the San Francisco and Parnaiba river valleys to the sustainable use of their natural resources and to structure productive activities for economic and social inclusion. CODEVASF has been the great promoter and driver of Eucalyptus plantation forestry in the state of Piaui, understanding that forest plantations and forest management could help to restore sustainable conditions in areas which have been degraded by farming and livestock production, besides offering new alternatives for regional economic growth in the Piaui savanna. CODEVASF action has been exemplary, seeking partnerships and bringing relevant technical information to the newcomers in this area of business. The election of the regions of Teresina and Urucui, both bordering the state of Maranhao, aims to promote economic development in a region close to the state capital and to take advantage of the experiences of neighboring Maranhao with forest plantations. Access to the Itaqui sea port in Sao Luiz is also an important factor for the international trade of products derived from forests, such as wood, pulp and paper, etc. (In Portuguese - CODEVASF website) (In Portuguese - Forestry program)
(In Portuguese - Required actions to Parnaiba river valley)
(In Portuguese - Forestry program documents)
(In Portuguese - Forestry program leaflet) (n Portuguese - Publications)

SEMAR - Secretariat of Environment and Water Resources of the State of Piaui. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
Environmental institution of the state of Piaui, which handles and manages licensing of projects, legislation, evaluation of environmental studies, and environmental control and conservation of water resources in the state. (In Portuguese)

Suzano - Companhia Suzano de Papel e Celulose. (Suzano Pulp and Paper Co.). Company's Institutional Website. Accessed on 09.09.2010: (In Portuguese and English - General Website)
(Digital publications)
(Printed publications)
(In Portuguese - Company's press-release about its own forest plantations in Piaui state)

UFPI - Federal University of Piaui - Bom Jesus Campus. Accessed on 09.09.2010:
The Federal University of Piaui has recently created a program for the forest engineering career in the Bom Jesus Campus. (In Portuguese - UFPI - Campus de Bom Jesus) (In Portuguese - Forest engineering career)
(In Portuguese - The project of the forest engineering course at UFPI) (About the city of Bom Jesus at Piaui state)

Online Technical References

State of Piaui - Brazil

In this section, we are as usual offering some very good euca-links with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they are very much connected with the Eucalyptus. In this section, we are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that are helping to build the foundations and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas related to these magic trees.

In this edition, we are emphasizing some recent publications about forestry and forest products with strong connection with the state of Piaui, the state being honored in this edition in the section "The World of the Eucalyptus". Among the materials that can be downloaded for reading, we have the excellent hand-outs of the courses on engineering of planted forests that were offered to interested parties by CODEVASF and STCP. These technical materials are definitively of great quality and very useful to anyone interested in Eucalyptus. They deal with: environmental impacts of Eucalyptus, forest seedling production, planting techniques for forestry, forest management techniques, fire prevention and fighting, etc. In addition to these hand-outs, we are offering links to some recent publications which we consider important to gather more knowledge about the plantation forestry at Piaui. Among them, we highlight some reports on environmental impact assessment studies of Eucalyptus plantations as a result of licensing procedures to Suzano Pulp and Paper Co. in order to obtaining approval for plantations in the states of Maranhao and Piaui.

We hope you enjoy this selection:

Apostila do Curso de Prevencao e Combate a Incendios Florestais.
(Hand-outs of the Course about "Forest Fires - Prevention and Fighting"). CODEVASF/STCP. 51 pp. (2010)
(In Portuguese)

Apostila do Curso Tecnicas de Plantio de Florestas. (Hand-outs of the Course about "Planting Techniques in Plantation Forestry"). CODEVASF/STCP. 39 pp. (2010)
(In Portuguese)

EIA/RIMA - Estudo e Relatorio de Impacto Ambiental da Area de Implantacao do Projeto Florestal da Suzano na Regiao de Timon - Estado do Maranhao.
(Environmental Impact Assessment Study and Report for the Suzano Company Plantation Forestry Project in the Region of Timon - State of Maranhao). STCP Forestry Consulting. (2010) (Report in Portuguese - 174 pp.) (Complete Study in Portuguese - 1004 pp.)

EIA/RIMA - Estudo e Relatorio de Impacto Ambiental da Area de Implantacao do Projeto Florestal da Suzano na Regiao de Porto Franco - Estado do Maranhao. (Environmental Impact Assessment Study and Report for the Suzano Company Plantation Forestry Project in the Region of Porto Franco - State of Maranhao). STCP Forestry Consulting. (2010) (Report in Portuguese - 184 pp.) (Complete Study in Portuguese - 1138 pp.)

EIA/RIMA - Estudo e Relatorio de Impacto Ambiental da Implantacao do Projeto Florestal da Suzano no Estado do Piaui. (Environmental Impact Assessment Study and Report for the Suzano Company Plantation Forestry Project in the State of Piaui). STCP Forestry Consulting. (2009) (Report in Portuguese - 210 pp.) (Complete Study in Portuguese - 945 pp.)

Apostila do Curso de Tecnicas de Manejo Florestal
. (Hand-outs of the Course about "Forest Management Techniques"). CODEVASF/STCP. 63 pp. (2009)
(In Portuguese)

Apostila do Curso Tecnicas de Producao de Mudas Florestais. (Hand-outs of the Course about "Forest Seedling Production Techniques"). CODEVASF/STCP. 66 pp. (2009)
(In Portuguese)

Impactos Ambientais do Eucalipto. (Environmental Impacts of the Eucalyptus). D. Gorniski. CODEVASF. 05 pp. (2009)
(In Portuguese)

Zoneamento Ecologico-Economico da Bacia do Rio Parnaiba: um Foco nos Cerrados do Sul do Piaui e Maranhao. (Ecological-economic zoning of the Parnaiba River Watershed: A focus on Cerrados/Savannas of Southern Piaui and Maranhao). I.O. Rodrigues; R.B. Mattos; R.G.M. Botelho; A.H. Figueiredo. II International Symposium on Tropical Savannas 06 pp. (2008)
(In Portuguese)

Categorias e Distribuicao das Unidades de Conservacao do Estado do Piaui. (Categories and distribution of conservation unit areas in the state of Piaui). M.M.S. Mendes. Diversa 1(2): 35-53. (2008)
(In Portuguese)

Condicoes de Uso Atual, Conservacao e Perspectiva de Utilizacao Sustentavel da Vegetacao no Semi-Arido Nordestino. (Conditions of current use, conservation and perspective for sustainable utilization of the plant vegetation in the semi-arid Northeastern Brazil). A.F. Bezerra and coworkers. Aridas Project. A Strategy on Sustainable Development for Brazilian Northeastern Region. 172 pp. (Undated)
(In Portuguese)

References about Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events (congresses, seminars, conferences, workshops, courses). The advantage provided to web readers is that the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading to all interested parties. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties. I would like to emphasize the importance of visiting the material of these suggested events. Most of them have exceptional PowerPoint presentations, rich on data, photos, images and references. By doing this visit you can learn a lot more about the discussed topics. Other courses or events offer the entire book of technical articles, true sources of knowledge to our readers. We should also highlight the increasing availability of academic materials placed in a public way by many university professors, who offer their teaching hand-outs and classes materials for using by stakeholders of the society via the web. On some of our newsletters issues, we are to provide references of these types of courses, as well.

2nd International Forum of the Forestry Agribusiness at the 2nd Forest Fair. (In Portuguese)
Excellent event on forest-based industry issues, focused on aspects of forestry, trade, business and sustainable use of timber and other products (resins, mate-tea herb, honey, charcoal, etc.) originated from planted and natural forests. In its second edition, the forum has again proved to be a strong vehicle for the insertion of the forestry business in Southern Brazil and Mercosur region, stimulating the forestry activity in these regions. Once more, the forum and the exhibition were held at the magnificent and peaceful city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, in April 2010. In addition to courses and speeches, participants could interact with the many exhibitors at the fair, which had a remarkable growth, compared with the previous edition of one year ago. Several speakers and exhibitors brought their valuable contribution to an interested and participative audience. I'm bringing my warmest greetings and best wishes for continued success in future editions of these events to my dear friends Roque Justen and Nilvia Rohrig, managing directors of Futura Feiras e Empreendimentos, the company promoting and organizing the events; and also to forest engineer Leonel Freitas Menezes, president of AGEFLOR - Gaucha Association of Forest Companies. It is up to you dear readers, the task of browsing the recommended websites, finding the more interesting lectures and download them for reading. (In Portuguese - Website - Forest Fair) (In Portuguese - AGEFLOR - Gaucha Association of Forest Companies) (In Portuguese - Photo gallery) (In Portuguese, Spanish and English - Speeches - Please, pay attention that we have 4 pages to browse to have access to all speeches)

2010 Events - MS Florestal and Ribas Florestal. (In Portuguese)
The promotion of forestry, the supply of knowledge and excellent information on the potential of the plantation forestry business in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul have been remarkable in recent months. Not long ago, I brought to you readers a wide coverage about the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in a special section "The World of Eucalyptus" ( From that time until the present days, much more has been happening at these plantation forestry golden Brazilian states. Among the major developers and promoters for the growth of knowledge about these states we may emphasize the role of web portal Painel Florestal ( and REFLORE/MS - Association of South Mato Grosso Producers and Consumers of Planted Forests ( See what can be found on these two important events that happened in the cities of Campo Grande and Ribas do Rio Pardo, in the MS state: (In Portuguese - Several videos about the 2010 MS Florestal at Painel Florestal TV channel in the YouTube website) (In Portuguese - Several videos about the 2010 Ribas Florestal at Painel Florestal TV channel in the YouTube website)
(Some of the speeches presented at these two events may be found at this link)

2010 - ANAVE EcoForum - ANAVE - National Association of the Pulp, Paper and Derivatives Salespersons. (In Portuguese)
The ANAVE EcoForum has become an important forum for dialogue and discussions about environmental and sustainability issues related to the pulp and paper industry in Brazil. Please, visit the excellent speeches that have been made available for downloading on different views and approaches about sustainability at the P&P sector. (ANAVE website - National Association of the Pulp, Paper and Derivatives Salespersons)
(Speeches presented in both 2010 and 2008 ANAVE EcoForums)

2009 Brazilian Forestry Summer Course. Forest Production and Production Capacity of Forest Plantations. (In English)
International course on forest plantations productivity capacity, including those with Eucalyptus, which occurred at the USP - University of Sao Paulo, Department of Forest Sciences, ESALQ - Superior College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz". The course was a joint initiative of GIFN - Global Industrial Forestry Network. GIFN members are the USP itself and also: University of Helsinki - Finland, Universidad de la Republica - Uruguay and Stellenbosch University - South Africa (Course webpage) (About GIFN - Global Industrial Forestry Network) (Class materials) (Presentations)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus
(by Ester Foelkel)

In this edition: Pruning the Urban Eucalyptus

It is very common the presence of Eucalyptus trees, providing shade and beauty (and often, pleasant scent) in plazas and sidewalks of the avenues and streets in many cities in Brazil, and other countries, too. Because they are fast-growing trees, many local citizens plant them close to their homes, because they know they will be rewarded with their shadows in a short length of time. Most Eucalyptus species are not completely adequate for this purpose because the rapid and predominantly apical growth leads to robust and high trees, which often bring problems to power grids, sidewalks and even to the underground piping. It is necessary to choose species of smaller sized trees, which ramifies over, without a so dominant apical growth of the trunk bud. Another problematic issue is that the Eucalyptus seedlings that most people are just planting as urban trees are in general from commercial species that were developed and genetically improved for rapid growth of a vigorous and upright stem/trunk with almost no side branches. In urban forestry, the ideal trees are those with short main trunk and vigorous branches to provide shade. Therefore, it is recommended to always evaluate the need of pruning the Eucalyptus trees planted in cities (urban Eucalyptus trees, as they are to be called from now onwards). Pruning has the aim to maintain tree size and shape, making them able to offer advantages and no problems to those who are to receive their shadow, scent and the wonderful look of their leaves, bark and flowers.

Most of the trees used in urban forestry are submitted to restrictions on some factors that are essential to their development, such as water, light, nutrients, soil compaction, and in especial, physical space. Since the early time of planting, many of these trees used in urban forestry may start depreciating the civil constructions made by citizens and by the government - so it is recommended pruning them to guide and to manage their growth. This intervention in growth is performed especially to avoid conflicts between the large trees and the interests of modern man (Royal..., 2010). Another way to avoid this problem would be the knowledge of the biology of each tree species, planting them only when the required resources would be fulfilled; but even so, the pruning activity is still a necessary and vital tool to manage urban forestry (Seitz, 1996; Silva, undated).

Although currently the Eucalyptus are not so recommended by the municipalities for being planted in streets and avenues, mainly due to their strong vitality; they are trees commonly found in many urban centers. There are many parks and recreational areas in large cities with lush, beautiful and imposing Eucalyptus trees with more than 50 years in age. Even in a city that grew wildly as Sao Paulo, magnificent Eucalyptus trees are found near the Ibirapuera Park, among many other locations in that huge city. The same situation happens in Santiago/Chile, in Madrid/Spain, Lisbon/Portugal, Mexico City, San Francisco/California and at many other places of this planet. We should learn more how to to cope with these marvelous trees to better manage the problems arising from their size and growth. After all, if they exist in many cities in the world, it is because people appreciate and admire them, isn't it?

One of the major problem for most of the species of Eucalyptus and Corymbia, commonly known as eucalypts, is that their branches and twigs can damage electrical wiring, mainly by the time they become adult trees (20-30 meters high). Another common concern in the greening of cities is the risk of falling branches or the entire tree itself, requiring continuous monitoring in an attempt to avoid such risks (Associacao..., 2010; Silva, undated).

Adult Eucalyptus trees are often found in urban centers due to remnants of rural areas that have turned into parks and squares in cities. In recent past, such trees were present at those areas and were leftover to present days (Cardim, 2009). Furthermore, in the past, because of their rapid growth, the eucalypt species have been widely used for urban forestry in many Brazilian cities. This fact has led to the need of constant pruning to facilitate their management, improve their appearance, reduce the amount of leaves that fall to the ground, reduce unnecessary growth, and primarily, to prevent electrical accidents and tree falls during storms. Pruning, if well-done, can also present advantages for the own Eucalyptus trees by increasing air circulation in the crown, reducing the incidence of some diseases, eliminating branches attacked by pest and disease organisms, and encouraging new shoots, making trees healthier and leading to maximum productive potential of the plant to induce flowering and fruiting (BBC Garden Guides, 2010; Seitz, 1996; Silva, undated).

Thus, the main objective of this paper is to bring to you the main types of urban Eucalyptus pruning, while pointing out the care and most suitable timing for this operation. The knowledge of urban pruning can maximize the benefits for both, man and Eucalyptus, leading to a more harmonious coexistence possible in the cities. Pruning of Eucalyptus trees used in urban forestry differs in much of the pruning of tree plantations for commercial wood production purposes. In this latter type of pruning, the goal is the removal of lateral branches while still thin and young, to prevent the formation of defects known as knots, which appear in the timber when trees are harvested in the future. In a previous edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, numbered as 25, this important issue was addressed by Celso Foelkel in one of his specific mini-articles ( This present article seeks to complement and supplement this subject, allowing readers to know both aspects of this important silvicultural practice, which is tree pruning.

Types of pruning for the urban Eucalyptus:

According to Phipps (2010) there are various methods of pruning urban Eucalyptus, and they will be applied in accordance with human needs and the existing trees and species. Following there are descriptions of the pruning types noted by author:

Hedge pruning: it is a method well-suited to the species Eucalyptus archeri, E. parviflora, E. coccifera and E. suberenulata, common urban trees in Australia and in the United States. It consists in the removal of the apical third of the plant, aiming for managing the tree formats, during the second year after planting, what means, in the young trees.

Specimen pruning: a pruning type suitable to Eucalyptus trees that are considered the principal objects of certain landscapes. Therefore, it is a pruning to promote improvements in the aesthetics

Coppicing pruning: considered another very effective method of controlling the height of urban Eucalyptus. It is a drastic pruning to eliminate the main trunk near the ground (around 5 to 10 cm above the soil level). It aims stimulating the emergence of new sprouts. Immediately after sprouting, the operator has to select the most appropriate one as the main new trunk, eliminating the remaining. Coppicing pruning is recommended for small gardens, since it helps controlling and promoting plant growth, and provides the emergence of abundant new leaves. These young leaves are, for some people, more attractive and ornamental than the already mature leaves, mainly due to different color of the buds and the pleasant smell they show.

According to BBC Gardening Guide (2010), the technique is recommended to be performed every two or three years, being especially suitable for the species E. gunnii, E. globulus, E. dalrympleana and E. pauciflora (Royal..., 2010). In Brazil, it is a very common pruning technique, being adopted for all species of Eucalyptus and Corymbia used in urban forestry and landscaping. For the case of Corymbia citriodora, it is very interesting because the young leaves are more odorous, serving as environmental fragrance. In another past edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, the one numbered as 14, (, there were presented several considerations about the Eucalyptus trees used in landscaping and gardening.

Seleshanko (undated) noted that this type of drastic pruning can be done both in young and in mature trees; however, the sprouting response may not be so pronounced for the latter. The same author suggests the method of coppicing pruning, when someone wants to have the tree development in a more shrubby format (managing for even more trunks and main branches). To do so, it is required to eliminate the main stem of the plant near the soil, choosing to manage about four sprouts of proper force and positioning. The others should be eliminated at the base of the new tree being formed. To better shape the plant, the four selected new trunks can be pruned after a bit higher, giving rise to new branches that will be managed and directed so as to obtain a more leafy canopy.

Pollarding pruning: also considered a technique widely used in Eucalyptus to control the height of the tree, keeping it small and compact with plentiful foliage (BBC Gardening Guide, 2010). The same author reported that pollarding is a "higher" coppicing pruning. This means the following: at the time the plant reaches a certain height, there is a restriction of its development through the pruning of its top (Royal..., 2010). The appropriate time to perform the pruning of the top is about 2 meters in height, keeping the tree trunk at this height with annual pruning. Top pruning of trees is recommended to be done in young trees, from three to six years of age, leaving it or not with some of the side branches below this 2 meters height. Top pruning is also of very common application in Brazil. It should however be aware of the way to drive the new shoots. In case all are left to grow, we have some weak branches that will may eventually fall off later by the action of winds or their own weights. This continuous management is vital to avoid accidents and possible dangers to the public (pedestrians, vehicles and residences). Eucalyptus trees, when pruned in this way, demand much care and knowledge of the pruner, since loosen and unstable shoots attached to the trunk may become dangerous. Furthermore, there is an agreement among pruners that this technique is not advised to old trees that have never been pruned previously. Old trees have thick and lignified trunks that will not form strong, well-attached and vigorous shoots.

Crown designing pruning: according to Royal... (2010), besides the techniques of coppicing and top pruning, urban Eucalyptus may also be pruned in a way to develop a typical tree pattern (architectural model of the genus) or by a multi-branched shrub pruning (leaving the plant looking like a bush with heavy canopy). The standard format of Eucalyptus pruned tree has a base trunk and a well-branched crown. Thus, it is usual to have a standardized tree with 1 to 2 meters for the trunk height. Unfortunately, this is not a very common procedure in Brazil for the Eucalyptus trees. The municipalities do not allow citizens to make urban tree pruning (what is understandable considering the problems that can cause unskilled pruners). However, most municipalities do not care for doing more laborious pruning of these trees. This ends up revolting many citizens, who see the city pruners as teams of persons just making drastic pruning in Eucalyptus (coppicing) and with minimal care to manage latter the tree crown format. Many citizens call it "killing pruning" because of the unprepared and without management way as they are performed. This type of situation occurs, but certainly there are also exceptions, with municipal management of urban Eucalyptus trees of excellent quality and technology. Sometimes these services are outsourced to companies that have qualified agronomists and foresters guiding and controlling the operations.

Treelogic (undated) notes that in Australia there are laws to prevent such drastic pruning of adult Eucalyptus trees that have never previously been pruned. The explanation for this might be the high mortality rates observed in these old trees, mostly due to lack of vigor and force of the remaining trunk after pruning, and the high incidence of decay in the internal trunk xylem. We consider this very worthwhile initiative; we should strive to make it valid here in Brazil, too.

According to REMADE (2010) and Singh (undated), the main types of pruning carried out in urban trees in Brazilian cities are:

- formation or educational pruning: it begins to be done early in the life of the tree to avoid the appearance of scars and defects in the pruned trees. This pruning should follow the standard format of each tree species. It aims to manage tree format not to bring problems to the movement of pedestrians and cars. The branches that may affect the weight balance of the tree are also removed during pruning. According to Seitz (1996), the trees that are not pruned often have multiple branches and this can increase the risk of falling branches with accidents.

- maintenance pruning: to remove dead, broken, damaged or ill branches, all detracting the aesthetics of the tree or wood.

- safety pruning: in this type of pruning, evenvital branches for plant development are removed, as they are coming into conflict with human activities. The problematic branch can be harvested in two or three steps, reducing the stress caused to the plant.

- root pruning: the main care when pruning the roots are related with the stability of the tree. We should avoid pruning of thick roots near the trunk, since for most species of trees, root regeneration capacity is well below than for the trunk. According to Rahma (2010), pruning of root that are damaging sidewalks must be followed by crown pruning to balance the new tree structure.

- pruning for lowering the height: performed by top pruning and canopy reduction for mature trees that are already interfering with the wiring of public roads or to urban buildings.

The most recommended timing for pruning the urban Eucalyptus:

According to Garden Guides (2010), the best time to perform Eucalyptus trees pruning is during the summer season. The author explains that, despite being larger exudations of sap, the tree recovery from drastic pruning is more effective, what is ideal for humid climates. In environments of extreme humidity, an early pruning during spring may encourage the emergence of fungi diseases, and the plant is still subject to suffer stress caused by late frosts.

In places with harsh winters, the wounds caused by pruning should have time to heal before the arrival of cold weather. Otherwise, the frost can cause irreversible damages to plants burning the pruned regions. Thus, the late spring and summer are the periods of the year when the pruning should be performed (Barclay, 2004). The same author has addressed that in places that have year-round mild weather, there are no restrictions on the season to perform the pruning.

The practice of drastic pruning of urban Eucalyptus are suggested to happen soon after the winter or early spring, when the plant has its metabolism stimulated by increasing temperatures and restarts to grow. (Royal..., 2010).

Cares to be taken when pruning urban trees:

Eucalyptus trees are considered large plants, that if not pruned, may damage gardens or sidewalks. Thus, pruning promotes the control of plant height on this genus, allowing these trees to be used even in relatively small areas, living harmoniously with other ornamental species (Barclay, 2004; Seleshanko, undated).

The Eucalyptus trees, when pruned for aesthetic purposes, require some specific care. Besides the correct time for pruning, the use of ideal equipment, plus training and experience of the pruner are required for the removal of branches, twigs and other plant parts with the least harmful way as possible (REMADE, 2010; Iglesias, undated).

The main after pruning problem observed in urban Eucalyptus is the loss of tree strength and vitality, mainly due to the damages in the bark caused by injuries from improper equipment or inexperienced technicians, in addition to injuries caused by frost and fungi. Such damage can even lead to plant death (Barclay, 2004; Iglesias, undated). So, clean cuts without damaging the bark and the orientation for pruning just on dry,sunny and well ventilated days, help preventing problems caused by fungi. Another strategy to avoid problems with microorganisms is to treat the deepest caused injuries (cuts in large diameter branches) with fungicides (Iglesias, undated).

A measure taken to avoid the lack of stability of the plant would be to avoid the artificial pruning of thelower branches of the Eucalyptus trees, letting them dry on their own (natural pruning induced by girdling a ring on bark) (Barclay, 2004).

Generally, after the pruning of healthy and already established Eucalyptus trees, we expect a vigorous flow of shooting. Thus, monitoring the tree and subsequent pruning in later years are also considered as important steps as the initial pruning (Barclay, 2004). The same author also commented that the ideal is to perform the pruning while the tree is still young, removing branches that could cause future problems. The branches, when smaller, are easier to remove, requiring less man-power and efforts to work on them, and also prevent further stresses to the plant.

According to Iglesias (undated), top pruning below 2 meters high in less vigorous Eucalyptus trees, younger than three years in age, can lead to the weakening of the plants, especially if they had not completed the own settlement. Another caution is suggested by this author: after several years of top pruning, a lateral pruning is advisable to remove lower branches in order to open the canopy. Pruning stimulates the apical buds of lateral branches to grow. Thus, for improving the aesthetic format of the tree, the removal of low positioned lateral and vigorous branches might become necessary.

The removal of branches very close to each other, as well as branches that are inter-touching, or that are spiral in shape, or showing signs of insect or disease damages is also necessary to improve the appearance of any kind of urban Eucalyptus (BBC Gardening Guide, 2010). The lateral branches should be cut preferably as close to the trunk as possible. Most species of Eucalyptus have high vitality and cutting the branches by half would stimulate the emergence of new sprouts in them and could cause future problems, such as thickening of the canopy (BBC Gardening Guide, 2010).

The main tools used to prune treesin urban forestry are similar to those used for commercial forestry pruning: shears, scissors, clippers, knives, hand-saws and chain-saws. The use of ladders, scaffolds, ropes, lift or basket platforms and all the individual protection equipment (as the minimum required by law to protect the pruner) are also of extreme importance. It is likely important to remember that all equipment must be in perfect conditions, thus allowing the pruning performance to be more efficient, safer and causing less damage to trees.

Most municipalities now require that the pruningbe performed by trained professionals with accreditation for the service, preventing accidents such as electric shock, insect stings, falls, among other risks (Associacao..., 2010; Silva, undated).

According to Royal... (2010) and Rhama (2010), there are municipal laws that seek to control and regulate the urban pruning. In many cases, they are different for each city. So, before pruning, you should try to know these laws, including obtaining the required permits from the municipality, before hiring technical expertise for pruning operations, avoiding accidents and future problems (Associacao..., 2010).

Pruning is considered a high risk activity for both the operator and pedestrians. Thus, the isolation of the area during the execution of the task is a prudent and relevant requirement (Seitz, 1996).

Final remarks:

In the past, the Eucalyptus trees have been widely used for urban forestry, losing ground today for native fruit trees and other trees from native flora, in especial to trees that grow less vigorously. This does not prevent thatthe existing Eucalyptus trees, still numerous in towns and cities, may receive our admiration for their magnificence, beauty, shade and pleasant fragrance that provide to the environments in which they are.

Eucalyptus trees, if well managed, can be used as urban trees in parks and gardens, but extra care are required. Among them are: pruning in early ages, and after this, a frequent and constant monitoring to curb their rapid and vigorous development, both of the main stem and secondary branches. If this is done effectively, the Eucalyptus can bring several benefits to the urban man, without interfering in their interests and activities.

Because they are vigorous, Eucalyptus trees offer abundant woody biomass as well as twigs, leaves and branches when pruned. We have seen, with surprise, that many municipalities are still disposing these magnificent plant debris in landfills, as if they were garbage. This material, well separate and managed, can be used as biomass fuel in boilers, kilns and even to fuel bakeries, pizzerias, etc. It can also be shredded and composted, resulting in nutrient-rich compost for use by municipalities in the own gardening and landscaping. Anyway, it's all a matter of getting things done in an integrated manner, with eco-efficiency, adequate knowledge and very good will.

To all those, who are admirers of ornamental urban Eucalyptus trees, we are providing a selection of useful literature, by indicating selected bibliographies and good information sources about the pruning of these trees in the cities of Brazil and the world.

Please, enjoy reading:

Tipos de podas. (Types of pruning). Rhama Arvores e Paisagismo. Accessed on 28.07.2010: (In Portuguese)

How to prune trees. BBC Gardening Guides. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
(In English)

Pruning Eucalyptus. Gardenbanter. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
(In English)

How to trim a Eucalyptus tree. Overview. Garden Guides. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
(In English)

Gestao de residuos da arborizacao urbana. (Waste management in urban tree forestry). C. Albuquerque. Press release ESALQ/USP. Accessed on 28.07.2010: (In Portuguese)

Eucalyptus trimming. Tips on how to cut Eucalyptus plants.
N. Phipps. Gardening Know-How. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
(In English)

Arborização urbana. (Urban tree forestry). Associacao ASSBMMS - Association of Military Firefighters. Accessed on 28.07.2010:
(In Portuguese)

Arborizacao urbana. Arvore certa, lugar certo. (Urban tree cultivation. The right tree at the right place). Blog Arvores Vivas. Accessed on 28.07.2010: (In Portuguese)

Eucalyptus: pruning.
Royal Horticultural Society. Accessed on 28.07.2010: (In English)

A absurda poda anual. (The absurd annual pruning). J. Lutzenberger. Gaia Foundation. Accessed on 28.07.2010: (In Portuguese)

Maturing trees. Managing ageing trees in the urban context. Treelogic. Tree Information Fact Sheet. 04 pp. (2010)
(In English)

Meio ambiente: Poda na arborizacao. (Environment: pruning urban trees). REMADE News. (2010)
(In Portuguese)

A historia do eucalipto na cidade de Sao Paulo.
(The history of Eucalyptus in the city of Sao Paulo). R. H. Cardim. WordPress. (2009)
(In Portuguese)

Compostagem de residuos da poda urbana.
(Composting the urban pruning wastes). C.L. Cortez; S.T. Coelho; R. Grisoli; F. Gavioli. Technical Note IX - CENBIO - Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa. National Center of Reference in Biomass. 17 pp. (2008) (In Portuguese)

Ask the gardener Bill Blackledge: Eucalyptus. BBC Lancashire. (2008)
(In English)

Utilizacao do composto de residuos da poda da arborizacao urbana em substratos para producao de mudas. (Utilization of the compost obtained from the pruning residues of urban forestry in substrates for production of seedlings). A.P. Baratta Junior. Master Dissertation. UFRRJ - Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. 62 pp. (2007) (In Portuguese)

A poda de arvores ornamentais: como e porque? (Pruning ornamental trees: why and how to?). A. Fabiao. Superior Chamber of Odivelas. Portugal. 12 pp. (2006) (In Portuguese)

Gardening problem? Ask Reg... BBC Gloucestershire's gardening guru Reg Moule. (2005) (In English)

How to grow a Eucalyptus. I. Barclay. The Hardy Eucalyptus Page. (2004) (In English)

Manual tecnico de arborizacao urbana.
(Technical guide for the urban trees cultivation). A.S.C. Barbedo & coworkers. Municipality of the city of Sao Paulo. Secretariat of the Green and Environment. 48 pp. (2005)
(In Portuguese)

Eucalyptus assessment. City of Santa Monica. 17 pp. (2005) (In English)

ABSTRACT: Tecnica de poda na arborizacao urbana da cidade de Patos-PB. (Pruning techniques for urban forestry in the city of Patos - PB). A. M. F. Nobrega; J. A. Lira Filho; M. A. S. Medeiros; S. G. G. Farias. III Extension Meeting. UFCG - Federal University of Campina Grande. 01 pp. (2004).
(In Portuguese)

COURSE: "Treinamento sobre Poda em Especies Arboreas Florestais e de Arborizacao Urbana". (Course: Training about Pruning of Forest Tree Species in Urban Forestry). Event Proceedings. IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies. (1996) (In Portuguese)

A poda de arvores urbanas.
(Pruning urban trees). R. A. Seitz. First Course on Training about Pruning of Forest Tree Species in Urban Forestry. 27 pp. (1996) (In Portuguese)

Podas de arbolado urbano. (Pruning of the urban trees). INTA Santa Cruz Argentina. Agreement UNPA-INTA-CAP. 15 pp. (1995)
(In Portuguese)

Poda e revitalizacao vegetal urbana. (Pruning and revitalization of urban plants). J. S. Silva. Secretariat of Environment of the city of Uberaba. 29 pp. (s/d)
(In Portuguese)

Size control operations in garden eucalypts: sculpting Eucalyptus gunnii.
G. Iglesias. GIT-Forestry. (Undated) (In English)

Eucalyptus tree pruning in the U.K
. K. Seleshanko. Portal eHow. (Undated) (In English)

Programa Passeio Livre: conheca as regras para arrumar a sua calcada. (Free walk program: know the rules to fix your sidewalk). R.M.P. Lopes and coworkers. Municipality of the city of Sao Paulo. 21 pp. (Undated) (In Portuguese)

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel

Environmental Performance Indicators for the Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mills

Environmental performance indicators are qualitative or numerical indexes that provide information to stakeholders and to the producers themselves on the environmental performance of a particular activity, such as industrial, agricultural or a service offer. They can be created for industrial mills and factories, for planted forests and agriculture, or even for hotels, restaurants, airports, etc. We can also create some environmental performance indicators for our homes, following monthly the water and electricity bills, trying to optimize consumption's (and use of natural resources, off course, as a consequence).

Until recently, environmental performance indicators were mainly limited to the legislated parameters and enforced by environmental licensing organizations responsible for evaluation, control and monitoring the industrial activities. They originally were concerned to these parameters for controlling water and air impacts and solid waste generation that a given company had to comply. The attention of the company and supervisors were, in those cases, a lot focused on them and little else. However, the world changed for the better - and companies also changed accordingly.

The quest for sustainability and the need to show that the operations are clean and of minimum eco-impact induced a move for a collective effort in the industrial sectors. The procedures for certification of companies by the standards of ISO 14000 series, include in their normative recommendations that all the relevant negative impacts on the environment have to be detected, and that they must be controlled through appropriate indicators. These indicators must therefore be established to monitor the company as a whole (in total) and also the industrial sector units that have negative impacts to be also controlled and monitored. Everything shall be in compliance to the environmental management system designed to the company, according to ISO 14001 recommendations.

The environmental performance indicators are no longer just indexes for legal explanations to the regulatory bodies. They have been converted into interesting management tools for the pursuit of excellence in operations and to minimize negative and relevant environmental impacts. Since air and water pollution and solid wastes represent significant losses of chemical raw materials, cellulosic fibers, filler minerals and energy, when we control our environmental performance indicators in the search for eco-results, we are also improving the indicators for mill productivity, such as those related to specific consumption's, reworks and off-grades. Many pulp and paper companies are today working based on the concepts of eco-efficiency and cleaner production (CP). These management concepts have as aims: reducing wastes and losses, and optimization of all use of inputs in operations. Thus, the numerous monitoring measurements created by these programs also represent environmental performance indicators.

Another relevant factor to the environmental performance indicators gaining expression in business is being the fact that they now have an enormous importance in commercial operations. Both at B2B and B2C operations, customers have become concerned about how products are manufactured, the impact caused by their specific productions to the environment, and what are the consequences of such products for human and ecosystem healths. These moves have led to the creation of the popular green stamps or environmental labels in order to provide credible information, additional safety and consumer choice/selection in their purchases. However, in addition to consumers, other important actors began to require (or even to impose) environmental performance and sustainable performance. Among them are the banks, mainly those financing industrial projects, and the buyers of shares in the stock exchange markets - they want to support or buy shares of companies that do not have a risk of serious environmental accidents, such as the recent case of British Petroleum in the Gulf of Mexico. Other important actors are the department stores, retail chains, etc. - they also want to show their respect for the environment, working with environmentally correct products. Finally and very importantly, we have the green purchasing/procurement of public enterprises and governments, which represent significant portion of global trade for many products, including printing, packaging and sanitary papers. This current scenario has driven to a lot of efforts in all industries for the creation and dissemination of environmental performance indicators. Exactly this move is also happening in the companies of the Eucalyptus paper and market pulp businesses.

It always existed on the part of some citizens, and it will continue to exist for a longer time ahead, some kind of suspicion and anxiety in relation to forestry and industrial operations impacts coming from the paper and market pulp segments. These types of industrial activities demand much use of natural resources and land areas for timber production. For these reasons, and for mis-communication, there are still misgivings and mistrustfulness by part of many citizens and organizations of the civil society about the environmental realities of our industry. If this antipathy exists in relation to our industry, the right utilization of environmental performance indexes and the clarity of communicating them may well be a way to minimize some of these criticisms coming from uninformed citizens.

The main reasons for the creation and utilization of good-quality environmental performance indicators are the following:

• quantification of relevant parameters of the process that are responsible for some sort of environmental impact;
• classification of an existing industrial operation as "minimal environmental impact" or "best available and environmentally-sound technologies;
• qualification of the company's positive attitudes towards forestry and environmental certifications, exemplary fulfillment of the relevant legislation ("beyond compliance" - "beyond the legal restrictions"), etc.;
• combination of many complex things in one very simple thing (it is the case of the ecolabels, which transform the fulfillment of the multi-performance environmental criteria in a single label to be printed on the product packaging);
• monitoring of how these indicators are changing over time;
• identification of the company's position in relation to sector peers (benchmarking);
• encouraging and driving changes for continuous improvement;
• competition among peers to establish and to show industry best practices and best environmental performance to the public;
• receiving rewards for good environmental performance, ecolabels granting, achievement of eco-certifications, improved corporate image, etc.;
• improving communication with stakeholders;
• etc.

The environmental performance indicators may be, therefore, associated with the use of clean technologies, eco-efficient operations and also to sound management and commitment to producing with respect to company's assets and natural resources. However, the performance with sound values on the environmental indicators (or even the achievement of a type 1 ecolabel) does not prove that the company is not polluting, or that it is "environmentally friendly". It will rather show that this specific company operates with much smaller and fewer impacts than the other peers in the same segment and is being well-managed through good eco-efficient practices

When an industrial company is committed to promote and to achieve a good environmental performance, it'll quickly notice that it is being improved in several other ways because of:

• creation of competitive advantage in the markets where it operates;
• improvements in the relationship with society and corporate image to stakeholders;
• obtaining cleaner, optimized and best practices operations, with minimum losses and waste generation;
• achievements of better mill economic results and improved productivity;
• reaching more motivation, commitment and happiness to people, both those of the company, as the neighboring populations. However, for working these goals with people, the search for good performance must be pleasant and committed to dialogue and transparency, and not imposing and cruel.
• reduction of stresses to the environment (water, energy, climate, air, soil, etc.).

Since the indicators are not static issues, they are designed for monitoring operations over time and for contributing to the establishment of challenging targets. They help developing an environmentally responsible attitude in managing the company . They also support to clarify the society stakeholders on exactly the points that they would like to know. Exactly what companies have tried to do through their corporate sustainability reports. Currently, virtually all companies, whose shares are traded at stock exchange markets, show and post their own actions, data, strategies and commitments in the well-known environmental and sustainability reports. Invariably, there is always a series of environmental performance indicators that are open to the general public. These indexes are related to the mill impact on water and air pollution's and solid waste generation. What I have noticed is that, in many cases, it seems that these reports are written for those who have full knowledge of what are things such as TRS (Total Reduced Sulfur Gases), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), AOX (Adsorbable Halogen Compounds ), NOx (Nitrogen Oxides), POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants, etc.), etc. Often, there is a lack of a good terminology glossary, explaining things in simpler language, stating the significance and how samples are taken and in which manner these indicators are measured. Something to deserve an improvement in some cases, because we need clarity and transparency in the dialogue with stakeholders, both through the web and printed reports.

When speaking about stakeholders, they are exactly those who have many doubts and anxieties, and to them that our sustainability reports are to be built/designed. The reports are to serve the interests and curiosities coming from legislators, politicians, bankers, stock buyers, farmers, teachers, researchers, journalists, environmentalists, technical engineers, etc. I made a brief reflection on what the citizens who are in these different stakeholder segments may be willing to learn about our environmental performance in the pulp and paper industry. I'm sharing with you this thought.

For example, I'm sure the biggest concerns specifically about the Eucalyptus market kraft pulp mills are related to:

• origin of wood (FSC or CERFLOR/PEFC certification);
• quantity or percentage of water that is being "eliminated" by the factory (the difference between water intake and returned effluent flows);
• air pollution (odor and particles);
• water pollution (organic material, hazardous pollutants such as chlorinated organics, dioxins and furans; eutrophication-causing compounds such as nitrogen and phosphorus);
• generation and waste treatment (composting and recycling treating stations, selective collection, etc.);
• practices and internal rates of recycling (water, fiber, waste);
• generation and disposal of hazardous products that may be dangerous to the health of people and ecosystems;
• presence (or absence) of any hazardous compounds in the bleached paper or pulp (explaning also the bleaching procedure);
• impact of operations on climate change, biodiversity, ozone layer, acid rain, etc.
There are other environmental concerns on social and forestry issues, but I will write about these other indicators in future editions of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, please just wait a while, it will be brief.

Our companies in the pulp and paper are seeking to work with a lot of attention on these environmental issues. They need to be increasingly transparent and clear about these items in conflict. Transparency is vital and our companies today are aware and convinced about this.

The easiest and quickest way to show and to display an image of eco-efficiency to society is the conquest of credible and reliable environmental multi-criteria ecolabels, because these criteria are set in an open process in conjunction with society stakeholders. These environmental labels are called type 1 ecolabels. We have labels for greener forests (FSC and CERFLOR/PEFC) and ecolabels to papers (Nordic White Swan, German Blue Angel, European Union Flower, Brazilian Hummingbird, etc.). We do not have defined criteria for market pulp ecoloabelling, yet. However, it is just a question of to want starting a process like this with the entities that manage ecolabels in different countries. It's something to consider for market pulp, because ecolabels comprise important indicators of better environmental performance in a single label, as we have seen. The green labels are developed based on a prior and simple assessment of the life cycle for the targeted product. The aim is to find points in manufacturing, raw materials extraction and final disposal and recycling where there are significant impacts in order to establish key indicators of environmental performance. Only the manufacturers of best environmental performance will be awarded with environmental labels, and not all of them. This definitely shows to stakeholders those companies that are practicing the best environmental indexes for a given product category.

Among the criteria chosen by type 1 ecolabels (and unified by myself with other indicators that I consider relevant), I'm bringing some of the most needed qualitative indicators that may be created for public communication by market pulp manufacturing companies:

• relevant environmental certifications that the company has earned and maintains;
• clean technologies employed in the industrial process (ECF or TCF bleaching, use of biomass fuel replacing fossil fuels, biological treatment of wastewater, composting or recycling of solid waste, etc.);
• absence of residual compounds that may be potentially harmful to human health, animals and ecosystems, when someone is using the company's products.

However, these qualitative indicators need to be complemented with quantitative indicators, which can always be monitored along the year and informed to stakeholders by reporting them in the sustainability reports. One of the goals of environmental indicators is to reveal the company's position in relation to companies of best practices and environmental performances. For this reason, it is necessary that also be displayed on sustainability reports, not just the numerical values found for these operations indexes, but the typical values for benchmarking operations of best practices and clean technologies. In case not happening this, the given and informed quantitative indicators are sterile and void numbers - they are not compared to others, being just figures. There are several sources where the best values in the P&P sector could be obtained, among which I mention the criteria of the Flower European Ecolabel for papers and the BREF reports on Pulp and Paper - Reference document on best available techniques in the pulp and paper industry - published by the European IPPC - Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau. Both are set to be downloaded in the literature references section for reading, at the end of this article.

The numerical or quantitative indicators of environmental performance may be classified according to several criteria, for example:

• source of fibrous raw material: percentage of wood from certified forests (FSC and/or CERFLOR/PEFC);
• legislated parameters for the industrial process: COD/BOD - chemical and biological oxygen demands; chlorinated halogens and other chlorinated organics; nitrogen and sulfur oxides; carbon dioxide from fossil fuels; methane; particulate matter in the flue gases, etc.;
• parameters representing the impact on the use of natural resources: the specific consumption of steam, wood, electricity, water, fossil fuels, etc.;
• generation of wastes, scraps and reworks: solid waste generation; rates of onsite reprocessing, etc.;
• levels of efficiency in the use of natural resources: energy efficiency; recovery efficiency of calcium and sodium ions in kraft recovery systems; efficiency in the manufacture of classified end-products, etc.

There are other ways to rank the quantitative criteria and indicators, based on their impacts on: Water (water pollution), Air (air pollution), Soil (solid waste), Natural Resources (fossil fuels, water, biodiversity), Energy (types of fuels and energy sources) and "Global Warning" (acid rain, greenhouse effect, ozone layer, etc.).

For all these cases, the selected indexes should be valid and of interest to stakeholders. They also need a lot of reliability. The measurements are recommended to be performed at accredited laboratories, engaged to metrologic and certified networks. If there are no clear explanations on how to measure or to sample items for the quantitative evaluation of these parameters, these are things to be scientifically developed. There is no way to benchmark and to monitor things when they are measured in different ways: this will just raise the confusion level, creating additional misunderstanding to stakeholders and to the companies themselves.

Recently, there are other figures that have become key indicators of environmental performance for industrial companies: they are called "carbon and water footprints". They are relevant to the forest-based sector. For that, P&P companies are already doing and disseminating successfully their calculations and impacts, whether positive or negative.

Another care to be taken is not having too many indicators for public demonstration. However, several other environmental performance indicators can be created internally in pulp and paper mills, for internal monitoring of areas and operations. On the other hand, for external and public communication, it is better to focus on those more relevant indexes and which are in line with what the stakeholders are willing to know about our operations and impacts. The excessive number of irrelevant information may even create confusion because some indicators may show different trends than others and being misunderstood. Because some indicators are interrelated, always make a relevant selection of them to present to the general public in the sustainability reports and on the company website.

My friends, even if a market pulp mill is designed and built according to the best available technologies, it may have impacts to the environment, and sometimes significantly. Everything will depend heavily on how the pulp mill will be operated and on the environmental commitment of the people who work there. In the cases of pulp and paper mills that are distant from the best and most modern technologies, additional efforts must be placed with a great focus on good environmental performance. I'm quite convinced that even the not so young mills are able to perform environmentally well; but in these cases, controls and commitments must be much larger and highly practiced in daily operations by everyone in the company.

Nowadays, the practice of dialogue, engagement and environmental responsibility are crucial to any kind of pulp and paper mills, whatever technological age they have: modern and state-of-the-art; or old, deserving modernization and rebuilding. Therefore, our final recommendation: we have to be eco-efficient. Environmental performance indicators are valuable tools to reach eco-efficiency. We must always improve, but to improve we need to want doing positive moves. To want anything, it is needed to know what to do. For doing right things, it is important to measure and to monitor vital indexes. All these steps could be well-orchestrated in any of our pulp and paper mills. It depends on the knowledge, good will and committed participation

I wish a lot of successes in the environmental achievements of all of you. Be also effective in communicating your environmental performance to stakeholders, among them I place myself very intense, curious and even incisively.

Literature references and suggestions for reading:

ISE/ICS - Indexes of Corporate Sustainability. BOVESPA - Sao Paulo Stock Exchange. PowerPoint presentation: 37 slides. Accessed on 16.09.2010: (In Portuguese)

DJSI - Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes. Dow Jones. Accessed on 19.09.2010: (In English) (Corporate sustainability) (Fact-sheets)

Indicators of sustainable development. ECIFM - The University of Reading. Accessed on 16.09.2010: (In English)

A dificuldade na escolha de indicadores ambientais de sustentabilidade de uma organizacao. (The difficulty on choosing environmental indicators of sustainability for an organization). J.A. Ferrari; M.M. Machado; M. Pavan; A.B. Ribeiro; F.C. Sedeno; D.L. Tavares. SENAC University Center. 06 pp. Accessed on 16.09.2010:,%20Jos%C3%A9%20Antonio%20F.i_2.pdf (In Portuguese with summary in English)

Um guia referencial sobre ecoeficiencia energetica para a industria de papel e celulose kraft de eucalipto no Brasil. (A reference guide on energy eco-efficiency to the Eucalyptus kraft pulp and paper industry in Brazil). C. Foelkel. Eucalyptus Online Book. Chapter 19. 140 pp. (2010) (In Portuguese)

Establishing the ecological criteria for the award of the E.U. Ecolabel for copying and graphic paper. European Commission. 19 pp. (2010)
(In English)

Um estudo sobre indicadores de sustentabilidade corporativa: analise de ferramentas e verificacao da aplicacao numa empresa de material de escritorio. (A study on corporate sustainability indicators: analysis of tools and verifying the implementation in a company of business office materials). A.L. Romano. Master Dissertation. UNIARA- University Center of Araraquara. 173 pp. (2010) (In Portuguese with a summary in English)

BREF Working Draft in Progress - Pulp and Paper – Reference document on best available techniques in the pulp and paper industry. The European IPPC – Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau. 746 pp. (2010) (In English)

Indicadores de desempenho ambiental do setor textil. (Environmental performance indicators to the textile industry). E.S. San Martin; E.Y.O. Bastian; J.L.S. Rocco; M.E. San Martin; W.O. Costa Jr. SindiTextil SP. 09 pp. (2010) (In Portuguese)

Benchmarking energetico na industria de celulose e papel. (Energy benchmarking in the pulp and paper industry). D.L. Bachmann. O Papel (July): 72-76. (2009)
(In Portuguese)

Benchmarking ambiental na industria de celulose e papel. (Environmental benchmarking in the pulp and paper industry). D.L. Bachmann. O Papel.(June): 57-61. (2009)
(In Portuguese)

Sistema de avaliacao de desempenho ambiental com base nos conceitos de PmaisL (SAPmaisL): promovendo a melhoria continua. (System of environmental performance evaluation based on the concepts of CP - Cleaner Production: promoting the continuous improvement). R.F.W. Neetzow; J. Oliveira; A.V. Souza. II International Workshop Advances in Cleaner Production. PowerPoint presentation: 29 slides. (2009)
(In Portuguese)

The role of sustainable development in corporate decision-making. C. Searcy. IISD - International Institute of Sustainable Development. 27 pp. (2009) (In English)

Sistemas de avaliacao ambiental na industria de celulose e papel. (Environmental systems evaluation in the pulp and paper industry). J.C.A. Mieli. Ph.D. Thesis. UFV - Federal University of Vicosa. 111 pp. (2007)
(In Portuguese)

Desempenho ambiental nas organizacoes – consideracoes sobre os indicadores propostos por instituicoes/entidades nacionais e estrangeiras. (Environmental performance in organizations - considerations on the indicators proposed by national and foreign institution's/ entities). C.M. Gamboa; U.A.O. Mattos; E.R. Silva. XXV ENEGEP. 08 pp. (2005) (In Portuguese)

E.U. eco-label. User’s manual for the application for eco-labelling copying and graphic paper. European Commission. Flower Eco-Label. 67 pp. (2003) (In English)

Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter
are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus.
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2007-2010

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