Good morning to all of you, my dear Eucalyptus friends,
we are again, with the 23rd issue of
our Eucalyptus Newsletter.
In this edition, as it is being usual, we are bringing a lot of information
and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. We
hope that this information may be useful to you and to the Eucalyptus. Remember that most of this knowledge we are sharing is being brought
to our World Society for a better understanding about the Eucalyptus. The aim is to offer knowledge in a way that everyone may learn more,
and to enjoy doing such. For this reason, we are forcing you, in some
extent, to browse through the web to grab as much on good information
as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books
and interesting events. I hope you may also, like me, admire these
trees and the products they offer to the Human Society. Our goal is
clear: to help our stakeholders to better understand the benefits that
Eucalyptus offer to humans, as far as they are planted in proper conditions
of Sustainability (and with personal and corporate responsibility).
For this to happen in ever increased intensity, we always provide many
suggestions, information and knowledge. The purpose is to raise the
level of understanding and knowledge about the Eucalyptus, something
absolutely necessary for the importance they play to humans.
This one is definitely a special
prepared with love, care and much respect and admiration. In it, we
are rescuing with the help of friends and organizations, the origins
of the Eucalyptus plantations for commercial use in Brazil. We will
also be honoring distinguished and renowned persons, who have given
the first steps for the Brazilian Eucalyptus plantation growth, particularly
in the state of Sao Paulo. We will also be delivering for public access,
and through this issue, several historical books of Edmundo
Navarro de Andrade and his colleagues, also great personalities on plantation
forestry: Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio
Vecchi. This offer to
the World Society an absolutely historic opportunity, that has been
made possible through the partnership between ABTCP; IPEF and Celsius
Degree, and the support of several people, including the agronomist
Alfredo Navarro de Andrade,
as you will soon know along this edition.
in the "The
World of the Eucalyptus" section,
we are telling about the state of Sao
Paulo and how it became the cradle
for the powerful development of the Eucalyptus plantation
forestry in Brazil and all associated knowledge, allowing the amazing
on forestry and utilization of these trees and woods, as well as spreading
and irradiating that pioneering know-how "for the rest of Brazil". In
particular, we have always to pay a tribute to the important historical
and renowned Horto Florestal de Rio Claro ("Rio Claro Forest Farm"),
today known as FEENA - "Edmundo
Navarro de Andrade" Sao
Paulo State Forest, a historic landmark in forestry,
environment and anthropology that Brazil has on the own lands.
addition to this and exactly for that reason, the Ester Foelkel's
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" tells
us this time about "railway sleepers
produced from Eucalyptus wood". This
was one of the first aimed uses for the introduction of commercial
tree plantations in Brazil. The former and also historical
railway company known as Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro (http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Companhia_Paulista_
de_Estradas_de_Ferro), early in the 1900's, became the first
and most important force to leverage the use of wood from plantations
in the country. Paulista Railways Co. has supported the ideas and researches
of the technical group headed by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade. The purposes
for the plantations were to obtain wood to supply fuel to the locomotives
and raw materials for wooden poles, fence posts and railway sleepers.
These purposes were fully met by the Eucalyptus genus, with several species
of trees planted by the Navarro de Andrade's forest team. Again, the Eucalyptus helping to reach results and achieve benefits to our society.
And this is already happening in Brazil for more than a century.
of the enormous addition of technological knowledge made in Brazil
and elsewhere in the world, Eucalyptus trees have fast become one
of the main sources of wooden raw materials for industrial processes
and for many in-home purposes. With their woods, fibers, essential
oils and other substances extracted from them and from their forests,
Eucalyptus plantations provide raw materials for power generation,
papermaking, wood panels, furniture, pharmaceuticals, detergents,
etc. These facts happen in many regions of our planet. Therefore,
and again, our esteemed friend of the Eucalyptus, Gustavo
Iglesias Trabado updated his "Eucalyptus World
Map", placing it
in the web and making it freely available to all stakeholders. You
may find now the most updated version of the statistics of Eucalyptus plantations on Earth. This edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter again
promotes this initiative coming from our dear friend Gus, who is
always working towards improving the knowledge about the Eucalyptus.
Our mini-article in this issue could not tell you anything else than
a short biography about "the pioneers
of Eucalyptus plantations
in Brazil: Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio
Vecchi". With a simple text, but with many references listed and
offered for further reading, we're paying our tribute and due recognition
to these outstanding persons in the world of the Eucalyptus forestry.
These three gentlemen have been of utmost importance for helping developing
the Eucalyptus plantations for providing benefits to the World Society.
With their determination, motivation, skills and strong wish to overcome
the difficulties and challenges, they have offered to us a cultural and
environmental legacy, so that we could nowadays continue their work.
Much of these achievements can be enjoyed on a visit to the "Eucalyptus Museum", which is located in the lands of FEENA - "Edmundo
Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest, in Rio Claro, SP.
there is much value to you browse within our traditional sections
such as: Online Technical References, Euca-Links and Online
Digital Magazines. At this newsletter edition, these three sections have
been oriented to a strong link to Sao Paulo state and to the Eucalyptus pioneers.
I hope you may enjoy and like this edition selected themes.
case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus
Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus
Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following
here for registration.
We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus
Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI,
RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE,
AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel
Florestal and INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales. They are helping
to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries
such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina,
Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay and South Africa. However, thanks to
the world wide web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project
to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing
in what we are doing in favor of the Eucalyptus. Know more about all
of our today’s partners and meet them at the URL address:
you all for the support to our work. We have already exceeded our
target of registered readers, when about 11,500 people are getting
monthly these online publications about the Eucalyptus.
Now, our goal for this year is to always keep that number above 10,000
actually receiving, opening and reading our publications. I beg your
help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends,
in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please,
accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius
ABTCP, Botnia, International Paper do
Brasil, KSH-CRA Engenharia, Suzano, Fibria and from
the supporting partners.
Our best wishes and a hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading.
We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.
- "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest
World of the Eucalyptus - Sao Paulo State - Brazil
Technical References - Historical Books about the Eucalyptus written by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio
and Octavio Vecchi
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus: Railway Sleepers
made from Eucalyptus Woods - (by Ester Foelkel)
Eucalyptus World Map
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio
and Octavio Vecchi
- "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest
When I set myself out to write something
about the unforgettable Horto de Rio Claro (Rio
Claro Forest Farm),
as "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao
Paulo State Forest, an
area of environmental conservation and natural preservation in the
state of Sao Paulo, I was divided between bringing something technical
about the forest or to tell you about the emotions that this area adds
to anybody, because of rich biodiversity and landscaping. The inhabitants
of Rio Claro very well know this fact. After all, there are hundreds
of people in the region, who every day visit the forest to interact
with the natural environment, managing to practice sports, hiking,
biking, running for fresh air and to relax the mind. In my case, the
Horto Florestal de Rio Claro, as I first met in late 1966 or early
1967 - I do not remember the exact timing - meant the choice of my
professional career. At that time, I was starting the undergraduate
course in agronomy at ESALQ - College of Agriculture "Luiz de
Queiroz", in Piracicaba, only a few kilometers from Rio Claro.
Since I was used to travel in the region to discover new landscapes,
one day I decided to go to the Horto Florestal in Rio Claro for a visit.
I was starting the second year of agronomy, without knowing exactly
what would be my area of concentration: I was in doubts about swine
farming, biochemistry, plant physiology, soil mineralogy - in short,
they were all sciences that I was attracted for. However, a simple
visit to the Rio Claro Forest Farm was enough to speed up my heart-beating
and to allow me to elect forestry as my choice of expertise in agronomy.
Definitely, a choice that I am proud to have made - a privilege this
career. In addition to that early selection, at ESALQ, in its freshman
year, we had lessons with one of the most renowned experts in forestry
in Brazil, Dr. Helladio do Amaral Mello. This was enough to strengthen
my vocation. The pieces of the puzzle finally fell into places for
the composition of my professional career until today.
Just a couple of weeks ago, I was re-visiting the Rio Claro forest
farm, together with my great teacher and friend Dr. Luiz Ernesto
George Barrichelo, partner in this project to rescue in digital format the
historical books of Edmundo Navarro de Andrade and his team/friends.
The emotions are huge in a visit like this, not just for someone like
me who got a career born from that forest, as earlier mentioned. It's
definitely a privilege to visit this forest area, see the thriving
biodiversity in the ecosystems; the rich and diverse understorey growing
alongside majestic Eucalyptus trees. All in perfect harmony and intriguing
eco-environmental partnership. It's hard to imagine why some people
still oppose so strongly trees as magnificent as the Eucalyptus ones.
The FEENA is a living example that they are absolutely vital and dynamic
part of Brazilian Nature. Moreover, the colonial farm that has housed
these plantations, reveals a fascinating history of the period of Italian
immigration, the colonial plantations of coffee, etc. There is still
much historical value associated to the former owner - Paulista Railways,
especially in the objects placed for visitors admiration at the Eucalyptus Museum and at the Solar (Edmundo's house - where he lived with his
wife for 25 years). Surely, the emotional aspects are outweighed on
top of the technical ones, very easily in an ecosystem like this.
In this past and recent visit, Mrs. Denise Zanchetta (director of FEENA)
had the role to be our host, doing this with enormous affinity and
motivation. The enthusiasm to talk about the forest and about Navarro
de Andrade easily rose to the point that our initial goal in this project,
which was to have 4 books in digital format, has grown to 10 - that
is, all we had available at our libraries. There is much to be seen
in that forest, such as magnificent trees and a lot of biodiversity
in flora and fauna. Only the Eucalyptus species planted as forest stands
are over 60, in stands ranging from 2 to 100 years of age. There are
some species that are more abundant, more intensively planted, such
as: Eucalyptus grandis, E.saligna, E.microcorys, E.paniculata,
E.tereticornis, Corymbia citriodora and C.maculata. C. citriodora (29.9%) and E.tereticornis (11.9%) are today the species with larger planted areas. Two amazing
things to be seen in FEENA are the so called "Collection of Eucalyptus Species" and also the "Arboretum". They are areas where
Edmundo Navarro de Andrade planted side by side different species of
Eucalyptus trees to evaluate their behavior in the region, as well
as species of Brazilian native flora (at the Arboretum). Also, there
is a "Collection of Pinus species". In fact, Edmundo had
the target to maintain a living collection of genetic material to allow
visitation, research and demonstration. On my first visit to the forest,
about 40 years ago, I made a small collection of Eucalyptus fruits,
grabbed from these collections, by picking sneakly up some stuff that
was on the ground. I have these fruits till now, so they are with me
for over 40 years. Another majestic view is the fantastic scenery which
gives us an avenue of Corymbia citriodora old-trees, with its ancient
trees with stout and twisted branches. An unforgettable sight. However,
not only Eucalyptus trees exist there: they can also be found stands
of Araucaria angustifolia, Pinus and some Brazilian native species.
Naturally grown trees, shrubs and native grasses are abundant and diverse,
living harmoniously with the Eucalyptus trees - a living demonstration
of biodiversity that can coexist in these plantation forests.
The Rio Claro Forest Farm was acquired in various parts by the once
important Paulista Railways. In 1909, exactly 100 years ago, Paulista
acquired the first piece of land plus existing facilities, which consisted
of some colonial designed houses and some historical buildings that
correspond to the homes of the Italian immigrant farm-workers. The
farming crop prevalent at that time was the coffee. As soon the farm
in Rio Claro was acquired, it became the headquarters of the Paulista
Railways Forest Service. There, the company built a small town for
railway workers, brick kilns, deposits, and other required facilities
for the success of socio-economic development at the time and place.
Gradually, other tracts have been bought up to more than 3,100 hectares.
However, over the years, some areas have been expropriated or sold,
up to now to have the 2,230 hectares that make up the current FEENA.
The actual collection of Eucalyptus species has greatly been reduced,
as a result of the various philosophies and administrative changes,
and other reasons (forest fires, etc.). Today, we have just over 60
species in plantations as stands, when originally, there is the mention
that 144 were introduced.
A major benefit that the conversion of this forest farm into a Sao
Paulo State Forest offers to the Brazilian people is that now this
area is a conservation area protected by this state. The basic condition
for an area to be converted into State Forest in Sao Paulo is that
the area of environmental preservation must exceed 50% of the total.
In this specific case, FEENA has 44% of the area being managed for
purposes of commercial use and 56% being preserved by historical, cultural,
environmental and biodiversity reasons.
The FEENA is now under the ownership of the Sao Paulo Institute of
however, the administration and management are in charge of the Foundation
for the Conservation
and Forest Production of the State of Sao Paulo - Forestry Foundation,
taken both as some of the most important environmental institution's
in Brazil. Furthermore, there is an agreement with the municipality
of Rio Claro, for it to take part as co-manager of the State Forest,
aiming to increase tourist activities, leisure, cultural, environmental
and historical aspects in the city of Rio Claro and region (http://jornalcidade.uol.com.br/rioclaro/municipios/rio_claro/43594-Feena-passa-a-ser-administrada-em-cogestao).
It is also important to highlight that part of the forest is also inserted
in Santa Gertrudes municipality, which is also associated with these
socio-environmental benefits. Since the Paulista Railways had many
forest farms in the state of Sao Paulo to produce wood for their own
use along the beds of the railroads, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade had
roots that vigorously covered the entire state of Sao Paulo. For this
reason, the city of Sao Carlos, near Rio Claro, has also a City Forest
Farm open to the public - also called City Forest "Edmundo Navarro
As a special courtesy offered by Mrs. Denise Zanchetta, we got her
permission to make public the Master Plan of Forestry Management, developed
for FEENA, which was published in 2005 and is now being implemented
in the forest management, as a guide. We have also searched the web
to offer you more euca-links about FEENA. Thereby, we may all learn
more about this precious gem that exists in Brazil. It is up to us
Brazilians to ensure that this great heritage be saved and preserved
- more than this, to result in continuous benefits to our Society and
to the environment. Whether or not in some past times in the history
of our country, this forest farm has been overlooked by some business,
political and public people and by citizens, now we cannot let that
it happen again. Neither the forest-based sector can stay away from
this process of conservation of this heritage, neither the ordinary
citizens. This is a unique richness about the Eucalyptus and the environment
that we have in our lands. It's time to move, and fast. The Eucalyptus and the environment demand it. The people of Rio Claro, too.
Know more about the "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao
Paulo State Forest, that in this specific year of 2009 completes its first
century since it was created in Rio Claro (http://www.iflorestal.sp.gov.br/eventos/FOLDER_100_ANOS.pdf),
visiting the following references:
Plano de manejo da FEENA - Floresta Estadual "Edmundo Navarro
de Andrade". (FEENA - Master plan of forest management). IE -
Instituto Florestal de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo Forestry Institute) and
Forestry Foundation - Foundation for the Conservation and Forest Production
of the Sao Paulo State. Relevant excerpts. (2005) (in Portuguese)
Floresta Estadual "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" - Unidade
de conservacao e de uso sustentavel. (FEENA - Conservation unit and
sustainable use). IE/FEENA technical staff. PowerPoint and PDF presentation:
27 slides. (2005) (in Portuguese)
Conhecendo a floresta. 100 anos de existencia. Centenario do Horto
Florestal de Rio Claro. (Knowing the forest. 100 years of existence.
First centennial anniversary of FEENA). C.S. Daher; D. Zanchetta; F.H.
Sampaio. J.O. Noale; L.C. Moura; R.J. Camarinho; S.R. Christofoletti.
Forestry Foundation/Institute of Forestry. 65 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese)
Horto Florestal Edmundo Navarro de Andrade. (Rio Claro Forest Farm).
Wikipedia Digital Encyclopedia. Accessed on 24.09.2009
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horto_Florestal_Edmundo_Navarro_de_Andrade (in Spanish)
A introducao do eucalipto no Brasil completa 100 anos. (The introduction
of Eucalyptus in Brazil celebrates 100 years). Augusto Jeronimo Martini.
Canal Rio Claro. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
A trajetoria do eucalipto. (The trajectory of Eucalyptus). Augusto
Jeronimo Martini. Canal Rio Claro. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
Um pouco mais sobre meio ambiente, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade e a Floresta
Estadual. (A little more about the environment, Edmundo Navarro de
Andrade and the State Forest). Augusto Jeronimo Martini. Canal Rio
Claro. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
Sinopse historica da Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro. (Historical
synopsis of Paulista Railways Company). Joao Baptista Soares de Faria
Lago. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade. (Navarro de Andrade Forest Farm
in Rio Claro). Marco Aurelio Alvares da Silva. Accessed on 24.09.2009.
Floresta Estadual Edmundo Navarro de Andrade - Rio Claro. ("Edmundo
Navarro de Andrade" State Forest - Rio Claro). Sao Paulo State
Forestry Institute. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
Um pouco da historia... (A short history...). Visite Rio Claro. Accessed
on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
Pontos historico-culturais da Floresta. (Historical and cultural points
of the State Forest). Jornal da Cidade. Rio Claro. Accessed on 24.09.2009.
Amigos do Horto - Rio Claro. (Friends of the Forest
Farm - Rio Claro). Associacao Amigos do Horto Florestal Navarro de
Andrade. Friends of
the Horto. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
A Floresta Estadual Edmundo Navarro de Andrade como um espaco
de contradicoes : entre a memoria e o esquecimento. (The "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" State
Forest as a room for contradictions: between memory and negligence).
L.A. Joinhas. PhD Thesis. UNICAMP - State University of Campinas. 224
pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)
of the "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao
Paulo State Forest:
Friends of the Horto - NGO images:
Pictures by Celso Foelkel, Luiz Ernesto Barrichelo and FEENA staff:
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/GalleryFE_01/ (FEENA - Administrative
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/GalleryFE_02/ (FEENA - Forest ecosystems)
The Eucalyptus Museum is
one of the treasures found in the areas of "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" State
Forest. This is a large colonial-style pavilion that was gradually
and converted into a museum since 26/03/1916. Its purpose has been
to house examples of practical applications, local biodiversity,
documents, various types of printed materials and numerous and diverse
products that were made from Eucalyptus woods and trees. The idealization
of this museum project arose from the need noted by Navarro de Andrade
and his forestry staff (and also by Paulista Railways executives)
to present the Eucalyptus to the Brazilian people. It was very large
the number of questions, doubts and visits from local people wondering
to know more about these trees, which according to Navarro de Andrade
were intended for any purpose. As there were still some criticism
about these plantations (which competed with agricultural and grazing
cattle lands) and since users were also misinformed about the potential
of these woods, Paulista Railways supported once again the Edmundo's
creativity in the construction of the museum. In fact, the museum
was, at that time, more a kind of demonstration field for the products
and applications of Eucalyptus, than a real museum for the storage
of historical things from the past. That's why it could be defined
as a living and interactive museum, which had constantly new additions
as new uses of the Eucalyptus woods were being developed. In addition,
the museum had also the mission to introduce the Paulista Railways
to visitors, its history and achievements. The whole museum building
is heavily filled with products made from wood of several species
of Eucalyptus and Corymbia: floors, windows, ceilings, doors, poles,
railway sleepers, furniture, handmade ornaments, shelves, etc. There
are also industrial and commercial products manufactured from Eucalyptus,
both used by the former Paulista Railways, and other industrial products,
including paper. Visitors were encouraged to touch and handle the
pieces of wood to feel their textures, their densities, resistances,
etc. The Paulista, as the company was called, had in the Eucalyptus wood the required raw material to power the ond-fashioned steam locomotives
and also for using in railway sleepers, fence posts, poles, buildings
and houses, etc.
In addition, the museum presents several practical aspects of forest
plantations, forest harvesting, pests and ants control, and a section
on seedling production (including an old-designed machine for manufacturing "torrao
paulista", a type of prehistoric container to plant seeds to
grow seedlings). You also may find several references and examples
of regional flora and fauna of Brazil. A kind of interactive class
attendance to the many students who every day visit these facilities.
Navarro de Andrade and his staff have always been very demanding
on diversification of uses, testing the full potential of many species
of Eucalyptus. The "Collection
of Eucalyptus Species" (1919)
and the "Arboretum" (1937 - with over 200 plant species)
were implanted for comparison and demonstration purposes. These collections
still exist as living museums of Eucalyptus in Brazil. In this forest
farm, 144 species of Eucalyptus and Corymbia were tested - some were
unable to adapt, but most still show their majesty to the curious
visitors. Navarro de Andrade was always enchanted with the differences
of colors, designs, resistances, densities and other characteristics
of these woods. He always had the aim for the best potential use,
whether it would be as firewood, charcoal, paper, furniture, ceilings,
construction material, etc. There is a historical paper reel in the
museum, corresponding to some of the first papers produced from Rio
Claro Eucalyptus wood. You may find also copies of the newspaper "O
Diario de Sao Paulo - Sao Paulo Daily" - edition of 19/05/1934
- made from a paper containing Eucalyptus fibers in the pulp composition.
All of these amazing collections deserve to be seen,
admired and preserved because they are cultural and historical legacies
Brazilian forest-based sector. With this in mind, the current administration
of the museum created a "time
capsule", containing relevant
historical documents from FEENA and the city of Rio Claro. This capsule
was buried in September 2009, only to be opened 100 years ahead.
That is, at the time FEENA will complete its second centennial anniversary.
This capsule will rest for 100 years next to Edmundo's statue, in
front of the museum building. It's up to us, people of this vast
Brazilian country, to help conserve all this heritage in order to
perpetuate the whole story for many centuries more.
Next to the building that houses the museum, there is also another
historic building, which could very well be said that it would be
an important annex of the museum. It is known as Solar, or the "Edmundo
Navarro de Andrade's Home", where he lived for 25 years with
his wife Angelita Navarro de Andrade. This house, in colonial style,
was the main building of Fazenda Santo Antonio. It was used to house
the former owners of the farm, people of noble origin and belonging
to the Sao Paulo coffee planters elite. Today, the Solar houses an
important collection of furniture, books and photographs. In Solar,
everything that is taking some space has something to do with the
Eucalyptus - furniture, books, shelves, ornaments, pictures, telephones
- an enormous richness and diversity of products derived from the
Other precious gems that FEENA has, but that are not part of the
Museum (but that might well be) are the "Herbaria
of Eucalyptus Species", with hundreds of unique preserved specimens. One of
these herbaria (with 95 species) was a gift from famous New South
Wales Eucalyptus-researcher, Dr. Joseph Henry Maiden (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Maiden).
Dr. Maiden received Edmundo in Australia in 1913 for a type of training
and he became fascinated with Edmundo's knowledge and enthusiasm
to the mission he was playing in Brazil. In the remaining of these
herbaria, hundreds of specimens were produced from material collected
from the various Eucalyptus forest farms in Sao Paulo state and in
other regions of Brazil by the technical personnel of the Paulista
Railways Forest Service. There are also other species in the herbaria,
such as native species from Brazil, Pinus, etc. Some of the best
herbaria in the country. As a suggestion to the FEENA management,
I recommend to have these herbaria placed online through the web.
Something to help the Brazilians and the Eucalyptus world.
A clear conclusion from all those visiting FEENA as a whole is that
Edmundo was not just a renowned agronomist, who successfully developed
the silviculture of Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil oriented to
many industrial uses. He did all this, but with great passion and
vigorous enthusiasm, with great love and competence. He tried, in
every way he had at the time, to communicate to the Brazilian society
the benefits that could be obtained from these wonderful trees. In
case we could have Edmundo living today with us, with the available
facilities of the media, he certainly would teach us a lot with his
passionate way to do things and to promote his truths. Much more
than a pioneer, I see in Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, one of the most
talented and determined innovators I've heard in our industry. A
great pity that I cannot meet him in person.
Know more about the Eucalyptus Museum and the Solar through these
selected reference and image collections:
Museu do eucalipto: as mil e uma utilidades do eucalipto
mostradas em um museu de Sao Paulo. (Eucalyptus museum: the one thousand and
one uses of the Eucalyptus are proved in a museum in Sao Paulo state).
Joao Teixeira. O Papel (August, 2002). (in Portuguese)
Museu do Eucalipto. (Eucalyptus Museum). Marco Aurelio Alvares da
Silva. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
Images of the Eucalyptus Museum and the Solar where Edmundo Navarro
de Andrade lived in FEENA, Rio Claro / SP - Brazil:
%22museu+do+eucalipto%22&btnG=Pesquisar+imagens&aq=f&oq=&start=0 (Eucalyptus Museum)
BR&sa=1&q=%22casa+de+navarro+de+andrade%22&btnG=Pesquisar+imagens&aq=f&oq=&start=0 (Edmundo's house or Solar)
hp&q=solar+%22edmundo+navarro+de+andrade%22&gbv=2&aq=f&oq (Edmundo's house or Solar)
Pictures by Celso Foelkel, Luiz Ernesto Barrichelo and FEENA staff:
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/GalleryFE_03/ (Eucalyptus Museum)
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/GalleryFE_04/ (Solar or Edmundo Navarro
de Andrade's home)
World of the Eucalyptus
Sao Paulo State - Brazil
The state of Sao Paulo is the main economic powerhouse
in Brazil. This is due to the dynamic and modern industry and competitive
agro-business;; to the impressive networking of services; to the hard-working
people it houses; to the universities and qualified research institution's;
to the special infrastructure (ports, airports and mainly roads), and
so on. For these reasons, virtually all large Brazilian companies choose
to have headquarters or commercial offices in Sao Paulo. Also, Sao Paulo
houses hundreds of technical and business associations, unions, consulting
and engineering firms, etc. Sao Paulo is definitely the nervous center
of Brazil, either economic, educational and intellectual.
In an area of 248,3 square kilometers lives a population of around 40
million inhabitants. In the metropolitan area of the state capital, the "Great
Sao Paulo city", there is an estimate of between 16 and 18 million
people living and working. One could say that Sao Paulo has economic
dimensions and the population of many countries of our planet.
Sao Paulo industry is thriving in almost all sectors, as well as is the
forest-based industry. This last stands out in particular with the production
of pulp and paper, furniture, wood panels and fiberboard, wood products
with higher added value (frames, floors, ceilings, windows, etc.), essential
oils, rubber, etc. Equally strong is the agro-business, which has sugar
cane, orange, soybean, fruits and vegetables, coffee and livestock as
some of the most impressive numbers. Plantations of Eucalyptus, Pinus
and Hevea brasiliensis also are outstanding. Sao Paulo has now a total
forest cover of 4.6 million hectares, which equals to 18.5% of its land
area. From this total, about 1.2 million hectares are planted forests
- Eucalyptus (935,000 hectares), Pinus (298,000 ha) and rubber-tree (77,000
ha). That is, the total area of plantation forests is equivalent to 4.8%
of the state territorial area. We must add on top of this, the significant
preservation area of natural forests owned by the forest-based sector,
which is without any doubt one of the greatest preserved areas of natural
resources in the state.
Sao Paulo is now the second largest producer of planted forests in Brazil,
only behind the state of Minas Gerais, which has 1.43 million hectares
(Eucalyptus in MG = 1,28 milion ha and Pinus = 145.000 ha). About 26
million cubic meters of logs are harvested each year from the plantation
forests to supply wood to the industry, to biomass power-boilers, as
well as smaller businesses that depend on firewood (restaurants, potteries,
bakeries, etc.). The largest consumer is the pulp and paper industry,
which consumes 65% of the grand total. Besides the industrial use, it
is significant the consumption of wood for power generation in biomass
boilers. It is estimated that this represents about 11 million cubic
meters of firewood. It also deserves to be emphasized the production
of Eucalyptus leaves (13,200 tonnes) for the production of essential
oils. For this use, the main species is Corymbia citriodora, which yields
between 10 to 18 kg of essential oil per ton of distilled leaves. In
this oil extract, the content of citronellal corresponds to 65 to 88% (http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/scientia/nr56/cap11.pdf).
The state of Sao Paulo ranks also as the largest Brazilian producer of
natural rubber from rubber-tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis).
There are huge expectations for rapid growth of rubber-tree forest plantations
in the northern state of Sao Paulo
The main destination of Eucalyptus plantations in Sao Paulo is for the
production of pulp and paper. Sao Paulo is the largest Brazilian producer
of white paper for printing and writing purposes (1.97 million tonnes
in 2008, ie - 69% of the country production). It also produces several
types of specialty papers, packaging papers, cardboard, tissue papers,
etc. Thus, the state share in the production of all types of paper in
Brazil is 43%. In bleached hardwood pulp, it corresponds to 34%. Numbers
that are definitely significant.
It is perfectly possible to say that thanks to the plantation forests,
the state of Sao Paulo meets its domestic demand for timber, wooden-based
manufacturing products, and local demands for various other forest products.
It also generates surplus to export to other Brazilian states and foreign
countries. This results in the creation of jobs, income, wealth and happiness
to people. As a consequencet, the planted forests are fundamental issue
for the economy and welfare of the population.
All this forestry activity began just over a century ago, when the first
Eucalyptus plantations were successfully tested by Paulista
Railways Co. in Jundiai, and soon after, in 1909, at the the Rio Claro Forest
Farm, known today as "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" State Forest.
Paulista Railways Co. had a huge consumption of wood for fueling steam
locomotives, and to produce sleepers and fence posts. The estimates for
that time were that about 600,000 m³ of roundwood/year were needed
as firewood and 1,000,000 sleepers required per year. Besides Paulista
Railways, there were other railways with the same high wood consumption
rates in the state: Mogiana, Sorocaba, Noroeste, Bragantina, Central
do Brasil and Santos-Jundiai. To meet all this demand for wood, an annual
harvest of 35,000 hectares of native forests were needed. Moreover, the
native forests were becoming more distant from the consumers. The wood
supply model had to be changed, and fast.
With this tremendous threat and huge forest products demand, a new forest
process was born in Brazil, having the state of Sao Paulo as the birthplace.
Thus motivated, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade embraced the cause of planting
forests in Sao Paulo. First, through Paulista Railways Co., and soon
after, for the entire state of Sao Paulo. This because, in 1911, the
State Government decided to streamline the State Forest Service, a body
linked to the Secretariat of Agriculture at the time. Navarro de Andrade
was named superintendent for that body. This enabled Edmundo to work
his project to plant Eucalyptus trees in both Paulista Railways and together
rural farmers in the state.
Edmundo Navarro de Andrade strongly emphasized the economic aspects of
forestry during his time as State Forest Service superintendent, offending
with this policy some more scientific researchers, as Alberto Loefgren,
which had important role in scientific research at the Botanical Institute
of Sao Paulo. This has not intimidated Edmundo, who was always very determined.
He was also in accordance with the dominant state political forces to
accomplish his mission, in which he had a strong belief of the value.
It is reported that Navarro de Andrade was responsible for planting nearly
24 million Eucalyptus trees in the state of Sao Paulo, which has given
to him the label of "the father of Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil".
Sao Paulo plantations served as an example to other Brazilian states,
such as Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. Soon, there
were Eucalyptus planted throughout Brazil. The initial well-succeed
species were: E.saligna, E.grandis, E.botryoides, E.viminalis, E.tereticornis,
E.robusta, E.urophylla (E.alba "Rio Claro"), E.paniculata,
Corymbia citriodora, Corymbia maculata, E.camaldulensis, E.pilularis,
E.microcorys, E.triantha, E.punctata, among others. At that time,
there was also the knowledge about hybridization. The hybrid "Eucalyptus
paulistana" was developed, which was referred as a natural hybrid
of Eucalyptus globulus and E.robusta.
By knowing this brief history, we can conclude that the cultivation of Eucalyptus was introduced precisely to meet the demand for wood that
was missing in the state of Sao Paulo. With the reforestation program,
the natural resources, already so degraded by the cycles of coffee and
sugar cane, could be preserved and conserved as a natural heritage. The
way to sustainable development has early been discovered in Sao Paulo.
Till early 1960s, the estimates provide inaccurate numbers that are not
very definitive in the areas of planted Eucalyptus in Brazil. There was
the belief that by that time 80% of the Brazilian Eucalyptus plantations
were located in the state of Sao Paulo. It is estimated that in Sao Paulo
state there were something between 400 to 600 thousand hectares of Eucalyptus plantations at that time. Paulista Railways had 18 forest farms with
total area of 24,387 hectares and about
42.6 million Eucalyptus trees (data from 1957). The difference is exactly
the proof of success for the promotion and motivation for others also
to plant Eucalyptus trees in the state. From its own Eucalyptus plantations,
the Paulista Railways Forest Service had supplied, until December 1957,
a total of approximately 6.65 million cubic meters of firewood. Also
they have placed on the market nearly 36 thousand kilograms of selected
and improved Eucalyptus seeds to leverage the plantations in Brazil.
Due to the great demand for wood to feed future industrial projects,
the Brazilian Federal Government promoted, from 1966 till mid-80's, a
program of fiscal incentives for reforestation to increase the area of
plantations and to raise the offer of wood. From that time until now,
Brazil has increased its planted area to about 3.8 million hectares of
Eucalyptus forests. These millions of trees that currently exist in all
states of the country are offering their fibers, leaves, woods and barks
for the people of the Brazilian nation for household, industrial and
The main and most outstanding success was the Eucalyptus bleached pulp
and paper manufacturing industry. This "Brazilian invention" started
with tests at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, USA,
with material carried by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade in 1924, and completed
studies by 1925. Several companies started to use the Eucalyptus fibers
from 1930 onwards, such as: Gordinho Braune, Cicero Prado, Melhoramentos,
Suzano, Simao, etc. Cia Suzano de Papel e Celulose is one of the pioneers
in the world to produce bleached kraft pulp, and soon after, white printing
paper containing 100% of Eucalyptus bleached fibers as fibrous raw material.
This historic fact happened from the mid 1950's to early 1960's
All these historical facts were coming together magnificently, allowing
the construction of a successful and sustainable forest-based industry,
which has been converted into a paradigm of success and achievements
in Brazil. This path of success began with planted forests for firewood
and railway sleepers, evolved to produce pulp and paper, fiberboard,
wood panels, etc. Today, the result of this road is that almost all the
country's wood products contains some Eucalyptus. Just as dreamed
and preached by Dr. Edmundo Navarro de Andrade.
In addition to the below mentioned literature references, practically
all references and euca-links provided in this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter
are related to the state of Sao Paulo and the history of Eucalyptus in
its early years as plantations in Brazil. One newsletter issue that aims
to help to perpetuate this wonderful story. It consists also in
a way to disclose to Brazilian Society about our history, achievements
and developments. And also, about our aspirations to continually seek
the sustainable development road, something that has also been pursued
by Edmundo and his team, even without knowing the meaning of the word
References of literature and suggestions for reading:
Relatorio estatistico BRACELPA 2008/2009. (2008/2009 BRACELPA Statistics
Report). BRACELPA - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Association. 58 pp. Accessed
on 02.10.2009. (in Portuguese)
Eucaliptocultura. (Eucalyptus planting). Cia Suzano de Papel e Celulose.
Accessed on 25.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
O eucalipto no Brasil. (The Eucalyptus in Brazil). Minas Gerais State
House of Representatives. Accessed on 25.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
Papel com celulose de eucalipto. (Paper and pulp from Eucalyptus). Inventa
Brasil. A Gallery of Brazilian Inventors. Accessed em 25.09.2009. (in
Valor da producao florestal do estado de Sao Paulo em 2008. (The value
of the 2008 forest production in Sao Paulo state). E.P. Castanho Filho;
P.J. Coelho; J.A. Angelo; L.F.C.A. Feijo. Informacoes Economicas 39(6):
89 - 93. (2009) (in Portuguese)
Anuario estatistico da ABRAF: ano base 2008. (2009 ABRAF Forest Statistics
Yearbook: base year - 2008). ABRAF - Brazilian Association of Planted
Forest Producers. 129 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese and English)
http://www.abraflor.org.br/estatisticas/ABRAF09-BR.pdf (in Portuguese)
http://www.abraflor.org.br/estatisticas/ABRAF09-EN.pdf (in English)
Producao da extracao vegetal e da silvicultura 2007. (2007 Report - Production
of the plant extraction and silviculture). IBGE - Brazilian Institute
of Geography and Statistics. 45 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)
Estudo setorial ABIMCI: ano base 2007. (ABIMCI Sectorial Study - Base
year 2007). ABIMCI - Associacao Brasileira da Industria de Madeira Processada
Mecanicamente - Brazilian Association of the Mechanically Processed Wood
Industry. 56 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)
Fatos e numeros do Brasil florestal. (Facts and numbers of the Brazilian
forestry). SBS - Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura - Brazilian Society
of Silviculture. 110 pp. (2007) (in Portuguese)
O eucalipto - Um seculo no Brasil. The eucalypt - a
century in Brazil. L.R.S. Queiroz; L.E.G. Barrichelo. Duratex/Ministerio da Cultura. 132
pp. (2007) (in Portuguese and English)
Os eucaliptos no Brasil. (The Eucalyptus in Brazil). C. Foelkel. Eucalyptus
Newsletter # 05. (2006) (in Portuguese and English)
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newseng_jul06.html#quatorze (in English)
Melhoramento genetico dos eucaliptos. (Eucalyptus forest tree breeding).
M. Ferreira. Revista Opinioes. March/May. (2006) (in Portuguese)
A genese da agricultura e da silvicultura moderna no Estado de Sao Paulo.
(The genesis of the modern agriculture and silviculture in the state
of Sao Paulo). M.R. Ferraro. Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP - University
of Sao Paulo. 120 pp. (2005) (in Portuguese)
A contribuicao do setor de sementes do LCF/IPEF para a silvicultura
intensiva brasileira. (The contribution of the LCF/IPEF seed supply section to
the highly intensive silviculture in Brazil). M. Ferreira. IPEF 46: 08
- 31. (1993) (in Portuguese)
Ligeiras notas historicas e estatisticas. (Historical and statistical
short brief notes). Forest Service. Paulista Railways Co. 11 pp. (1958)
http://www.rc.unesp.br/ib/ecologia/caeco/biblioteca.htm (You may find
a copy to borrow from)
Books about the Eucalyptus written by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade,
Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi
The agronomist Edmundo
Navarro de Andrade (1881-1941)
was definitively a great Brazilian, author of one of the greatest achievements
for the economy, science, technology and to the Brazilian Society.
By studying with determination, technical skills and great passion
the Eucalyptus for planting and managing them in fast-growing forests
in the country, he was able to develop a creative and pioneering forest
plantation activity in Brazil. This started as early researches in
Jundiai/SP, in 1904, and then in Rio Claro/SP, 1909. He placed in fertile
ground the seeds for the success of the current Brazilian silviculture
forestry. Now-a-days, the Eucalyptus plantations produced and managed
in Brazil are the most productive in the world, thanks not only to
genetics and adaptation of these trees to regional conditions, but
also a lot depending on people, who have diligently dedicated themselves
to study, research, optimize , innovate and develop technologies for
achieving such high productivity and sustainability.
However, Navarro de Andrade has not placed emphasis on just achieving
a great success in his professional career as a well-succeeded agronomist.
He had also to prove that his ideas were feasible and with good level
of sustainability (at that time, with other names and words). In addition,
he had also to promote and encourage new partners for production of
wood to supply the Paulista Railway Co. (http://www.geocities.com/jblago/cpef_historia.html),
heavily demanding for wooden raw materials and wood/biomass energy.
Therefore, besides creating an Eucalyptus Museum, in Rio Claro, to
promote the planting and the uses of Eucalyptus woods, he looked to
all the advantages of the Eucalyptus to convert these magic trees into
benefits to Society. All these tasks he did very well through numerous
publications, including books, magazine articles, interviews, brochures,
posters, guidebooks, etc. For these achievements, he also had the enthusiasm
and skills of his team and friends, from whom Armando Sampaio
Navarro and Octavio Vecchi have proved to be outstanding.
This vast and rich masterpiece work could not, in any way, be lost
with the history continuation. We could not, as Brazilians, to allow
the lights go out or decrease in intensity with the passing of years.
For this reason, the partnership between ABTCP - Brazilian
Technical Association of Pulp and Paper, Celsius Degree and IPEF
of Forest Researches and Studies, with enthusiastic support from several
partners and collaborators, such as Alfredo Navarro de Andrade; Denise
Zanchetta and Rafael Jose Camarinho (FEENA
- "Edmundo Navarro
de Andrade" State Forest); Francisco Jose do Nascimento Kronka
(Forestry Institute of the Sao Paulo State); Jeronimo Augusto Martini
(historian); Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo, Marialice Metzker Poggiani
and Paulo Sergio Beraldo (IPEF); Alberto Mori, Afonso Moura, Denise
Araujo, Patricia Capo and Patricia Fera (ABTCP), among others, who
have enabled this achievement and historical conquest. The facilities
that the web offers to the availability of some historical books in
digital format finally enabled us to bring this literature to the world
public. Certainly, it would be something that Edmundo, Armando and
Octavio would enjoy a lot. After all, those who write books do it for
others to read them; and more readers we have, better it is, right?
A very special thanks to Alfredo Navarro de Andrade, Edmundo's direct
descendent, (Edmundo was his uncle-grandfather). He opened all the
doors to this project, offering to Brazilians and to the citizens of
our forestry world the opportunity to learn more about the achievements
of his ancestors. In fact, Alfredo has family ties also with Armando
Navarro Sampaio (second cousins) and Octavio Vecchi (who was also his
To all of you, who have helped me in this mission, I thank very much
from all my Brazilian and eucalyptic heart for the cooperation, motivation
We are making available to the World Society, an important part of
the history of the Eucalyptus in Brazil, through 10 books written by
Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi.
These books are unique treasures that can now be accessed anytime by
any internet user or citizen located at any place in the world. Of
course, the quality of the scanning works may lack on quality in some
cases; after all, the book materials are old and, in some cases, in
not very good conservation conditions. Nevertheless, this is exactly
the beauty of this mission - the ability to preserve this knowledge
just when it should be done. Check how wonderful are the images you
will find in these old books. They delight our minds and souls. In
addition, the texts, telling us all unimaginable achievements of these
pioneers: their studies, observations, conclusions and recommendations.
Many of them seem to have been written today, as updated they are.
We are extremely happy and proud to have achieved this objective
in favor of the Eucalyptus. We believe that these books will allow
current and future generations of Brazilians to better understand
the Eucalyptus and the value of them to our Society.
All I ask from you is patience to download of the files, because
they have become relatively heavy since the scans were done preserving
the book colors. To prevent you about this waiting timing, we have
indicated the file size in MB next to each book title. The files
are zipped (WinZip) and in PDF format (Adobe Acrobat). The best way
to open and save them would be by using the right button of your
mouse and selecting the tool "Save target as ...". Through
it, you can monitor the digital download of the file and its downloaded
size in MB.
To you readers, who will use these books, we wish a nice reading.
If you like them, please inform your friends to take also advantage
of this wonderful database about the history of Eucalyptus in Brazil.
books for downloading:
A cultura dos Eucalyptus. (The Eucalyptus cultivation in Brazil). E.N.
Andrade. Typographia Brazil de Rothschild & Comp. 154 pp. 36.1
MB. (1909) (in Portuguese)
A cultura dos eucalyptos nos Estados Unidos. (The Eucalyptus cultivation
in United States of America). E.N. Andrade. Typographia Brazil de Rothschild & Comp.
107 pp. 35.9 MB. (1910) (in Portuguese)
Manual do plantador de eucaliptos. (Eucalyptus planter guide). E.N.
Andrade. Typographia Brazil de Rothschild & Comp. 339 pp. 36.8
MB. (1911) (in Portuguese)
Utilidade das florestas. (The role and utilities of the forests). E.N.
Andrade. Secretaria da Agricultura, Commercio e Obras Publicas do Estado
de Sao Paulo. Typographia Alongi. 103 pp. 41.4 MB. (1912) (in Portuguese)
Les bois indigenes de Sao Paulo. Contribution a l'etude de
la flore forestiere de l'etat de S.Paulo. E.N. Andrade; O. Vecchi. Cia. Paulista
de Estradas de Ferro. Typographia Alongi & Miglino. 376 pp. 74.8
MB. (1916) (in French)
Also available at:
Os eucalyptos - sua cultura e exploracao. (The Eucalyptus - Cultivation
and harvesting). E.N. Andrade; O. Vecchi. Typographia Brazil de Rothschild & Comp.
238 pp. 62.0 MB. (1918) (in Portuguese)
O problema florestal no Brasil. (The forestry problem in Brazil). E.N.
Andrade. O Estado de Sao Paulo. 104 pp. 32.5 MB. (1922/1923) (in Portuguese)
Instruccoes para a cultura do eucalypto. (Instructions to the Eucalyptus planting). E.N. Andrade. Cia. Paulista de Estradas de Ferro. 58 pp.
20.6 MB. (1936) (in Portuguese)
O eucalipto. (The Eucalyptus). E.N. Andrade. 1st Edition (Historic
edition). Chacaras e Quintais. 118 pp. 64.0 MB. (1939) (in Portuguese)
O eucalipto. (The Eucalyptus). E.N. Andrade. 2nd Edition (revised by
Armando Navarro Sampaio and Paulista Railways' forest team). Paulista
Railways. This book was presented in parts to allow easier downloading.
(1961) (in Portuguese)
Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus
by Ester Foelkel
In this edition: Railway Sleepers made from Eucalyptus Woods
The railway sleepers are fundamental structures for the rail network
in any part of the world, specially because of their main mission:
transmission and attenuation of the work loads to the ballast that
supports the entire structure. The sleepers are used as cradle to support
the rails, guaranteeing the right balance between machinery and rails
during trains locomotion (Marzola, 2004, Alves and Sinay, undated).
Sleepers can be made of various materials such as steel, plastic, composites,
concrete and stone (as they were manufactured in the early development
of railroads). However, wood has been one of the most accepted raw
materials for the sleeper-making due to the characteristics that gives
to them. In the past, the wood from native forests were abundant along
the railroad tracks, and harvested and used as sleepers without any
chemical treatment. With this practice, the sleeper life was relatively
short in this function. The scarcity of the wood, the consequent rise
on prices (noble hardwoods) and all environmental concerns have encouraged
the search for other raw materials, more economical and environmentally
sound for this function. Thus, the Eucalyptus woods coming from forest
plantations have now largely replaced the wood sleepers made from native
natural forests. They have life spans equal to or greater than 20 years,
reaching up to 30 years, even without any conservation treatment, depending
very much of the species being used. However, wood sleepers without
preservation chemical treatment are not recommended because the wood
is always sensitivity to pathogens (Alves and Sinay, undated).
Eucalyptus woods have density, strength and other qualities very much
appropriate for such use, ensuring the ideal support to resist the
efforts of the rails and trains. An additional environmental benefit
of Eucalyptus wood is the carbon uptake during forest growth, followed
by carbon storage during the long period of the sleepers utilization.
At the replacement of decayed sleepers after their use in railroads,
there are companies to promote used sleepers recycling, generating
new products such as fence poles, old-fashioned furniture and even
many kinds of handicrafts. The plantations of Eucalyptus may be located
close to the railroad tracks allowing savings in logistics, forest
harvesting costs and the quicker production of sleepers. Currently,
there are large areas planted with Eucalyptus trees in Brazil. A substantial
percentage of these plantations are implemented on lands that have
been previously intensively used by agriculture. Thus, the plantation
of Eucalyptus forests helps to the recovery of depleted soils and also
helps to reduce deforestation of the remaining native forests. The
Eucalyptus woods meet the demand for many purposes, including the manufacture
of railway sleepers, as well.
One of the main negative points of wooden sleepers is the deterioration,
caused by biotic agents that decompose organic matter and by other
decaying causes (abrasion, wear, etc.). Therefore, treatments to extend
the service life of sleepers, increasing the economy of the process
as well, are essential. These preservation treatments are based on
chemicals that may cause serious harm to the environment and to people,
if proper care is not taken. This is the reason for the continuous
search for new technologies and greener chemicals for preserving wood
and to offer environmentally friendly products. Thus, this mini-article
aims to provide some environmental and technical considerations on Eucalyptus wooden sleepers, and show what is being done to make this
activity as minimum impact as possible.
Since the implementation of the first Eucalyptus plantation forests
in Brazil, at the beginning of past century, many studies have been
presented evaluating their capabilities to become source of raw material
for wooden sleepers (Andrade, 1961). That's because the initial commercial Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil were implemented by a railway company,
Paulista Railways Company. Navarro de Andrade (1961) pointed out in
his initial studies with 17 year-old Eucalyptus globulus stands that
a life service time of 9 years could be obtained for the wooden sleepers
without any wood treatment.
The first Eucalyptus sleepers were used in Brazil in the year 1907,
in the construction of Madeira-Mamore Railway. They were imported
from Australia and were made from species of particular use for this
purpose, such as Eucalyptus marginata and Eucalyptus
diversicolor (REMADE, 2003). According to astudy by Andrade (1961), the Eucalyptus trees more suitable to the manufacture of sleepers would be as follows: Eucalyptus
camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. botryoides, E. paniculata, Corymbia
maculata and C. citriodora. The genetic tree breeding also
enabled other species of Eucalyptus trees to be grown and offer woods
with ideal properties for using on railroads. They are as follows: E.
cloeziana, E. marginata and E. diversicolor (Alves and Sinay,
undated). Other species cited as good raw materials for wooden sleepers
are: E. crebra, E. camaldulensis, E. microcorys, E. paniculata,
E. propinqua and E. tereticornis, mainly due to high wood density and
strengths they have (Boland apud Shimizu and Carvalho, 2000).
According to Faria (2006); Marzola (2004) and REMADE (2003), the
main wood properties for the Eucalyptus to fulfil the needs and
for using as railway sleepers are:
• Specific gravity or density: The Eucalyptus species more suitable
for the manufacture of sleepers should be those with high density
woods. This allows the wood to resist mechanical wear and mainly
to support the weight of the load applied by the trains (REMADE,
Hardness: The ideal Janka hardness to the woods used for sleepers
should be between 645 and 1,108 kg/cm². According to REMADE
(2003), these values must be high precisely because there is a direct
contact of wood with the hard rails. Furthermore, the author also
points out that the Eucalyptus woods used as sleepers have higher
hardness than the majority of woods from Brazilian native forests
used for the same purpose.
• Resistance in relation to the nails: The wood used as sleepers needs
to support the stresses exerted by the load and to resist the pull-off
and/or loosening of nails or screws, which could cause enlargement
of the rails, requiring more frequent maintenance. In an experiment
performed by the IPT, REMADE (2003) mentioned that comparing the
resistance of several species, the woods from E. paniculata,
E. siderophloia and C. citriodora had higher values for this property than most of
the traditional tested native species.
• Static bending strength and modulus of elasticity: The sleepers of
wood must be rigid and prevent deformation by the action of loads,
but this rigidity must ensure the fixing of the rails, enabling them
to move slightly in the passage of locomotives. Both to the static
bending strength and modulus of elasticity, the wooden sleepers made
of E. paniculata, E. siderophloia, C. maculata, C. citriodora proved
to be better than the majority of those manufactured with woods from
native Brazilian woods (REMADE, 2003).
• Dynamic bending strength: The wood of the Eucalyptus should be resistant
to mechanical shocks mainly due to the fact of having to resist to
loads of varying intensity on their use. Therefore, the Eucalyptus sleepers must be compatible to resist the lateral and longitudinal
loads that this utilization require. Also on this property, the tested
Eucalyptus sleepers were better in performance than those of native
woods (REMADE, 2003).
• Resistance to cracking: According to Andrade (1961), the cracks are
one of the properties that depreciates some species of Eucalyptus for being used to railway sleepers manufacture. This feature is considered
one of the most important for the proper performance of the sleepers
in their functions. The eucalypts wood species more resistant to
the appearance of radial cracks were proved to be: C. citriodora,
C. maculata, E. siderophloia and E. paniculata. The highly planted E.
grandis and E. saligna showed high susceptibility; and E.
tereticornis, E. rostrata and E. botryoides were classified as moderately resistant
to cracking. The latter ones (moderately resistant) requires anti-cracks
connectors or straps to avoid this extra depreciation, when used
as sleepers (REMADE, 2003). Andrade (1961) observed high losses of
Eucalyptus sleepers due to top cracking. The woods of these cracked
sleepers were sourced mainly from young trees. The author comments
that the larger the diameter and the tree age, the lower are the
chances of cracking in the manufactured sleepers.
According to Marzola (2004), a major problem with the use of wood
for railway sleepers is the lack of quality, reducing the durability
of them. To avoid quality and dimensional problems, the Brazilian
government encouraged the creation of the NBR 7511 and NBR 6966 standards,
which sets out the levels of tolerance allowed for the use of wood
as sleepers. There are two types of rail gauges that wooden sleepers
should perform, according to the following dimensions of length,
width and height: 1.60 m rail gauge - 2.80 x 0.24 x 0.17 m; 1.00
m rail gauge - 2.00 x 0.22 x 0.16 m
The Brazilian technical standards governing wood sleepers qualifies
them in three classes:
1 – Sleepers
coming from high quality treated hardwoods. Among the highest quality
woods in this
mulberry, Brazilian rosewood, angico, ipe, among others.
Class 2 – In this class are the best quality Eucalyptus woods,
and the jatoba, macaranduba, peroba, Brazilianwood, angelim, among
Class 3 – Timber species belonging to both classes 1 and 2,
however, containing some tolerable defects. The standards are flexible,
but they have specifications to the level of defect presence, such
as cracks, knots, bends, crevices, holes of insects and height differences
(REMADE, 2003; Dexheimer, undated). With regard to top cracking ,
one of the main problems of Eucalyptus woods, the tolerance goes
up to 25 cm long cracks when corrective measures, such as anti-cracks
clips and straps are used. For the presence of knots, they should
never be in the area of fixing rails, the most sensitive region.
Knots must not exceed dimensions of 2 cm in diameter and 8 cm deep.
Regarding the sleepers height, the differences between two points
of the same face must not exceed 1.5 cm (Dexheimer, undated).
The main disadvantage for the use of wooden sleepers compared to
some other raw materials is the potentially short durability. The
wood, although it is a renewable raw material, is a product subject
to weather effects and the action of fungi and other decaying organisms,
not to mention even the wear and abrasion. Therefore, chemical treatments
to extend product life are essential (Marzola, 2004).
In general, according to Marzola (2004) and Alves and Sinay (undated),
the treatment of sleepers to increase their quality and durability
are achieved in Sleepers Treatment Stations (STS), which exist in
wood preservation mills. The following steps should be followed to
improve the performance of sleepers:
• Drying of the sleepers. First outdoor wood drying followed by autoclaving
to remove the remaining moisture under vacuum.
• Wood processing. Stage where wood is perforated, adjusted in dimensions
and in surface specifications.
• Impregnation with preserving chemicals. Processed in an autoclave
under pressure, where there is the application of preservation chemicals
such as creosote (with some restrictions of use in Brazil), CCA (chromium-copper-arsenic)
or CCB (chromium-copper-boron).
• Recovery of chemical products. The remaining and excessive chemicals
used as preservatives are removed from autoclave and later used to
preserve other sleepers.
The wood preservation chemicals are considered toxic and they require
special cares to minimize their potential damage to Nature and to
living beings, including the people in the working-places. Therefore,
the process for planning, controlling, monitoring, and the use of
closed-loop to liquid and gaseous components recycling are essential.
The concerns for environment protection has stimulated researches
in search of chemicals with lower toxicity for using in wood preservation,
with higher selectivity and short life spans in the environment.
The studies seeking to increase the wood durability along its use
in the function are also being conducted, reducing the need for sleepers
replacement to a minimum.
Ferreira (2002) studied the optimal sizing of prismatic sleepers
made from Corymbia citriodora wood, in search of timber economyfor
optimizing the use. Thus, testing the mechanical performance through
laboratory static and dynamic tests, the author concluded that reducing
the basic dimensions of the sleepers would be possible without changes
in their performance and lifecycle.
Replacing of wooden sleepers by other raw materials, such as waste
plastics, resins and sawdust composites are also alternatives under
study. Ribeiro and Matthiesen (2006) studied the efficiency and performance
of sleepers produced with a composite made with C. citriodora and
Pinus taeda sawdust's and polyurethane derived from castor oil (mamona
oil). Their tests were performed according to standard NBR 7190/97,
showing that the proportion that proved to offer best results on
elastic modulus and bulk density was 30% polyurethane. The same composite
was tested for stringent weather conditions for two months, and the
results were considered satisfactory. The authors concluded that
the composite could yield railway sleepers that would be classified
as Class 2 of timber sleepers.
The increasing demand for wood, as well as increased concerns about
environmental issues, should encourage the more conscious and rational
use of wood, with minimal losses. For achieving these goals the following
measures are recommended: search for ideal quality woods, compliance
with specifications, monitoring performances in use, preventive works
to reduce wood losses, etc. Compliance with sleepers quality standards
should also be stricter and more effective
Further studies aimed at increasing the durability of Eucalyptus railway sleepers, the use of less aggressive preservationchemical
compounds, the correct management of operations, the use of waste
raw materials as wood sawdust and plastic are suggested to be encouraged,
thus increasing the sustainability at the railroad business.
Following and listed are some articles, technical documents, pictures
and stories that address to the topic we tried to cover to you.
The suggested literature highlights the characteristics, classification,
major defects, properties, manufacturers, etc. of wooden railway
sleepers. There are also references commenting the advantages and
disadvantages of the Eucalyptus woods as raw materials for railway
sleepers. Check them by browsing the references.
Dormentes de eucalipto tratado. ECOTRAT. Accessed on 09.09.2009.
sonho...uma realidade! Reciclando e garantindo o futuro. RGF
project. Accessed on 09.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
de madeira. Dormentes Biz. Accessed on 09.09.2009. (in
que fazer com dormentes e cruzetas. Que Barato. Accessed on 29.09.2009.
Vale desenvolve tecnologia para preservar florestas. Vale do Rio
Doce. (2008) (in Portuguese)
(America Latina Logistica) vai produzir dormentes e economiza
12 milhoes. MS News. Celulose Online. (2007) (in Portuguese)
de madeira. EMVP/CBTU. 31 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)
Dormentes. In: O eucalipto. 2nd Edition. E.N. Andrade. Paulista
Railways Co. 19 pp. (1961) (in Portuguese)
Super-estrutura ferroviaria: dormentes. L. Dexheimer. Escola de Engenharia.
UFRGS. PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides. (Undated) (in Portuguese)
Scientific articles, monographs and academic theses about railway
Utilizacao de dureza Brinell na avaliacao da resistencia mecanica
de madeiras. R.A. Colenci; A.W. Ballarin. Revista Energia na Agricultura
23(1): 89 - 99. (2008)
Utilizacao de materiais reciclados na fabricacao de dormentes
B. S. Faria. Instituto Militar de Engenharia. 19 pp. (2006)
Implantacao de dormentes ambientalmente corretos: responsabilidade
social e ambiental. R.K. David; E.G. David; L.I. Bonenente. II Monograph
Contest CBTU "A Cidade nos Trilhos". 22 pp. (2006)
Estudo de um composito de serragem e poliuretano para confeccao
de dormentes ferroviarios. A. C. Ribeiro; J. A. Matthiesen. Proceedings
of the 10th EBRAMEM - Encontro Brasileiro em Madeiras e em Estruturas
de Madeira.12 pp. (2006)
Desenvolvimento de equipamento para avaliacao em campo da
dureza de madeiras para dormente ferroviario. R.A. Colenci. Ph.D. Thesis.
UNESP/FCA - Botucatu. 112 pp. (2006)
Alternativas viaveis para substituicao da madeira como dormente
ferroviario. G Marzola. Universidade Anhembi Morumbi. 68 pp. (2004)
A madeira de eucalipto para dormentes. REMADE - Revista da Madeira
http://www.remade.com.br/br/revistadamadeira_materia.php?num=398&subject=Dormentes&title=A madeira de eucalipto para dormentes
Analise do comportamento mecanico de dormentes prismaticos de eucalipto
citriodora submetidos a solicitacoes dinamicas. R.D. Ferreira. Master
Dissertation. UNICAMP. 123 pp. (2002)
Primeira aproximacao na indicacao de eucaliptos para producao
de madeira na regiao de Quarai, RS. J. Y. Shimizu; P. E. R. Carvalho.
Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 40: 101-110. (2000)
Os dormentes ferroviarios, seu tratamento e o meio ambiente. G. K.
A. Alves; M. C. F. Sinay. 8 pp. (Undated)
Visit some selected websites describing commercial brands of Eucalyptus railway sleepers (not to be regarded as commercial recommendations,
but just as technical references)
Art and decoration based on used wooden railway sleepers (the
suggested websites should not be considered as commercial indication,
pictures of railway sleepers)
images - decoration art with railway sleepers)
used railway sleepers)
made with demolition wood including railway sleepers)
made with demolition wood including railway sleepers)
made with demolition wood including railway sleepers)
In this section, we are, as always we do, offering
some relevant Euca-Links to important websites available in the
virtual web. Just click on the addresses of the corresponding URLs
to open them or save as favorites on your computer.
In this special issue about the state of Sao Paulo and Edmundo
Navarro de Andrade, the euca-links are all related to manufacturing
companies, organizations, universities, etc. located in this state
and oriented to the study, education, research, business, use and
manufacture of products from Eucalyptus. Moreover, as Sao Paulo
is the great driving force of the Brazilian economy, the number
of Euca-Links is actually too great for a single issue of our newsletter.
If any organization or company has been forgotten in this issue,
please contact us and provide your URL address, which we will add
to this list on some of our upcoming Eucalyptus Newsletter editions.
Manufacturing companies in Sao Paulo state using Eucalyptus as
raw material (The order of presentation is merely alphabetic,
no preferences and no ranking is aimed):
Conpacel - Consorcio Paulista de Papel e Celulose. Graphic and
copy papers; FSC certified plantation forests of Eucalyptus. (in
http://www.conpacel.com.br/manejoflorestal.asp (Forest management
Ripasa and Conpacel)
Duratex. Wood panels, fiberboard, wooden floors. FSC certified
Eucalyptus and Pinus forest plantations. (in Portuguese and English)
http://www.durafloor.com.br/Durafloor/web/ (Durafloor - Laminated
http://www.duratex-madeira.com.br/Duratex/web (Fiberboard and wood
Eucatex. Wood panels, fiberboard. FSC certified Eucalyptus forest
plantations. (in Portuguese, Spanish and English)
Fibria. Eucalyptus bleached kraft market pulp company resulted
from the merger of Aracruz Celulose and Votorantim Celulose e Papel.
(in Portuguese and English)
International Paper do Brasil. Graphic and copy paper for printing
and writing purposes. Eucalyptus plantations certified in compliance
to the CERFLOR scheme. (in Portuguese, Spanish and English)
Lwarcel Celulose. Eucalyptus bleached kraft market pulp and FSC
certified plantation forests. (in Portuguese and English)
http://www.lwart.com.br/site/content/lwarcel/floresta_eucaliptos.asp (Eucalyptus plantation forests)
Melhoramentos. High yield pulp, printing papers, printing house
and book manufacturing. (in Portuguese, Spanish and English)
Nobrecel. Printing, writing and tissue papers. Eucalyptus plantation
forests. (in Portuguese)
PREMA - Tecnologia e Comercio. Eucalyptus wood preservation and
wooden products. The preservation plant is also related to the
historical FEENA, since it is located annexed to FEENA from 1936
onwards. (in Portuguese)
Suzano Papel e Celulose. Printing and writing papers and bleached
kraft market pulp. FSC certified Eucalyptus plantations. (in Portuguese,
Spanish and English)
VCP - Votorantim Celulose e Papel. Market pulp and specialty papers.
FSC certified Eucalyptus plantations. (in Portuguese and English)
Universities located in Sao Paulo state and with careers related
to the forest-based industry:
- Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" -
Universidade de Sao Paulo. (College of Agriculture "Luiz de
Queiroz" - University of Sao Paulo) (in Portuguese and English)
ESALQ is one of the most traditional and comprehensive colleges
in agronomy and forestry in Brazil. The career in forestry is responsibility
of the Department of Forest Sciences. I have the privilege and
the happiness of having been a professor of this department where
I still continue to maintain dozens of friends. Visit the websites
of the many laboratories that are part of the forestry department
and all related to forest sciences. Also visit the two experimental
stations that ESALQ keeps for education, research and production
of improved seeds purposes.
http://www.esalq.usp.br (ESALQ general website)
http://www.esalq.usp.br/departamentos/lcf/ (Department of Forest
http://lcf.esalq.usp.br/estacoes/anhembi/ (Anhembi Forest Station)
http://lcf.esalq.usp.br/estacoes/itatinga/ (Itatinga Forest Station)
Politecnica. Universidade de Sao Paulo. (Polytechnics College
- University of Sao Paulo) (in Portuguese and English)
One of the most prestigious engineering colleges in Brazil, highlighting
to our industry the chemical, mechanical, electric and electronic
engineering careers. Our dear friend Dr. Song Won Park is who is
fully dedicated to teaching and researching activities in pulp
and paper at Poli.
http://www.poli.usp.br (Polytechnics College general website)
http://pqi.poli.usp.br/pqi/ (Chemical Engineering Department)
FAEF - Faculdade de Agronomia e Engenharia Florestal de
Garca. (College of Agronomy and Forest Engineering at Garca) (in Portuguese)
FAENQUIL ou EEL - Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. USP -
Universidade de Sao Paulo. (Engineering College of Lorena - University of Sao
Paulo) (in Portuguese)
The EEL - Engineering College of Lorena, also known as FAENQUIL
(College of Chemical Engineering of Lorena) has undergraduate and
graduate courses in chemical engineering. At this educational and
research organization the highlights are the studies on chemical
components of wood, pulp, lignin, biopulping, etc.
http://www.faenquil.br (General website)
http://www.eel.usp.br (General website)
FAIT - Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais e Agrarias de Itapeva. (College
of Social and Agricultural Sciences at Itapeva) (in Portuguese)
FAIT has just started the forest engineering career among the courses
offered in Itapeva.
- Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica. UNICAMP - Universidade Estadual
de Campinas. (College of Chemical Engineering - State University
of Campinas) (in Portuguese)
http://www.feq.unicamp.br (FEQ UNICAMP general website)
theses and dissertations)
Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos. USP - Universidade
de Sao Paulo. (Institute of Chemistry of Sao Carlos - University of
The IQSC offers graduate and undergraduate courses in chemistry,
with different majors and expertise's. Our dear friend professor
Dr. Antonio Aprigio da Silva Curvelo highlights as a Brazilian
authority in the studies of the chemistry of lignin and wood
UFSCAR - Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. Sorocaba Campus. (Federal University of Sao Carlos at Sorocaba) (in Portuguese)
UFSCAR houses a forest engineering career at Sorocaba.
- Universidade Estadual Paulista. Botucatu and Itapeva Campi. (Paulista State University at Botucatu and Itapeva) (in Portuguese)
UNESP - "Julio de Mesquita Filho" Paulista State
University houses a renowned course on forestry at the FCA
- College of Agricultural
Sciences, in Botucatu. This university also makes available the
Industrial Wood Engineering course at the Itapeva campus.
- College of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP Botucatu - Forest engineering)
studies in forestry at FCA)
program of education - PET Engenharia Florestal UNESP, in which
the main adviser is our esteemed friend professor Dr. Mrs. Magali
Ribeiro da Silva)
theses and dissertations)
Viva Blog - An online publication from PET Engenharia Florestal
Institutes and research laboratories directly related to the forestry
industry in the state of Sao Paulo:
CEVEMAD - Centro Virtual de Pesquisas em Madeira. (Wood Research
Virtual Center) (in Portuguese)
CEVEMAD is a virtual center developed by UNESP wood researchers,
interested on promoting the technological utilization of the wood
through qualified research, education and information. It also
consists in a forum to interlink professors, students and other
stakeholders interested on wood science and technology.
Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo. (Sao Paulo Botanical Institute)
IBOT has as aim to work in scientific research, natural resources
monitoring, conservation of species, environmental education and
high level education in the field of Botany. It is an entity of
the Department of the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo.
Paulo Botanical Garden)
theses and dissertations)
- Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo. (Sao
Paulo State Institute of Technological Researches) (in Portuguese)
IPT is the most traditional technological research institute of
the state of Sao Paulo, with well-equipped laboratories for testing
the quality of wood, pulp and paper, among so many other qualified
labs. We have several friends and relevant researchers in these
wood and pulp/paper researches and developing technologies at this
technical institute, especially our dear friends Geraldo Zenid,
Marcio Nahuz, Maria Luiza Otero D'Almeida, Jose Mangolini Neves
and Marisa Eiko Koga.
Technological Center for Forest Resources)
IPEF - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais. (Institute
of Forest Researches and Studies) (in Portuguese and English)
IPEF has one of the most visited websites in Brazil about
the forestry sciences. This is due to the enormous availability
of data and
scientific/technical material it offers to visitors (visit
the excellent publications section of the website). IPEF
in a research consortium involving universities and forestry
and has as executive director Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo.
The IPEF is a partner in this project to make available the
Navarro de Andrade's books to the World Society. IPEF has
also an important role as a non financial supporter of the
Online Book & Newsletter and the other Celsius Degree
project - PinusLetter.
LaMEM - Laboratorio de Madeiras e de Estruturas de Madeira. (Wood
and Wood Structures Laboratory) (in Portuguese and English)
LaMEM is a research laboratory on wood and structural utilization
of the woods, associated with the College of Engineering of Sao
Carlos, University of Sao Paulo. Visit the section of digital theses
to find numerous studies on the use of woods, including the Eucalyptus ones.
theses and dissertations)
LQCE - Laboratorio de Quimica, Celulose e Energia. Departamento
de Ciencias Florestais - ESALQ/USP. (Laboratory of Forest Chemistry,
Pulp and Biomass Energy - ESALQ/USP) (in Portuguese)
LQCE is an excellent forest products laboratory that performs research
and academic research projects for the pulp and paper
and biomass power generation facilities. Special highlights for
our dear friends
professors Francides Gomes da Silva Junior and Jose Otavio
Brito. To the recently-added and well-equipped laboratory facilities,
the name of our dear friend Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo
was given to it, in recognition to the outstanding services Dr.
Barrichelo has provided (and still is doing such) to the Brazilian
science and technology in this specific sector.
http://www.lqce.esalq.usp.br (LQCE website)
Business and technical associations related to the forest-based
industry and located in the state of Sao Paulo:
ABIMOVEL - Associacao Brasileira das Industrias do Mobiliario. (Brazilian Association of the Furniture Industry) (in Portuguese)
- Associacao Brasileira da Industria de Paineis de Madeira. (Brazilian Association of the Wood Panel Industry) (in Portuguese
ABIPA has as major members the wood panel Brazilian manufacturing
http://www.abipa.org.br (General website)
ABPM - Associacao Brasileira de Preservadores de Madeira. (Brazilian
Association of Wood Preservers) (in Portuguese, Spanish and English)
ABPM brings together in its membership the wood preservation mills,
producers of wood conservation chemicals and companies that sell
http://www.abpm.com.br (ABPM general website)
ABTCP - Associacao Brasileira Tecnica de Celulose e Papel. (Brazilian
Technical Association of Pulp and Paper) (in Portuguese and English)
ABTCP has proved to be vital to the technological development and
technical qualification of professionals in the Brazilian pulp
and paper segment. It is the main sponsor of the Eucalyptus Online
Book & Newsletter and also PinusLetter. ABTCP was also one
of the partners in this project to make digital and available to
world public the ten digital books written by Edmundo Navarro de
Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi. ABTCP executive
managers are Mr. Afonso Moura (technical management) and Mr. Francisco
Bosco de Souza (institutional management).
- Associacao Nacional dos Profissionais de Venda em Celulose,
Papel e Derivados. (National Association of Sales Professionals
in the Sectors of Pulp, Paper and Associated Products) (in
ANAVE houses people from the areas of marketing, commercial,
management and strategic planning from the pulp and paper sector.
director is our dear friend Jahir de Castro.
http://www.anave.org.br (ANAVE general website)
BRACELPA - Associacao Brasileira de Celulose e Papel. (Brazilian
Association of Pulp and Paper) (in Portuguese and English)
BRACELPA is the association of pulp and paper manufacturers based
in Brazil. It has important political and institutional role;
and provides reliable statistical data about the segment. The
of BRACELPA is our dear friend Mrs. Elizabeth de Carvalhaes.
http://www.bracelpa.org.br/bra/index.html (BRACELPA general website)
SBS - Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura. (Brazilian Society
of Silviculture) (in Portuguese)
SBS is the leading representative society in forestry in Brazil,
present in many national and international forums representing
the country. SBS has as executive director our friend and forest
engineer Rubens Garlipp. Visit the sections of speeches and statistics,
to find excellent materials freely available to all stakeholders.
data about the Brazilian Forestry)
Other organizations (public or private)
related to the forest-based sector in the state of Sao Paulo:
CBRN - Coordenadoria da Biodiversidade e Recursos Naturais. (Coordination
of Biodiversity and Natural Resources) (in Portuguese)
Public organization in the state of Sao Paulo with the mission
to plan, coordinate, implement and monitor programs, projects
and actions related to surveillance, protection and recovery
resources and sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity.
Celulose Online. Information and business web
portal oriented to the pulp and paper sector. (in Portuguese)
about forestry, woods, pulp and paper)
pulp and paper mills)
CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo. (Sao
Paulo State Environmental Agency) (in Portuguese)
State organization that cares about environmental licensing,
surveillance, monitoring and promotion of pollution prevention
and control in
the state of Sao Paulo.
FLORESTAR Sao Paulo - Fundo de Desenvolvimento Florestal. (Forest
Development Fund) (in Portuguese)
Florestar Sao Paulo is a civil institution for public benefits
maintained by a group of companies with operations in the
forest sector in the State of Sao Paulo. It brings together
from the private and public segments to work together in
the development of forestry and environmental preservation.
promotes studies, researches, statistics, cooperates in
development of forest policies, etc.
Paulo state statistics of forest cover areas)
Florestal - Fundacao para a Conservacao e a Producao Florestal
do Estado de Sao Paulo. (Forestry Foundation - Foundation for
the Conservation and Forest Production of the State of Sao Paulo
) (in Portuguese)
Forestry Foundation is a public organization linked to the Department
of Environment of the State of Sao Paulo, which aims to contribute
to the conservation, management and expansion of forest protection
and production in the State of Sao Paulo. To obtain these objectives
the Forestry Foundation supports, promotes and implements integrated
actions aimed at environmental conservation, protection of biodiversity,
sustainable development, land rehabilitation and reforestation
of environmentally vulnerable sites, making partnerships with government
agencies and civil society institution's. It is also responsible
for marketing and sales of the products extracted from forests
planted in areas belonging to or owned by the state of Sao Paulo.
http://www.fflorestal.sp.gov.br/index.php (General website)
IEA - Instituto de Economia Agricola. (Institute of Agriculture
Economics) (in Portuguese)
The IEA - Institute of Agriculture Economics is an agency of the
Secretariat of Agriculture and Food Supply of Sao Paulo. Since
1942, the IEA researches, analyzes, produces and disseminates economic
data and information to meet the needs of state agriculture, forestry
IEA General website)
IF - Instituto Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo. (Forestry Institute
of Sao Paulo State) (in Portuguese)
IF is an organization of the Department of the Environment of the
State of Sao Paulo. It objectives to be the guardian entity of
biodiversity and forest preservation reserves of the state. The
institutional mission is founded on research, conservation and
production, supporting public policies aimed at socio-economic
development, promoting and implementing actions for protecting
natural and cultural heritage. The final target is sustainable
development. Its general director is our dear friend Francisco
Jose do Nascimento Kronka.
Portal LUPA da CATI - Coordenadoria de Assistencia Tecnica
Integral. (LUPA Portal) (in Portuguese)
LUPA Portal is an informative portal that provides statistics,
maps and data on agriculture and forestry production in the state
of Sao Paulo.
http://www.cati.sp.gov.br/projetolupa/mapaculturas/pdf/Eucalipto.pdf (Eucalyptus plantations
map for the state of Sao Paulo, base 2007/2008)
http://www.cati.sp.gov.br/projetolupa/mapaculturas2005/Pinus.pdf (Pinus plantations
map for the state of Sao Paulo, base 2005)
brasiliensis plantations map for the state of Sao Paulo, base
In this section, we are bringing to you our recommendation
for visiting some online magazines specialized on forests,
wood and pulp and paper. These magazines are all from the
state of Sao Paulo, being edited by academic institution's,
technical associations, business information portals and
also some typically commercial magazines. There, you can
find articles about the Eucalyptus and download them for
reading or save. Check it out.
Boletim Informativo Celulose Online. (Celulose Online Information
Bulletin) (in Portuguese)
Celulose Online Portal, headquartered in Ribeirao Preto/SP,
makes available to registered people a very updated information
bulletin about the pulp/paper and forestry sectors.
Bragantia Online - IAC - Instituto Agronomico de Campinas. (Bragantia Online) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
Bragantia is a magazine covering agronomic sciences, published
by IAC - Agronomic Institute of Campinas/SP. It has strong
emphasis in issues as: plant physiology, plant nutrition,
soils sciences, biotechnology, etc. All the collection from
this prestigious magazine, since the number 01 (1941) is
available for downloading.
Florestar Estatistico. (Florestar Statistics) (in Portuguese
and abstracts in English)
In 1992, thanks to a partnership between Florestar Sao Paulo
and the Forestry Foundation of the state of Sao Paulo, the
magazine Florestar Statistics was created. Its mission is
to be one of the best Brazilian publications on forestry
Informacoes Economicas do IEA - Instituto de Economia
(Institute of Agriculture Economics Information) (in Portuguese
and abstracts in English)
This is a monthly newsletter, very rich in statistical and
economic data, including prices of agricultural products,
inputs/outputs, relationships between supply/demand, historical
data and articles on the agriculture and forestry in Sao
from 1972 onwards)
Informativos em Economia Florestal - CEPEA - Centro
de Estudos Avancados em Economia Aplicada - ESALQ/USP. (Center
of Advanced Studies on Applied Economics - CEPEA - Newsletter
on Forest Economics) (in Portuguese)
The CEPEA Newsletter - Forest Economics is a monthly electronic
publication that analyzes the behavior of the prices for
forest products traded in the Sao Paulo state, as well as
external transactions between Brazil and other countries,
forest products markets, forest sector performances and policy
developments in Brazilian forestry. A special thanks to my
dear friend Dr. Carlos Jose Caetano Bacha, who has developed
such amazing information service to the Brazilian forest
IPEF Noticias - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos
Florestais. (Institute of Forest Researches and Studies - IPEF News)
IPEF News is a quarterly newsletter with information about
the technical activities of the IPEF institute and its members.
Revista Cientifica Eletronica de Agronomia. (Online Scientific
Magazine on Agronomy) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
Electronic journal published twice a year by the College
of Agronomy and Forest Engineering at Garca/SP.
Revista Cientifica Eletronica de Ciencias Agrarias - FAIT
Itapeva. (FAIT Itapeva Online Scientific Magazine on Agricultural
Sciences) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
A magazine being published since 2006 by FAIT - College of
Social and Agricultural Sciences at Itapeva, containing technical
and scientific articles in forest science and agronomic issues.
Revista Cientifica Eletronica de Engenharia Florestal. (Online
Scientific Magazine on Forest Engineering) (in Portuguese
and abstracts in English)
Electronic journal published twice a year by the College
of Agronomy and Forest Engineering at Garca/SP.
Revista de Economia Agricola - IEA - Instituto
de Economia Agricola. (IEA Magazine on Agriculture Economics) (in Portuguese
and abstracts in English)
Traditional IEA - Institute of Agriculture Economics magazine
about agricultural economics in the state of Sao Paulo. The
magazine has been fully scanned since its first issue published
in 1951. It has excellent studies on the various products
of agriculture and forestry from Sao Paulo state. I'd like
to highlight the excellent work of our dear friend and classmate
at ESALQ, agronomist Eduardo Pires Castanho Filho, who has
numerous technical studies of the Eucalyptus, rubber-trees
and other forest plantations in the state of Sao Paulo. Eduardo
has also many articles about economics of forest plantations
in the Florestar Estatistico magazine.
eduardo+pires+castanho&tipo=simples (articles by Eduardo Pires Castanho Filho and co-workers)
Revista do Instituto Florestal de Sao Paulo. (Magazine of
the Forestry Institute) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
A magazine published twice a year with technical, scientific
and applied sciences and data, mostly originated from studies
performed by the own Forestry Institute staff (or in partnership).
Revista Energia na Agricultura. (Energy in Agriculture Magazine)
(in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
A magazine created to convey scientific information on energy
generation and utilization by agriculture and forestry, including
issues about biomass energy. The magazine is a creation of
the graduate course in Agronomy from FCA - College of Agricultural
Sciences - UNESP (Botucatu).
Revista Nosso Papel. (Our Paper Magazine) (in Portuguese)
The magazine Nosso Papel (Our Paper) is a communication vehicle
to inform society and the general staff working in the Brazilian
pulp and paper sector. Therefore, it has a less technical
writing and a more colloquial one, just to be able to achieve
this kind of targeted audience. The creation and free-of-charge
diffusion of Nosso Papel is from ABTCP - Brazilian Technical
Association of Pulp and Paper.
Revista O Papel Online. (O Papel Online Magazine) (in Portuguese
with technical articles and cover stories also in English)
O Papel magazine is the main vehicle of information and technical
communication in the Brazilian pulp and paper segment. It
is a monthly magazine published by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical
Association of Pulp and Paper, one of the oldest trade journals
in Latin America, being in its LXX year of regular publications.
This year, O Papel started with digital publications and
online services, with the creation of a special website to
house the online magazine. In it, you can download both recent
and complete editions of the magazine, as well as to browse,
search and read selected topics, etc. As a former president
of ABTCP, a great enthusistic to have this magazine in digital
format, I was pleasantly surprised by how interactively my
dear friend Mrs. Patricia Capo and staff assembled it on
the website that hosts the journal. Congratulations ABTCP.
and complete editions)
containing the word Eucalyptus)
Revista Opinioes. (Opinions Magazine) (in Portuguese)
Digital magazine (and also printed on paper) that has
been creatively developed by my dear friend Mr. William
de Souza, based on articles written by renowned personalities
in the form of viewpoints on topics selected by the editor
of the magazine. The magazine alternates relevant areas
of the Brazilian economy, one of them being pulp, paper
http://www.revistaopinioes.com.br/cp/edicao_materias.php (Most recent issue on pulp, paper, forestry)
Scientia Forestalis. (in Portuguese and abstracts
Scientia Forestalis is one of the most prestigious and
renowned scientific world journals on forest sciences.
It is the vehicle
of scientific communication for IPEF - Institute of Forest
Researches and Studies, a research consortium involving
companies, research institutes and universities. I feel
pleased to dedicate
my most sincere recognition and applause to the staff
of this magazine, since I know what they have done to
sciences since the first magazine issue, in 1970, with
the name of IPEF. To Mrs. Marialice Metzker Poggiani
excellent team, our congratulations for the magnificent
collection of excellent peer-reviewed articles that the
since its creation nearly 40 years ago.
Eucalyptus World Map
In 2008, GIT-Forestry, a forestry consulting company
owned by our dear friend Mr. Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, released through
the blog Eucalyptologics a detailed forest map showing countries
where there are commercial plantations of Eucalyptus and the total
area planted in each one. This unique work is the result of Gus'
commitment to grow the information resources about Eucalyptus in
the world. In order to obtain greater reliability and accuracy to
the data, a number of world experts, representing the main countries
where there are Eucalyptus plantations growing, have cooperated with
Gus. However, it turns out that statistical data may always be improved
and the forest plantations are not static, there are always new areas
being planted and other being consumed. For this reason, Gus' work
will be endless, with continuing needs of updates. In 2009, a new
map is presented to public, as a kind of homage to the World Forestry
Congress which takes place in October 2009, in Argentina. Congratulations
to Gus and his staff for the magnificent ongoing services in favor
of the Eucalyptus.
Know more about the Eucalyptus World Map and the 2009 updated version:
http://git-forestry.com/Global_Eucalyptus_Map.htm (in English)
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
About Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio
As a rule, our technical mini-articles have focus
on some technological issue, or they have my personal views on
some matter related to our
forest-based sector. However, this edition of our Eucalyptus Newsletter
is a special edition. In it, we are honoring the great pioneers of
the Eucalyptus plantation forestry in Brazil, through the launch
of several of their books in digital format to the World Society.
We are also giving the right recognition to the Sao Paulo State Forest
named after with the full name of "the
father of Eucalyptus forestry
in Brazil" - Dr. Edmundo Navarro de Andrade. Therefore,
we are writing short biographies about each of these renowned personalities,
who were able to practice their professional careers with expertise,
enthusiasm and passion. They helped to anchor the modern silviculture
in Brazilian lands. In fact, thanks to his dynamism and strategic
positions he held in his career, Edmundo became very well-known;
however, we must provide our acknowledgments also to Armando
Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi, two other great foresters, scientists
and promoters of the Eucalyptus in our country.
So this time, we will bring to you a simple biography for each one
of these distinguished foresters, along with our most sincere admiration
for their achievements. Surely, they can also be called "Friends
of the Eucalyptus", like many others we have honored in some
of the Eucalyptus Newsletter past editions.
About Edmundo Navarro de Andrade
Edmundo Navarro de Andrade was born in the city of Sao Paulo, on
January 02, 1881. He has always been a person of differentiated intelligence
and dynamism, what was enough to give him the opportunity to study
in Portugal, at the National College of Agriculture in Coimbra, where
he got a graduation as agronomist, in 1903. Edmundo's studies in
Portugal have been funded by his godfather Eduardo Prado and wife
Veridiana. Soon after returning to Brazil, and taking into consideration
his academic performances, attitudes and innovative researching abilities,
Edmundo received a challenge from Paulista Railways Co., through
its president at the time, Councilor Antonio Prado. This railways
company had a strong dependence on firewood and wood for sleepers,
poles and fence posts. The wood was becoming scarce. It was obtained
from native forests harvested due to the occupation of land by the
Sao Paulo coffee crops. The sources of native wood was increasingly
becoming more distant from consumption places. The company acquired,
in 1903, an area in Sao Paulo State/Brazil, next to its headquarters,
for the research of the just hired young agronomist. There, in 1904,
Edmundo tested about 95 tree species in competition, most native
(cabreuva, araucaria, rosewood, jequitiba, etc.), and some dozens
of other exotic (Lebanon cedar, Portuguese oak, casuarina, grevillea
and some species of Eucalyptus, which existed in Brazil at the time
and some originated from seeds brought by Edmundo from Portugal).
Due to this study, Edmundo has chosen the Eucalyptus trees, which
were unbeatable in the comparative tests of productivity and wood
quality. Because of that, he started travelling studies to France,
Spain, United States, Australia, Portugal, India, Java, Sumatra to
understand more about these trees and their woods, to obtain genetic
material such as seeds, and also to learn about the mechanisms of
management on the forest services in those countries. He soon started
to show his writing vein, publishing several books from 1909 to 1912.
In 1909, he receives a much larger area in the municipality of Rio
Claro/SP, to continue his investigations and to plant forest stands
in commercial scale. The statistics mentions that Navarro Andrade
was responsible for planting 24 million trees of Eucalyptus along
his life, placing a great percentage of them in Paulista Railways
forest farms, located at the edges of the bed rails.
However, it should be clear to everyone reading this story, that
Edmundo Navarro de Andrade was not the introducer of the Eucalyptus in Brazil. These trees were already in our lands since the mid-nineteenth
century, serving mainly in urban ornamentation, protection as wind
barriers and providing shadow on cattle ranches. There are even reports
that the IAC - Agronomic Institute of Campinas had, around the first
decade of the 1900's, a nursery to produce seedlings for distribution
to rural farmers. The great merit of Edmundo was to develop technologies
to convert the plantations into commercial production with economic
performances and quality of products suited to the demands of the
main consumer - Paulista Railways Co. With these technologies and
knowledge becoming available, the company started buying other farms
to produce more wood in different regions of the state of Sao Paulo:
Bauru, Sao Carlos, Jaboticabal, Bebedouro, Sumare, Mogi Mirim, etc.
Edmundo always converted into new books all the knowledge he was
learning from studies and researches. His easy writing and the great
empathy for teaching through literature writing were outstanding
features on his personality. His speed and quality of writing were
such that he wrote more than a dozen books, not only about the Eucalyptus, but also about coffee, citrus, botany, entomology, travel narratives,
stories, viewpoints, etc. This was more than enough to be awarded
with a seat in the Paulista Academy of Letters. Quickly, he became
a very important personality in Sao Paulo, accumulating administrative
positions, such as chairman of the Sao Paulo State Forest Service,
and managerial position at the Secretariat of Agricultural Affairs,
Industry and Commerce in Sao Paulo State.
With the expansion of the Eucalyptus forest plantations, soon started
to occur complaints from rural farmers, who saw a threat in these
plantations, as a competitor for land use. There were also patriotic
claims against Navarro de Andrade and his Australian immigrants.
Edmundo, patient and persistently sought to clarify the society with
demonstrations of the potential of these forests and the environmental
quality of them. His many papers and activities were oriented to
strengthen the focus on forest benefits, both native and those planted
by man. In addition, he helped the creation of an Eucalyptus Museum,
as we have seen, much more a panel of interactive demonstrations
of the Eucalyptus benefits than a museum for the storage of historical
What was definitively amazing about Edmundo Navarro de Andrade and
the team he had leadership was the sense of natural conservation
they had. Today, this would be understood as a pro-active attitude
towards Sustainability. The idea they have strongly promoted was
to just use the wood from plantations and to reduce consumption of
the wood from native forests. This has been the mission of Eucalyptus plantations since the beginning of their production in Brazil. They
have always aimed to provide wood to meet the demands of the population
and to supply industrial processes, thus helping to preserve the
native forests of the country. Thus, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade,
at the time, was considered a good example of natural conservation
success in the business sector in Brazil. On top of this, he was
able to have success in this philosophy for having liberal ideas
that were in line with the Sao Paulo decision power leading circles.
Navarro de Andrade has tested the use of Eucalyptus trees for almost
all products derived from the use of wood as raw materials: furniture,
structures and houses, paper and pulp, charcoal, biomass energy,
etc. He also studied the non-timber benefits of the Eucalyptus forests:
beekeeping, essential oils, tannins, etc. As a consequence, he not
only developed forestry technologies, but also products derived from
In December 1941, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade died, leaving a legacy
absolutely astonishing of knowledge, research, innovation and several
million Eucalyptus trees planted in Brazilian territory. However,
his greatest legacy was the driving force that he introduced to the
Brazilian forest sector, stimulating and optimizing the activity
of forest plantations. For this purpose, he relied heavily on his
team and friends, such the renowned engineers Armando Navarro Sampaio
and Octavio Vecchi. The fantastic key issue of this whole story is
that it was continued. Today, millions of Brazilians are studying,
researching, planting and using the forests and the products of Eucalyptus planted forests. Just imagine my friends, if we still had to rely
on natural native forests to supply wood to the needs of the huge
Brazilian population. Not just by luck, but by competence, vision
and tenacity, we planted forests in Brazil to fulfill these roles
and to bring happiness and comfort to the users of their products.
About Armando Navarro Sampaio
Armando Navarro Sampaio was born in the city of Rio Claro/Sao Paulo
state. He was Edmundo's nephew and had an enourmous admiration and
respect to his uncle. He also had graduation as agronomist, at ESALQ
- College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" ", in 1925.
Soon, he allied himself to Edmundo in the study and implementation
of Eucalyptus planted forests. When Edmundo died in 1941, Armando
got his position as head of the Paulista Railways Forest Service.
Armando was a renowned manager, researcher and forester, working
for the Second World Eucalyptus Conference to become a success in
Sao Paulo, in 1961. One of his great merits was to carefully review
the book "O Eucalipto", published in first edition by Edmundo
in 1939. With a group of engineers and technicians associated to
Paulista Railways Co., they reviewed and increased the book to launch
it in a second edition in parallel with the FAO Conference of Eucalyptus - Food and Agriculture Organization, which took place in Sao Paulo.
He has published several technical articles on the forest benefits
and on the cares and procedures should be taken with plantation forests.
He has also written about forest management, and on wooden railway
sleepers and other demands of wood by railways. One of his most notable
article was "Eucalyptus in Brazil," which came out initially
as a Bulletin of Paulista Railways Forest Service, in 1957. According
to several citations in the literature, the great master of silviculture
wrote the following statement in that article: "I need hardly
to say that we are the first, as an experienced forester, to discourage
any use of natural forests in places where Nature has wisely placed
them to provide their real environmental benefits; and to replace
them by planted forests, whatever would be the selected species.
There are, however, the weak and poor soils, where the reforestation
may successfully be placed. The choice of species to plant should
always be preceeded by a brief performance test of genera and species
of trees from similar ecological situations". Once again, Armando
reinforced with his wisdom, what today we preach as a commandment
Armando's friends at Paulista Railways Forest Service report that
he was a remarkable human being, modest, talented, owning a rare
and privileged intelligence, very determined, an excellent manager
and a friend who always tried to value all his co-workers, even if
that meant reducing his own importance in some professional achievements.
Moreover, he was a vibrant patriot, defending and loving his country.
Armando Navarro Sampaio was active in the design of Aracruz Celulose
forest plantation model, when this company decided to implement a
plantation program to supply wood to a greenfield kraft pulp mill
in Espirito Santo, late 1960's and early 1970's. He acted as Aracruz
forest superintendent. Together with his son Edmundo Moreira Sampaio,
they founded UNIFLORA, a forestry company that worked on forest services
and reforestation projects to Aracruz Celulose Company.
Armando died in Sao Paulo, after having completed a brilliant track
record in the Brazilian forestry sector.
About Octavio Vecchi
Octavio Felix Rabello de Andrade Vecchi was born in Portugal on November
22, 1878, and was also a graduated agronomist from the University
of Coimbra, just like Edmundo Navarro de Andrade. They were brothers-in-law,
because he married Edmundo's sister. He was director of the Loreto
Forest Farm (near Araras/SP), owned by Paulista Railways Co. There
and in other places he worked, he was able to show his qualities
as manager and researcher in the forestry business. In 1927, he became
director of the Sao Paulo State Forest Service, encouraging forest
plantations and urban tree planting all over the state.
He was a distinguished drawing artist and a passionate collector
of insects, among them butterflies. He also had pleasure collecting
species of plants and different wood specimens. Doing this, he encouraged
the Sao Paulo Forest Service to keep a remarkable collection of woods
in the form of an exceptional xylotheque, which now bears his name.
The Wood Collection "Octavio Vecchi" now belongs to the
Sao Paulo Forestry Institute, under the management of the Wood and
Forest Products Section. The collection comprises about 4,000 tree
specimens. It has samples of native woods of the State of Sao Paulo,
mainly representing the Conservation Units of the Forestry Institute,
and exotic species, all enriched with a anatomical slide collection
corresponding to each timber. He had also organized a collection
of trees in Sao Paulo forest park. At "Octavio Vecchi" Museum,
located in the Forest Park "Alberto Loefgren" in the city
of Sao Paulo, the visitors can enjoy each tree species with corresponding
taxonomic classification, watching the plant from the seed to the
already worked wood. This Forest Museum also received his name and
is regarded as one of the most renowned museums in botanical forest
in the world, especially because it contains the aforementioned xylotheque.
The "Octavio Vecchi" Museum was opened to public in 1931,
yet during his tenure in front of the Sao Paulo Forest Service. Many
of the pieces of wood are carved in a way that have reproduced the
leaves and fruits of the species from which have been extracted.
Vecchi's purposes with this museum was not speaking only of woods
and plants, but also about the diversity of the forests with their
animals, seeds, plants, benefits, etc. There, the visitors may enjoy
seeing several samples of seeds and their uses in the cosmetic industry,
as well as the essences that can be extracted from them. Some of
the artistic designs that are in the walls of the museum were drafted
by Octavio and then painted by other artists.
He has authored several books, two of them in co-authorship with
Edmundo. These two books have been made available for public downloading
through this Eucalyptus Newsletter, "Les bois indigenes de Sao
Paulo" (1916) and "Os eucaliptos - sua cultura e exploracao" (1918).
He also published the book "The dynamite in agriculture",
Octavio Vecchi died at age 53 on 09 January 1932.
References of literature and suggestions for reading:
Edmundo Navarro de Andrade - O plantador de eucaliptos e a questao
da preservacao florestal no Brasil. Augusto Jeronimo Martini. Editora
Humanitas. 380 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)
Eucalyptus paulistana - The Brazilian giant: Navarro de
Andrade, the man who planted 24 million of Eucalyptus trees...
or more. Gustavo Iglesias Trabado. GIT-Forestry - Eucalyptologics. Acessed
on 24.09.2009. (in English)
Edmundo Navarro de Andrade - um pouco de sua vida e do
seu trabalho. A.N. Sampaio. In: O eucalipto. 2nd Edition. E.N. Andrade. Paulista
Railways Co. 21 pp. (1961). Accessed on 02.10.2009. (in Portuguese)
Homenagem a Armando Navarro Sampaio. In: O eucalipto. 2nd Edition.
E.N. Andrade. Paulista Railways Co. 07 pp. (1961). Accessed on
02.10.2009. (in Portuguese)
Meio ambiente, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade e Floresta Estadual Navarro
de Andrade. Augusto Jeronimo Martini. Canal Rio Claro. Accessed
on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
Navarro de Andrade. Marco Aurelio Alvares da Silva. Accessed on
24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
Octavio Vecchi. Wikipedia. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
Museu Florestal "Octavio Vecchi". Horto Florestal de
Sao Paulo (Parque Alberto Loefgren). Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in
Cia. Paulista de Estradas de Ferro. Marco Aurelio Alvares da Silva.
Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
Pioneiros dos eucaliptos. Sergio Mascarenhas. 01 p. Accessed on
24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)
O plantador de eucaliptos: a questao da preservacao florestal
no Brasil e o resgate documental do legado de Edmundo Navarro de
Andrade. Augusto Jeronimo Martini. Master Dissertation. USP - University
of Sao Paulo. 332 pp. (2004) (in Portuguese)
Dossier Historia Atlantica: preocupacoes com a protecao
a natureza e com o uso dos recursos naturais na Primeira Republica
J.L.A. Franco; J.A. Drummond. Textos de Historia 12(1/2): 143 -
163. (2004) (in Portuguese)
Online Book & Newsletter are technical information texts
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