Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,
Dear friends, here we are again, now with the issue number
of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. We hope it may fulfill your expectations
both through the general sections of the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the
chapter of our virtual Eucalyptus Online Book about "Energy Eco-efficiency
in the Pulp & Paper Sector" which is available to your direct
link access. Please, enjoy the topics we are presently delivering through
this Eucalyptus Newsletter edition, thanks.
The section "The Friends
of the Eucalyptus" shows
once again an enormous scientific importance to the eucalyptic forestry
That's because it has the mission to share with you at least a portion
of the dedicated and productive academic career of our dear and competent
friend Professor Dr. Dan Binkley, one of the most renowned researchers
in the forestry world. I have a special respect for his dedication and
for the quality of Dr. Binkley's professional career, so I am very happy
with the opportunity to present his many forestry scientific accomplishments
and what he has done and still is doing for the Eucalyptus.
On the other hand, in the section "Curiosities
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" the agronomist M.Sc. Ester Foelkel tells, for sure,
something very unusual to many of you - "Products
from the Eucalyptus to Prevent Mites and Ticks Problems".
In addition to our usual and rich in information and euca-links
sections such as: A Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation; Euca-Links
References about Events and Courses, we have two sections that are thematic
reviews on topics of great interest and stimulating curiosity to the
global Eucalyptus World: "Virtual
Herbaria" and "Lignotubers
Our technical mini-article complements the 26th edition of the
Eucalyptus Newsletter, when we talked at that time about "Recycled Papers and
Papers made from Virgin Fibers". Specifically in our current newsletter,
we are bringing to you "the reasons and the mission the paper has
to be considered as a cultural asset of fundamental relevance to the
We hope this newsletter issue may be very useful to all of you, since
the selection is somewhat unusual and definitely brings some topics that
are rarely discussed in other magazines and specialized websites.
In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus
Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus
Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following
here for registration.
We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus
Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI,
RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE,
AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel
Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales and Papermakers' Wiki.
They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in
countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia,
Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland and South Africa.
However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are helping to
promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners
for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus. Know
more about all of our today’s partners and meet them at the URL address:
Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus are currently being sent to an extensive "mailing list" through
our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, a
number that today is equivalent to several thousands of registered addresses.
This happens in addition to the accesses made directly to the websites www.abtcp.org.br; www.eucalyptus.com.br and www.celso-foelkel.com.br,
or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book
chapters are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal from
now is very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus Online Book & Eucalyptus
Newsletter that they will be always on the first page, when any single
person in the world, using a search engine like Google, Yahoo or Bing,
make a web search using the word Eucalyptus. This service aims
to better inform stakeholders and interested parties about the Eucalyptus, with
relevant information and a lot of credibility, too. I beg your help to
publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you
feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal
thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius
Degree, ABTCP, Fibria and
from the supporting partners.
best wishes and a hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We
all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.
this Present Edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter
Online Book - Chapter 19 (in Portuguese)
Friends of the Eucalyptus - Professor Dr. Dan Binkley
Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation
about Events and Courses
what is and serves for...
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - Products from the Eucalyptus to Prevent Mites and Ticks Problems - by Ester Foelkel
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
as a Cultural Asset with Fundamental Value to Human
Online Book - Chapter 19 (in Portuguese)
downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 4.6 MB) just click below
over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps
even easier, is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save
target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer
archives. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your
computer, please visit http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_eng.html and find the instructions how to get it.
Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.
Guia Referencial sobre Ecoeficiencia Energetica para a Industria
de Papel e Celulose Kraft de Eucalipto no Brasil" - "A
Reference Guide about Energy Eco-Efficiency to the Brazilian Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry"
If a problem occurs with the automatic redirection to the chapter, copy the
URL address below and place it in your browser (Internet Explorer, Google Chrome,
Mozilla Firefox, etc.). You may find the chapter at:
Friends of the Eucalyptus
Dr. Dan Binkley
In this edition of our Eucalyptus Newsletter, I have the honor
and the privilege to introduce to you another great friend of the Eucalyptus, and one of the most qualified and renowned researchers
in the world forest science, professor Dr. Dan Binkley. As a professor
at Colorado State University (http://www.colostate.edu) in the United
States of America, Dr. Binkley is very much well-known in Brazil
and other countries where Eucalypti are important as forest plantations
supplying goods to Society. He has developed along his R&D and
educational life many outstanding publications about this genus of
trees. Along this section, we are to bring for your knowledge some
important aspects on Dan's scientific and academic career, with emphasis
on his publications and achievements related to Eucalyptus.
Dan Binkley was born in the state of Ohio in the USA, in 1956. When
he was a young boy, he noticed that the layers of leaves that fell
from the trees in Autumn were not there next Summer. Due to his natural
curiosity, he asked his father where they had gone, and as a reply,
he had the first explanation on nutrient cycling, something he would
dedicate several studies in his university career. His father said
the leaves had decayed and returned back to the soil, becoming soil
The curiosity about the things and behavior of Nature always directed
his life. The choice for forestry as a career was therefore something
quite normal, a consequence of his personal vocation. Dan chose to
study forestry in the mid-1970's because he greatly enjoyed hiking
in forests, and he wanted to know more the ecology that was going
on all around. Despite the financial difficulties for studying outside
his mother town, he managed to do it at Northern Arizona University,
where he graduated with distinction in Forest Management from the
School of Forestry, in 1976. After completing his undergraduate studies,
he realized that there was still a major scientific basis lacking
in his skills for a better understanding how forests actually behave
physiologically - as they grow and interact in the ecosystems. Considering
his good academic performance, his goal then became the graduate
studies, initially as Master in Forest Ecology at the University
of British Columbia (completed in 1980), and soon, the Ph.D. at Oregon
State University (completed in 1982).
At Oregon State he selected as major the areas of Forest Ecology,
Soil Science and Botany. In all his academic career he has always
performed as a brilliant student and therefore he received several
academic awards. His research field initially focused on the role
of leguminous plants as sources of nitrogen to the soil in mixed
stands or in planting rotation management with other forest species.
His first goals with these studies were to use the forest physiology
and soil science to enhance and improve the growth of conifers used
for commercial purposes in USA. After completing his studies in graduate
level, Dan became an assistant professor in the School of Forestry
and Environmental Sciences at Duke University, in North Carolina.
There, he taught courses on ecology and forest soils. Soon, he published
his first book entitled "Forest Nutrition Management",
In 1987, Dan decided to move to Colorado State University, attracted
by the new academic challenges and by the natural beauty of the Rocky
Mountain region. Since that time, he stays in Colorado, where he
teaches and researches in Fort Collins (http://www.map.colostate.edu),
having oriented his teaching career to forest ecology and forest
soils, sustainability of the productive capacity of ecosystems, efficient
use of forest production resources, eco-physiology, forest nutrition,
management and restoration of landscapes and fragile ecosystems,
etc. His career is rich in accomplishments, whether in the form of
published books and articles, lectures on national and international
events, awards and distinctions earned by his scientific work and
practical results, besides the recognition received from his many
students because the quality and dedication placed in his courses
and graduate students advising.
The first meeting and the growing familiarity with the Eucalyptus emerged at the same time that he moved to Colorado. In 1987, he had
a professional trip to Asia and decided by a technical stop in Hawaii
to visit some forest experimental stands developed by the U.S.Forest
Service and the Bioenergy Development Corporation. These forest trials
in Hawaii included a combination of some tree species, as the case
of Eucalyptus saligna and the leguminous nitrogen-fixing species
Falcataria moluccana (http://www.hear.org/Pier/pdf/pohreports/falcataria_moluccana.pdf).
The knowledge accumulated by professor Dan Binkley on forest plantations
ecology associated with leguminous species was immediately recognized
by the managers of this research project in Hawaii. So, Dan and his
graduate students were invited to join the project, being this the
origin of his first studies with Eucalyptus in Hawaii.
Two years later, a group of Brazilian university professors were
visiting Colorado State University, among them our dear "Friend
of the Eucalyptus", Dr. Laercio Couto, from Federal University
of Vicosa. Laercio invited Dan to visit some fantastic Eucalyptus forest plantations in Brazil. In this tour to Brazil, Dan met for
the first time another brilliant Brazilian forester and also a great
friend of ours and very much dedicated to Eucalyptus studies, the
forest engineer Jose Luiz Stape. At that time, Jose Luiz Stape worked
as a forest researcher for the company named Ripasa, in Brazil. Dan
was so impressed with this bright young Brazilian forester that he
invited him to come to the U.S. to work on a PhD degree at Colorado
State University. Almost 10 years later this fact became a reality.
This happened from 1998 to 2002, when Jose Luiz Stape, then professor
and Master of Science by ESALQ/USP, chose to undertake his doctoral
studies under Dan Binkley's guidance, in Fort Collins. At the time,
the co-advising to Professor Stape was provided by Dr. Mark G. Ryan,
another top researcher performing at the U.S. Forest Service (http://lamar.colostate.edu/~mryan/),
giving origin to this fantastic triple of forestry researchers on
the Eucalyptus genus.
Most of Dan’s work with Eucalyptus since that time has been
in collaboration with Dr. Stape and all the colleagues at universities
and forest companies in Brazil. As a need and a result of Professor
Stape's doctoral thesis, several experiments with Eucalyptus were
installed and carried out in a Brazilian company - Copener. Soon
it came the idea of setting up a larger research project involving
as partners the following entities: ESALQ - School of Agriculture "Luiz
de Queiroz", IPEF - Institute of Forest Research and Studies,
Colorado State University and several companies of the Brazilian
forest segment. With Professor Stape leading, Dan has been engaged
in the BEPP - Brazil Eucalytus Potential Productivity Project. This
project aims to investigate how Eucalyptus growth responds to changes
in water, light and and nutrients supplies, and how these responses
differ among genotypes.
Dr. Dan Binkley has also had other types of involvement's in forestry
research with his academic staff and students. His main fields of
research include the development of North American forest species,
studies on forest ecology, soils, nutrition, sustainability in the
use of forest production factors, ecosystem restoration, etc. With
the Eucalyptus, the main focus has been the plantation forest productivity
and the sustainability of the capacity of forest ecosystems to ensure
the future environmental quality of such plantations. Dan’s
research has spanned a very broad range, essentially covering any
topic in forestry he could think about, in any place that was particularly
interesting and fun to visit to meet talented people. He has worked
on long-term development of forests at the northern tree-line in
Alaska; on forest nutrition in a wide variety of conifer forests;
and of course the productivity of fast-growing plantations. Dan mentions
that the partnership work between the Brazilian and the U.S. organizations
has resulted in a better understanding of how ecological processes
determine the growth responses of these plantations, oriented towards
productivity and sustainability.
For nearly 30 years, Dr. Dan Binkley has served as university professor
and researcher. He believes that he performs as a professional exactly
the way he was used to dream since his childhood: to better understand
Nature, forests and sustainability of these natural components to
suit human and environmental needs. He wants likely continuing on
this same path, because universities are a wonderful place to pursue
curiosity and to work with very bright and enthusiastic people. Dan
mentioned to me that it's definitely rewarding to have as colleagues
and peers a huge number of brilliant and enthusiastic forestry scientists,
whether in Fort Collins, or in other universities and companies where
eventually his professional life has become associated.
In addition to his academic achievements, Dan has had experiences
as administrative director of the Graduate Program in Ecology at
Colorado State University and as Director of the Colorado Forest
When I questioned him about his achievements and professional rewards,
Dan replied quickly and directly: "My greatest reward was being
able to develop a career that allowed me to study and research any
topic I felt the need to understand and know more about to inform
my students and the society". In reason of this ongoing curiosity,
determination and skills, Dan has been frequent author of numerous
papers in prestigious international journals (more than 140 scientific
articles). His major articles deal with water quality, soil and ecosystems,
biogeochemistry, eco-physiology, forest restoration, landscape management,
ecology, forest nutrition, etc. Dan has also published several books,
some written in partnership with other renowned American researchers.
A list of references and some of these books are reported somewhat
below in this section.
Due to the great academic and scientific contribution, with very
high level of applicability for the benefit of society, Dr. Dan Binkley
received in 2008, the degree of Doctor Honoris Causa by the Swedish
University of Agricultural Sciences.
Among his non-academic activities, it remains ever alive the passion
for natural hiking in the forests of the world (ands also in the
Grand Canyon), besides the great pleasure he has working in a small
tree farm (just a few hectares) in Hawaii owned by him with a group
of friends. He always try to have the companionship and presence
of his wife in such leisure activities. Dan speaks with pride of
his wife Jane, a medical doctor for the medical health program oriented
to the Colorado State University students. They have two sons (Will
and Paul), both concluding advanced university studies.
About the future, Dan believes he still has too much to produce and
write. There is a lot more to be published, he told me. There is
also a need to revise some of the "old books" already published,
because science is too dynamic, he reveals. Dan told me also that
one of his goals was to become fluent in Portuguese, but he thinks
his brain has become so old that he is unlikely to learn more than
a few phrases! Hard to believe, coming from such bright person.
When I questioned him about which was the most important added value
he provided to society with his career, the vein of the teacher has
soon become visible. Dan believes that his main role to society was
the way helping the education of talented students, not just adding
knowledge to them, but helping to develop this type of curiosity
he has for creative scientific forestry. Thus, it has been possible
to develop forest science with better silvicultural practices with
more respect to the environment.
To conclude this interview about our friend Dr. Dan Binkley, he mentioned
as a final comment that something definitively remarkable in the
forestry world has been the remarkable hospitality and friendship
that has always been offered to him by other foresters and related
people in this business, wherever in the world. This brings the sense
of a very cohesive global forestry world with an utmost respect among
Please, know more about professor Dr. Dan Binkley's professional
career and achievements by browsing his above referred personal website
and reading some of his publications that are made available to you
with the corresponding links for downloading. Dr. Binkley has an
academic and scientific production far larger than we are selecting
to you, as we have pointed out his relevant work more focused on
Eucalyptus and the eco-physiological relations. However, as it should
be working in the USA, a large part of his research work has also
included other North American tree species (Populus, Picea, Pinus,
Pseudotsuga, Alnus, etc.).
Dr. Dan Binkley's personal webpage at Colorado State University and
activities description by Colorado State University)
activities description by Colorado State University)
photo gallery - Landscaping, forests and wildlife)
BEPP - Brazilian Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project)
selection of some Dr. Dan Binkley's books:
Tree species effects on soils. Implications for global change. D.
Binkley; O. Menyailo. Proceedings NATO "Advanced Research Workshop on
Trees and Soil Interactions - Implications to Global Climate Change".
Krasnoyarsk, Russia. 358 pp. (2005)
aspen in western landscapes: symposium proceedings. W.D.
Shepperd; D. Binkley; D.L. Bartos; T.J. Stohlgren; L.G Eskew. Proceedings
RMRS-P-18. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Rocky
Mountain Research Station. 475 pp. (2001)
Ecology and management of forest soils. R.F. Fisher;
D. Binkley; W. L. Pritchett. John Wiley and Sons. 489 pp. (2000)
nutrition management. D. Binkley. Wiley-Interscience.
290 pp. (1986)
selection of articles, speeches, book chapters written by Dr. Dan
Thanks to the careful work performed by Professor Dr. Dan Binkley, organizing
and delivering most of his publications on his personal website at Colorado
State University, especially for this edition of our Eucalyptus Newsletter,
we have a selection of over 60 wonderful items for your browsing through
this publication list just ahead: an enormous cultural heritage for the
Eucalyptus. Please, have a lot of fun searching the articles and learn
with Dr. Dan Binkley and his research colleagues. To them, we dedicate
our gratitude for the way they manage their knowledge, sharing the opportunity
to readers for freely reading through the web.
Environmental determinants of productivity in Eucalyptus plantations. D.
Binkley; J.L. Stape; M. Ryan. PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides. Accessed
The BEPP - Brazilian Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project. IPEF - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais (Institute of Forest
Research and Studies). Accessed on 28.06.2010:
Portuguese - About Dr. Dan Binkley's involvement in this project)
http://lamar.colostate.edu/~binkley/Brazileucalyptus.htm (In English)
Dan Binkley fala sobre o futuro das pesquisas florestais (Dan
Binkley speaks about the future of forestry research). An Interview
to IPEF. IPEF Noticias nº 201. January/February. p. 05.
Does reverse growth dominance develop in old plantations
of Eucalyptus saligna? B.T. Doi; D. Binkley;
J. L. Stape. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 1815–1818.
Applying ecological insights to increase productivity in tropical plantations.
D. Binkley; J.P. Laclau; J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management
259: 1681-1683. (2010)
growth of individual trees: light interception and efficiency of
light use by Eucalyptus at four sites in Brazil. D.
Binkley; J.L. Stape; W.L. Bauerle; M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology and
Management 259: 1704-1713. (2010)
Factors controlling Eucalyptus productivity: how water availability
and stand structure alter production and carbon allocation. M.G.
Ryan; J.L. Stape; D. Binkley; S. Fonseca; R.A. Loos; E.N. Takahashi; C.R.
Silva; S.R. Silva; R.E. Hakamada; J.M. Ferreira; A.M.N. Lima; J.L. Gava;
F.P. Leite; H.B. Andrade; J.M. Alves; G.G.C. Silva. Forest Ecology and Management
259: 1695-1703. (2010)
The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity
Project: influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on
wood production. J.L. Stape; D. Binkley; M.G. Ryan;
S. Fonseca; R.A. Loos; E.N. Takahashi; C.R. Silva; S.R. Silva;
R.E. Hakamada; J.M.A. Ferreira; A.M.N Lima; J.L. Gava; F.P. Leite;
H.B. Andrade; J.M. Alves; G.C. Silva; M.R. Azevedo. Forest Ecology
and Management 259: 1684-1694. (2010)
the role resource use efficiency in determining the growth of trees
and forests. D. Binkley. In: XII World Forestry Congress.
Forests in Development: A vital balance. Argentina. 07 pp. (2009)
Production and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation
with water and nutrient manipulations. J.L. Stape; D. Binkley;
M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 920-930. (2008)
Competition among Eucalyptus trees depends on genetic
variation and resource supply. S. Boyden; D. Binkley; J.L.
Stape. Ecology 89: 2860-2867. (2008)
don't our stands grow even faster? Control of production and carbon
cycling in eucalypt plantations. M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley;
J.L. Stape. Southern Forests 70(2): 99-104. (2008)
of production and carbon allocation in Eucalyptus.
M. Ryan; D. Binkley; J.L. Stape. IUFRO Durban "Eucalypts
and diversity:balancing productivity and sustainability" Conference.
PowerPoint presentation: 24 slides. (2007)
Tree-girdling to separate root and heterotrophic respiration
in two Eucalyptus stands in Brazil. D. Binkley;
J. L. Stape; E. N. Takahashi; M. G. Ryan. Oecologia 148: 447–454.
A twin-plot approach to determine nutrient limitation and potential productivity
in Eucalyptus plantations at landscape scales in Brazil. J.
L. Stape; D. Binkley; W. S. Jacob; E. N. Takahashi. Forest Ecology and Management
223: 358–362. (2006)
Soils in ecology and ecology in soils. D. Binkley.
In: History of Soil Science. Chapter 10 (B. Warkentin, ed.).
21 pp. (2006)
Taxas de fotossintese em clones de Eucalyptus de alta produtividade
primaria liquida. A.H.C. Marrichi. ESALQ/USP. Training Report.
Advising: J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley. 36 pp. (2005)
How nitrogen-fixing trees change soil carbon. D. Binkley. In: Tree
species effects on soils: Implications for global change. Chapter 8 (D. Binkley,
O. Menyailo, eds.). NATO Science Series, Springer, Dordrecht. 10 pp. (2005)
Gaining insights on the effects of tree species on soils. D.
Binkley;O. Menyailo. In: Tree species effects on soils: Implications
for global change. Chapter 1. (D. Binkley, O. Menyailo, eds.).
NATO Science Series, Springer, Dordrecht. 16 pp. (2005)
Competition and facilitation between Eucalyptus and nitrogen-fixing Falcataria in
relation to soil fertility. S. Boyden; D. Binkley; R. Senock. Ecology
86: 992-1001. (2005)
response of belowground carbon allocation in forests to global
change. C.P. Giardina; M. Coleman; D. Binkley; J. Hancock;
J.S. King; E. Lilleskov; W.M. Loya; K.S. Pregitzer; M.G. Ryan;
C. Trettin. In: D. Binkley; O. Menyailo. Tree species effects
on soils: Implications for global change. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
119-154. Chapter 7. 40 pp. (2005)
Sustainable management of Eucalyptus plantations
in a changing world. D. Binkley; J.L. Stape. p. 11-17.
In: Eucalyptus in a Changing World. N. Borralho et al.
(editors). Proceedings of IUFRO Conference, Aveiro. 07 pp. (2004)
Water use, water limitation, and water use efficiency
in a Eucalyptus plantation. J.L. Stape; D.
Binkley; M.G. Ryan; A.N. Gomes. Bosque 25:35-41. (2004)
decreases belowground carbon cycling in a humid tropical forest. G.P.
Giardina; D. Binkley; M.G. Ryan; J.H. Fownes. Oecologia 139: 545-550.
Soil functional responses to excess nitrogen inputs at global scale.
M. Adams; P. Ineson; D. Binkley; G. Cadisch; N. Tokuchi; M.Scholes; K. Hicks.
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. (2004)
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experimental test of the causes of forest growth decline with stand
age. M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley; J.H. Fownes; C. Giardina;
R.S. Senock. Ecological Monograph 74(3): 393-414. (2004)
and the supply, use and efficiency of use of water, light and nitrogen
across a geographic gradient in Brazil. J.L. Stape; D.
Binkley; M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 193(1/2): 17-31.
the utility of the 3-PG model for growth of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla with
natural and manipulated supplies of water and nutrients.
J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley. Forest Ecology and Management
193: 219-234. (2004)
Testing the 3-PG process-based model to simulate Eucalyptus growth
with an objective approach to the soil fertility rating parameter.
J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley. Forest Ecology and Management.
18 pp. (2004)
Thinking about efficiency of resource use in forests. D.
Binkley; J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management
193: 05-17. (2004)
First rotation changes in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Eucalyptus plantation
in Hawaii. D. Binkley; J. Kaye; M. Barry; M.G. Ryan. Soil Science
Society of America Journal 68: 1713-1719. (2004)
Primary production and carbon allocation in relation
to nutrient supply in a tropical experimental forest. C.P.
Giardina; M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley; J.H. Fownes. Global Change Biology
9: 1438-1450. (2003)
Detecting change in forest floor carbon. R.D.
Yanai; S.V. Stehman; M.A. Arthur; C.E. Prescott; A.J. Friedland;
T.G. Siccama; D. Binkley. Soil Science Society of America Journal
Twenty years of stand development in pure and mixed stands of Eucalyptus
saligna and nitrogen-fixing Falcataria mollucana. D.
Binkley; R. Senock; S. Bird; T.G. Cole. Forest Ecology and Management 182:
soil carbon sequestration under nitrogen-fixing trees compared
with Eucalyptus species. S.C.
Resh; D. Binkley; J.A. Parrotta. Ecosystems 5: 217- 231. (2002)
Non-labile soil 15-Nitrogen retention beneath three tree
species in a tropical plantation. J.P. Kaye; D. Binkley;
X. Zou; J.A. Parrotta. Soil Science Society of American Journal
66: 612-619. (2002)
Age-related decline in forest ecosystem growth: an individual-tree, stand-structure
hypothesis. D. Binkley; M.G. Ryan; J.L. Stape; H. Barnard; J. Fownes.
Ecosystem 5: 58-67. (2002)
Nutritional interactions in mixed species forests. A.
Rothe; D. Binkley. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31:1855-1870.
Tree species effects and soil textural controls on carbon
and nitrogen mineralization rates. C. Giardina; M. Ryan;
R. Hubbard; D. Binkley. Soil Science Society of America Journal
65: 1272-1279. (2001)
Soil phosphorus pools and supply under the influence of Eucalyptus saligna and
nitrogen-fixing Albizia falcataria. D. Binkley; C. Giardina;
M. Bashkin. Forest and Ecology Management 128: 241-247. (2000)
Water quality impacts of forest fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus.
D. Binkley; H. Burnham; H.L. Allen. Forest Ecology and Management 121: 191-213.
Rapid changes in soils following Eucalyptus afforestation
in Hawaii. D. Binkley; S. Resh. Soil Science Society
of America Journal 63: 222-225. (1999)
Net primary production and nutrient cycling in replicated
stands of Eucalyptus saligna and Albizia falcataria.
D. Binkley; M. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 112: 79-85.
Effect of Eucalyptus saligna and Albizia
falcataria on soil processes and nitrogen supply in Hawaii. D.C.
Garcia-Montiel; D. Binkley. Oecologia 113: 547-556. (1998)
fixation and the mass balance of nitrogen in ecosystems. J.
Pastor; D. Binkley. Biogeochemistry 43: 63-78. (1998)
Why trees affect soils in temperate and tropical forests:
the warp and woof of tree/soil interactions. D. Binkley;
C. Giardina. Biogeochemistry 42: 89-106. (1998)
Changes in soil carbon following afforestation in Hawaii. M.A. Bashkin;
D. Binkley. Ecology 79: 828-833. (1998)
Age-related decline in forest productivity: pattern and process.
M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley; J.H. Fownes. Advances in Ecological Research 27: 213-262.
Nitrogen fixation in tropical forest plantations. D. Binkley;
C. Giardina. In: Management of soil, water, and nutrients in tropical plantation
forests. Chapter 9. (E.K.S. Nambiar and A. Brown, eds). ACIAR Monograph 43.
p. 297-337. (1997)
Stand development and productivity. D. Binkley; A.M. O’Connell;
K.V. Sankaran. In: Management of soil, water, and nutrients in tropical plantation
forests. Chapter 12. (E.K.S. Nambiar and A. Brown, eds). ACIAR Monograph
43. p. 419-442. (1997)
Bioassays of the influence of Eucalyptus saligna and Albizia
falcataria on soil nutrient supply and limitation.
D. Binkley. Forest Ecology and Management 91: 229-234. (1997)
Factors influencing decline in soil pH in Hawaiian Eucalyptus and Albizia
plantations. C. Rhoades; D. Binkley. Forest Ecology and Management
80: 47-56. (1996)
Influence of adjacent stand on spatial patterns of carbon
and nitrogen in Eucalyptus and Albizia plantations. B.
Ewers; D. Binkley; M. Bashkin. Canadian Journal of Forest Research
The influence of tree species on forest soils - processes and patterns. D.
Binkley. In: Proceedings of the Trees and Soil Workshop (D.J. Mead and I.S.
Cornforth, eds.). Agronomy Society of New Zealand Special Publication number
10. 33 pp. (1995)
Nitrogen fertilization practices in forestry. D.
Binkley; R. Carter; H.L. Allen. In: Nitrogen Fertilization and
the Environment. Chapter 11. (P. Bacon, ed.) Marcel Dekker. p.
Ecosystems. An ecology primer. D. Binkley. In:
Ecosystem Management: Beyond the Rhetoric, Symposium Proceedings.
Colorado State University. 07 pp. (1995)
Intercropping Eucalyptus with
beans in Minas Gerais, Brazil. L. Couto; J.M. Gomes;
D. Binkley; D. Betters; C.A.M. Passos. International Tree Crops
Journal 8: 83-93. (1995)
Intercropping eucalypts with maize in Minas Gerais, Brazil. L.
Couto; D. Binkley; D. Betters; C.V.D. Mopniz. Agroforestry Systems
26: 147-156. (1994)
Impacts of air pollution on forests: a summary of current situations. D.
Binkley; Y. Son; Z.S. Kim. Journal of the Korean Forestry Society 83: 229-238.
synopsis of the impacts of forest practices on water quality in
North America. D. Binkley; T. Brown. Water Resources Bulletin
29: 729-740. (1993)
Production and nutrient cycling in mixed plantations of Eucalyptus and Albizia in
Hawaii. D. Binkley; K.A. Dunkin; D. DeBell; M.G. Ryan. Forest Science
38: 393-408. (1992)
Evaluating progress towards closed forest models
based on fluxes of carbon, water and nutrients. J.J.
Landsberg; M.R. Kaufmann; D. Binkley; J. Isebrands; P. Jarvis.
Tree Physiology 9: 01-15. (1991)
Connecting soils with forest productivity. D.
Binkley. In: Management and Productivity of Western Montane
Forest Soils. USDA General Technical Report INT-280. 04 pp.
Carbon fixation in trees as a micro optimization
process: an example of combining ecology and economics.
J. Hof; D. Rideout; D. Binkley. Ecological Economics 2(3):
Forest soils and acid rain an overview and synthesis. D.
Binkley. Conference Proceedings. U.S. Department of Energy Colloquium. p.
222 236. (1987)
Does forest removal increase rates of decomposition
and nutrient release? D. Binkley. Forest Ecology
and Management 8: 229 233. (1984)
I have an enormous admiration for the competence and for the achievements
of this great friend of the Eucalyptus trees and forests. His qualification
and dedication to the forest cause and sciences are unquestionable. Among
many other attributes, Professor Binkley is a vibrant and enthusiastic
person, an excellent speaker and researcher, besides being an amazing human
being, friendly, cooperative and nice. For all these reasons, I have felt
myself honored and privileged to the opportunity to tell you a little about
the life of this great "Friend of the
Eucalyptus" and to share
in this newsletter some of his technical papers published throughout his
My dear professor Dr. Dan Binkley, congratulations for your so many achievements
and thanks for emphasizing the Eucalyptus in your research and educational
activities. Thanks also for everyting you have done for the Eucalyptus plantation forestry and will continue producing to the global forest science,
including to the Brazilian forest sector.
Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation
section aims to inform you about recent trends and technology innovations
that are to change our forest-based sector in the medium to long terms.
However, the section is not just limited to show disruptive technologies
or major technological leaps, but even little and simple innovations
occurring in the day-a-day life of our business. They can also add
better efficiency and competitiveness to our industry. For achieving
these targets, the section brings articles, theses, websites, interviews,
courses and events, everything that we consider interesting as relevant
advances to our companies and businesses based on the Eucalyptus.
In this issue, we are mentioning some interesting articles and events
to you, which should be read carefully by those willing to take a glimpse
at the future of our industry, based on the technological changes that
are under development or in design.
Please, read them and know what are reporting some reliable sources of
2010-2020 IPEF Strategic Plan - Institute of Forest Research
and Studies. (Brazil)
In May 2009, IPEF promoted an internal workshop to discuss important issues
of forestry in order to gather support for the preparation of a Strategic
Plan of Research and Development for the decade 2010-2020 (IPEF 2020).
The audience was composed by representatives from IPEF member companies
in the areas of research, management and planning. By recommendation of
the coordinators of the topics being evaluated, several university professors
and researchers from various national institution's, opinion leaders and
renowned researchers were invited to participate in the meeting. The goal
was to discuss the state-of-the-art and technology trends in various forestry
science segments. Actually, the forestry areas that are the main IPEF focuses
have been prioritized. In the event, presentations were made on each of
these subjects and they were kindly released by IPEF to the public domain,
by making them available at IPEF website. After this workshop stage, IPEF
coordinators and leaders have met several times and strategic actions were
prioritized, also involving foreign intelligence, represented by great
thinkers and executives of the forest sector. Finally, IPEF leaders worked
to consolidate the final strategic plan, which can also be obtained from
the web in the address for downloading showed just below.
presentations on state-of-the-art technological forestry trends and
IPEF Strategic Plan to the decade 2010-2020)
Technological roadmaps by Agenda 2020 Technology Alliance - Forest
Products Sector. (USA)
At the digital publication Eucalyptus Newsletter number 24, brought to
the public in December 2009, (http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newspt_dez09.html#tres),
we have introduced to readers the most important and expected technological
trends for the coming years by the forest products industry. The needs
for R&D have also been evaluated and discussed in that documents. More
recently, in April 2010, our dear friend Ron Brown, through Agenda 2020
North American Technology Alliance, has edited another publication on important
technological routes ("Technological Roadmaps") to be tracked
and targeted by the forest products sector, including pulp and paper. Numerous
technical experts from several countries, including Brazil, have participated
and contributed to this document. Most of them have cooperated with their
vision of future on technological trends and expectations arising from
the sector. The aim of this roadmap is to establish priority areas for
research oriented to technological leaps in the production of forest-based
products, and and pulp/paper. The goal is a more sustainable and eco-efficient
production of these goods. The expectation is that these developments occur
within the next 10 years from the 2010 publication. Please, meet the publication
Forest products industry technology roadmap. G.R. Brown. Agenda
2020 Technology Alliance. 108 pp. (2010)
this section, we are, as always we do, offering some relevant Euca-Links
to important websites available in the virtual web. Just click on the
addresses of the corresponding URLs to open them or save as favorites
on your computer.
A book and articles about "Paper Drying" authored by the engineer
Alfredo Rendina. (Argentina)
Our esteemed and competent friend from Argentina, mechanical engineer
Alfredo Rendina, has written and recently released an excellent book
and several technical papers on the drying of paper, efficient use of
steam, drying effects on paper properties, etc. Both book and articles
are written in Spanish. We strongly recommend that you navigate in the
book demo website and find also some Rendina's articles, to whom I present
my congratulations and wishes of successes for his work and knowledge.
• Book in Spanish: Secado en la Industria del Papel. A. Rendina.
181 pp. (2008)
summary and list of contents)
Rendina's short biography)
• Vacio en las maquinas de papel. A. Rendina. 15 pp. Accessed on
• Recuperacion de calor en capotas de maquinas de papel. A.
Rendina. 18 pp. Accessed on 26.06.2010:
• Problemas sobre secado del papel. A. Rendina. 07 pp. (2009)
Problemas sobre secado del papel con aire caliente. A. Rendina. 07 pp. (2009)
• Capacidad de secado del papel en baterias de secadores. A. Rendina. 11
• Contraccion del papel durante el secado. A. Rendina. 11 pp. (2009)
Channel (Video-Library) - Eucalyptologics at YouTube. (Spain)
Our dear eucalyptic friend Mr. Gustavo Iglesias Trabado from Spain is
bringing to us another of his novelties from his Eucalyptologics blog:
a video-library about the Eucalyptus trees, where you can watch and get
information about various topics on these wonderful trees. The channel
has a partnership with the Brazilian webportal Painel Florestal (http://www.painelflorestal.com.br).
To raise the video availabilty to the readers, Gustavo has offered euca-links
to various videos produced by the partner Painel Florestal, one of the
best webportals on Eucalyptus forestry.
Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden Research Institute. (Brazil)
The Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden reveals itself not just
as one of the oldest and most prestigious botanical institution's in
Brazil, but also as a patrimony of the Brazilian nation. The conquests
and achievements are numerous, since the time of its foundation by
the Portuguese monarch Don Joao VI, in 1808. Among its scientific highlights
we can mention: the collection of species of Brazilian flora, xylotheque,
herbarium, photo library, karpotheque, higher education through the
National School of Tropical Botany, scientific research, Rodriguesia
scientific journal, library of rare and unique books, etc. Recently,
the Research Institute of the Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden launched
another free service for the virtual world society - a collection of
species of the Brazilian flora, which can be accessed and viewed via
the web. Please, know more about this botanic wonder which has a total
of 40,986 species of flora; with 3,608 of Fungi; 3,496 of Algae; 1,521
of Bryophytes; 1,176 of Pteridophytes; 23 Gymnosperms and 31,162 Angiosperms.
of the Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden)
of the Brazilian Flora)
Wayne P. Armstrong Botanical World. (USA)
Professor Wayne P. Armstrong offers to us (better saying, gifts us)
one of the best arboreta and botanical pages available on the virtual
web, with rich quality on the information, botany classes, photo galleries,
etc. This is the minimum that can be said about his fantastic webpage
at Palomar College, California, USA. Congratulations for your marvelous
work professor Wayne.
information about Professor Wayne P. Armstrong)
to the Professor Wayne's Arboretum)
trees, including some beautiful pictures of Eucalyptus)
trees and woods, including some Eucalyptus)
classes on Botany)
classes on Biology)
(Palomar College Arboretum)
about Events and Courses
section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with
recently already happened events (congresses, seminars, conferences,
workshops, courses). The advantage provided to web readers is that
the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings available
for free downloading. This is a very good way to practice social and
scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers
for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested
parties. I would like to emphasize the importance of visiting the material
of these suggested events. Most of them have exceptional PowerPoint
presentations, rich on data, photos, images and references. By doing
this visit you can learn a lot more about the discussed topics. Other
courses or events offer the entire book of technical articles, true
sources of knowledge to our readers. We should also highlight the increasing
availability of academic materials placed in a public way by many university
professors, who offer their teaching hand-outs and classes materials
for using by stakeholders of the society via the web. On some of our
newsletters issues, we are to provide references of these types of
courses, as well.
visit the selection we have prepared this time:
Madeira 2010 - 5th International Congress on the Sustainable
Economic Excellent event on issues about the forest-based
industry, focused on sustainable forest products production and also
on the sustainable power generation, utilizing wood from planted
forests. The event is organized by the BESC Institute of Humanities
and Economics, and it took place in June 2010, in the city of Sao
Paulo, Brazil. Now, in its fifth edition, MADEIRA 2010 has gained
the status as one of the most important events for the forestry sector
in Brazil, addressing issues of high national interest and helping
to enlarge the capacity of international reserves accumulation by
the Brazilian economy and its competitiveness in foreign markets.
We thank very much our esteemed friend Mrs. Jussara Ribeiro for her
enthusiasm and dedication in coordinating and organizing the event
and Dr. Jose Otavio Brito for his expertise in developing, together
with other members of the Madeira 2010 Business & Scientific
Council, the excellent technical program for this specific edition
of the congress.
2010 website with the speeches and event magazine
(Madeira 2010 Awards)
of the event Madeira 2008 at the website Painel Florestal)
of the event Madeira 2008 at the ABRAF website)
of the event Madeira 2006 at the ABRAF website)
MS Florestal 2010 - 2nd Mato Grosso do Sul Forestry Congress.
MS Florestal is an event of great magnitude for a region that is
itself rapidly becoming the new frontier of plantation forestry development
in Brazil, the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. MS Florestal is promoted
by the SEPROTUR - Secretariat of Agricultural Development, Industrial
Production, Trade and Tourism from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.
The event has also the support through a partnership with REFLORE
and Painel Florestal (http://painelflorestal.com.br).
The event took place in June 2010, in Campo Grande, MS. MS Florestal
has been converted in an important scenario to educate and motivate
investors, to increase networking and to disseminate technology,
equipment and services targeted to this kind of segment, generating
new alternatives for investments, partnerships and opportunities.
Florestal video about the event)
PROTEF Technical Meeting - Risk Management and Exotic Pest Monitoring. (in Portuguese)
An event by IPEF - Institute for Forest Research and Studies, in partnership
with FCA - College of Agricultural Sciences/UNESP, Botucatu. It was held
in December 2009 in the city of Tres Lagoas - MS. The event discussed
the research advances in forest protection in Brazil mainly for the culture
of Eucalyptus, which has been the target of new pest problems, with new
pathogenic organisms agents leading to new pests, diseases and weed competition.
Featuring presentations: on the browned bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus, on the Eucalyptus rust and also some presentations provided by Brazilian
forest companies about their problems and phytosanitary controls.
1st International Symposium of the Indonesian Wood Research
Society. (in English)
An event that took place in Bogor, Indonesia, in November 2009. In
this symposium, innumerous scientific papers have been presented featuring
wood science, with particular highlights on tropical woody trees, both
exotic and native from the region. In the proceedings, the reader is
able to find several references on the geni: Acacia, Gmelina, Pinus
Indonesian Wood Research Society webpage)
of the 2009 event, with 315 pages)
Arlindo Costa's Webpage - CERPLAN - Teaching Center of the North
Plateau - UDESC -
Santa Catarina. (In Portuguese)
In a previous Eucalyptus Newsletter, we have already highlighted Professor
Arlindo Costa webpage. He is professor at the Department of Furniture
Technology, UDESC - State University of Santa Catarina. At this opportunity,
we are complementing the promotion of this webpage to our readers,
due to the excellent technical materials that Professor Arlindo makes
available to his students and to people from society who are interested
in knowing more about the subjects he teaches and shares so well with
everyone via the web.
professor Arlindo Costa)
- Industrial Production of Furniture)
and Plant Tissues course)
- Botany 01)
- Botany 02)
are plant specimen collections that allow a careful identification
of species based on comparisons of their vegetative and reproductive
organs with ready-made models (in generally, in the dry-format) maintained
in these collections. These models of botanical materials, kept dehydrated/desiccated
or preserved in alcohol or other preservative, are called herbarium
specimens (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specimen). There are herbaria
to interested parties visits and for researching purposes mainly in
universities, botanical gardens and also in research institution's.
They require great expertise, whether for correct taxonomic identification
of the plant specimens, and also for preparing and storing them. Some
institution's have collections of plants both as herbarium specimens
(dead material), as also collections of living plants (botanical collections).
Collections of Eucalyptus botanical materials are common in Australia,
but not so in Brazil. In Brazil, there is a fabulous collection of
Eucalyptus and Corymbia herbarium specimens at the headquarters of
FEENA - State Forest "Navarro de Andrade" in Rio Claro, state
of Sao Paulo (http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newseng_oct09.html#um).
We have there the availability of dozens of Eucalyptus and Corymbia plant specimens, maintained by the technical staff of the institution,
as collections for the purpose of taxonomy and identification. In addition,
there are also collections of living trees of many of these species.
For the fact of knowing so much the importance of these collections,
we are encouraging and suggesting to the Brazilian forestry sector
to become FEENA partner for the digitalization of this collection of
botanical herbarium specimens. This service would allow to place the
specimens pictures on botanical books or in the web, as a virtual herbarium
to meet the demands coming from society. It is very common to find
citizens who wish to identify Eucalyptus plants that are present in
forests, farms, public parks, urban woods, etc. An eucalypt virtual
herbarium in Brazil, with the eucalypt species that commonly live in
the country, would definitely be an exceptional tool to support decision-making
for the further development of our Eucalyptus forestry.
We have made a careful search in the web to bring to you some good examples
of virtual herbaria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_herbarium),
even when they do not keep many species of Eucalyptus. Indeed, the term
virtual herbarium comes to become more popular as websites where it is
possible to obtain data on plants, not always through herbarium dried
specimens, but also photographs and drawings. I hope these visits you
are to make in these suggested herbaria may help and enable leveraging
the sense of need for a virtual herbarium in Brazil, containing also
in the collections the exotic species very much used in plantation forestry
in the country: Eucalyptus, Corymbia, Acacia and Pinus.
Australian National Botanic Gardens. (Australia)
the Australian National Botanic Gardens)
tool for images related to species and geni of Australian flora)
Australian National Herbarium. (Australia)
a plant specimen)
Australian Native Plants Society. (Australia)
selection of Eucalyptus species in the format of pictured specimens)
AVH - Australia's Virtual Herbarium. (Australia)
The AVH project consists in an online collection of plant species of
Australian flora, the birthplace of hundreds of species of Eucalyptus. It encompasses and seeks to bring together some of the most important
traditional herbaria in the country, bringing these collections to digital
form and virtual availability. Unfortunately, the access is restricted
until now and only partially offered to the general public.
the AVH project)
Charles Sturt University. (Australia)
Eukalypt - A Heather Elson's Webpage. (Australia)
Excellent webpage showing pictures made by Heather Elson, allowing to
describe several species of Eucalyptus, thereby facilitating the identification
of species, even without using a typical herbarium technology.
to the eucalypts)
http://www.eukalypt.org/eucalyptus_gallery1.htm (Eucalyptus gallery)
Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden - Virtual Herbarium. (USA)
portal for obtaining plant specimens data and pictures from several American
Flora of Australia Online. (Australia)
University Herbarium. (Portugal)
Tras-os-Montes & Alto Douro University Herbarium.
Herbarium of the Sao Paulo Botanic Institute. (Brazil)
Forest Herbarium at UFSM - Federal University of Santa
An excellent forest herbarium made available to public thanks to
the efforts and talent of our dear friend professor Dr. Solon Jonas
Longhi and his team.
PHPSESSID=fa4f75ab0c1557efa37550f58bcca5ac (Links to other herbaria)
Botanic Garden - The C.V. Star Virtual Herbarium. (USA)
The search tool offers the possibility to access innumerous other collections
from multi-herbaria in the global world. Don't miss this visit.
the herbaria collections)
QueryTerms=eucalyptus&QueryOption=any (Searching result for Eucalyptus, with over 200 results and many Eucalyptus plant specimens
to be admired)
Eucalyptus robusta plant specimen)
Zealand Virtual Herbarium. (New Zealand)
Biology Society (Ordem dos Biologos). (Portugal)
PlantNet - New South Wales Flora Online. (Australia)
Royal Botanic Garden of Melbourne. (Australia)
to prepare plant specimens to herbarium)
Royal Botanic Garden of Victoria. (Australia)
resources/national-herbarium-of-victoria#h_3 (What a herbarium
University of British Columbia Herbarium. (Canada)
vascular plants and Eucalyptus to access innumerous Eucalyptus plant
Herbarios Virtuais: Conceitos, estado da arte, usos e recomendacoes. Mike Hopkins. Rural Federal University of Amazonia. Accessed
A informatizacao de herbarios brasileiros: estudo de caso. F.L.
Peixoto; H.C. Lima. National School of Tropical Botany. Acesso
what is and serves for...
or lignotubercles are structures developed by some plant species
to adapt and to withstand adverse environmental conditions where
they live or have lived in the past over their natural development
process. They appear initially in young individuals as small lumps
near the neck or collar of the plants (the region of the plant
seedling in transition from the aerial part to the root system).
This is because they are formed preferentially by axillary buds
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axillary_bud) near the cotyledons.
This means that lignotubers are found especially in seminal plants
(plants originated from seeds have cotyledons, clonal plants usually
do not). There is evidence that the capacity for forming lignotubers
is not only restricted to the cotyledonary region, but they can
also occur in axillar regions of some plants, just above the cotyledonary
node, this fact also happening with the Eucalyptus.
For this reason, young and fresh shoots, harvested directly from
lignotuber as cuttings,
may also come to develop lignotubers, when vegetatively propagated.
This phenomenon is known as "position effect for the formation
of lignotuber", thus denying the exclusive formation of
lignotubers only in seminal plants. The induction of lignotuber
such way has been successfully performed by several researchers.
However, this knowledge has not yet been turned into practical
results in the vegetative propagation of Eucalyptus.
main lignotuber mission is to guarantee the plant ability to defend
itself and to survive the adverse climate conditions or the human
or predators actions. The most frequent adversities are: drought,
frost, forest fires, insects or diseases attacks, cutting of trees
in forest harvesting, felling of trees by strong winds, etc.
The anatomy of the cells of the lignotuber structure indicates
that the lignotuber presents the same kind of tissues as any woody
plant: cambium, phloem, heartwood, sapwood, parenchyma cells and
gum channels. Therefore, anatomically the lignotuber does not differ
from other parts of the stem. However, the differences between
lignotuber and the rest of the stem are quantitative: lignotubers
have a much larger proportion of parenchyma (nutritive reserve
cells) and a high concentration of dormant buds and protected meristematic
tissue. This suggests that lignotubers have dual function: to be
a food reserve organ (hence, the origin of the name lignotubercle)
and to have an enormous capacity of meristematic bud development
in the case of any damage to the plant stem. When the stem of the
plant suffers a serious injury, even its removal by tree harvesting,
lignotuber becomes vital for the survival of the plant. The dormant
buds, basing their development on the surrounding food reserves
in the lignotuber, begin to develop quickly to replace damaged
or removed stem from the plant. Therefore, plants with lignotuber
have high ability for sprouting and regeneration after the loss
of their aerial organs. However, the plants can also sprout without
having lignotuber. In such cases, additional care on the physiological
issues and the provision of resources for facilitating this sprouting
must be known and applied to a better chance of success in this
type of forest management by coppicing.
The lignotubers are important regenerative organs of some plants,
not only to resist adverse natural conditions, but also to be used
to improve the forest management under conditions of commercial
plantations. Among the required knowledge for improving coppicing
management is suggested that some factors be well evaluated and
monitored, such as: cutting height of the tree at harvesting; integrity
of the bark in the tree stump; weather factors at harvesting (sunlight
intensity and temperature) and respect by harvesting operators
to the lignotuber region.
Despite this intense regenerative capacity and formation of shoots/sprouts,
there are no evidences that the lignotuber may be considered an
advantage for a higher percentage of seedling formation in the
utilization of the plant tissue culture technique. The vegetative
propagation of this organ in relation to other plant parts normally
used for this technique has not showed clear benefits for the lignotuber.
The lignotubers are frequent and common in species of eucalypts,
both in the genus Eucalyptus, as well as Corymbia. The species
Eucalyptus urophylla, E.robusta, E.tereticornis, E.saligna,
E. globulus E.cinerea, E. obliqua and Corymbia citriodora usually
show clearly the lignotuber in young seminal seedlings. The same
is true for some hybrids, as the case of Eucalyptus urograndis. Some species or even plants may not show the lignotuber, because
such formation is genetic controlled. For example, there are cases
where E.grandis plants show lignotuber and in others, don't (in
most situations). When a particular species doesn't have lignotuber,
the regrowth and sprouting of the plants must be more carefully
managed. Tree harvesting must be more precise in stump height and
also extreme care should be taken to avoid damaging the bark. The
absence of lignotuber does not indicate inability for shooting,
only that greater care must be taken when coppicing the forest
for another rotation. On the other hand, it is not for the simple
reason that the plant has lignotuber that the forester may neglect
these same factors.
The species of eucalypts that have lignotubers tend to be more
tolerant to cold weather, frosts, droughts and defoliation by predatory
pests, etc. Species that do not have lignotubers physiologically
compensate this deficiency by the much larger seed production,
choosing such way to preserve their genes - a remarkable Mother
Besides the presence of lignotuber (which translates into a virtue
in the seedlings), the producer of Eucalyptus forest seedlings
should pay close attention to the diameter of seedlings in the
basis of them. There is strong evidence that the seedlings thicker
in this region are more resistant in the plantation and thus having
a higher percentage of survival success. Such seedlings have even
greater ability to sprout, if they are mechanically damaged or
eventually suffer some pest attack that remove their leaves and
branches, but leave intact the lignotuber.
The lignotuber resembles a lump or a predator gall in young seedlings.
However, as time goes and the plant gets older, it gradually loses
this format as far the Eucalyptus planted trees grow in favorable
environmental conditions. When the plant reaches about 4-5 meters
high, nobody is able to notice any kind of spherical formation
or lump in the basis region of the tree, near the ground. However,
this region maintains its lignotuber characteristics. Food reserves
and meristematic tissues are there in abundance. In the event of
any damage to the tree stem, the lignotuber comes into action to
recover the tree from this damage.
In the case of lignotuber sprouting, many shoots tend to grow quickly
and immediately, with no clear apical dominance of one of them.
If sprout thinning (removal of extra sprouts/shoots) is not efficiently
managed and carried out with science after forest harvesting, we
may have numerous small diameter and even tortuous shoots, leading
to a broomed aspect to the plant. The foresters and the operators
involved in the Eucalyptus plantation forestry should therefore
know very well and to respect this characteristics of the Eucalyptus plants. This will facilitate a successful management of the new
plantation based on the selected and managed sprouts.
The Eucalyptus and Corymbia adult plants do
not show morphological evidences of their lignotubers, unless
they are constantly injured
or damaged by severe stresses in a row. In such cases, lignotubers
can develop into non-uniform tubercles at surface or slightly
below the soil surface. This happens when the plant is growing
and harsh conditions for vegetation. For example, when the forest
is submitted to numerous fires and subsequent death of the aerial
Lignotubers are not privilege of the eucalypts. They exist in several
other taxonomic groups of plants. In some situations, when plants
live in conditions of extreme difficulties, the lignotuber structure
becomes even more important than the tree stem, giving an even
surreal aspect to the plant: the development of a huge, strange
and deformed tubercle, semi-buried in the soil. This is definitely
not the case of Eucalyptus in the conditions of commercial plantations,
where the lignotuber does not play a greater role throughout the
rotation, except when the forest is harvested. Then, the dormant
buds are activated and grow immediately as sprouts.
In an e-mail messages dialogue about the Eucalyptus lignotuber
with the great master and "Friend of the Eucalyptus",
the forest engineer Teotonio Francisco de Assis, he brought his
wisdom and mentioned some phrases that I'm taking the chance
to share with you:
"Most species of Eucalyptus have lignotuber, but only
in some they appear more clearly in format. They are not an anomaly,
a mechanism that Eucalyptus plants and some other species of the
Myrtaceae family have developed to survive after stresses such
as drought, frost, stem fracture, insect or disease attack, etc.
It is a plant physiological ability to profusely sprout. It is
not a defect or a disease, but a virtue to them".
Know more about the occurrence of lignotubers in Eucalyptus through
the below referenced literature:
Lignotuber. R.M.S. Zuucatti. UFRGS - College of
Agronomy. Photo Gallery on Plant Diseases. Accessed on 26.06.2010:
?id_registro=825&id_nome=126 (In Portuguese)
An introduction to the Eucalyptus. The genera Eucalyptus,
Corymbia and Angophora. A.
Lyne. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. Accessed on
Gum trees of the South East. Fact
Coast Regional Botanic Gardens. Australia. 02 pp. Accessed
Os eucaliptos utilizados para a producao de
Foelkel. Eucalyptus Newsletter nº 15. (2008)
The Eucalyptus being used to the
production of bonsais. E. Foelkel. Eucalyptus
Newsletter nº 15. (2008)
Conducao de plantios de Eucalyptus em sistema
M.P. Ferrari; C.A. Ferreira; H.D. Silva. Embrapa Florestas.
Serie Documentos nº 104. 28 pp (2004)
In: "Clonagem e doencas do eucalipto". A.C.
Alfenas; E.A.V.Zauza; R.G. Mafia; T.F. Assis. Editora
UFV. p. 346-348. (2004)
Genetic control of coppice and lignotuber development in Eucalyptus
globulus. S.P. Wittock; L.A. Apiolaza; C.M. Kelly; B.M.
Potts. Australian Journal of Botany 51: 57-67. (2003)
Micropropagation and tissue culture of Eucalyptus. A
review. J.J. Le Roux; J. V. Staden. Tree Physiology
9: 435-477. (1991)
Initiation, development and anatomy of lignotubers
in some species of Eucalyptus. D.J.
Carr; R. Jahnke; S.G.M. Carr. Australian Journal
of Botany 32(4): 415 - 437. (1984)
The eucalypt lignotuber: a position-dependent organ. D.J.
Carr; S.G.M. Carr; R. Jahnke. Annals of Botany 50: 481-489. (1982)
Studies of the lignotuber of Eucalyptus
gummifera. II - Anatomy. R.K. Bamber;
K.J. Mullette. Australian Journal of Botany 26(1):
15 - 22. (1978)
Studies on the lignotubers of Eucalyptus
obliqua. I - The nature of the lignotuber.
B.B. Carrodus; T.J. Blake. New Phytologist 69(4):
Images of Eucalyptus lignotuber:
special thanks to Mr. Antonio Carlos Franco de Lima for providing
the picture of lignotubers
in a young Eucalyptus
urograndis seedling, displayed in this section opening.
In this edition: Products from the Eucalyptus to Prevent Mites and
Taxonomically, the mites and ticks belong to the phylum Arthropoda and the class Arachnida. In general, they are small-sized
animals, especially mites; and they visibly show the four pairs of legs
in the adulthood (Wikipedia, 2010; Flechtmann and Moraes, 2008). The
mites are very abundant in nature and can be easily found in the first
layers of the soil that are rich in organic matter, and where it is common
to find a great variety of living species that depends on organic debris
and/or acting as predators to other organisms. There are also some species
of mites that inhabit aquatic ecosystems, remaining on plants or animals.
On the other hand, the mites can also cause great damages to humans by
inhabiting their homes, as is the case of the dust mite, that usually
generates respiratory and skin allergies. These animals are also known
for: parasitizing domestic and wild animals; by feeding on plants of
economic importance to agriculture; for being vectors of diseases to
humans and plants, among other problems (Wikipedia, 2010; Flechtmann
and Moraes, 2008).
Tickshave blood feeding habits (hematophagous animals); they may also
cause serious harm to human health, besides helping in the transmission
of serious diseases. Tick species also parasitize other domestic and
wild animals, causing skin irritations and allergies by releasing their
anti-coagulant toxic saliva in the bloodstream of their hosts (Wikipedia,
For all these facts, the control of both mites and ticks is an issue
that haunts man sincehis early days. These predators already existed
in ancient Egypt, since tomb quotes about ticks to cause human diseases
have been found (Moraes and Flechtmann, 2008). Currently, the use of
pesticides is the most used way to combat these pests. However, due to
the existing and growing environmental problems (pollution of ecosystems,
including the human homes; pest resistance to doses previously controllable;
etc.), as well as the severe potential poisoning that some of these pesticide
products can cause mainly in mammals, further studies searching alternative
procedures for controlling them are being conducted in various regions
of the world.
Research with extracts from plantsthat show resistance to the attack
of the species of these arachnids are showing very promising results
when sprayed on plants susceptible to these pests (Moraes and Flechtmann,
2008). Among these plant extracts, there are those from Eucalyptus. Thus,
the technical goals of this present text would be: a) to bring to the
reader survey results that show how the extracts of some species of Eucalyptus can help controlling mites and ticks; b) to demonstrate the main advantages
of using these extracts of Eucalyptus, compared to conventional methods
of control (pesticides). However, it should be clear that despite the
resistance of some species of Eucalyptus to some mites, there
are also mites harmful attacks in Eucalyptus plantations (Flechtmann, 1983), indicating
that such resistance exists in some cases, but not all.
According to Chagas et al. (2002), the synthetic acaricides most commonly
used in agriculture are very harmful to the environment, and may lead
to poisoning effects, both to rural operators, and also to health risks
to consumers, when they feed on agricultural products containing toxic
pesticide residuals. The same authors emphasized that the acaricides
generated from natural plant extracts usually cause less damage to nature
because: they are more easily degraded in the environment; have lower
toxicity to mammals; have a lower risk of resistance development by pests.
Natural plant extracts are being tested for controlling of Varroa destructor,
an ectoparasite mite to bees. According to Castagnino (2008), synthetic
pesticides, such as organic-phosphates, pyrethroids and chlorinated organics,
used presently to combat Varroa, show growing problems of increasing
resistance of the predator, being necessary to increase the concentration
of such chemicals for more effective control. Furthermore, this measure
can contaminate honey and wax, making them unfit for consumption and
utilization. Therefore, the natural plant extracts, such as those from Eucalyptus, are being welcome, since they are less toxic to bees, and
also show similar aromas to those already existing in honey, due to the
reason that flowers of Eucalyptus supply much of the raw materials for
honey production in many regions of Brazil and of the world (Castagnino,
Some studies with Eucalyptus species suggest their potential to control
mites and ticks in various cases of harmful animal and agricultural crops
attacks. Following, we are offering some examples from literature:
Elmhalli et al. (2009) evaluated the toxicity of the
chemical compound para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), that exists in the
essential oil of
lemon eucalypt (Corymbia citriodora), to nymphs of the tick Ixodes
ricinus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ixodes_ricinus). Contact
toxicity tests were conducted by five different methods where the
rates were determined by observing the death of the tick individuals
in 30 minute intervals until the first five hours after exposure,
and after that, in more widely spaced intervals. The results have
proved a positive correlation between the increase in deaths and
increase in concentration of the PMD compound, as well as the exposure
time (up to 3.5 hours). Tests showed that the lethal activity of
PMD lasted around 24 hours, and apparently faded in 48 hours at
the tested concentrations. The results also indicate that the PMD
is toxic to I. ricinus, and there may be good chances for future
use to control this tick.
Another eucalypt compound (citriodiol - http://www.citrefine.com/citriodiol.html),
also derived from the essential oil of C. citriodora, had its action
tested by Gardulf et al. (2004) in terms of evaluating the decreasing
in the number of bites on humans for the same species of ticks. The
present study evaluated 11 people who received an average of 1.5 bites
when not treated with the compound against 0.5 bites for those treated
with citriodiol. This indicates a positive response to the compound
as a tick repellent.
George et al. (2009) evaluated the chemical composition and the acaricide
activity of essential oils from four species of Eucalyptus against
Dermanyssus gallinae (widely known as bird red mite or red louse).
The results showed that, at the concentration of 0.21 mg/cm²,
the essential oil of Corymbia (formerly Eucalyptus) citriodora led
to the death of 85% of those tested mites during the 24 hours of
exposure. However, the oils of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus
no such toxicity levels to the mite, obtaining mortality rates of
11 and 19% respectively. The authors also pointed out that the more
complex the essential oil is, the better is the performance in controlling
Ulfing et al. (2009) tested the effects of the natural extract of
Corymbia (formerly Eucalyptus) citriodora in larvae of the harmful
and aggressive cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/boophilus_microplus.pdf ) through the use of in vitro tests. Larval mortality was evaluated
in different concentrations and types of solutions for the Eucalyptus oil, in the form of aqueous extract, pure essential oil, simple dye
and concentrated dye. For all treatments, there was noticed increasing
mortality rate as the increase in concentration. The concentrated dye
and the pure essential oil were the most effective treatments for tick
control. The essential oil at 25% concentration killed all tick individuals.
Costa et al. (2008) evaluated the control effectiveness of hydro-alcoholic
extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica), citronella (Citronella
and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.) in females of Boophilus
microplus (known as cattle tick). For this purpose, tests were performed in
vitro at concentrations of 20, 20 and 10%, respectively. The Eucalyptus extract was the more effective one, controlling 96% of the tested
females. Unfortunately the other two extracts showed no capability
to fight the tick.
Castagnino (2008) tested the effect of oxalic acid and various essential
oils from plants such as common rue (Ruta graveolens), thyme (Thymus
vulgaris), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) and mint (Mentha
on the mite-of-bees Varroa destructor. In vitro tests were conducted
to check the action of these products, both on bees and on the mite.
After contacting with each one of these essential oils of plants
under different concentrations, the mortality rates were quantified
and associated to each control treatment. Field trials applying essential
oils directly into bee colonies have also been performed. The results
of the in vitro tests indicated that the tested essential oils became
effective from a certain concentration (about 10 mL/L), quite acceptable
to allow more natural controls. In the field trials, the Eucalyptus oil provided good effectivenes in the reduction of mortality of young
bees infected with Varroa.
Aiming to study natural plant extracts as less-harmful-to-the-environment
acaricides, Vieira and colleagues (2006) investigated the effects
of natural and hydro-alcoholic extracts of C. citriodora, Melissa
officinalis, Mentha piperita, among other plants, on the mortality
of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (a major pest of fruit
trees, ornamental plants and vegetables). The substances were sprayed
on the females to evaluate mortality rates after exposures during
specific periods of time. C. citriodora extract led to an average
death of 87% of the individuals after 48 hours of exposure to the
Choi et al. (2004) evaluated the efficacy of 53 essential oils extracted
from different types of plants (genus and species) in the egg control
of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and also on the
adult mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, that is a predator of the two-spotted
mite. The extracts were sprayed and came into contact with individuals
in the vaporized form. Among the extracts evaluated, the one from
Corymbia (ex-Eucalyptus) citriodora has been tested in various concentrations.
Of all the concentrations, the concentration of 1.4 mL/L air was
considered the most effective against the mite T. urticae. Extracts
of Corymbia caused mortality rates above 90% in adults of T.urticae at concentration of 14 mL/L air and were also efficient in controlling
their eggs at 9.3 mL/L air. Eucalyptus oil also proved to be toxic
to adults of the predator mite Phytoseiulus persimilis in concentration
of 7.1 mL/L air. However, this oil was not the one that caused the
highest mortality rates (in this case, it was the extract of Mentha
piperita). As a conclusion, the extract of C. citriodora helps to
control the two-spotted spider mite; however, it shows no selectivity
for its predator P. persimilis.
Five doses of essential oil from leaves of Eucalyptus saligna were
evaluated by Tedonkeng and colleagues (2004) in the control of
the tick Rhipicephalus lunulatus. The Eucalyptus saligna leaves
as main component in the essential oil the compound alpha-pinene
(29.5%). The results showed efficient control of the tick, as the
lowest tested dose (0.08 µL/cm²) reported death of 60%
of the ticks after 8 days exposure. The authors also calculated the
LD 50 (lethal dose that kills 50% of ticks) on the second day of
exposure, noting that 0.12 mL/cm² were needed to kill half
the population of ticks.
Chagas et al (2002) evaluated the essential oils of Corymbia
citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus staigeriana as acaricides to control Boophilus
microplus (cattle tick). The three oils were effective
in tick control, killing 100% of those ticks at tested concentrations
of 12.5% for E. staigeriana; 15% for E. globulus and 17.5% for C.
citriodora. Meanwhile, the concentrated emulsions provided complete
control at average concentration of 9.9% for E. globulus and 3.9%
for E. staigeriana. Tests with gas chromatography indicated that
the main compounds existing in these essential oils were: citronellal
in C. citriodora and 1,8-cineole in E. globulus, both responsible
for the tick control action. According to the authors, E. staigeriana oil has several other compounds that act in a synergistic effect
on the toxicity to B. microplus.
Several researches with essential oils of Eucalyptus and Corymbia species tested as alternative acaricides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acaricide)
have been proved as promising opportunities. Thus, further studies
should continue to be conducted in Brazil and abroad for developing
such kind of less harmful products from these oils. The selectivity
of these oils to the natural enemies of these pests (mites and ticks)
needs to be improved. Anyhow, some of these products are to become
available on the market in a short time and at competitive prices
compared to synthetic pesticides used for combating these pests (Chagas
et. al. 2002).
In the selection just ahead,we are offering some technical documents
and conclusions of existing researches available on the web. They
are related to discuss mites and ticks problems to humans, plants
and animals, and also to show the potential of Eucalyptus compounds
to an efficient control and prevention of such problems, with a lot
of less damages to the environment than those observed with synthetic
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Paper as a Cultural Asset with Fundamental Value to Human Society
the dawn of his existence on planet Earth, man has taken the initiative
to represent his feelings and the needs to communicate through
the writing. Initially, this was done through rough drawings on
the rocks of the caves where he was used to live, giving rise to
the admired and well-known petroglyphs (http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=petroglyph)
and the intriguing beauty of cave painting art (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_painting).
Along his technological and cultural evolution, man was finding
other materials for his written recording, while he also refined
writing characters and painting art styles. Other materials were
used for receiving the written characters, such as pottery, animal
skins, clothes, wood pieces, tiles, tree bark, etc. All had the
function of being substrate for writing and art. Of course, writing
on these materials was a difficult task, as it was laborious to
produce these artifacts in volume and scale to allow a mass propagation
of texts and drawn figures. The result is that only the religious
and political elite's, both historically detaining power, could
educate themselves and take advantage of the civilization accumulated
knowledge. Thus, education and communication have for centuries
been restricted to only a tiny fraction of the population.
This story started changing about 2,000 years ago, when the Chinese
master Ts'ai Lun creatively invented the paper sheet, using fragments
of flexible plants that were ground to individualize the fibers.
Through the plenty utilization of water and a sieve, he formed a
sheet of fibers and then dried it, thus forming the first sheet of
paper, which soon turned as one of the most common and useful goods
to human society.
The invention of paper has enabled a huge storage and dissemination
of all kind of knowledge generated by people on this planet. This
happened because the Chinese invention was not confined to that particular
country. It was soon globalized and introduced into Europe, other
Asian countries and later to America and Oceania. In continental
Europe, cradle of the major historical, scientific and cultural knowledge's,
the paper has quickly widespread its use. Books began to be produced
on a larger scale, at the same way that paper started providing support
to arts, magna cartas and constitutional laws, religious and political
documents, etc. Paper soon highlighted its status as a vital vehicle
for communication with the creation of newspapers and magazines,
in addition to its recognized cultural role due to the books. In
a short spam of no more than 1,300 years after its invention, the
paper acquired a status of essential good for the storage, transmission
and dissemination of knowledge, whatever kind of knowledge one is
talking about. Of course, soon paper started being scarce to fulfill
the demand, so great was the need for it. The paper fibrous raw materials
of that time could not meet this growth in demand. This paper shortage
became even more evident after the invention of the printing art
with movable types and printing presses, created by Johannes Gutenberg,
in 1439. Books and newspapers started to be produced in large scale,
but where to get so many rags and cotton fabrics to get fibers to
manufacture paper? With his creativity stimulated, the human being
has soon developed new technologies, such as the use of wood to produce
pulp fibers by pulping processes known as soda, kraft, sulfite and
also mechanical pulp by grinding the wood.
In less than two centuries, starting from the mid 1,800's, paper
turned to be one of the most demanded manufactured goods by global
society. Today, per capita consumption of paper is also considered
an indicator of life quality and economic development for a people
or nation. Countries like the United States of America, Japan, Finland,
Germany, Holland, Sweden, etc. are considered developed countries,
with high quality education to their citizens. In these cases, individual
consumption of paper reaches more than 200 kg per inhabitant per
year. On the other hand, this consumption for the inhabitants of
underdeveloped countries is no more than 25 kg/inhabitant.year, and
for emerging countries, between 45-80. There is a high correlation
between education, culture, number of Nobel Prize winners and the
production of books, magazines, newspapers, art and cultural documents,
etc. In special, in the past 50 years, paper has played its role
with great competence in its mission to store, convey and disseminate
knowledge and cultural products through world citizens. This in addition
to performing other functions such as packaging, hygienic and sanitary
Never in Mankind history we have reached a production of knowledge
of all types and volumes as in the present days. This will tend to
grow even further with the advances of science and technology. This
knowledge is being stored and disseminated by several means, inclusive
by the paper.
The knowledge is part of the culture of each nation, region, city,
town and even district of some city. The cultural heritage or patrimony
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_heritage) can be considered
as a set of objects or goods of value (tangible or intangible), with
significance and importance in the culture or history of groups of
people (societies). The patrimony has a collective meaning, thus
formed by all the achievements of a particular society, and that
has been built over its history. In the cultural and historical heritage
of a region or people we may mention the following items: ecosystem
landscapes, architecture, monuments, sports, art objects, artcrafts,
folklore, literary texts, documents, customs, language, cuisine,
anthropological sites, etc. Many of the goods that make up the cultural
heritage of a people are presented in the format of paper (books,
documents, paintings, photographs, stamps, etc.). Paper contributes
with enormous social effects generated by its large-scale production,
becoming for such an important cultural driver. For example, if we
have the typical cuisine as an important cultural asset of a region,
a cookbook stores this culture and also allows spreading it. Therefore,
the paper itself is not the cultural asset, it's just a technological
good in the form of a sheet of fibers and additives that stores and
conveys something valuable and unique to a given society. The cultural
asset or cultural good would therefore be the visible product of
the cultural process, which provides to a human collective group,
the knowledge, awareness and the pride for their achievements. In
most cases, the paper holds and preserves the cultural good, being
even identified with this asset, as in the case of literary works
written by great thinkers and scientists, or watercolors painted
by artists. In other cases, the paper is itself an expression of
art and culture, as in the case of origami and other kind of art
on paper. There are situations in which an extremely unique little
piece of paper can reach values of several million of dollars for
the simple fact of housing an intellectual or cultural production
undoubtedly rare and valuable. This is the case of tiny rare stamps,
documents or writings signed by celebrities, etc.
Recently, it was widely reported by the media the fact that a single
sheet of paper, considered to be a manuscript written by the singer
and songwriter John Lennon, when he outlined the lyrics of his masterpiece
song "A Day in the Life" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Day_in_the_Life),
voted as one of the 30 most beautiful and famous ever produced song,
was sold for about 1.2 million dollars (http://www.celuloseonline.com.br/noticias/Folha+de+papel+dos+Beatles++vendida+
That is, the paper itself could worth as a sheet no more than a few
cents of dollars; however, the rare and unique intellectual and cultural
production that was housed by this paper sheet increased its value
to several thousand times more.
In the same way that paper can store and transport culturally important
information, it also can be used in a way to spread malicious practices
and unwanted messages about violence, pornography, drug use, etc.
The advantage is that all cultural garbage expressed on paper can
easily be converted into new clean paper sheet through recycling,
without any need for burning or destruction techniques. Just recycle
it for a new and better use.
Thus, the paper manages, with its simplicity and without much fanfare,
to embrace, store, recover and disseminate a large part of the enormous
cultural heritage of Mankind. The cultural assets, as we saw, are
tangible or intangible goods, that represent the achievements of
relevant value along the history of the civilization. The score or
the sheet music from a popular classic song (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheet_music),
written personally on paper by a great genius of music (Beethoven,
for example, with several of his symphonies) may well be declared
as a relevant cultural asset, while the music itself is part of the
cultural heritage of human beings. Then, it is easy to understand
that, at the millions of libraries which exist in the world, we have
millions of cultural assets in the form of bestseller or not-bestseller
books, which together raise the cultural heritage of human society
to unimaginable levels. The famous houses of culture, reading or
book clubs, book fairs, which are all abundant in every corner of
the world, are helping to preserve, enhance and disseminate the culture
for the benefit of the citizens of our planet. In the same way that
museums are home to preserve several cultural productions, the notable
collections of newspapers, magazines, stamps, photographs, watercolors
seek to save on paper many important works that have been produced
by Mankind over the history.
Other ways have always existed and others have just come to compete
or to complement the paper in this cultural mission. As papermakers
we are, we believe that these ways are all vital for human civilization
to keep alive the relevant things developed over history and cultural
growth. The new and fabulous benefits offered by the electronics
are very welcome. After all, if we now have e-books available on
the web, they emerged as a need for scanning millions of books that
were preserved in paper format. Some virtual libraries as the Brazilian
public domain webportal www.dominiopublico.gov.br are performing
very well the service to freely provide culture in the form of books,
articles, texts, videos, etc., all of enormous cultural values. These
products are being made available in large-scale to Brazilian citizens,
and the same happens in other countries. Now, it comes to each e-book
reader the need to make a decision when accessing the text he wants
to read: print it on paper to read, or save it to his computer. So
far, due to the enormous empathy that the reader has with the book
on paper, printed books and magazines are still the preferred way.
Even though this may change over the years to come, the paper will
always have its position, be in the current ways or by others creatively
designed to continue to fulfill its cultural mission.
Finally, my dear friends, the paper fits itself very well in this
modern and cultural context of our current civilization. Paper has
fulfilled its role very well, isn't it?
Sugestions for a cultural tour with
paper (mainly in Brazil):
heritage. Wikipedia Virtual Encyclopedia. Accessed on 30.06.2010:
O conceito de bem cultural. J.M. Alexandrino. 13 pp. Accessed on 30.06.2010:
Patrimonio historico e cultural. Secretariat of Culture of
the State of Mato Grosso. Accessed on 30.06.2010:
Plano Nacional do Livro e Leitura. Ministry of Culture - Brazil. Accessed on
Portal Dominio Publico (Public Domain Portal). Brazil. Accessed
Biblioteca Virtual Universal. Argentina. Accessed on 30.06.2010:
Bienais do Livro. Brazil. Accessed on 30.06.2010:
Paulo - In
(Rio de Janeiro - In
Feiras do Livro (Book Fairs). Accessed on 30.06.2010:
http://www.flip.org.br/ (Paraty International Literary Festival - Paraty, RJ
- In Portuguese and English)
(Porto Alegre, RS -In
Preto, SP - In
(Caxias do Sul, RS - In
(Bogota, Colombia - In
Clubes do Livro (Book Clubs). Accessed on 30.06.2010:
(Brazil - In
Clubes de Leitura (Reading Clubs). Accessed on 30.06.2010:
http://oprazerdeler.blogs.sapo.pt/ (Portugal - In
Gabinete de Leitura (Reading Cabinet) "Ruy Barbosa". Jundiai, SP. Accessed on 30.06.2010:
From this library, I literally devoured hundreds of books in
adolescence. For this reason, I'm used to attribute to this
Reading Cabinet a large influence for the development of my
abitity for writing in this colloquial format. I owe this personal
attribute to the books.
Origami. A magia de papel. Magia de Papel. Accessed on 30.06.2010:
A bela arte de dobrar papeis. Super Origami. Website of my
talented cousin Mrs. Rita Foelker. Accessed on 30.06.2010:
Papeloteca Otavio Roth. Accessed on 30.06.2010:
in paper - in Portuguese)
Patrimonio cultural: a percepcao da natureza como um bem nao renovavel. S.H.
Zanirato; W.C. Ribeiro. Revista Brasileira de Historia 26(51): 251-262. (2006)
O patrimonio cultural imaterial das populacoes tradiconais
e sua tutela pelo direito ambiental. L.R. Santana; T.P. Oliveira.
Jus Navigandi. (2005)
Nosso patrimonio cultural: uma metodologia de pesquisa. S.Bastos.
Pasos 2(2): 257-265. (2004)
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