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Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,

Dear friends
, here we are again, now with the issue number 28 of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. We hope it may fulfill your expectations and interest, both through the general sections of the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapter of our virtual Eucalyptus Online Book about "Energy Eco-efficiency in the Pulp & Paper Sector" which is available to your direct link access. Please, enjoy the topics we are presently delivering through this Eucalyptus Newsletter edition, thanks.

The section "The Friends of the Eucalyptus" shows once again an enormous scientific importance to the eucalyptic forestry sector. That's because it has the mission to share with you at least a portion of the dedicated and productive academic career of our dear and competent friend Professor Dr. Dan Binkley, one of the most renowned researchers in the forestry world. I have a special respect for his dedication and for the quality of Dr. Binkley's professional career, so I am very happy with the opportunity to present his many forestry scientific accomplishments and what he has done and still is doing for the Eucalyptus.

On the other hand, in the section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" the agronomist M.Sc. Ester Foelkel tells, for sure, something very unusual to many of you - "Products from the Eucalyptus to Prevent Mites and Ticks Problems".

In addition to our usual and rich in information and euca-links sections such as: A Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation; Euca-Links and References about Events and Courses, we have two sections that are thematic reviews on topics of great interest and stimulating curiosity to the global Eucalyptus World: "Virtual Herbaria" and "Lignotubers in Eucalyptus".

Our technical mini-article complements the 26th edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, when we talked at that time about "Recycled Papers and Papers made from Virgin Fibers". Specifically in our current newsletter, we are bringing to you "the reasons and the mission the paper has to be considered as a cultural asset of fundamental relevance to the human society".

We hope this newsletter issue may be very useful to all of you, since the selection is somewhat unusual and definitely brings some topics that are rarely discussed in other magazines and specialized websites.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales and Papermakers' Wiki. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus. Know more about all of our today’s partners and meet them at the URL address:

Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus are currently being sent to an extensive "mailing list" through our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, a number that today is equivalent to several thousands of registered addresses. This happens in addition to the accesses made directly to the websites; and, or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book chapters are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal from now is very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus Online Book & Eucalyptus Newsletter that they will be always on the first page, when any single person in the world, using a search engine like Google, Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the word Eucalyptus. This service aims to better inform stakeholders and interested parties about the Eucalyptus, with relevant information and a lot of credibility, too. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, Fibria and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Present Edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 19 (in Portuguese)

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Professor Dr. Dan Binkley

A Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation


References about Events and Courses

Virtual Herbaria

Lignotuber: what is and serves for...

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - Products from the Eucalyptus to Prevent Mites and Ticks Problems - by Ester Foelkel

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Paper as a Cultural Asset with Fundamental Value to Human Society

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 19 (in Portuguese)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 4.6 MB) just click below over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps even easier, is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer archives. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit and find the instructions how to get it.

Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"Um Guia Referencial sobre Ecoeficiencia Energetica para a Industria de Papel e Celulose Kraft de Eucalipto no Brasil" - "A Reference Guide about Energy Eco-Efficiency to the Brazilian Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry"

If a problem occurs with the automatic redirection to the chapter, copy the URL address below and place it in your browser (Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, etc.). You may find the chapter at:

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Professor Dr. Dan Binkley

In this edition of our Eucalyptus Newsletter, I have the honor and the privilege to introduce to you another great friend of the Eucalyptus, and one of the most qualified and renowned researchers in the world forest science, professor Dr. Dan Binkley. As a professor at Colorado State University ( in the United States of America, Dr. Binkley is very much well-known in Brazil and other countries where Eucalypti are important as forest plantations supplying goods to Society. He has developed along his R&D and educational life many outstanding publications about this genus of trees. Along this section, we are to bring for your knowledge some important aspects on Dan's scientific and academic career, with emphasis on his publications and achievements related to Eucalyptus.

Dan Binkley was born in the state of Ohio in the USA, in 1956. When he was a young boy, he noticed that the layers of leaves that fell from the trees in Autumn were not there next Summer. Due to his natural curiosity, he asked his father where they had gone, and as a reply, he had the first explanation on nutrient cycling, something he would dedicate several studies in his university career. His father said the leaves had decayed and returned back to the soil, becoming soil again.

The curiosity about the things and behavior of Nature always directed his life. The choice for forestry as a career was therefore something quite normal, a consequence of his personal vocation. Dan chose to study forestry in the mid-1970's because he greatly enjoyed hiking in forests, and he wanted to know more the ecology that was going on all around. Despite the financial difficulties for studying outside his mother town, he managed to do it at Northern Arizona University, where he graduated with distinction in Forest Management from the School of Forestry, in 1976. After completing his undergraduate studies, he realized that there was still a major scientific basis lacking in his skills for a better understanding how forests actually behave physiologically - as they grow and interact in the ecosystems. Considering his good academic performance, his goal then became the graduate studies, initially as Master in Forest Ecology at the University of British Columbia (completed in 1980), and soon, the Ph.D. at Oregon State University (completed in 1982).

At Oregon State he selected as major the areas of Forest Ecology, Soil Science and Botany. In all his academic career he has always performed as a brilliant student and therefore he received several academic awards. His research field initially focused on the role of leguminous plants as sources of nitrogen to the soil in mixed stands or in planting rotation management with other forest species. His first goals with these studies were to use the forest physiology and soil science to enhance and improve the growth of conifers used for commercial purposes in USA. After completing his studies in graduate level, Dan became an assistant professor in the School of Forestry and Environmental Sciences at Duke University, in North Carolina. There, he taught courses on ecology and forest soils. Soon, he published his first book entitled "Forest Nutrition Management", in 1986.

In 1987, Dan decided to move to Colorado State University, attracted by the new academic challenges and by the natural beauty of the Rocky Mountain region. Since that time, he stays in Colorado, where he teaches and researches in Fort Collins (, having oriented his teaching career to forest ecology and forest soils, sustainability of the productive capacity of ecosystems, efficient use of forest production resources, eco-physiology, forest nutrition, management and restoration of landscapes and fragile ecosystems, etc. His career is rich in accomplishments, whether in the form of published books and articles, lectures on national and international events, awards and distinctions earned by his scientific work and practical results, besides the recognition received from his many students because the quality and dedication placed in his courses and graduate students advising.

The first meeting and the growing familiarity with the Eucalyptus emerged at the same time that he moved to Colorado. In 1987, he had a professional trip to Asia and decided by a technical stop in Hawaii to visit some forest experimental stands developed by the U.S.Forest Service and the Bioenergy Development Corporation. These forest trials in Hawaii included a combination of some tree species, as the case of Eucalyptus saligna and the leguminous nitrogen-fixing species Falcataria moluccana ( The knowledge accumulated by professor Dan Binkley on forest plantations ecology associated with leguminous species was immediately recognized by the managers of this research project in Hawaii. So, Dan and his graduate students were invited to join the project, being this the origin of his first studies with Eucalyptus in Hawaii.

Two years later, a group of Brazilian university professors were visiting Colorado State University, among them our dear "Friend of the Eucalyptus", Dr. Laercio Couto, from Federal University of Vicosa. Laercio invited Dan to visit some fantastic Eucalyptus forest plantations in Brazil. In this tour to Brazil, Dan met for the first time another brilliant Brazilian forester and also a great friend of ours and very much dedicated to Eucalyptus studies, the forest engineer Jose Luiz Stape. At that time, Jose Luiz Stape worked as a forest researcher for the company named Ripasa, in Brazil. Dan was so impressed with this bright young Brazilian forester that he invited him to come to the U.S. to work on a PhD degree at Colorado State University. Almost 10 years later this fact became a reality. This happened from 1998 to 2002, when Jose Luiz Stape, then professor and Master of Science by ESALQ/USP, chose to undertake his doctoral studies under Dan Binkley's guidance, in Fort Collins. At the time, the co-advising to Professor Stape was provided by Dr. Mark G. Ryan, another top researcher performing at the U.S. Forest Service (, giving origin to this fantastic triple of forestry researchers on the Eucalyptus genus.

Most of Dan’s work with Eucalyptus since that time has been in collaboration with Dr. Stape and all the colleagues at universities and forest companies in Brazil. As a need and a result of Professor Stape's doctoral thesis, several experiments with Eucalyptus were installed and carried out in a Brazilian company - Copener. Soon it came the idea of setting up a larger research project involving as partners the following entities: ESALQ - School of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz", IPEF - Institute of Forest Research and Studies, Colorado State University and several companies of the Brazilian forest segment. With Professor Stape leading, Dan has been engaged in the BEPP - Brazil Eucalytus Potential Productivity Project. This project aims to investigate how Eucalyptus growth responds to changes in water, light and and nutrients supplies, and how these responses differ among genotypes.

Dr. Dan Binkley has also had other types of involvement's in forestry research with his academic staff and students. His main fields of research include the development of North American forest species, studies on forest ecology, soils, nutrition, sustainability in the use of forest production factors, ecosystem restoration, etc. With the Eucalyptus, the main focus has been the plantation forest productivity and the sustainability of the capacity of forest ecosystems to ensure the future environmental quality of such plantations. Dan’s research has spanned a very broad range, essentially covering any topic in forestry he could think about, in any place that was particularly interesting and fun to visit to meet talented people. He has worked on long-term development of forests at the northern tree-line in Alaska; on forest nutrition in a wide variety of conifer forests; and of course the productivity of fast-growing plantations. Dan mentions that the partnership work between the Brazilian and the U.S. organizations has resulted in a better understanding of how ecological processes determine the growth responses of these plantations, oriented towards productivity and sustainability.

For nearly 30 years, Dr. Dan Binkley has served as university professor and researcher. He believes that he performs as a professional exactly the way he was used to dream since his childhood: to better understand Nature, forests and sustainability of these natural components to suit human and environmental needs. He wants likely continuing on this same path, because universities are a wonderful place to pursue curiosity and to work with very bright and enthusiastic people. Dan mentioned to me that it's definitely rewarding to have as colleagues and peers a huge number of brilliant and enthusiastic forestry scientists, whether in Fort Collins, or in other universities and companies where eventually his professional life has become associated.

In addition to his academic achievements, Dan has had experiences as administrative director of the Graduate Program in Ecology at Colorado State University and as Director of the Colorado Forest Restoration Institute.

When I questioned him about his achievements and professional rewards, Dan replied quickly and directly: "My greatest reward was being able to develop a career that allowed me to study and research any topic I felt the need to understand and know more about to inform my students and the society". In reason of this ongoing curiosity, determination and skills, Dan has been frequent author of numerous papers in prestigious international journals (more than 140 scientific articles). His major articles deal with water quality, soil and ecosystems, biogeochemistry, eco-physiology, forest restoration, landscape management, ecology, forest nutrition, etc. Dan has also published several books, some written in partnership with other renowned American researchers. A list of references and some of these books are reported somewhat below in this section.

Due to the great academic and scientific contribution, with very high level of applicability for the benefit of society, Dr. Dan Binkley received in 2008, the degree of Doctor Honoris Causa by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Among his non-academic activities, it remains ever alive the passion for natural hiking in the forests of the world (ands also in the Grand Canyon), besides the great pleasure he has working in a small tree farm (just a few hectares) in Hawaii owned by him with a group of friends. He always try to have the companionship and presence of his wife in such leisure activities. Dan speaks with pride of his wife Jane, a medical doctor for the medical health program oriented to the Colorado State University students. They have two sons (Will and Paul), both concluding advanced university studies.

About the future, Dan believes he still has too much to produce and write. There is a lot more to be published, he told me. There is also a need to revise some of the "old books" already published, because science is too dynamic, he reveals. Dan told me also that one of his goals was to become fluent in Portuguese, but he thinks his brain has become so old that he is unlikely to learn more than a few phrases! Hard to believe, coming from such bright person.

When I questioned him about which was the most important added value he provided to society with his career, the vein of the teacher has soon become visible. Dan believes that his main role to society was the way helping the education of talented students, not just adding knowledge to them, but helping to develop this type of curiosity he has for creative scientific forestry. Thus, it has been possible to develop forest science with better silvicultural practices with more respect to the environment.

To conclude this interview about our friend Dr. Dan Binkley, he mentioned as a final comment that something definitively remarkable in the forestry world has been the remarkable hospitality and friendship that has always been offered to him by other foresters and related people in this business, wherever in the world. This brings the sense of a very cohesive global forestry world with an utmost respect among its components.

Please, know more about professor Dr. Dan Binkley's professional career and achievements by browsing his above referred personal website and reading some of his publications that are made available to you with the corresponding links for downloading. Dr. Binkley has an academic and scientific production far larger than we are selecting to you, as we have pointed out his relevant work more focused on Eucalyptus and the eco-physiological relations. However, as it should be working in the USA, a large part of his research work has also included other North American tree species (Populus, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Alnus, etc.).

Dr. Dan Binkley's personal webpage at Colorado State University and related links: (Research projects) (Short Curriculum Vitae) (Short Curriculum Vitae) (Academic activities description by Colorado State University) (Academic activities description by Colorado State University) (Articles and publications) (Dan's photo gallery - Landscaping, forests and wildlife) (The BEPP - Brazilian Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project)

A selection of some Dr. Dan Binkley's books:

Tree species effects on soils. Implications for global change.
D. Binkley; O. Menyailo. Proceedings NATO "Advanced Research Workshop on Trees and Soil Interactions - Implications to Global Climate Change". Krasnoyarsk, Russia. 358 pp. (2005) (Contents/Index)

Sustaining aspen in western landscapes: symposium proceedings. W.D. Shepperd; D. Binkley; D.L. Bartos; T.J. Stohlgren; L.G Eskew. Proceedings RMRS-P-18. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Rocky Mountain Research Station. 475 pp. (2001)

Ecology and management of forest soils. R.F. Fisher; D. Binkley; W. L. Pritchett. John Wiley and Sons. 489 pp. (2000)
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Forest nutrition management. D. Binkley. Wiley-Interscience. 290 pp. (1986)

A selection of articles, speeches, book chapters written by Dr. Dan Binkley:
Thanks to the careful work performed by Professor Dr. Dan Binkley, organizing and delivering most of his publications on his personal website at Colorado State University, especially for this edition of our Eucalyptus Newsletter, we have a selection of over 60 wonderful items for your browsing through this publication list just ahead: an enormous cultural heritage for the Eucalyptus. Please, have a lot of fun searching the articles and learn with Dr. Dan Binkley and his research colleagues. To them, we dedicate our gratitude for the way they manage their knowledge, sharing the opportunity to readers for freely reading through the web.

Environmental determinants of productivity in Eucalyptus plantations.
D. Binkley; J.L. Stape; M. Ryan. PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides. Accessed on 28.06.2010:

The BEPP - Brazilian Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project.
IPEF - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais (Institute of Forest Research and Studies). Accessed on 28.06.2010: (In Portuguese - About Dr. Dan Binkley's involvement in this project) (In English)

Dan Binkley fala sobre o futuro das pesquisas florestais (Dan Binkley speaks about the future of forestry research). An Interview to IPEF. IPEF Noticias nº 201. January/February. p. 05. (2010) (In Portuguese)

Does reverse growth dominance develop in old plantations of Eucalyptus saligna? B.T. Doi; D. Binkley; J. L. Stape. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 1815–1818. (2010)

Applying ecological insights to increase productivity in tropical plantations
. D. Binkley; J.P. Laclau; J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 1681-1683. (2010)

Explaining growth of individual trees: light interception and efficiency of light use by Eucalyptus at four sites in Brazil. D. Binkley; J.L. Stape; W.L. Bauerle; M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 1704-1713. (2010)

Factors controlling Eucalyptus productivity: how water availability and stand structure alter production and carbon allocation.
M.G. Ryan; J.L. Stape; D. Binkley; S. Fonseca; R.A. Loos; E.N. Takahashi; C.R. Silva; S.R. Silva; R.E. Hakamada; J.M. Ferreira; A.M.N. Lima; J.L. Gava; F.P. Leite; H.B. Andrade; J.M. Alves; G.G.C. Silva. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 1695-1703. (2010) (Parcial)

The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production. J.L. Stape; D. Binkley; M.G. Ryan; S. Fonseca; R.A. Loos; E.N. Takahashi; C.R. Silva; S.R. Silva; R.E. Hakamada; J.M.A. Ferreira; A.M.N Lima; J.L. Gava; F.P. Leite; H.B. Andrade; J.M. Alves; G.C. Silva; M.R. Azevedo. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 1684-1694. (2010)

Understanding the role resource use efficiency in determining the growth of trees and forests. D. Binkley. In: XII World Forestry Congress. Forests in Development: A vital balance. Argentina. 07 pp. (2009)

Production and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with water and nutrient manipulations. J.L. Stape; D. Binkley; M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 920-930. (2008)

Competition among Eucalyptus trees depends on genetic variation and resource supply. S. Boyden; D. Binkley; J.L. Stape. Ecology 89: 2860-2867. (2008)

Why don't our stands grow even faster? Control of production and carbon cycling in eucalypt plantations. M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley; J.L. Stape. Southern Forests 70(2): 99-104. (2008)

Control of production and carbon allocation in Eucalyptus. M. Ryan; D. Binkley; J.L. Stape. IUFRO Durban "Eucalypts and diversity:balancing productivity and sustainability" Conference. PowerPoint presentation: 24 slides. (2007)

Tree-girdling to separate root and heterotrophic respiration in two Eucalyptus stands in Brazil. D. Binkley; J. L. Stape; E. N. Takahashi; M. G. Ryan. Oecologia 148: 447–454. (2006)

A twin-plot approach to determine nutrient limitation and potential productivity in Eucalyptus plantations at landscape scales in Brazil.
J. L. Stape; D. Binkley; W. S. Jacob; E. N. Takahashi. Forest Ecology and Management 223: 358–362. (2006)

Soils in ecology and ecology in soils. D. Binkley. In: History of Soil Science. Chapter 10 (B. Warkentin, ed.). 21 pp. (2006)

Taxas de fotossintese em clones de Eucalyptus de alta produtividade primaria liquida. A.H.C. Marrichi. ESALQ/USP. Training Report. Advising: J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley. 36 pp. (2005) (In Portuguese)

How nitrogen-fixing trees change soil carbon.
D. Binkley. In: Tree species effects on soils: Implications for global change. Chapter 8 (D. Binkley, O. Menyailo, eds.). NATO Science Series, Springer, Dordrecht. 10 pp. (2005)

Gaining insights on the effects of tree species on soils. D. Binkley;O. Menyailo. In: Tree species effects on soils: Implications for global change. Chapter 1. (D. Binkley, O. Menyailo, eds.). NATO Science Series, Springer, Dordrecht. 16 pp. (2005)

Competition and facilitation between Eucalyptus and nitrogen-fixing Falcataria in relation to soil fertility
. S. Boyden; D. Binkley; R. Senock. Ecology 86: 992-1001. (2005)

The response of belowground carbon allocation in forests to global change. C.P. Giardina; M. Coleman; D. Binkley; J. Hancock; J.S. King; E. Lilleskov; W.M. Loya; K.S. Pregitzer; M.G. Ryan; C. Trettin. In: D. Binkley; O. Menyailo. Tree species effects on soils: Implications for global change. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 119-154. Chapter 7. 40 pp. (2005)

Sustainable management of Eucalyptus plantations in a changing world. D. Binkley; J.L. Stape. p. 11-17. In: Eucalyptus in a Changing World. N. Borralho et al. (editors). Proceedings of IUFRO Conference, Aveiro. 07 pp. (2004)

Water use, water limitation, and water use efficiency in a Eucalyptus plantation. J.L. Stape; D. Binkley; M.G. Ryan; A.N. Gomes. Bosque 25:35-41. (2004)

Fertilization decreases belowground carbon cycling in a humid tropical forest. G.P. Giardina; D. Binkley; M.G. Ryan; J.H. Fownes. Oecologia 139: 545-550. (2004)

Soil functional responses to excess nitrogen inputs at global scale
. M. Adams; P. Ineson; D. Binkley; G. Cadisch; N. Tokuchi; M.Scholes; K. Hicks. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. (2004)
(Resumo e referências apenas)

An experimental test of the causes of forest growth decline with stand age. M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley; J.H. Fownes; C. Giardina; R.S. Senock. Ecological Monograph 74(3): 393-414. (2004)

Eucalyptus production and the supply, use and efficiency of use of water, light and nitrogen across a geographic gradient in Brazil. J.L. Stape; D. Binkley; M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 193(1/2): 17-31. (2004)

Testing the utility of the 3-PG model for growth of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla with natural and manipulated supplies of water and nutrients. J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley. Forest Ecology and Management 193: 219-234. (2004)

Testing the 3-PG process-based model to simulate Eucalyptus growth with an objective approach to the soil fertility rating parameter. J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley. Forest Ecology and Management. 18 pp. (2004)

Thinking about efficiency of resource use in forests. D. Binkley; J.L. Stape; M.G. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 193: 05-17. (2004)

First rotation changes in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Eucalyptus plantation in Hawaii.
D. Binkley; J. Kaye; M. Barry; M.G. Ryan. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68: 1713-1719. (2004)

Primary production and carbon allocation in relation to nutrient supply in a tropical experimental forest. C.P. Giardina; M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley; J.H. Fownes. Global Change Biology 9: 1438-1450. (2003)

Detecting change in forest floor carbon. R.D. Yanai; S.V. Stehman; M.A. Arthur; C.E. Prescott; A.J. Friedland; T.G. Siccama; D. Binkley. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67:1583-1593. (2003)

Twenty years of stand development in pure and mixed stands of Eucalyptus saligna and nitrogen-fixing Falcataria mollucana.
D. Binkley; R. Senock; S. Bird; T.G. Cole. Forest Ecology and Management 182: 93-102. (2003)

Greater soil carbon sequestration under nitrogen-fixing trees compared with Eucalyptus species.
S.C. Resh; D. Binkley; J.A. Parrotta. Ecosystems 5: 217- 231. (2002)

Non-labile soil 15-Nitrogen retention beneath three tree species in a tropical plantation. J.P. Kaye; D. Binkley; X. Zou; J.A. Parrotta. Soil Science Society of American Journal 66: 612-619. (2002)

Age-related decline in forest ecosystem growth: an individual-tree, stand-structure hypothesis.
D. Binkley; M.G. Ryan; J.L. Stape; H. Barnard; J. Fownes. Ecosystem 5: 58-67. (2002)

Nutritional interactions in mixed species forests. A. Rothe; D. Binkley. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31:1855-1870. (2001)

Tree species effects and soil textural controls on carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates. C. Giardina; M. Ryan; R. Hubbard; D. Binkley. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65: 1272-1279. (2001)

Soil phosphorus pools and supply under the influence of Eucalyptus saligna and nitrogen-fixing Albizia falcataria.
D. Binkley; C. Giardina; M. Bashkin. Forest and Ecology Management 128: 241-247. (2000)

Water quality impacts of forest fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus
. D. Binkley; H. Burnham; H.L. Allen. Forest Ecology and Management 121: 191-213. (1999)

Rapid changes in soils following Eucalyptus afforestation in Hawaii. D. Binkley; S. Resh. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63: 222-225. (1999)

Net primary production and nutrient cycling in replicated stands of Eucalyptus saligna and Albizia falcataria. D. Binkley; M. Ryan. Forest Ecology and Management 112: 79-85. (1998)

Effect of Eucalyptus saligna and Albizia falcataria on soil processes and nitrogen supply in Hawaii. D.C. Garcia-Montiel; D. Binkley. Oecologia 113: 547-556. (1998)

Nitrogen fixation and the mass balance of nitrogen in ecosystems. J. Pastor; D. Binkley. Biogeochemistry 43: 63-78. (1998)

Why trees affect soils in temperate and tropical forests: the warp and woof of tree/soil interactions. D. Binkley; C. Giardina. Biogeochemistry 42: 89-106. (1998)

Changes in soil carbon following afforestation in Hawaii
. M.A. Bashkin; D. Binkley. Ecology 79: 828-833. (1998)

Age-related decline in forest productivity: pattern and process
. M.G. Ryan; D. Binkley; J.H. Fownes. Advances in Ecological Research 27: 213-262. (1997)

Nitrogen fixation in tropical forest plantations. D. Binkley; C. Giardina. In: Management of soil, water, and nutrients in tropical plantation forests. Chapter 9. (E.K.S. Nambiar and A. Brown, eds). ACIAR Monograph 43. p. 297-337. (1997)

Stand development and productivity. D. Binkley; A.M. O’Connell; K.V. Sankaran. In: Management of soil, water, and nutrients in tropical plantation forests. Chapter 12. (E.K.S. Nambiar and A. Brown, eds). ACIAR Monograph 43. p. 419-442. (1997)

Bioassays of the influence of Eucalyptus saligna and Albizia falcataria on soil nutrient supply and limitation. D. Binkley. Forest Ecology and Management 91: 229-234. (1997)

Factors influencing decline in soil pH in Hawaiian Eucalyptus and Albizia plantations.
C. Rhoades; D. Binkley. Forest Ecology and Management 80: 47-56. (1996)

Influence of adjacent stand on spatial patterns of carbon and nitrogen in Eucalyptus and Albizia plantations. B. Ewers; D. Binkley; M. Bashkin. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26:1501-1503. (1996)

The influence of tree species on forest soils - processes and patterns.
D. Binkley. In: Proceedings of the Trees and Soil Workshop (D.J. Mead and I.S. Cornforth, eds.). Agronomy Society of New Zealand Special Publication number 10. 33 pp. (1995)

Nitrogen fertilization practices in forestry. D. Binkley; R. Carter; H.L. Allen. In: Nitrogen Fertilization and the Environment. Chapter 11. (P. Bacon, ed.) Marcel Dekker. p. 421-441. (1995)

Ecosystems. An ecology primer. D. Binkley. In: Ecosystem Management: Beyond the Rhetoric, Symposium Proceedings. Colorado State University. 07 pp. (1995)

Intercropping Eucalyptus with beans in Minas Gerais, Brazil. L. Couto; J.M. Gomes; D. Binkley; D. Betters; C.A.M. Passos. International Tree Crops Journal 8: 83-93. (1995)

Intercropping eucalypts with maize in Minas Gerais, Brazil. L. Couto; D. Binkley; D. Betters; C.V.D. Mopniz. Agroforestry Systems 26: 147-156. (1994)

Impacts of air pollution on forests: a summary of current situations.
D. Binkley; Y. Son; Z.S. Kim. Journal of the Korean Forestry Society 83: 229-238. (1994)

A synopsis of the impacts of forest practices on water quality in North America. D. Binkley; T. Brown. Water Resources Bulletin 29: 729-740. (1993)

Production and nutrient cycling in mixed plantations of Eucalyptus and Albizia in Hawaii.
D. Binkley; K.A. Dunkin; D. DeBell; M.G. Ryan. Forest Science 38: 393-408. (1992)

Evaluating progress towards closed forest models based on fluxes of carbon, water and nutrients. J.J. Landsberg; M.R. Kaufmann; D. Binkley; J. Isebrands; P. Jarvis. Tree Physiology 9: 01-15. (1991)

Connecting soils with forest productivity. D. Binkley. In: Management and Productivity of Western Montane Forest Soils. USDA General Technical Report INT-280. 04 pp. (1991)

Carbon fixation in trees as a micro optimization process: an example of combining ecology and economics. J. Hof; D. Rideout; D. Binkley. Ecological Economics 2(3): 243-256. (1990)

Forest soils and acid rain an overview and synthesis. D. Binkley. Conference Proceedings. U.S. Department of Energy Colloquium. p. 222 236. (1987)

Does forest removal increase rates of decomposition and nutrient release? D. Binkley. Forest Ecology and Management 8: 229 233. (1984)

I have an enormous admiration for the competence and for the achievements of this great friend of the Eucalyptus trees and forests. His qualification and dedication to the forest cause and sciences are unquestionable. Among many other attributes, Professor Binkley is a vibrant and enthusiastic person, an excellent speaker and researcher, besides being an amazing human being, friendly, cooperative and nice. For all these reasons, I have felt myself honored and privileged to the opportunity to tell you a little about the life of this great "Friend of the Eucalyptus" and to share in this newsletter some of his technical papers published throughout his profitable career.

My dear professor Dr. Dan Binkley, congratulations for your so many achievements and thanks for emphasizing the Eucalyptus in your research and educational activities. Thanks also for everyting you have done for the Eucalyptus plantation forestry and will continue producing to the global forest science, including to the Brazilian forest sector.

A Meeting with the Forest Sector Innovation

This section aims to inform you about recent trends and technology innovations that are to change our forest-based sector in the medium to long terms. However, the section is not just limited to show disruptive technologies or major technological leaps, but even little and simple innovations occurring in the day-a-day life of our business. They can also add better efficiency and competitiveness to our industry. For achieving these targets, the section brings articles, theses, websites, interviews, courses and events, everything that we consider interesting as relevant advances to our companies and businesses based on the Eucalyptus.

In this issue, we are mentioning some interesting articles and events to you, which should be read carefully by those willing to take a glimpse at the future of our industry, based on the technological changes that are under development or in design.

Please, read them and know what are reporting some reliable sources of knowledge:

2010-2020 IPEF Strategic Plan - Institute of Forest Research and Studies. (Brazil)

In May 2009, IPEF promoted an internal workshop to discuss important issues of forestry in order to gather support for the preparation of a Strategic Plan of Research and Development for the decade 2010-2020 (IPEF 2020). The audience was composed by representatives from IPEF member companies in the areas of research, management and planning. By recommendation of the coordinators of the topics being evaluated, several university professors and researchers from various national institution's, opinion leaders and renowned researchers were invited to participate in the meeting. The goal was to discuss the state-of-the-art and technology trends in various forestry science segments. Actually, the forestry areas that are the main IPEF focuses have been prioritized. In the event, presentations were made on each of these subjects and they were kindly released by IPEF to the public domain, by making them available at IPEF website. After this workshop stage, IPEF coordinators and leaders have met several times and strategic actions were prioritized, also involving foreign intelligence, represented by great thinkers and executives of the forest sector. Finally, IPEF leaders worked to consolidate the final strategic plan, which can also be obtained from the web in the address for downloading showed just below. (Thematic presentations on state-of-the-art technological forestry trends and associated opportunities) (2020 IPEF Strategic Plan to the decade 2010-2020)

Technological roadmaps by Agenda 2020 Technology Alliance - Forest Products Sector.

At the digital publication Eucalyptus Newsletter number 24, brought to the public in December 2009, (, we have introduced to readers the most important and expected technological trends for the coming years by the forest products industry. The needs for R&D have also been evaluated and discussed in that documents. More recently, in April 2010, our dear friend Ron Brown, through Agenda 2020 North American Technology Alliance, has edited another publication on important technological routes ("Technological Roadmaps") to be tracked and targeted by the forest products sector, including pulp and paper. Numerous technical experts from several countries, including Brazil, have participated and contributed to this document. Most of them have cooperated with their vision of future on technological trends and expectations arising from the sector. The aim of this roadmap is to establish priority areas for research oriented to technological leaps in the production of forest-based products, and and pulp/paper. The goal is a more sustainable and eco-efficient production of these goods. The expectation is that these developments occur within the next 10 years from the 2010 publication. Please, meet the publication at:

Forest products industry technology roadmap.
G.R. Brown. Agenda 2020 Technology Alliance. 108 pp. (2010)


In this section, we are, as always we do, offering some relevant Euca-Links to important websites available in the virtual web. Just click on the addresses of the corresponding URLs to open them or save as favorites on your computer.

A book and articles about "Paper Drying" authored by the engineer Alfredo Rendina. (Argentina)
Our esteemed and competent friend from Argentina, mechanical engineer Alfredo Rendina, has written and recently released an excellent book and several technical papers on the drying of paper, efficient use of steam, drying effects on paper properties, etc. Both book and articles are written in Spanish. We strongly recommend that you navigate in the book demo website and find also some Rendina's articles, to whom I present my congratulations and wishes of successes for his work and knowledge.

• Book in Spanish: Secado en la Industria del Papel. A. Rendina. 181 pp. (2008) (Book summary and list of contents) (Alfredo Rendina's short biography)

• Vacio en las maquinas de papel. A. Rendina. 15 pp. Accessed on 26.06.2010:

• Recuperacion de calor en capotas de maquinas de papel. A. Rendina. 18 pp. Accessed on 26.06.2010:

• Problemas sobre secado del papel. A. Rendina. 07 pp. (2009)

• Problemas sobre secado del papel con aire caliente. A. Rendina. 07 pp. (2009)

• Capacidad de secado del papel en baterias de secadores. A. Rendina. 11 pp. (2009)

• Contraccion del papel durante el secado. A. Rendina. 11 pp. (2009)

Video Channel (Video-Library) - Eucalyptologics at YouTube. (Spain)
Our dear eucalyptic friend Mr. Gustavo Iglesias Trabado from Spain is bringing to us another of his novelties from his Eucalyptologics blog: a video-library about the Eucalyptus trees, where you can watch and get information about various topics on these wonderful trees. The channel has a partnership with the Brazilian webportal Painel Florestal ( To raise the video availabilty to the readers, Gustavo has offered euca-links to various videos produced by the partner Painel Florestal, one of the best webportals on Eucalyptus forestry.

Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden Research Institute
. (Brazil)
The Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden reveals itself not just as one of the oldest and most prestigious botanical institution's in Brazil, but also as a patrimony of the Brazilian nation. The conquests and achievements are numerous, since the time of its foundation by the Portuguese monarch Don Joao VI, in 1808. Among its scientific highlights we can mention: the collection of species of Brazilian flora, xylotheque, herbarium, photo library, karpotheque, higher education through the National School of Tropical Botany, scientific research, Rodriguesia scientific journal, library of rare and unique books, etc. Recently, the Research Institute of the Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden launched another free service for the virtual world society - a collection of species of the Brazilian flora, which can be accessed and viewed via the web. Please, know more about this botanic wonder which has a total of 40,986 species of flora; with 3,608 of Fungi; 3,496 of Algae; 1,521 of Bryophytes; 1,176 of Pteridophytes; 23 Gymnosperms and 31,162 Angiosperms. (History of the Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden) (Virtual tour) scientific journal) (Publications) (Species of the Brazilian Flora)

Professor Wayne P. Armstrong Botanical World. (USA)
Professor Wayne P. Armstrong offers to us (better saying, gifts us) one of the best arboreta and botanical pages available on the virtual web, with rich quality on the information, botany classes, photo galleries, etc. This is the minimum that can be said about his fantastic webpage at Palomar College, California, USA. Congratulations for your marvelous work professor Wayne. (Some information about Professor Wayne P. Armstrong) (Opening webpage) (Introduction to the Professor Wayne's Arboretum) (Online Arboretum) (Hardwood trees, including some beautiful pictures of Eucalyptus) (Hardwood trees 2) (Hardwood trees 3) (Hardwood trees and woods, including some Eucalyptus) (Online classes on Botany) (Online classes on Biology) (Palomar College/USA) (Palomar College Arboretum)

References about Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events (congresses, seminars, conferences, workshops, courses). The advantage provided to web readers is that the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties. I would like to emphasize the importance of visiting the material of these suggested events. Most of them have exceptional PowerPoint presentations, rich on data, photos, images and references. By doing this visit you can learn a lot more about the discussed topics. Other courses or events offer the entire book of technical articles, true sources of knowledge to our readers. We should also highlight the increasing availability of academic materials placed in a public way by many university professors, who offer their teaching hand-outs and classes materials for using by stakeholders of the society via the web. On some of our newsletters issues, we are to provide references of these types of courses, as well.

Please, visit the selection we have prepared this time:

Madeira 2010 - 5th International Congress on the Sustainable Economic Excellent event on issues about the forest-based industry, focused on sustainable forest products production and also on the sustainable power generation, utilizing wood from planted forests. The event is organized by the BESC Institute of Humanities and Economics, and it took place in June 2010, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Now, in its fifth edition, MADEIRA 2010 has gained the status as one of the most important events for the forestry sector in Brazil, addressing issues of high national interest and helping to enlarge the capacity of international reserves accumulation by the Brazilian economy and its competitiveness in foreign markets. We thank very much our esteemed friend Mrs. Jussara Ribeiro for her enthusiasm and dedication in coordinating and organizing the event and Dr. Jose Otavio Brito for his expertise in developing, together with other members of the Madeira 2010 Business & Scientific Council, the excellent technical program for this specific edition of the congress. (Madeira 2010 website with the speeches and event magazine for downloading) (Madeira 2010 Awards) (Previous Madeira congresses) (Speeches of the event Madeira 2008 at the website Painel Florestal) (Speeches of the event Madeira 2008 at the ABRAF website) (Speeches of the event Madeira 2006 at the ABRAF website)

MS Florestal 2010 - 2nd Mato Grosso do Sul Forestry Congress.
(in Portuguese)
MS Florestal is an event of great magnitude for a region that is itself rapidly becoming the new frontier of plantation forestry development in Brazil, the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. MS Florestal is promoted by the SEPROTUR - Secretariat of Agricultural Development, Industrial Production, Trade and Tourism from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The event has also the support through a partnership with REFLORE MS ( and Painel Florestal ( The event took place in June 2010, in Campo Grande, MS. MS Florestal has been converted in an important scenario to educate and motivate investors, to increase networking and to disseminate technology, equipment and services targeted to this kind of segment, generating new alternatives for investments, partnerships and opportunities. (Congress webpage) (Congress program) (Speeches for downloading) (Painel Florestal video about the event)

14th PROTEF Technical Meeting - Risk Management and Exotic Pest Monitoring. (in Portuguese)
An event by IPEF - Institute for Forest Research and Studies, in partnership with FCA - College of Agricultural Sciences/UNESP, Botucatu. It was held in December 2009 in the city of Tres Lagoas - MS. The event discussed the research advances in forest protection in Brazil mainly for the culture of Eucalyptus, which has been the target of new pest problems, with new pathogenic organisms agents leading to new pests, diseases and weed competition. Featuring presentations: on the browned bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus, on the Eucalyptus rust and also some presentations provided by Brazilian forest companies about their problems and phytosanitary controls. (Speeches for downloading)

1st International Symposium of the Indonesian Wood Research Society. (in English)
An event that took place in Bogor, Indonesia, in November 2009. In this symposium, innumerous scientific papers have been presented featuring wood science, with particular highlights on tropical woody trees, both exotic and native from the region. In the proceedings, the reader is able to find several references on the geni: Acacia, Gmelina, Pinus and Eucalyptus. (The Indonesian Wood Research Society webpage) (Proceedings of the 2009 event, with 315 pages)

Professor Arlindo Costa's Webpage - CERPLAN - Teaching Center of the North Plateau - UDESC - Santa Catarina. (In Portuguese)
In a previous Eucalyptus Newsletter, we have already highlighted Professor Arlindo Costa webpage. He is professor at the Department of Furniture Technology, UDESC - State University of Santa Catarina. At this opportunity, we are complementing the promotion of this webpage to our readers, due to the excellent technical materials that Professor Arlindo makes available to his students and to people from society who are interested in knowing more about the subjects he teaches and shares so well with everyone via the web. (About professor Arlindo Costa) (Course - Industrial Production of Furniture) (Wood Anatomy course) (Histology and Plant Tissues course) (Wood Preservation course) (Course - Botany 01) (Course - Botany 02) (Physiological Botany course)

Virtual Herbaria

The herbaria ( are plant specimen collections that allow a careful identification of species based on comparisons of their vegetative and reproductive organs with ready-made models (in generally, in the dry-format) maintained in these collections. These models of botanical materials, kept dehydrated/desiccated or preserved in alcohol or other preservative, are called herbarium specimens ( There are herbaria to interested parties visits and for researching purposes mainly in universities, botanical gardens and also in research institution's. They require great expertise, whether for correct taxonomic identification of the plant specimens, and also for preparing and storing them. Some institution's have collections of plants both as herbarium specimens (dead material), as also collections of living plants (botanical collections). Collections of Eucalyptus botanical materials are common in Australia, but not so in Brazil. In Brazil, there is a fabulous collection of Eucalyptus and Corymbia herbarium specimens at the headquarters of FEENA - State Forest "Navarro de Andrade" in Rio Claro, state of Sao Paulo ( We have there the availability of dozens of Eucalyptus and Corymbia plant specimens, maintained by the technical staff of the institution, as collections for the purpose of taxonomy and identification. In addition, there are also collections of living trees of many of these species. For the fact of knowing so much the importance of these collections, we are encouraging and suggesting to the Brazilian forestry sector to become FEENA partner for the digitalization of this collection of botanical herbarium specimens. This service would allow to place the specimens pictures on botanical books or in the web, as a virtual herbarium to meet the demands coming from society. It is very common to find citizens who wish to identify Eucalyptus plants that are present in forests, farms, public parks, urban woods, etc. An eucalypt virtual herbarium in Brazil, with the eucalypt species that commonly live in the country, would definitely be an exceptional tool to support decision-making for the further development of our Eucalyptus forestry.

We have made a careful search in the web to bring to you some good examples of virtual herbaria (, even when they do not keep many species of Eucalyptus. Indeed, the term virtual herbarium comes to become more popular as websites where it is possible to obtain data on plants, not always through herbarium dried specimens, but also photographs and drawings. I hope these visits you are to make in these suggested herbaria may help and enable leveraging the sense of need for a virtual herbarium in Brazil, containing also in the collections the exotic species very much used in plantation forestry in the country: Eucalyptus, Corymbia, Acacia and Pinus.

Australian National Botanic Gardens
. (Australia) (About the Australian National Botanic Gardens) (Searching tool for images related to species and geni of Australian flora)

Australian National Herbarium. (Australia) (Known a plant specimen)

Australian Native Plants Society. (Australia) (A selection of Eucalyptus species in the format of pictured specimens)

AVH - Australia's Virtual Herbarium. (Australia)
The AVH project consists in an online collection of plant species of Australian flora, the birthplace of hundreds of species of Eucalyptus. It encompasses and seeks to bring together some of the most important traditional herbaria in the country, bringing these collections to digital form and virtual availability. Unfortunately, the access is restricted until now and only partially offered to the general public. (About the AVH project) (Search the collections)

Charles Sturt University. (Australia)

Eukalypt - A Heather Elson's Webpage. (Australia)
Excellent webpage showing pictures made by Heather Elson, allowing to describe several species of Eucalyptus, thereby facilitating the identification of species, even without using a typical herbarium technology. (Introduction to the eucalypts) (Eucalyptus gallery)

Fairchild Tropical Botanical Garden - Virtual Herbarium.
(USA) (Searching portal for obtaining plant specimens data and pictures from several American herbaria)

Flora of Australia Online. (Australia)

Coimbra University Herbarium. (Portugal)

Tras-os-Montes & Alto Douro University Herbarium
. (Portugal) (Portugal digital flora)

Herbarium of the Sao Paulo Botanic Institute.

Forest Herbarium at UFSM - Federal University of Santa Maria. (Brazil)
An excellent forest herbarium made available to public thanks to the efforts and talent of our dear friend professor Dr. Solon Jonas Longhi and his team.
(Links to other herbaria)

New York Botanic Garden - The C.V. Star Virtual Herbarium. (USA)
The search tool offers the possibility to access innumerous other collections from multi-herbaria in the global world. Don't miss this visit. (Searching the herbaria collections)
(Searching result for Eucalyptus, with over 200 results and many Eucalyptus plant specimens to be admired) ( Eucalyptus robusta plant specimen)

New Zealand Virtual Herbarium. (New Zealand)

The Biology Society (Ordem dos Biologos). (Portugal)

PlantNet - New South Wales Flora Online. (Australia)

Royal Botanic Garden of Melbourne. (Australia) (How to prepare plant specimens to herbarium)

Royal Botanic Garden of Victoria.
(What a herbarium is?)

University of British Columbia Herbarium. (Canada) (Search vascular plants and Eucalyptus to access innumerous Eucalyptus plant specimens)

Herbarios Virtuais: Conceitos, estado da arte, usos e recomendacoes.
Mike Hopkins. Rural Federal University of Amazonia. Accessed on 06.07.2010: (In Portuguese)

A informatizacao de herbarios brasileiros: estudo de caso. F.L. Peixoto; H.C. Lima. National School of Tropical Botany. Acesso em 06.07.2010: (In Portuguese)

Lignotuber: what is and serves for...

Lignotubers or lignotubercles are structures developed by some plant species to adapt and to withstand adverse environmental conditions where they live or have lived in the past over their natural development process. They appear initially in young individuals as small lumps near the neck or collar of the plants (the region of the plant seedling in transition from the aerial part to the root system). This is because they are formed preferentially by axillary buds ( near the cotyledons. This means that lignotubers are found especially in seminal plants (plants originated from seeds have cotyledons, clonal plants usually do not). There is evidence that the capacity for forming lignotubers is not only restricted to the cotyledonary region, but they can also occur in axillar regions of some plants, just above the cotyledonary node, this fact also happening with the Eucalyptus. For this reason, young and fresh shoots, harvested directly from lignotuber as cuttings, may also come to develop lignotubers, when vegetatively propagated. This phenomenon is known as "position effect for the formation of lignotuber", thus denying the exclusive formation of lignotubers only in seminal plants. The induction of lignotuber formation in such way has been successfully performed by several researchers. However, this knowledge has not yet been turned into practical results in the vegetative propagation of Eucalyptus.

The main lignotuber mission is to guarantee the plant ability to defend itself and to survive the adverse climate conditions or the human or predators actions. The most frequent adversities are: drought, frost, forest fires, insects or diseases attacks, cutting of trees in forest harvesting, felling of trees by strong winds, etc.

The anatomy of the cells of the lignotuber structure indicates that the lignotuber presents the same kind of tissues as any woody plant: cambium, phloem, heartwood, sapwood, parenchyma cells and gum channels. Therefore, anatomically the lignotuber does not differ from other parts of the stem. However, the differences between lignotuber and the rest of the stem are quantitative: lignotubers have a much larger proportion of parenchyma (nutritive reserve cells) and a high concentration of dormant buds and protected meristematic tissue. This suggests that lignotubers have dual function: to be a food reserve organ (hence, the origin of the name lignotubercle) and to have an enormous capacity of meristematic bud development in the case of any damage to the plant stem. When the stem of the plant suffers a serious injury, even its removal by tree harvesting, lignotuber becomes vital for the survival of the plant. The dormant buds, basing their development on the surrounding food reserves in the lignotuber, begin to develop quickly to replace damaged or removed stem from the plant. Therefore, plants with lignotuber have high ability for sprouting and regeneration after the loss of their aerial organs. However, the plants can also sprout without having lignotuber. In such cases, additional care on the physiological issues and the provision of resources for facilitating this sprouting must be known and applied to a better chance of success in this type of forest management by coppicing.

The lignotubers are important regenerative organs of some plants, not only to resist adverse natural conditions, but also to be used to improve the forest management under conditions of commercial plantations. Among the required knowledge for improving coppicing management is suggested that some factors be well evaluated and monitored, such as: cutting height of the tree at harvesting; integrity of the bark in the tree stump; weather factors at harvesting (sunlight intensity and temperature) and respect by harvesting operators to the lignotuber region.

Despite this intense regenerative capacity and formation of shoots/sprouts, there are no evidences that the lignotuber may be considered an advantage for a higher percentage of seedling formation in the utilization of the plant tissue culture technique. The vegetative propagation of this organ in relation to other plant parts normally used for this technique has not showed clear benefits for the lignotuber.

The lignotubers are frequent and common in species of eucalypts, both in the genus Eucalyptus, as well as Corymbia. The species Eucalyptus urophylla, E.robusta, E.tereticornis, E.saligna, E. globulus E.cinerea, E. obliqua and Corymbia citriodora usually show clearly the lignotuber in young seminal seedlings. The same is true for some hybrids, as the case of Eucalyptus urograndis. Some species or even plants may not show the lignotuber, because such formation is genetic controlled. For example, there are cases where E.grandis plants show lignotuber and in others, don't (in most situations). When a particular species doesn't have lignotuber, the regrowth and sprouting of the plants must be more carefully managed. Tree harvesting must be more precise in stump height and also extreme care should be taken to avoid damaging the bark. The absence of lignotuber does not indicate inability for shooting, only that greater care must be taken when coppicing the forest for another rotation. On the other hand, it is not for the simple reason that the plant has lignotuber that the forester may neglect these same factors.

The species of eucalypts that have lignotubers tend to be more tolerant to cold weather, frosts, droughts and defoliation by predatory pests, etc. Species that do not have lignotubers physiologically compensate this deficiency by the much larger seed production, choosing such way to preserve their genes - a remarkable Mother Nature's wisdom.

Besides the presence of lignotuber (which translates into a virtue in the seedlings), the producer of Eucalyptus forest seedlings should pay close attention to the diameter of seedlings in the basis of them. There is strong evidence that the seedlings thicker in this region are more resistant in the plantation and thus having a higher percentage of survival success. Such seedlings have even greater ability to sprout, if they are mechanically damaged or eventually suffer some pest attack that remove their leaves and branches, but leave intact the lignotuber.

The lignotuber resembles a lump or a predator gall in young seedlings. However, as time goes and the plant gets older, it gradually loses this format as far the Eucalyptus planted trees grow in favorable environmental conditions. When the plant reaches about 4-5 meters high, nobody is able to notice any kind of spherical formation or lump in the basis region of the tree, near the ground. However, this region maintains its lignotuber characteristics. Food reserves and meristematic tissues are there in abundance. In the event of any damage to the tree stem, the lignotuber comes into action to recover the tree from this damage.

In the case of lignotuber sprouting, many shoots tend to grow quickly and immediately, with no clear apical dominance of one of them. If sprout thinning (removal of extra sprouts/shoots) is not efficiently managed and carried out with science after forest harvesting, we may have numerous small diameter and even tortuous shoots, leading to a broomed aspect to the plant. The foresters and the operators involved in the Eucalyptus plantation forestry should therefore know very well and to respect this characteristics of the Eucalyptus plants. This will facilitate a successful management of the new plantation based on the selected and managed sprouts.

The Eucalyptus and Corymbia adult plants do not show morphological evidences of their lignotubers, unless they are constantly injured or damaged by severe stresses in a row. In such cases, lignotubers can develop into non-uniform tubercles at surface or slightly below the soil surface. This happens when the plant is growing in extreme and harsh conditions for vegetation. For example, when the forest is submitted to numerous fires and subsequent death of the aerial part.

Lignotubers are not privilege of the eucalypts. They exist in several other taxonomic groups of plants. In some situations, when plants live in conditions of extreme difficulties, the lignotuber structure becomes even more important than the tree stem, giving an even surreal aspect to the plant: the development of a huge, strange and deformed tubercle, semi-buried in the soil. This is definitely not the case of Eucalyptus in the conditions of commercial plantations, where the lignotuber does not play a greater role throughout the rotation, except when the forest is harvested. Then, the dormant buds are activated and grow immediately as sprouts.

In an e-mail messages dialogue about the Eucalyptus lignotuber with the great master and "Friend of the Eucalyptus", the forest engineer Teotonio Francisco de Assis, he brought his wisdom and mentioned some phrases that I'm taking the chance to share with you:

"Most species of Eucalyptus have lignotuber, but only in some they appear more clearly in format. They are not an anomaly, but instead, a mechanism that Eucalyptus plants and some other species of the Myrtaceae family have developed to survive after stresses such as drought, frost, stem fracture, insect or disease attack, etc. It is a plant physiological ability to profusely sprout. It is not a defect or a disease, but a virtue to them".

Know more about the occurrence of lignotubers in Eucalyptus through the below referenced literature:

Lignotuber. R.M.S. Zuucatti. UFRGS - College of Agronomy. Photo Gallery on Plant Diseases. Accessed on 26.06.2010:
(In Portuguese)

An introduction to the Eucalyptus. The genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora. A. Lyne. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. Accessed on 26.06.2010:

Gum trees of the South East. Fact sheet. Gold Coast Regional Botanic Gardens. Australia. 02 pp. Accessed on 26.06.2010:

Os eucaliptos utilizados para a producao de bonsais.
E. Foelkel. Eucalyptus Newsletter nº 15. (2008) (In Portuguese)

The Eucalyptus being used to the production of bonsais. E. Foelkel. Eucalyptus Newsletter nº 15. (2008) (In English)

Conducao de plantios de Eucalyptus em sistema de talhadia. M.P. Ferrari; C.A. Ferreira; H.D. Silva. Embrapa Florestas. Serie Documentos nº 104. 28 pp (2004) (In Portuguese)

Lignotuber. In: "Clonagem e doencas do eucalipto". A.C. Alfenas; E.A.V.Zauza; R.G. Mafia; T.F. Assis. Editora UFV. p. 346-348. (2004) (In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Genetic control of coppice and lignotuber development in Eucalyptus globulus.
S.P. Wittock; L.A. Apiolaza; C.M. Kelly; B.M. Potts. Australian Journal of Botany 51: 57-67. (2003)

Micropropagation and tissue culture of Eucalyptus. A review. J.J. Le Roux; J. V. Staden. Tree Physiology 9: 435-477. (1991)

Initiation, development and anatomy of lignotubers in some species of Eucalyptus. D.J. Carr; R. Jahnke; S.G.M. Carr. Australian Journal of Botany 32(4): 415 - 437. (1984)

The eucalypt lignotuber: a position-dependent organ
. D.J. Carr; S.G.M. Carr; R. Jahnke. Annals of Botany 50: 481-489. (1982)

Studies of the lignotuber of Eucalyptus gummifera. II - Anatomy. R.K. Bamber; K.J. Mullette. Australian Journal of Botany 26(1): 15 - 22. (1978)

Studies on the lignotubers of Eucalyptus obliqua. I - The nature of the lignotuber. B.B. Carrodus; T.J. Blake. New Phytologist 69(4): 1069-1072. (1970)

Images of Eucalyptus lignotuber:

*A special thanks to Mr. Antonio Carlos Franco de Lima for providing the picture of lignotubers in a young Eucalyptus urograndis seedling, displayed in this section opening.

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus
(by Ester Foelkel)

In this edition: Products from the Eucalyptus to Prevent Mites and Ticks Problems

Taxonomically, the mites and ticks belong to the phylum Arthropoda and the class Arachnida. In general, they are small-sized animals, especially mites; and they visibly show the four pairs of legs in the adulthood (Wikipedia, 2010; Flechtmann and Moraes, 2008). The mites are very abundant in nature and can be easily found in the first layers of the soil that are rich in organic matter, and where it is common to find a great variety of living species that depends on organic debris and/or acting as predators to other organisms. There are also some species of mites that inhabit aquatic ecosystems, remaining on plants or animals. On the other hand, the mites can also cause great damages to humans by inhabiting their homes, as is the case of the dust mite, that usually generates respiratory and skin allergies. These animals are also known for: parasitizing domestic and wild animals; by feeding on plants of economic importance to agriculture; for being vectors of diseases to humans and plants, among other problems (Wikipedia, 2010; Flechtmann and Moraes, 2008).

Tickshave blood feeding habits (hematophagous animals); they may also cause serious harm to human health, besides helping in the transmission of serious diseases. Tick species also parasitize other domestic and wild animals, causing skin irritations and allergies by releasing their anti-coagulant toxic saliva in the bloodstream of their hosts (Wikipedia, 2010).

For all these facts, the control of both mites and ticks is an issue that haunts man sincehis early days. These predators already existed in ancient Egypt, since tomb quotes about ticks to cause human diseases have been found (Moraes and Flechtmann, 2008). Currently, the use of pesticides is the most used way to combat these pests. However, due to the existing and growing environmental problems (pollution of ecosystems, including the human homes; pest resistance to doses previously controllable; etc.), as well as the severe potential poisoning that some of these pesticide products can cause mainly in mammals, further studies searching alternative procedures for controlling them are being conducted in various regions of the world.

Research with extracts from plantsthat show resistance to the attack of the species of these arachnids are showing very promising results when sprayed on plants susceptible to these pests (Moraes and Flechtmann, 2008). Among these plant extracts, there are those from Eucalyptus. Thus, the technical goals of this present text would be: a) to bring to the reader survey results that show how the extracts of some species of Eucalyptus can help controlling mites and ticks; b) to demonstrate the main advantages of using these extracts of Eucalyptus, compared to conventional methods of control (pesticides). However, it should be clear that despite the resistance of some species of Eucalyptus to some mites, there are also mites harmful attacks in Eucalyptus plantations (Flechtmann, 1983), indicating that such resistance exists in some cases, but not all.

According to Chagas et al. (2002), the synthetic acaricides most commonly used in agriculture are very harmful to the environment, and may lead to poisoning effects, both to rural operators, and also to health risks to consumers, when they feed on agricultural products containing toxic pesticide residuals. The same authors emphasized that the acaricides generated from natural plant extracts usually cause less damage to nature because: they are more easily degraded in the environment; have lower toxicity to mammals; have a lower risk of resistance development by pests.

Natural plant extracts are being tested for controlling of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasite mite to bees. According to Castagnino (2008), synthetic pesticides, such as organic-phosphates, pyrethroids and chlorinated organics, used presently to combat Varroa, show growing problems of increasing resistance of the predator, being necessary to increase the concentration of such chemicals for more effective control. Furthermore, this measure can contaminate honey and wax, making them unfit for consumption and utilization. Therefore, the natural plant extracts, such as those from Eucalyptus, are being welcome, since they are less toxic to bees, and also show similar aromas to those already existing in honey, due to the reason that flowers of Eucalyptus supply much of the raw materials for honey production in many regions of Brazil and of the world (Castagnino, 2008).

Some studies with Eucalyptus species suggest their potential to control mites and ticks in various cases of harmful animal and agricultural crops attacks. Following, we are offering some examples from literature:

Elmhalli et al. (2009) evaluated the toxicity of the chemical compound para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), that exists in the essential oil of lemon eucalypt (Corymbia citriodora), to nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus ( Contact toxicity tests were conducted by five different methods where the mortality rates were determined by observing the death of the tick individuals in 30 minute intervals until the first five hours after exposure, and after that, in more widely spaced intervals. The results have proved a positive correlation between the increase in deaths and increase in concentration of the PMD compound, as well as the exposure time (up to 3.5 hours). Tests showed that the lethal activity of PMD lasted around 24 hours, and apparently faded in 48 hours at the tested concentrations. The results also indicate that the PMD compound is toxic to I. ricinus, and there may be good chances for future use to control this tick.

Another eucalypt compound (citriodiol -, also derived from the essential oil of C. citriodora, had its action tested by Gardulf et al. (2004) in terms of evaluating the decreasing in the number of bites on humans for the same species of ticks. The present study evaluated 11 people who received an average of 1.5 bites when not treated with the compound against 0.5 bites for those treated with citriodiol. This indicates a positive response to the compound as a tick repellent.

George et al. (2009) evaluated the chemical composition and the acaricide activity of essential oils from four species of Eucalyptus against Dermanyssus gallinae (widely known as bird red mite or red louse). The results showed that, at the concentration of 0.21 mg/cm², the essential oil of Corymbia (formerly Eucalyptus) citriodora led to the death of 85% of those tested mites during the 24 hours of exposure. However, the oils of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus radiata showed no such toxicity levels to the mite, obtaining mortality rates of 11 and 19% respectively. The authors also pointed out that the more chemically complex the essential oil is, the better is the performance in controlling the pest.

Ulfing et al. (2009) tested the effects of the natural extract of Corymbia (formerly Eucalyptus) citriodora in larvae of the harmful and aggressive cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ( ) through the use of in vitro tests. Larval mortality was evaluated in different concentrations and types of solutions for the Eucalyptus oil, in the form of aqueous extract, pure essential oil, simple dye and concentrated dye. For all treatments, there was noticed increasing mortality rate as the increase in concentration. The concentrated dye and the pure essential oil were the most effective treatments for tick control. The essential oil at 25% concentration killed all tick individuals.

Costa et al. (2008) evaluated the control effectiveness of hydro-alcoholic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica), citronella (Citronella sp.) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.) in females of Boophilus microplus (known as cattle tick). For this purpose, tests were performed in vitro at concentrations of 20, 20 and 10%, respectively. The Eucalyptus extract was the more effective one, controlling 96% of the tested females. Unfortunately the other two extracts showed no capability to fight the tick.

Castagnino (2008) tested the effect of oxalic acid and various essential oils from plants such as common rue (Ruta graveolens), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) and mint (Mentha piperita) on the mite-of-bees Varroa destructor. In vitro tests were conducted to check the action of these products, both on bees and on the mite. After contacting with each one of these essential oils of plants under different concentrations, the mortality rates were quantified and associated to each control treatment. Field trials applying essential oils directly into bee colonies have also been performed. The results of the in vitro tests indicated that the tested essential oils became effective from a certain concentration (about 10 mL/L), quite acceptable to allow more natural controls. In the field trials, the Eucalyptus oil provided good effectivenes in the reduction of mortality of young bees infected with Varroa.

Aiming to study natural plant extracts as less-harmful-to-the-environment acaricides, Vieira and colleagues (2006) investigated the effects of natural and hydro-alcoholic extracts of C. citriodora, Melissa officinalis, Mentha piperita, among other plants, on the mortality of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (a major pest of fruit trees, ornamental plants and vegetables). The substances were sprayed on the females to evaluate mortality rates after exposures during specific periods of time. C. citriodora extract led to an average death of 87% of the individuals after 48 hours of exposure to the extract.

Choi et al. (2004) evaluated the efficacy of 53 essential oils extracted from different types of plants (genus and species) in the egg control of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and also on the adult mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, that is a predator of the two-spotted mite. The extracts were sprayed and came into contact with individuals in the vaporized form. Among the extracts evaluated, the one from Corymbia (ex-Eucalyptus) citriodora has been tested in various concentrations. Of all the concentrations, the concentration of 1.4 mL/L air was considered the most effective against the mite T. urticae. Extracts of Corymbia caused mortality rates above 90% in adults of T.urticae at concentration of 14 mL/L air and were also efficient in controlling their eggs at 9.3 mL/L air. Eucalyptus oil also proved to be toxic to adults of the predator mite Phytoseiulus persimilis in concentration of 7.1 mL/L air. However, this oil was not the one that caused the highest mortality rates (in this case, it was the extract of Mentha piperita). As a conclusion, the extract of C. citriodora helps to control the two-spotted spider mite; however, it shows no selectivity for its predator P. persimilis.

Five doses of essential oil from leaves of Eucalyptus saligna were evaluated by Tedonkeng and colleagues (2004) in the control of the tick Rhipicephalus lunulatus. The Eucalyptus saligna leaves have as main component in the essential oil the compound alpha-pinene (29.5%). The results showed efficient control of the tick, as the lowest tested dose (0.08 µL/cm²) reported death of 60% of the ticks after 8 days exposure. The authors also calculated the LD 50 (lethal dose that kills 50% of ticks) on the second day of exposure, noting that 0.12 mL/cm² were needed to kill half the population of ticks.

Chagas et al (2002) evaluated the essential oils of Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus staigeriana as acaricides to control Boophilus microplus (cattle tick). The three oils were effective in tick control, killing 100% of those ticks at tested concentrations of 12.5% for E. staigeriana; 15% for E. globulus and 17.5% for C. citriodora. Meanwhile, the concentrated emulsions provided complete control at average concentration of 9.9% for E. globulus and 3.9% for E. staigeriana. Tests with gas chromatography indicated that the main compounds existing in these essential oils were: citronellal in C. citriodora and 1,8-cineole in E. globulus, both responsible for the tick control action. According to the authors, E. staigeriana oil has several other compounds that act in a synergistic effect on the toxicity to B. microplus.

Several researches with essential oils of Eucalyptus and Corymbia species tested as alternative acaricides ( have been proved as promising opportunities. Thus, further studies should continue to be conducted in Brazil and abroad for developing such kind of less harmful products from these oils. The selectivity of these oils to the natural enemies of these pests (mites and ticks) needs to be improved. Anyhow, some of these products are to become available on the market in a short time and at competitive prices compared to synthetic pesticides used for combating these pests (Chagas et. al. 2002).

In the selection just ahead,we are offering some technical documents and conclusions of existing researches available on the web. They are related to discuss mites and ticks problems to humans, plants and animals, and also to show the potential of Eucalyptus compounds to an efficient control and prevention of such problems, with a lot of less damages to the environment than those observed with synthetic pesticides.

Acari. Wikipedia. Accessed on 26.06.2010: (in English) (in Spanish)

Picaduras de bichos. TeensHealth. Accessed on 26.06.2010: : (in Spanish)

Efeito carrapaticida in vitro de Eucalyptus citriodora em larvas de Rhipichephalus (Boophilus) microplus. C. T. Ulfing; M. A. Alcantara; A. Dauth; N. A. Castro; A. Lopes; D. P. Gouvea; L. C. Bretanha; R. A. Freitag; S. S Silva; L. Q. Nizoli; T. R. B. Santos. XVIII CIC UFPEL - Universidade Federal de Pelotas. 04 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Variation in chemical composition and acaricidal activity against Dermanyssus gallinae of four Eucalyptus essential oils. D. R. George; D. Masic; O. A. E. Sparagano; J. H. Guy. Experimental and Applied Acarology 48:43–50. (2009) (in English)

Acaricidal effects of Corymbia citriodora oil containing para-menthane-3,8-diol against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae). F. H. Elmhalli; K. Palsson; J. Orberg; T. G. T. Jaenson. Experimental and Applied Acarology 48:251–262. (2009) (in English)

Abstract: Acaricidal potential of some essential oils and their monoterpenoids against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch.). El-Z. Saad; R. Hussain; Z. Ahmed. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 42(4):334-339. (2009)
(in English)

Abstract: Formulacao fitoterapica para o controle do carrapato bovino. A. C. S. Chagas; M. C. S. Oliveira; P. F. Barbosa; R. Giglioti; F. H. Calura. I Simposio sobre Inovacao e Criatividade Cientifica - Embrapa. 01 pp. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Eficacia de fitoterapicos em femeas ingurgitadas de Boophilus microplus, provenientes da mesorregiao oeste do Maranhao. F. B. Costa; P. S. Vasconcelos; A. M. M. Silva; V. M. Brandao; I. A. Silva; W. C. Teixeira; R. M. S. N. Guerra; A. C. G. Santos. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria 17(1): 83-86. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Manual de acarologia. Acarologia basica e acaros de plantas cultivadas no Brasil. G. J. Moraes; C. H. W. Flechtmann. Holos Editora. 288 pp. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Produtos naturais no controle do acaro Varroa destructor em abelhas Apis mellifera L. (Africanizadas). (Natural products in control of the mite Varroa destructor in bees Apis mellifera - Africanizated) G. L. B. Castagnino. Tese de Doutorado. UNESP. 67 pp. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).
El-Z. Saad; R. Hussien; F. Saher; Z. Ahmed. Journal of Zhejiang University Science 7(12): 957–962. (2006)
(in English)

Efeito acaricida de extratos vegetais sobre femeas de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). M. R. Vieira; L. V. S. Sacramento; L. O. Furlan; J. C. Figueira; A. B. O. Rocha. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais 8(4): 210-217. (2006)
(in Portuguese)

Abstract: Chemical composition and acaricide effect of the essential oils from the leaves of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robins and Eucalyptus saligna Smith, on ticks (Rhipicephalus lunulatus Neumann) of the West African Dwarf goat in West Cameroon. P. E. Tedonkeng; P. H. A. Zollo; F. Tendonkeng; J. R. Kana; M. D.Fongang; L. A. Tapondjou. CIPAV Foundation. (2004)
(in English)

Abstract: Toxicity of plant essential oils to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). W. I. Choi; S. G. Lee; H. M. Park; Y. J. Ahn. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(2): 553-558. (2004)
(in English)

Efeito acaricida de oleos essenciais e concentrados emulsionaveis de Eucalyptus spp em Boophilus microplus. A. C. S. Chagas; W. M. Passos; H. T. Prates; R. C. Leite; J. Furlong; T. C. P. Fortes. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 39(5): 247-253. (2002) (in Portuguese)

Abstract: Acaricidal activity of some essential oils and their constituents against Tyrophagus longior, a mite of stored food. S. Perrucci. Journal of Food Protection 58(5): 560-563. (1995) (in English)

Dois acaros novos para os eucaliptos, com uma lista daqueles ja assinalados para esta planta. C.A.H. Flechtmann. IPEF 23: 43-46. (1983) (in Portuguese)

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel

Paper as a Cultural Asset with Fundamental Value to Human Society

Since the dawn of his existence on planet Earth, man has taken the initiative to represent his feelings and the needs to communicate through the writing. Initially, this was done through rough drawings on the rocks of the caves where he was used to live, giving rise to the admired and well-known petroglyphs ( and the intriguing beauty of cave painting art ( Along his technological and cultural evolution, man was finding other materials for his written recording, while he also refined writing characters and painting art styles. Other materials were used for receiving the written characters, such as pottery, animal skins, clothes, wood pieces, tiles, tree bark, etc. All had the function of being substrate for writing and art. Of course, writing on these materials was a difficult task, as it was laborious to produce these artifacts in volume and scale to allow a mass propagation of texts and drawn figures. The result is that only the religious and political elite's, both historically detaining power, could educate themselves and take advantage of the civilization accumulated knowledge. Thus, education and communication have for centuries been restricted to only a tiny fraction of the population.

This story started changing about 2,000 years ago, when the Chinese master Ts'ai Lun creatively invented the paper sheet, using fragments of flexible plants that were ground to individualize the fibers. Through the plenty utilization of water and a sieve, he formed a sheet of fibers and then dried it, thus forming the first sheet of paper, which soon turned as one of the most common and useful goods to human society.

The invention of paper has enabled a huge storage and dissemination of all kind of knowledge generated by people on this planet. This happened because the Chinese invention was not confined to that particular country. It was soon globalized and introduced into Europe, other Asian countries and later to America and Oceania. In continental Europe, cradle of the major historical, scientific and cultural knowledge's, the paper has quickly widespread its use. Books began to be produced on a larger scale, at the same way that paper started providing support to arts, magna cartas and constitutional laws, religious and political documents, etc. Paper soon highlighted its status as a vital vehicle for communication with the creation of newspapers and magazines, in addition to its recognized cultural role due to the books. In a short spam of no more than 1,300 years after its invention, the paper acquired a status of essential good for the storage, transmission and dissemination of knowledge, whatever kind of knowledge one is talking about. Of course, soon paper started being scarce to fulfill the demand, so great was the need for it. The paper fibrous raw materials of that time could not meet this growth in demand. This paper shortage became even more evident after the invention of the printing art with movable types and printing presses, created by Johannes Gutenberg, in 1439. Books and newspapers started to be produced in large scale, but where to get so many rags and cotton fabrics to get fibers to manufacture paper? With his creativity stimulated, the human being has soon developed new technologies, such as the use of wood to produce pulp fibers by pulping processes known as soda, kraft, sulfite and also mechanical pulp by grinding the wood.

In less than two centuries, starting from the mid 1,800's, paper turned to be one of the most demanded manufactured goods by global society. Today, per capita consumption of paper is also considered an indicator of life quality and economic development for a people or nation. Countries like the United States of America, Japan, Finland, Germany, Holland, Sweden, etc. are considered developed countries, with high quality education to their citizens. In these cases, individual consumption of paper reaches more than 200 kg per inhabitant per year. On the other hand, this consumption for the inhabitants of underdeveloped countries is no more than 25 kg/inhabitant.year, and for emerging countries, between 45-80. There is a high correlation between education, culture, number of Nobel Prize winners and the production of books, magazines, newspapers, art and cultural documents, etc. In special, in the past 50 years, paper has played its role with great competence in its mission to store, convey and disseminate knowledge and cultural products through world citizens. This in addition to performing other functions such as packaging, hygienic and sanitary purposes, etc.

Never in Mankind history we have reached a production of knowledge of all types and volumes as in the present days. This will tend to grow even further with the advances of science and technology. This knowledge is being stored and disseminated by several means, inclusive by the paper.
The knowledge is part of the culture of each nation, region, city, town and even district of some city. The cultural heritage or patrimony ( can be considered as a set of objects or goods of value (tangible or intangible), with significance and importance in the culture or history of groups of people (societies). The patrimony has a collective meaning, thus formed by all the achievements of a particular society, and that has been built over its history. In the cultural and historical heritage of a region or people we may mention the following items: ecosystem landscapes, architecture, monuments, sports, art objects, artcrafts, folklore, literary texts, documents, customs, language, cuisine, anthropological sites, etc. Many of the goods that make up the cultural heritage of a people are presented in the format of paper (books, documents, paintings, photographs, stamps, etc.). Paper contributes with enormous social effects generated by its large-scale production, becoming for such an important cultural driver. For example, if we have the typical cuisine as an important cultural asset of a region, a cookbook stores this culture and also allows spreading it. Therefore, the paper itself is not the cultural asset, it's just a technological good in the form of a sheet of fibers and additives that stores and conveys something valuable and unique to a given society. The cultural asset or cultural good would therefore be the visible product of the cultural process, which provides to a human collective group, the knowledge, awareness and the pride for their achievements. In most cases, the paper holds and preserves the cultural good, being even identified with this asset, as in the case of literary works written by great thinkers and scientists, or watercolors painted by artists. In other cases, the paper is itself an expression of art and culture, as in the case of origami and other kind of art on paper. There are situations in which an extremely unique little piece of paper can reach values of several million of dollars for the simple fact of housing an intellectual or cultural production undoubtedly rare and valuable. This is the case of tiny rare stamps, documents or writings signed by celebrities, etc.
Recently, it was widely reported by the media the fact that a single sheet of paper, considered to be a manuscript written by the singer and songwriter John Lennon, when he outlined the lyrics of his masterpiece song "A Day in the Life" (, voted as one of the 30 most beautiful and famous ever produced song, was sold for about 1.2 million dollars (
). That is, the paper itself could worth as a sheet no more than a few cents of dollars; however, the rare and unique intellectual and cultural production that was housed by this paper sheet increased its value to several thousand times more.

In the same way that paper can store and transport culturally important information, it also can be used in a way to spread malicious practices and unwanted messages about violence, pornography, drug use, etc. The advantage is that all cultural garbage expressed on paper can easily be converted into new clean paper sheet through recycling, without any need for burning or destruction techniques. Just recycle it for a new and better use.

Thus, the paper manages, with its simplicity and without much fanfare, to embrace, store, recover and disseminate a large part of the enormous cultural heritage of Mankind. The cultural assets, as we saw, are tangible or intangible goods, that represent the achievements of relevant value along the history of the civilization. The score or the sheet music from a popular classic song (, written personally on paper by a great genius of music (Beethoven, for example, with several of his symphonies) may well be declared as a relevant cultural asset, while the music itself is part of the cultural heritage of human beings. Then, it is easy to understand that, at the millions of libraries which exist in the world, we have millions of cultural assets in the form of bestseller or not-bestseller books, which together raise the cultural heritage of human society to unimaginable levels. The famous houses of culture, reading or book clubs, book fairs, which are all abundant in every corner of the world, are helping to preserve, enhance and disseminate the culture for the benefit of the citizens of our planet. In the same way that museums are home to preserve several cultural productions, the notable collections of newspapers, magazines, stamps, photographs, watercolors seek to save on paper many important works that have been produced by Mankind over the history.

Other ways have always existed and others have just come to compete or to complement the paper in this cultural mission. As papermakers we are, we believe that these ways are all vital for human civilization to keep alive the relevant things developed over history and cultural growth. The new and fabulous benefits offered by the electronics are very welcome. After all, if we now have e-books available on the web, they emerged as a need for scanning millions of books that were preserved in paper format. Some virtual libraries as the Brazilian public domain webportal are performing very well the service to freely provide culture in the form of books, articles, texts, videos, etc., all of enormous cultural values. These products are being made available in large-scale to Brazilian citizens, and the same happens in other countries. Now, it comes to each e-book reader the need to make a decision when accessing the text he wants to read: print it on paper to read, or save it to his computer. So far, due to the enormous empathy that the reader has with the book on paper, printed books and magazines are still the preferred way. Even though this may change over the years to come, the paper will always have its position, be in the current ways or by others creatively designed to continue to fulfill its cultural mission.

Finally, my dear friends, the paper fits itself very well in this modern and cultural context of our current civilization. Paper has fulfilled its role very well, isn't it?

Sugestions for a cultural tour with paper (mainly in Brazil):

Cultural heritage. Wikipedia Virtual Encyclopedia. Accessed on 30.06.2010:

O conceito de bem cultural.
J.M. Alexandrino. 13 pp. Accessed on 30.06.2010: (In Portuguese)

Patrimonio historico e cultural. Secretariat of Culture of the State of Mato Grosso. Accessed on 30.06.2010:
(In Portuguese)

Plano Nacional do Livro e Leitura. Ministry of Culture - Brazil. Accessed on 30.06.2010: (In Portuguese)

Portal Dominio Publico (Public Domain Portal). Brazil. Accessed on 30.06.2010: (In Portuguese)

Biblioteca Virtual Universal.
Argentina. Accessed on 30.06.2010: (Argentina -In Spanish)

Bienais do Livro.
Brazil. Accessed on 30.06.2010: (Sao Paulo - In Portuguese) (Rio de Janeiro - In Portuguese)

Feiras do Livro (Book Fairs). Accessed on 30.06.2010: (Paraty International Literary Festival - Paraty, RJ - In Portuguese and English) (Porto Alegre, RS -In Portuguese ) (Ribeirao Preto, SP - In Portuguese
) (Caxias do Sul, RS - In Portuguese) (Bogota, Colombia - In Spanish)

Clubes do Livro (Book Clubs). Accessed on 30.06.2010: (Brazil - In Portuguese ) (Brazil -
In Portuguese ) (Spain
- In Spanish) (Spain -
In Spanish)

Clubes de Leitura (Reading Clubs). Accessed on 30.06.2010: (Brazil - In Portuguese )
(Brazil - In Portuguese )
(Brazil - In Portuguese )
(Brazil - In Portuguese ) (Chile
- In Spanish) (Spain
- In Spanish) (Portugal
- In Portuguese )

Gabinete de Leitura (Reading Cabinet) "Ruy Barbosa". Jundiai, SP. Accessed on 30.06.2010:
From this library, I literally devoured hundreds of books in adolescence. For this reason, I'm used to attribute to this Reading Cabinet a large influence for the development of my abitity for writing in this colloquial format. I owe this personal attribute to the books. (In Portuguese )

Origami. A magia de papel. Magia de Papel. Accessed on 30.06.2010: (In Portuguese )

A bela arte de dobrar papeis. Super Origami. Website of my talented cousin Mrs. Rita Foelker. Accessed on 30.06.2010: (In Portuguese )

Papeloteca Otavio Roth. Accessed on 30.06.2010: (In Portuguese ) (Art in paper - in Portuguese)

Patrimonio cultural: a percepcao da natureza como um bem nao renovavel.
S.H. Zanirato; W.C. Ribeiro. Revista Brasileira de Historia 26(51): 251-262. (2006) (In Portuguese )

O patrimonio cultural imaterial das populacoes tradiconais e sua tutela pelo direito ambiental. L.R. Santana; T.P. Oliveira. Jus Navigandi. (2005) (In Portuguese )

Nosso patrimonio cultural: uma metodologia de pesquisa.
S.Bastos. Pasos 2(2): 257-265. (2004) (In Portuguese )

Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter
are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus.
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2007-2010

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