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Editorial

Dear friends,

Here we are back, launching another issue of the Eucalyptus Newsletter. Included, there are lots of valuable technical information and some curiosities about the eucalyptus.

In this edition, we are also releasing the second chapter of the Eucalyptus Online Book, titled:

"Mineral elements and nutrients in the trees of the eucalyptus: environmental, physiological, silvicultural and industrial aspects about the minerals present in the eucalyptus trees" (only available in Portuguese untill February 2006)

In this chapter, I decided to continue using the same writing style of the past chapter, introducing both forestry and industrial subjects, since they are related in many instances. I have always had a special attraction about the issues related to forest site sustainability: the needs to respect the natural resources and to defend an environmental quality to the plantation forests. For this reason, after a first chapter dealing with the importance of the eucalyptus tree bark, I decided to write now about the minerals and nutrients of the trees. These same minerals that come into the mills following the woods in their chemical compositions. Also, the same minerals that are exported from the forest soils. In case we do nothing about, the forest soils will become weaker and poorer. I guess this subject may be considered an extension of the past chapter. I hope you may like this wide revision I've made about this topic. It is available to you for downloading and reading. In case you eventually like it, please, feel free to send it as a recommendation to your friends.

The next two editions of the Eucalyptus Online Book and Newsletter are to bring to you the first and second chapters of the book, but written in English. From March 2006 onwards, the book chapters are to come every two months, both in English and Portuguese. My goal is to have the book and the newsletter in a monthly basis, as soon as possible. After all, I have a list of 160 chapters to write in this project, and timing is fundamental to pursue this target.

Just in case you are not registered yet to receive the Newsletter, and the book chapters attached to it, do it immediately. There are no costs involved. Please, use the short cut Click here to register

In this edition of the newsletter, I've tried to offer many interesting things about the eucalyptus. All for your fun, during the time you are also learning.

Thanks very much. We are very thankful for your continuous support to our project.

Celso Foelkel
http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br
http://www.eucalyptus.com.br

In this Edition:

Chapter of the Eucalyptus Online Book
"Mineral elements and nutrients in the trees of the eucalyptus: environmental, physiological, silvicultural and industrial aspects about the minerals present in the eucalyptus trees"

Technical References in the Virtual Literature
1. Proceedings of the International Conference "Eucalypt Plantations: Improving Fibre Yield and Quality" CRCTHF-IUFRO, 1995

2. Proceedings of the Symposium "Hybrid Breeding and Genetics of Forest Trees" QFRI/CRC-SPF, 2000

3. Editions of the "Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal" ( Forestry Research Bulletin) from EMBRAPA FLORESTAS

4. Technical article "Using tree physiology to better understand the effect of environmental factors on wood fibre properties"

Euca-links
1. Australia Plants - The genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia e Angophora
2. Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants ( ASGAP)
3. ECOCROP - a website from FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Technical mini-article by Celso Foelkel
Eucalyptus: the tallest and most productive trees on Earth...

Chapter of the Eucalyptus Online Book

"Mineral elements and nutrients in the trees of the eucalyptus: environmental, physiological, silvicultural and industrial aspects about the minerals present in the eucalyptus trees" (only available in Portuguese untill February 2006) (2,618 Mb in PDF)

Celso Foelkel (October 2005)

<< click to download Adobe Acrobat Reader - free download.

Technical References in the Virtual Literature

Proceedings of the International Conference

"Eucalypt Plantations: Improving Fibre Yield and Quality"

CRCTHF-IUFRO, Hobart, Tasmania,Australia, 1995

http://www.forestry.crc.org.au/iufro95.htm

Summary: This is definitively an unlosable website about the eucalyptus. Those wondering to learn more about forest genetics, tree breeding, genomics, improvements of forest productivity and wood quality, emerging technologies, as well as the ways to transfer forest science to technological utilizations, are invited to come to visit it. About 130 papers are available for download, something not usual to be found so complete and accessible as it is here. CRC is the Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Production, an organization comprising private companies and Australian governmental entities. The aim is to study and to develop fundamental research and practical technologies to the forest based industry.

 

Proceedings of the Symposium

"Hybrid Breeding and Genetics of Forest Trees"

QFRI/CRC-SPF, Noosa, Queensland, Australia, 2000

http://www.forestry.crc.org.au/hybrid.htm

Summary: Another great website, with about 80 very updated technical papers about the modern techniques for tree breeding and forest genetics. Most of the papers are related to eucalyptus species.

 

Editions of the Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal ( Forestry Research Bulletin) a publication from EMBRAPA FLORESTAS

http://ww2.cnpf.embrapa.br/internet/internet/boletim/index.htm

Summary: In this website, it is possible to find for download the articles included in about 50 editions of the Forestry Research Bulletin, an online publication issued by EMBRAPA Florestas. Each edition has from 4 to 10 articles, many of them dealing with eucalyptus subjects. The articles are in Portuguese, but with English summaries.

 

Technical Article

Using tree physiology to better understand the effect of environmental factors on wood fibre properties

por Shayne M. Jacobs & David M. Drew

http://tappsa.co.za/archive/APPW2002/Title/
Using_tree_physiology/using_tree_physiology.html

Summary: The authors had the purpose to discuss the environmental and physiological aspects related to the formation of xylem and its fibers, having eucalyptus as reference species. They recommend ways to undestand and to foresee the most desired wood quality properties, based on these factors.

Euca Links

1. Australia Plants - The genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora

http://www.australiaplants.com/eucalyptus.htm

http://www.australiaplants.com/corymbia.htm

http://www.australiaplants.com/angophora.htm

In the above website addressess , it is possible to learn more about many of the species from the genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora. These three genera are quite well related, botanically speaking. The website www.australiaplants.com, contrary as it could be thought, it is an American website, from the Windmill Outback Nursery, located in the state of Virginia.You may see how widely spread are the eucalyptus in a worldwide basis. In case they are not being planted for industrial purposes, they may be also used for gardening and for embellishing the landscape, as ornamental plants.


2. Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants ( ASGAP)

http://farrer.riv.csu.edu.au/ASGAP/sgap1.html

In this webpage, it is possible to locate valuable technical information about Australian plants such as Eucalyptus and Acacia, and many other species too. There are two interesting sub-pages, the Eucalyptus Page and the Acacia Page. In these pages, you are to find what they call species guides, methods for cultivations and propagation, pictures, etc.

3. ECOCROP - a website from FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home

This page is to be very helpful to all those wondering to know the most appropriate species of trees to be planted on question mark areas, based on the data about climate (temperature, rainfall, sunshine distribution) and soil quality (pH, texture, depth, salinity and fertility) .


Technical mini-article by Celso Foelkel

Eucalyptus: the tallest and most productive trees on Earth...

We all know very well the great ability of the eucalyptus trees to grow in volume. After all, they are world leaders in forest productivity, when cultivated in plantations. By luck, but not incidentally, due to our technical expertise, these trees have elected the Brazilian lands for growing so fast and so efficiently. Here, they have found favorable ecosystems and appropriate conditions for growing: soils, climate, forest technology, research & development, and many enthusiastic people about them. All these factors were important to allow eucalyptus growth rates to reach averages of 40 – 50 m³/ha.year, with harvests from plantation ages 6 to 8 years. There are also improved commercial forests growing close to 60 m³/ha.year. In these cases, they are top genetically upgraded trees, with excellent silvicultural management.

However, few people are aware about the fact that the eucalyptus trees are also regarded as the tallest trees on Earth. Usually, when we talk about giant trees, immediately it comes to our minds, the images of the California redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) or the Oregon Douglas-firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii). These trees are well known because they are protected in excellent American natural parks, and they have become important tourist attractions. Nevertheless, the tallest trees in the world are no longer alive, but they were eucalyptus trees. There are, and there were, fantastic giant trees in Australia, mainly in Tasmania. Some of the today’s still alive giant trees, are threatened by their fragile health or because the harvest by humans, wondering to expand the agricultural frontier, or to export wood chips. Fortunately, the Australian government is taking strong measures to protect these trees, a world's natural heritage. The most common examples of the gigantic eucalyptus are those growing at the Styx, Florentine and Arve valleys, in Tasmania. The tallest trees are Eucalyptus regnans, E.delegatensis, E.globulus, E.obliqua and E.viminalis. In the Tasmanian valleys, there are still many healthy trees, with over 300 years of age, and over 80 meters in height. There are proven evidences that some of the eucalyptus giant trees were over 130 meters high. Two of them, (both E.regnans), are very famous, because they are considered to be the tallest trees ever measured by the man. One is known as "Ferguson tree", which died due to a forest fire. It was over 150 meters in height and the diameter was about 5.5 meters. Something unbelievable. Another example is the "Robinson tree", with 143 meters high. Today, we no longer have in Australia trees as high as these two. But, some "small giants", from 80 – 100 meters may be still found in the Australian continent.

To know more about these giant trees, to see incredible pictures, and to read some interesting articles, please, go to visit the indicated websites. I strongly suggest to you to visit all of them, because each one is going to surprise you, mainly with amazing and unexpected images of these trees.

http://engraved-on-his-hands.home.att.net/Stromata/Lganimal/Plants/Eucalyptus_regnans/OlderPhotos.htm

http://members.optusnet.com.au/mruhsam

http://www.wilderness.org.au/campaigns/forests/tasmania/styx

http://www.csir.co.za/plsql/ptl0002/PTL0002_PGE100_LOOSE_CONTENT?
LOOSE_PAGE_NO=7010803#Tallest%20Tree%20Ever

http://weblog.greenpeace.org/tasmania/styx_background.html

http://www.forestrytas.com.au/forestrytas/pdf_files/tall_trees_survey_report.pdf

 

Eucalyptus Newsletter is a merely technical online bulletin, containing articles and information about eucalyptus forestry and industrial utilization
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
celso@celso-foelkel.com.br
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2005-2006
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