Good morning to all of you, my dear Eucalyptus friends
Here we are back, with the 17th issue of our Eucalyptus
this edition, as it is being usual, we are again bringing a lot of information
and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. Remember
that most of this information is brought to you for your better understanding
about the Eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer knowledge in a way that
you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this, we are forcing
you, in some extent, to navigate the web to grab as much on good information
as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books
and interesting events. I
hope you also may, like me, admire these trees
and the products they offer to Society.
In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter we are introducing to you
two more chapters of our Eucalyptus Online Book: one in Portuguese and
another in English. Both have the focus on eco-efficacy, eco-effectiveness,
eco-efficiency and cleaner production, as it is being my purpose in the
recent chapters I have been writing.
In the section "The World of the Eucalyptus" we are introducing
to you all the competence, the knowledge and the quality developed by
the Uruguayans to the Eucalyptus. For this very reason, the Eucalyptus are becoming strong foundations to the successes in the farming, agriculture,
industry and related businesses in "Uruguay". Due to the fact
that this Eucalyptus Newsletter issue is almost completely devoted to
honor Uruguay and the Eucalyptus growing there, all our references on
courses, events, magazines, journals, euca-links and technical literature
will be related to them. No doubts about, there are many things to learn
with our friends from Uruguay, have a look to confirm what they have
to offer to us and to the knowledge about the Eucalyptus.
My technical mini-article this time navigates in a different subject;
the title is "Communicating to Society
the Realities of the Forest-Based Sector", taking advantage of the World-Wide-Web. Please, read it
and help us to improve our performance with regard to the institutional
communication and information. We definitively need to improve it in
order to achieve a more reliable and fair image with our society.
In the Ester Foelkel's section "Curiosities
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" she is telling us about the advantages of the Eucalyptus flowers
for the production of honey. Ester brought to you not a short
and simple article, but a wide literature review on this issue. We hope
that all those, who may have the interest on this fantastic utilization
of the Eucalyptus, may use this article as a source of inspiration for
optimizations and better results.
We are also introducing to you a great and hard-working map which has
been drawn by our dear friend Mr. Gustavo Iglesias Trabado. With the
help of his Eucalypti friends all over the world, Gustavo was able to
bring into a single map all the production areas of the magnificent Eucalyptus trees in a world basis. Know the "Eucalyptus Global
Map 2008", a precious work made by and to people who admire the Eucalyptus.
In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus
Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus
Online Book, I suggest
you to do it through the following link: Click
here for registration.
We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus
Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline,
CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA,
AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics and Forestal Web. They
are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in
countries such as: Brazil, USA, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina,
New Zealand, Uruguay and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide
web, in reality they are helping to promote our project to the entire
world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are
doing in favor of the Eucalyptus. Know more about all of our today’s
partners at the URL address:
again for the support to our work. We have just now reached the
8,500 registered people receiving these online publications about the Eucalyptus. Even so, I beg your help to inform about and to promote
our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications
may be helpful
to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude
from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, Botnia,
Aracruz, International Paper do Brasil,
Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, Suzano, VCP and from the supporting
Our best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all
hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.
Online Book Chapter 09 (in English)
Online Book Chapter 12 (in Portuguese)
Eucalyptus Global Map 2008
World of the Eucalyptus - Uruguay
on Events and Courses
Technical Journals & Magazines
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - The Eucalyptus used
for the Production of Honey - A top quality apiculture
(by Ester Foelkel)
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
to Society the Realities of the Forest-Based Sector
Online Book Chapter 09 (in English)
For downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 1.9 MB)
just click the name of the chapter. In case you do not have the Adobe
Reader installed in your computer, please visit http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_eng.html and find the instructions how to get it.
Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.
and Cleaner Production for the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Industry"
Online Book Chapter 12 (in Portuguese)
downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 12.4 MB) just click the name
of the chapter. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed
in your computer, please visit http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_eng.html and find the instructions how to get it.
Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.
e Uma Maneiras de Fazer sua Fabrica de Celulose e/ou de
Papel e sua Floresta Plantada mais Ecoeficazes e mais Ecoeficientes"
Eucalyptus Global Map 2008
Recently, GIT-Forestry, the consulting
company owned by our dear friend "Gus" - Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, has launched,
through the blog Eucalyptologics, a detailed world forest map showing
the Eucalyptus planted areas in selected countries. This service provided
to the world society is the result of the Gus's dedication and enthusiasm
favoring the growth in the availabilty of good information about the
Eucalyptus, this amazing natural resource offering goods to mankind.
To improve the quality and reliability of the data, selected experts
from different eucalyptic countries have also participated in providing
good statistics to Gustavo. To know the "Eucalyptus Global
just visit the link below:
World of the Eucalyptus
The Eastern Republic of Uruguay, or simply Uruguay,
is the second smallest country in territorial area in South America,
being larger only in relation to Suriname. Uruguay is about 176.000 km²,
and its population reaches only 3.4 million inhabitants. Although small,
it is beautiful, economically healthy and the population has some of
the best social and life quality standards in South America. Here, the
expression "small is beautiful" makes a real sense. Illiteracy
is small (less than 4% of the whole population) and life time expectancy
is superior to 74 years of age, as a minimum. Although these favorable
points, the job offers are also reduced and this helps to cause talented
people migration to other more advanced economies (Brazil, Argentina,
Chile, USA, Spain) searching for job positions or new and diversified
opportunities. The weather is mild, and landscaping is made up of plain
pastures and light hills. The highest altitude in the country is at Cerro
Catedral, with just 514 meters high. The country is divided politicaly
in 19 departments (Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno,
Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro,
Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres).
Over 40% of the country's population lives in the capital Montevideo
even smaller than the northern neighbor, the Brazilian state of Rio
Grande do Sul (282.000 km² and 12 million inhabitants), when Uruguay
is compared to some other European countries it is possible to notice
that it is not that small - Spain (506.000 km²), Portugal (92.000
km²) and Netherlands (41.500 km²). Uruguayan major advantages
are: financial and political stability, people's life quality, safety,
shorter distances among social classes, all in relation to other Latin
American countries. Natural resources are renowned and very much appreciated
by tourists from all over the world, some are not to miss: Punta del
Este, Colonia del Sacramento, Cabo Polonio, Jose Inacio, La Paloma,
etc. Typical foods and dishes are also very much known: churrasco (barbecue),
puchero, empanadas, alfajores, jams, honey, milk sweet, etc. As an
additional advantage, , Uruguay has recently been elected by Reader's
Digest, in a worldwide survey, as one of the 10 best green countries
to live in, the best ranked on South America
has a very young forestry history, just a couple of decades. Even being
considered as one of the gates to the introduction of the Eucalyptus in
South America, the plantation forestry and the forest industry are
recent in the country. In the early stages of these silvicultural activities,
the Eucalyptus and Pinus plantations were oriented
to supply firewood and raw materials to the local industry (Fanapel,
small sawmills, etc.). This situation started to change when outside
investors noticed that the low-cost lands are very much appropriated
for planting forests. Most of the country lands are flat and totally
mechanized, a desired situation to agriculture and forestry. Thanks
to the successive oil crises in the world, one of the major oil companies,
Shell, decided to diversify its energetic matrix by planting trees
for biomass generation. Uruguay was one of the selected areas. Other
foreign companies, huge in the forest-based segment, decided to do
the same in Uruguay: ENCE and Weyerhaeuser. The wood coming from the
new-born plantations had the international markets as targets. At the
beginning of the 90's there were no more than 70 to 80 thousands hectares
of forest plantations in the country, the major percentage on the hands
of foreign investors. In 1985, prior to the arrival of the foreigners,
the plantation forest area was little, insignificant: roughly 15.000
hectares of Eucalyptus, 10.000 of Pinus, and 3.000
of other forest species (Poplar and Salix).
great opportunity to the Uruguayan forest sector expansion has happened
along Mr. Julio Maria Sanguinetti presidential term. We are sure that
this fact is in great extent due to the efforts and the wisdom coming
from our dear friend Ricardo Zerbino Cavajani (http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ricardo_Zerbino).
Dr. Zerbino was, at that time, in charge of the Ministry of Economy
and Finances. He had also the presidency of the special Committee for
Commercial Negotiations during Mr. Sanguinetti government. To enhance
the forest sector in the country, in December 1987, the Federal Law
known as "Ley Forestal" with number 15.939 (http://www.mef.gub.uy/inversor/ley_15939.pdf) was
released. It was responsible to give the right starting and fast speed
to the Uruguayan forest segment growth. In accordance to this law,
those willing to invest in forest plantations could have fiscal and
taxation deductions, a similar example as it had taken place in Brazil
for 20 years, from 1967 till 1986. The statistics published by DGF
- Direccion General Forestal (General Forest Division), an entity from
MGAP - Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca, reveal growing
forest plantations areas in the country from 1989 onwards, reaching
the historic level of 85.000 hectares planted in a single year (1998).
The preferred and chosen areas selected by the investors were located
in the following departments: Paissandu, Tacuarembo, Rivera, Rio Negro,
Durazno, Maldonado, Rocha, Lavalleja, Florida, Soriano and Colonia.
Even considering the small country area, there are large differences
on these regions, what enables or favors one or another rural activity.
Important factors are: weather, soil, altitude, distance from the export
harbor, logistics and infrastructure. For example, in the Atlantic
ocean coastal area the weather frosts are less frequent and the infrastructure
is better. On the other hand, in the central regions, or close to the
border to Argentina aside the Uruguay river, the weather is colder,
the frosts are usual. These conditions demand for special clones or
species, adapted to them. All Uruguay is located south to the Tropic
of Capricorn, about 1,500 km below it in latitude. This location makes
the country to have cooler weather. This explains why the well-succeeded
silviculture used in Southeastern Brazil does not fully apply to Uruguay.
However, close and similar conditions are found in relation to many
areas in Rio Grande do Sul (http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newspt_junho08.html#tres) the
south-most state in Brazil. Today, Rio Grande do Sul is gaining tremendous
importance as the new forest golden area in Brazil, showing a dynamic
forestry. This similarity has favored an integration and a profitable
interchange between the actors located in Uruguay and Rio Grande do
Sul. The main forest species being planted in Uruguay are: Eucalyptus
globulus, E.grandis, E.dunnii, E.maidenii, E.viminalis, E.saligna,
Pinus taeda, P.elliottii, Populus deltoides e Salix alba).
In 2008, the official DGF statistics disclose the following numbers
for plantations in the country: 675,000 hectares with Eucalyptus; 275,000
hectares with Pinus; 1,700 hectares with Salicaceae and
6,000 hectares with Populus.
the largest forested areas are owned by few companies (COFOSA, EUFORES,
Weyerhaeuser, etc.) however, there is a good number of small rural
farmers who have also planted forests, taking the advantage offered
by the forest law 15.939. Some of these small forest owners have grouped
themselves into cooperative-alike companies to facilitate the wood
harvest, logistics and exports.
moment is dynamic and there is a lot of excitement in the air. The
arrival of the modern market bleached kraft pulp mills are bringing
addition of value to the forest productive chain in the country. From
the exports of raw wood (wood chips and logs), the country is now exporting
saw-timber, panels, and other added-value wood products. And finally
now, the market pulp to the world. The Spanish company ENCE started
operations in Uruguay in 1989, initially growing forests to produce
wood to supply its pulp & paper mills in Spain. Early 2000's, the
Finnish company Botnia acquired the Shell forest plantations in Uruguay
to allow the construction of the modern Botnia mill in the Fray Bentos
municipality. In addition to the on-going ENCE project for a new bleached
kraft pulp mill in Punta Pereira, other international companies are
disclosing the aim to build pulp mill facilities in Uruguay: Stora
Enso and Portucel. In no more than one decade from now, the forest
industry scenario in Uruguay will be sharply modified. One attractive
is the potential area for forestry. According to DGF-MGAP, there are
about 3.3 million hectares of soils with potential for forest plantations,
as proved by a recent agro-forestry zoning. As a consequence, the forest
sector is expected to continue to grow, independently of the government
financial support or incentives. The country is definitively attractive,
no doubts about. In the same way as it has happened in Brazil, the
forest incentives provided by the "Ley Forestal" were able
to open the gates and to become drivers to this sector development.
The games is going on, the players are in the field, and the forest
potential is the real driver to keep the business active and healthy.
At the same
time the plantation forests are growing in area, occupying areas previously
designated to cattle growing ("praderas" or pastures), the
native and natural vegetation and forests are also growing in extension.
Natural forests represent now a total land area of 750,000 hectares,
at the same level of the forest plantations. There are a lot of efforts
to make this growth possible, coming from local NGO's, but a lot of the
results are due to the forest-based companies acting to preserve and
to rehabilitate native vegetation areas. The native or "indigenous" forests
(as called in the country) are considered vital to guarantee the hydrologic
equilibrium, to minimize the green house effect, to cooperate in the
production of foods through sustainable management (fruits, honey, etc.)
and other products for medicinal, cosmetic and other essential oil utilization's.
Rural tourism, eco-tourism, and forestry entertainment are also growing
activities due to the appropriate management of the native forests. The
following list of native plants are well-known and admired by the local
society and also by the botanists: quebracho, umbu, guava, pitangueira,
timbo, coronilla, algarrobo, amarillo, araza, etc. INIA - The National
Institute for Agricultural Researches has a special program for the technological
development and improvement of the natural forests. As a result of these
combined efforts, the area with natural forests was able to grow 130,000
hectares in the past 20 years.
The fast growth rate of the silviculture and wood production and industrialization
in Uruguay has also caused the generation of some important conflicts, in
addition to the already mentioned benefits on wealth and jobs creation. Some
strong emotions have been awakened and sharp conflicts have appeared with
NGO's and with the large neighbor on South and West, Argentina. A highly
political and emotional dispute started and it is still alive as a function
that Argentina did not accept the construction of the market pulp mills located
at the Uruguayans banks of the rivers Uruguay and de la Plata. Since both
rivers are international waters, dividing both countries, Argentina demands
that Uruguay should not allow construction of these new facilities without
its permission. The focuses in this dispute soon were converged to the new
Botnia and ENCE mills. The pressures from the Argentinean government, media
and NGO's led to daily disputes and conflicts. Strong demands have arisen
to the Uruguayan forestry and forest-based industry. This conflict had as
one of the worst consequences the blockage by Argentinean citizens of several
bridges connecting both countries. Although the issue is still a burning
one, the pressures are expected to be naturally reduced, since Botnia and
ENCE mills are state-of-the-art, having the best available technology to
prevent, mitigate and control environmental impacts. All these question marks
had a positive advantage: Uruguay was forced to develop capability on pulp
science and technology in a very fast speed. However, during the crisis summit,
the available intelligence on these issues in the country had to be strengthened
by importing foreign experts to help clarifying the environmental issues,
both those related to forestry and wood products technologies. Uruguayan
viewpoints and interests had to be defended inclusively in international
courthouses. Today, to sustain all the required knowledge on this field,
the local institutions are still few and with deficiencies on people and
facilities. There are very few R&D and educational organizations in the
country. They may be counted on your fingers: UdelaR - Universidad de la
Republica, LATU - Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay and INIA - Instituto
Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria are the outstanding institutions.
This means that there is still a long-way road to be traveled for the consolidation
of Uruguay as a "strong technological forest player". Today, the
country has a fantastic forest vocation, but still needs the support of imported
know-how, human resources, and technologies. One advantage is that the forest-based
industry, that is strongly betting in the country, is placing moves to the
local qualification of human resources. Graduate and undergraduate courses
are being created, oriented to forestry and wood products technologies. The
master and Ph.D. theses are to improve the level of scientific papers generation
in the country, favoring the innovation process to guarantee technical solutions
to important challenges of the segment. This technological development is
a lot more than the level of desirable - it is vital. The forest technology
needs adjustments and adaptations, from the tree breeding technologies to
the silvicultural practices and industrial productive processes and best
practices. The today's results for the Eucalyptus plantation forests
productivity express the real world the country lives: we may say we have "practically
anything you may want to see". Eucalyptus forests productivity
varies from 10 to 32 m³/ha.year. Even considering that cloning techniques
are being used by some forest companies, to multiply single species genetic
material as E.globulus, E.dunnii and E.grandis, the hybridization
techniques followed by cloning are still in the embryo stage. There are excellent
opportunities with the hybrids E.grandisxglobulus, E.salignaxglobulus,
etc. Even the E.urograndis hybrid, very used in Rio Grande do Sul,
in the vicinities of Rivera, is seldom propagated in Uruguay. The better
quality Eucalyptus clonal forests are showing productivity's or
growth rates in the range 25 to 32 m³/ha.year, still a long distance
to the usual average results of 40 to 50 reached in Brazil. Well, the potential
for improving growth rates exists, with the advantage that genes of E.globulus and the sub-species E.globulus maidenii, E.globulus pseudoglobulus, E.globulus
bicostata can be introduced in the forest breeding programs.
regard to the country development, the forest-based industry is expected
to keep the role of growth promoter on life quality and economic results.
Gradually, the country is leaving the position of raw wood seller to
export high-added value products, with different levels of industrialization
(paper - Fanapel; market pulp - Botnia; wood panels- Los Piques, Urupanel;
timber and manufactured wood products - Arazati, FYMNSA, Caja Bancaria,
many years, the trade balance as regard to the forest products was
kept in the negative side (minus 15 to 18 million dollars per year).
In 2006, the forest sector exported 250 million dollars, and now, with
the Botnia mill starting up, the gross value of forest products exports
is to be multiplied by 3 or 4. With this in mind, the country is aware
of the forest sector importance. This activity will soon be consolidated
as one of the most important to the country economy.
forestry is a great generator of job positions, perhaps 3 to 4 times
more than cattle growing. Differently from other rural activities,
forestry also hires female labor (nurseries, laboratories, etc.). This
fact has deserved appreciation by the Uruguayan rural society.
Another positive point is that the development road is reaching several country
regions. Montevideo is no longer the talented people dreamed place for getting
a job and to live in the capital. The development of this industry and activity
in so many departments is improving the share of the economic growth, and
the attraction of talented people from the capital to the interior lands.
The retention of local human resources, the reduction on migrations from
the interior regions to the capital - all these points are also being considered
very positive. As a summary, the wealth generated by the forest activity
is being better divided, helping to give strength to several regions of the
In this section, I would also like to honor and to make reference on some
business men, researchers, academic professors, and forest engineers who
have or are still having important participation on building this history
of sucess with the Eucalyptus silviculture and forest-based industry in Uruguay.
A mention and my admiration to the following people: R. Zerbino, L. Soria,
C. Faroppa. Z. Bennadji, C. Robello, Raul de Castro, W. Isabella, F. Resquin,
G. Barrios, A. Rodriguez Yañes, C. Mantero, O. Arca, D. Sztern, N.
F. Casella, J. Balseiro, A. Kurucs, Ana Cazzadori, Daniel Martino, Jose Krall,
R. Tuset, J. Lafitte, J.P. Posse, F. Duran, C. Brussa and Atilio Lombardo (http://www.chasque.net/avigo/plantas.htm),
etc. Certainly many other names would deserve to be nominated for recognizing
what they are doing for the technological forest and industrial development
in the country. Unfortunately, my knowledge and my network are not so great
in Uruguay to cover all those who have been involved to pave this prosperous
For all these points, we may assure that Uruguay is one of the emerging countries
with higher potential to become a world landmark on Eucalyptus forestry
and in the industrial utilization of this amazing raw material. We also understand
that due to the small population and country dimensions, some technological
gaps must be identified and surpassed. This will be a continuous challenge
to those working in the Uruguayan forest sector. However, the opportunities
and the potential are so significant that the talented people will be always
available to help building a great forestry future, even brighter and more
We place here our acknowledgement and admiration to the Uruguayan universities
and research institutes, public organizations and private companies and to
all the technical people for the creeds and believes that the country economic,
social and sustainable growth could in part depend on the forestry and forest
industry. Although all the controversial issues with the Argentinean neighbors
due to the installation in Uruguay of a modern and state-of-the-art pulp
industry, this fact may be considered as a driver to give earlier maturity
to the industry, to the forestry and to the Uruguayans. Silviculture, forestry
and the Eucalyptus-based industry have been embraced by the Uruguayans
as key-competitive advantage factors to the country development. Also, it
is good to learn with the difficulties.
As a special thanks, I would like to send my best regards and to express
my appreciation to the help received from several friends. Thanks to them,
it was possible to have this wide forestry review of our brother country
Uruguay. They helped me suggesting websites addresses, documents, and informing
the names of the most important organizations involved with forestry and
forest industry at the country. My friendly and fraternal thanks
to Daniel Sztern, Jorge Balseiro, Oscar Caputi, Oscar Arca, Jairo Luis
dos Anjos Silva, Juan Pedro Posse, Teotonio Francisco de Assis, Francisco
Ferreira and Corina Piaggio.
more about Uruguay and Uruguayan forestry sector through the selection
of recommended references just ahead:
more about Uruguay:
of the world: Uruguay)
Republic of Uruguay as seen by Guia Geografico)
- a country report)
and economic profile - Uruguay in 2006)
- Uruguay country profile)
guide and directory about Uruguay)
Know more about the Uruguayan forests and natural resources:
resources in Uruguay:
forestry inventory - Uruguayan forest resources monitoring)
native and natural forests)
plants from Uruguay)
2008 - Uruguay Geography and Environment Report)
Environmental Report to the World Summit 2002 - Johannesburg)
assessment and social-demography of the Uruguayan rio de la Plata coastal
region - 991 pages)
characterization of Uruguay)
Eucalyptus and Pinus plantation
forests in Uruguay:
Uruguay in numbers - IICA)
on forestry - MGAP/ 2005)
forests cartography - 2004)
plantations in Uruguay)
areas in Uruguay as a result of satellite mapping and inventory)
forest areas in Uruguay - All species)
http://www.mgap.gub.uy/Forestal/cont_AreaForestada.htm (DGF - Registered
http://www.forestalweb.com/uruguay_forestal.htm (Uruguay Forestal - Uruguayan
Forestry - Forestal Web)
http://www.forestalweb.com/info_estadistica.htm (Forestry statistics in Uruguay
- Forestal Web)
com_content&task=view&id=14&Itemid=28 (Forest plantations in
forestry in numbers - Rosario Pou & Associates)
http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/j2807s/j2807s00.htm (FAO report about the Uruguayan
http://www.iica.org.uy/data/documentos/1234.doc (Challenges to the Uruguayan
http://www.dinacyt.gub.uy/boletines_2005/Boletin%20253.html (The enormous
forest and wood potential in Uruguay)
http://www.guiaindustrial.com.uy/vip/agroforest/index.htm (Why to invest
in plantation forests in Uruguay?)
also visit the sections Online Technical References, Euca-Links,
References on Events and Courses and Online Technical Journals & Magazines.
all of them you are to find valuable information about the Eucalyptus in
Uruguay. I hope you like, taking the chance to learn a lot with all
the fantastic achievements of the Uruguayans with the Eucalyptus forestry
and industrial utilization of this amazing wood to supply products
to human society.
In this section, we are offering some very good euca-links
with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide
web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open
the documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we
are not responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors.
However, believe me, they are valuable references that should be
watched carefully, since they are very much connected with the
Eucalyptus. In this section, we are trying to balance recent and
historical publications, those that are helping to build the foundations
and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial
utilization, and many other areas related to these magic trees.
As already mentioned, this time all selected technical references
are related to the Eucalyptus in Uruguay.
da as boas vindas a celulose. M. Faleiros; L. Perecin.
O Papel magazine (September): 37 - 45. (2008) (In Portuguese)
y empresas forestales en Uruguay. Forestal Web. Specialized
website. Available on 30.09.2008 (in Spanish)
- Alternativas para la transformacion industrial del recurso forestal. OEA.
Organizacion de los Estados Americanos. Available on 30.09.2008
Los desiertos que vos haceis... La forestacion de Eucalyptus en
Uruguay. L. Anastasia. Fundacion Argentina de Ecologia Cientifica.
on 30.09.2008 (in Spanish)
Forestacion. Una vision del sureste uruguayo. G. Barrios. PowerPoint
presentation: 12 slides. (2008) (in Spanish)
presente y futuro de las fabricas de pasta de celulosa. O.N.
Ventura. PowerPoint presentation: 15 slides. (2007) (in Spanish)
genetico y manejo de especies de Eucalyptus. INIA Documentos
Forestales. 29 pp. (2007) (in Spanish)
Non destructive wood quality estimation from standing tree in relation
to end product characteristics of fast growth plantation Eucalyptus in
Uruguay. S. Ohta; H. O'Neill; F. Tarigo; S. Quagliotti. IUFRO Division
05 Meeting. PowerPoint presentation: 33 slides. (2007) (in English)
economic impact of the forest sector in Uruguay: Survey results. V. Morales. IUFRO Plantations Meeting. PowerPoint presentation:
slides. (2006) (in English)
Uruguay. G. Rodden. Pulp & Paper magazine. RISI. (June
2006) (in English)
de campo. Plagas y enfermedades de eucaliptos y pinos en el Uruguay. FAO/MGAP. 173 pp. (2006) (in Spanish)
normas UNIT de gestion forestal sostenible. N. Marius. UNIT -
Uruguayan Institute of Standardization. PowerPoint presentation: 35
slides. (2006) (in Spanish)
Avances en propagacion vegetativa para el genero Eucalyptus. INIA.
23 pp. (2005) (in Spanish)
forestal para produccion de energia en Uruguay. W. Oyhantcabal.
PowerPoint presentation: 32 slides. (2005) (in Spanish)
nacional de buenas practicas forestales. Ministerio de Ganaderia,
Agricultura y Pesca. 80 pp. (2004) (in Spanish)
Aportes a la produccion de celulosa a partir de Eucalyptus. L. Soria;
F. Resquin; J.C. Mello; I. Farina; C. Faroppa. INIA. 47 pp. (2004)
y perspectivas del sector forestal en America Latina: Informe nacional
Uruguay. A. Fossati. FAO/MGAP. 174 pp. (2004) (in Spanish)
en investigacion y transferencia de tecnologia forestal. National
Forest Program - INIA. 36 pp. (2003) (in Spanish)
actividad forestal atraves del censo agropecuario. Censo Agropecuario.
DIEA/MGAP. 17 pp. (2003) (in Spanish)
de mercado del sector forestal y foresto-industrial de Uruguay.
G. Braier. ProChile. 118 pp. (2002) (in Spanish)
de la informacion forestal en Uruguay. FAO Working Paper nº 16.
(2002) (in Spanish)
de cosecha forestal uruguayo. G. Daniluk. 90 pp. (2002) (in
proceso de desarrollo forestal y agroforestal en la Republica Oriental
del Uruguay. M. Polla. I IUFRO Latin America Congress. 11 pp. (1998)
aspectos del sector forestal en el Uruguay. C. Faroppa.
5 pp. (1998) (in Spanish)
de uso de la madera de los eucaliptos colorados para carpinteria de
obra. C. Mantero. 31 pp. (Undated) (in Spanish)
References on Events and Courses
This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good
links with recently already happened events. The advantage provided
to the readers is that the event organizers made the presentations
or proceedings available for free downloading. This is a very good
way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere
thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing
the event material with the interested parties.
As already mentioned, this time all selected and suggested events and
courses have recently happened in Uruguay. They are offering to us
valuable knowledge generated and disseminated in that country.
Forestal INIA "Silvicultura para Madera Solida en Eucaliptos
y Pinos". (in Spanish)
An event organized by INIA in the year 2007. The forest journey proceedings
are available for downloading at the below referenced URL address.
Seminar "Energias Renovables - una Alternativa Posible".
This event happened at Montevideo in the year 2006. Among the discussed
technical issues, they were presented several energy sources alternatives
to the country, such as firewood, biomass, and biofuels. Please,
Journey "Conocimiento y Cadenas Productivas".
An event by UdelaR - Universidad de la Republica, in 2005, with emphasis
in disclosing the wood & forest productive chain.
Seminario IberoAmericano de Energia. (in Spanish)
An event by LATU - Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay - in Montevideo,
2005. The main issue was the potential utilization of several energy
sources, as forest biomasses, for instance.
Seminar "Estrategias para el
MDL Forestal en America Latina. (in Spanish)
An event by MGAP/UPCT in Montevideo, 2004, discussing the application
of the CDM - Clean Development Mechanism.
Seminar "Produccion y Comercializacion de Productos
Forestales de Especies de Rapido Crecimiento". (in Spanish)
An event organized by LATU - Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay,
in Montevideo, 2003.
INIA Forest Seminar about Eucalyptus globulus. (in Spanish)
Taking the fact the great importance the Eucalyptus globulus has
in Uruguay as a forest species for plantations, INIA - Instituto
Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria - has sponsored and promoted
an important event to discuss and to debate the technological advances
about this Eucalyptus species in Uruguay. The event technical document
was launched by INIA in the year 2002. Please, know it:
Exhibit - "Procesamiento
e Industrializacion de la Madera. (in Spanish)
This important exhibition takes place in Montevideo once and a while
to introduce new technologies and equipments to the local markets.
Here, we are bringing to you a series of links with
several very good websites that have strong connection with the Eucalyptus. I hope you may visit them, taking advantage of the good technical
material they offer at a no cost basis.
As already mentioned, this time all selected and suggested Euca-Links
are from Uruguay. We have prepared a great selection to you, ranging
from universities, R&D centers, industry, associations, etc.
Everything you may need to improve your skills not only about Uruguay
and South America, but about the wonderful world of the Eucalyptus.
Please, enjoy them.
Uruguayan government organizations related to the forestry segment:
Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca. (in
The Uruguayan forest segment is under the responsibility and guidelines
coming from this Ministry. Every year, taking advantage of the information
collected and generated by several of the ministry divisions, an
Agro-Business Statistical Yearbook is edited by MGAP.
(Agro-Business Statistical YearBook - Uruguay - 2008)
http://www.mgap.gub.uy/Diea/default.htm (MGAP Division responsible
for agro statistics)
Presentación%20consulta%20set%2013.pdf (Forests projects in
Uruguay under the umbrella of the CDM - Clean Development Mechanism)
http://www.mgap.gub.uy/Vinculos/VinculosdelMGAP.htm (Links with several
agricultural, zootechnical and forest entities in the country)
DGF - Direccion General Forestal del Ministerio
de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca. (in
DGF is the General Division of Forestry, the forestry branch of MGAP
- Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca in the Uruguayan Federal
Government. It has the aim to present and to develop legislation,
guidelines, statistics, maps, publications, and forest inventories
to the society. Among the various publications, there is a traditional
magazine printed in paper format: Uruguay Forestal.
http://www.mgap.gub.uy/Forestal/cont_editorial.htm (Technical articles)
http://www.mgap.gub.uy/Forestal/uruguayforestal.htm (Uruguay Forestal
DINAMA - Direccion Nacional de Medio Ambiente.
DINAMA is the government institution to control, monitor, legislate
and to license forest and industrial activities in the country.
It has gained an enormous importance in recent days, due to the
environmental dispute with Argentina, as a consequence of the construction
of modern market pulp mills in Uruguay.
http://www.ici.edu.uy/forestal/dinama.pdf (Publication - Uruguay
river water quality)
Web portals and directories:
Forestal. (in Spanish)
A web portal oriented to provide forest news about Uruguay, Argentina,
Chile, Equator and Paraguay.
Net. (in Spanish)
A web portal oriented to provide forestry information , somewhat
not updated at the moment, but even so, with rich information and
many interesting links.
Web. (in Spanish)
Forestal Web is a very good website to all those willing to collect
good technical, business and commercial information and knowledge
about the Uruguayan forest sector. The portal is a creation by
Mr. Javier Barbosa, who lives in Rivera, a city in the up North
region of the country, at the borders of Brazil (Rio Grande do
Sul state). The aim Javier has with the website is to disseminate
positive and valuable information about forestry in Uruguay,
such as statistics, events, news, articles, etc. ForestalWeb
a nice weekly newsletter, reaching some thousands of loyal readers.
http://www.roadri.com/forestal/user/subscribe.php (Link for free
subscription - Informativo Forestal Web)
Guia Forestal. (in Spanish)
Guia Forestal is a portal with links to the most relevant forest-based
companies and organizations in Uruguay. It is a typical directory,
very valuable to all those who need information about: companies,
associations, rural farmers, sub-contracters, forest service providers,
nurseries, events, exhibitions, etc. You may find at the website
links for downloading many publications and reports.
- Community Information Portal. (in Spanish)
Have a look at the special edition on forestry in Uruguay.
Forest-based business and institutional associations:
- Asociacion de Industriales de la Madera y Afines del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
This association represents the wood industrial sector in Uruguay.
It was founded in 1943.
http://www.adimau.com.uy/estadisticas.htm (National statistics about
the wood industry)
AIAU - Asociacion de Ingenieros Agronomos del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
It is the association of the agronomists in the country, many of
them working in silviculture and forestry. Because the lack of forest
engineering courses in the country, the agronomists may take care
of these field of the agriculture science. Because the quick growth
of the Uruguayan forest plantation activity in the past decade, the
specialized human resources are seldom, and sometimes, unavailable.
http://www.aiau.org.uy/informecjppu.pdf (Business plan for forestry
SPF - Sociedad de Productores Forestales del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
It is a business and undertakers association correlated to the forest
segment in Uruguay. It has been founded in 1959 to promote the forest
development in a sustainable way - economic, environmental and social.
Universities in Uruguay related to the forest-based sector:
- Universidad de la Republica. (in Spanish)
One of the most renowned Uruguayan universities. UdelaR has several
undergraduate and graduate courses in chemical engineering and
agronomy (diversification in forestry) This university has had
an important role in the qualification and formation of human resources
to support the growth of the segment. It has also important participation
in the country's innovative process, thanks to good quality R&D.
The College of Agronomy has several departments connected to the
production of planted forests and wood technology, some of them
with links just below. Recently, the UdelaR College of Engineering
has created a Professional Master Course in pulp and paper science
and technology. This program consists in a joint venture among
several partners: UdelaR Department of Forest Products Engineering,
Polytechnical University of Helsinki (Finland), LATU (Technological
Laboratory of Uruguay) and forest-based companies and suppliers
to this industrial segment. Know more about this important master
http://www.universidad.edu.uy/ensenanza/grado/facultad_de_agronomia.pdf (Agronomy - undergraduate course)
http://www.universidad.edu.uy/ensenanza/posgrados/facultad_de_agronomia.pdf (Agronomy - graduate course)
http://ingenieria.cgu.edu.uy (UdelaR - College of Engineering)
http://www.fing.edu.uy/iiq/IIQ.html (Institute of Chemical Engineering)
http://www.fing.edu.uy/iq/cursos/actprof.html (Courses on pulp and
http://www.fagro.edu.uy (UdelaR - College of Agronomy, with forestry
http://www.fagro.edu.uy/~forestal (Departament of Forest Production
and Wood Technology)
http://www.fagro.edu.uy/~forestal/cursos (Courses on forestry)
http://www.fagro.edu.uy/~forestal/cursos/tecmadera (Program and hand-outs
about forest products technologies)
- Master course in environmental sciences)
ORT del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
ORT has several careers, both techical and managerial.
Catolica del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
The university has several careers, technical and managerial.
del Trabajo del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
This community-college-alike university has several regional schools,
with the aim to develop technical careers, inclusive technical
courses in forestry and agronomy.
de Ciencias Agropecuarias. (in Spanish)
This college has graduate and undergraduate courses in agro-sciences.
Research & Development
centers and institutes related to the forest sector:
- Instituto de Ciencia e Investigacion. (in Spanish)
ICI has an organizational website created thanks to the idea of our
dear friend Jorge Balseiro Savio. ICI is dedicated to develop and
to scatter information about economy, finances, and marketing in
the forest business. It works to develop new businesses through
the utilization of softwares, hardwares and new talented entrepreneurs.
The institute has two interesting digital publications: Bosques & Desarrollo
and Forestando en Domingo.
Newsletter - Bosques & Desarrollo)
http://www.ici.edu.uy/perfilFORESTANDO.htm (Weekly Newsletter - Forestando
Uruguay - Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura.
IICA is a traditional Latin-American organization oriented to develop
capacitation and qualification to the agriculture sector, with important
role also in forestry and agro-forestry. IICA has some online and
digital newsletters, publications and a very good online library
to be accessed by the community.
- Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria. (in Spanish)
INIA is the most important organization developing technological
and scientific R&D to the many agro-business sectors in Uruguay,
including the forest one. INIA has several experimental stations,
a great number of technical publications, many investigations on
forestry, and a good back-ground to transfer to the interested
parties. It is used to organize events, has an excellent sectorial
library. Also, it is amazing the photo gallery made available in
the INIA website.
http://www.inia.org.uy/online/site/421832I1.php (Photo gallery)
categorias=&orden=1&desc=0&inicio=0 (INIA online forestry
Pasteur de Montevideo. (in Spanish)
IPM is a very good scientific institute dedicated to the research
of molecular chemistry and biotechnology.
- Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
LATU is the main technological laboratory in Uruguay. The focuses
are: R&D, capacitation of human resources, metrology, technological
innovation. The headquarters are located in Montevideo, with impressive
facilities. LATU has partnerships with universities, public institutions,
and private industry. The main areas of concern are: meat, milk,
food processing, fish, wine, leather, wood and forestry. The LATU
has also an advanced laboratoty in the city of Fray Bentos, dedicated
to the forestry, wood and pulp/paper technological R&D.
com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=225 (LATU forestry and wood
http://latu21.latu.org.uy/es/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=100&Itemid=119 (Wood services and related businesses)
http://latu21.latu.org.uy/es/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=132&Itemid=175 (Forest department at Fray Bentos)
forest-based industrial, manufacturing & consulting
In this sub-section, we are to introduce to you a selection of companies
performing in the Uruguayan forest sector: most of them are manufacturing
and wood processing mills, but we are also mentionning consulting
and forest services companies. The objective is to bring to your
knowledge some of the most representative forest companies from Uruguay.
Forestal S.A. (Forest services)
It is a company that provides a diversified portfolio of services
and consulting projects.
Botnia. (Bleached kraft market pulp)
Botnia is a Finnish-origin company, very traditional in the pulp
and paper business. The Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mill is
located in the municipality of Fray Bentos. The company is one
of the sponsor organizations for the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter.
http://www.botnia.com/en/default.asp?path=204,1490 (Global Botnia
website with a section to the Uruguayan mill)
http://www.botnia.com/en/default.asp?path=204,210 (Publications about
and from Botnia, with several of them dealing to the mill in Uruguay)
study about the Botnia mill in Uruguay)
http://www.pwc.com/gx/eng/about/ind/forest/jaakonsalo_v_presentation.pdf (Presentation 01 - Botnia in Uruguay)
http://220.127.116.11/publicaciones/Presentacion%20ON%20FOSA.pdf (Presentation 02 - Botnia in Uruguay)
magazine/june/2008/PPMagJune-More-than-just-a-mill.html (RISI article
- Botnia - More than just a pulp mill)
pulp mill by IFC - International Finance Corporation)
processes of the Fray Bentos Botnia mill)
of the Botnia Environmental Impact Assessment Study - DINAMA)
about the environmental Botnia Fray Bentos mill performance as presented
by Canadian Ecometrix consulting company)
Botnia-Saarela-First%20year%20operation.pdf (Article written by the
Botnia team after one year of mill operation in Fray Bentos)
Carbosur. (CDM consulting services - Clean Development Mechanism
and forest carbon sinking)
S.A. (Eucalyptus wood chips for exports)
ou FOSA- Compania Forestal Oriental. (Forest plantations)
Botnia forest company created to guarantee the wood supply to the
market pulp mill located in Fray Bentos. The company has FSC- Forest
Stewardship Council forest certification.
http://www.forestaloriental.com.uy/index_galeria.htm (Forest images
http://www.forestry.sgs.com/7021-uy-forestal-oriental-sa-ra2005-20-ad36-a-04.pdf(Forest management plan)
-de-60-mil-hectareas-destinadas-ala-formacion-y-cultivo-de-eucaliptos (About FOSA as viewed by La Republica)
- Compania Forestal Uruguaya. (Forest plantations)
Oriented to the production of certified Eucalyptus planted forests.
http://www.cofusa.com.uy/pdf/resumen_publico.pdf (Public summary
of the forest management plan, as required by FSC)
http://www.cofusa.com.uy/manejo_galeria.htm (Photo gallery, several
sections to be navigated)
DURAFOR . (Eucalyptus plantation forests and certified wood exports)
http://www.durafor.com.uy/pdf/SINTESIS%20PLAN%20GENERAL%20DE%20MANEJO.pdf (Forest management plan)
ENCE. (Market pulp)
Future bleached kraft pulp mill of the Spanish ENCE group, being
built in Punta Pereira - Colonia)
http://www.ence.es/popup_ceep.html (Documents about the ENCE project
download&gid=388&Itemid=122 (ENCE Punta Pereira mill - Environmental
Impact Assessment study, as presented by Enviro, a consulting company
owned by my dear friend Daniel Sztern - Summary of the ENCE new mill
Enviro. (Environmental impact assessment studies)
EUFORES. (Forest plantations)
Eufores is the forest company responsible to plant the Eucalyptus forests for the certified wood supply to the Punta Pereira ENCE
http://www.eufores.com.uy/varios/eucalipto.php (About the eucalypts)
_Y_APROVECHAMIENTO.doc (Forest management plan)
http://www.eufores.com.uy/politica/Resumen.pdf (Environmental management
- Fabrica Nacional de Papel. (Printing & writing
FANAPEL is one of the most traditional Eucalyptus-fiber-based paper
companies in Uruguay and in Latin America. The company was founded
in 1898, experiencing today a remarkable move toward technological
modernization and optimization in the Juan Lacaze mill facilities.
Due to the fact that the company is one of the oldest still running
in Latin america, the available photo gallery in the company's
website cannot be missed, visit it to become enchanted. Located
at the banks of the Rio de la Plata, close to Colonia del Sacramento,
the mill has its own beaty associated to fantastic natural landscaping.
I have several nice and good friends working there, to whom I'm
dedicating my friendship and admiration for what they do in favor
to the Eucalyptus: Norberto Francisco Casella, Oscar Arca, Carlos
Giaudrone, Horacio Faeda, Gustavo Gorni, and several others. To
my dear friend Ricardo Zerbino, the recognition for his work to
FANAPEL and on benefit of the Latin American pulp and paper industry.
Juan Lacaze mill is a fully-integrated high quality Eucalyptus printing paper mill. The company grows the own Eucalyptus forests,
it has a continuous digester kraft pulping system, a TCF bleaching
line, and manufacture several brands of paper, including coated
paper. Today, Fanapel belongs to the Tapebicua group, a business
entrepreneurial group that also owns Celulosa Argentina, in Argentina
gallery and FANAPEL history)
http://www.fanapelonline.com/principal.asp (Interactive website,
with news, technical information, and the possibility to practice
online business and trade)
FORESUR. (Wood exports)
Foresur is a cooperative of forest and wood producers who have decided
for an integrated work to facilitate the exports of wood in the
form of logs or wood chips.
Caja Bancaria. (Sawtimber, treated and certified wood of
Pinus and Eucalyptus)
- Forestadora y Maderera del Norte S/A. (Pinus taeda forest
plantations and high-valued wood products - FSC certified)
Piques. (Laminated wood panels)
Forestales Arazati. (Pinus and Eucalyptus certified sawtimber)
- Industria Papelera Uruguaya. (Tissue papers)
Uruguayan tissue papers and diapers manufacturing mill, owned by
the Chilean CMPC group. The mill has its tissue papers production
on the basis of recycled secondary fibers.
http://ipusa.mykinder.edu.uy/default.html (Recycling by IPUSA video)
- Maderas Aserradas del Litoral - ENCE Group. (Sawmill)
-rompe-record-de-produccion-y-brinda-trabajoa-mas-de-200-uruguayos (Certified preserved and treated wood and poles)
Matra. (Certified preserved and treated wood and poles)
NEVOPARK. (Eucalyptus wood chips for exports)
PAMER. (Recycled papers and paperboards)
Consultora. (Consulting on forestry and inventories)
Pou & Asociados.
(Consulting on forestry and forest services)
Enso. (Eucalyptus plantation forests)
(Forest plantations and certification)
plantations-in-uruguay/Pages/plantations-in-uruguay.aspx (Stora Enso
forest plantations in Uruguay)
TRAMMEL. (Wood pallets)
and Pinus certified high value added wood products)
URUPANEL. (Laminated and glued wood panels and MDF manufactured
from Pinus and Eucalyptus woods)
Weyerhaeuser Uruguay. (Forest plantations, wood panels and veneer)
North-American group with impressive participation in the Uruguayan
forest-based industry through the companies Colonvade and Los Piques.
Impact Assessment study for the wood papel manufacturing plant)
NGOs in Uruguay showing a contrary position concerning plantation
Portal. (in Spanish)
NGO with a wide range of activities, but also with a contrary position
with regard to forest plantations and to the wood utilization of
the produced woods to manufacture pulp and other wood products.
Guayubira. (in Spanish)
One of the most active Uruguayan NGOs strongly opposing the plantation
forests and the market pulp manufacturing. The NGO website is rich
on technical information and promotional/campaigning materials.
http://www.guayubira.org.uy/biblioteca.html(Several online publications
for download - most related to forest plantations and pulp manufacturing)
http://www.guayubira.org.uy/plantaciones/cicloagua.pdf (Forest plantations
and water cycle / hydrology)
http://www.guayubira.org.uy/plantaciones/problema.mht (Forest plantations
for pulp and paper: a growing problem)
Redes - Amigos de la Tierra Uruguay. (in Spanish)
Uruguaya de ONGs Ambientalistas. (in Spanish)
http://www.uruguayambiental.com/red/RedDeclaracionForest2007.html (Statement against forest plantations)
- World Rainforest Movement. (in Spanish)
A traditional NGO opposing to forest plantations in several Latin
American countries. The organization has declared the date September
21st as the International Day against Forest Monocultures.
http://www.wrm.org.uy/publications/index.html#books (Several and
diversified e-publications for downloading)
Technical Journals & Magazines
we are bringing to you a selection of excellent online journals
and magazines with connection to the Eucalyptus.
In these journals, you may freely download articles or read
the news, without the need of memberships, passwords or payments.
The maximum you may need to do is to register yourself. They
are journals or article collections at our hands (or eyes),
available to all those wondering to read and to learn more
about forestry, environment, pulp, paper, woods, and Eucalyptus,
surely. Please, go to the search tool in each journal, and
type "Eucalyptus". Then, have a look in
the result. In this way, many times you may find valuable
technical material. To the editors of these journals, our
most sincere appreciation and thanks. We hope many other
journals may join forces to this scientific and technical
In this present Eucalyptus Newsletter issue, the referenced online journals
and magazines are from Uruguay. Learn more about the Eucalyptus navigating
Agrociencia. (in Spanish)
Scientific journal edited by the College of Agronomy - UdelaR - Universidad
de la Republica.
Pais - Suplemento Agropecuario. (in Spanish)
This is the agricultural section of El Pais, an Uruguayan daily newspaper.
Inia. (in Spanish)
Technical magazine edited by INIA - Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria.
Forestal. (in Spanish)
A web blog with news and fresh adds about the the forestry segment in Uruguay.
The Eucalyptus forests honey production potential
is already very well-known and much appreciated by beekeepers and
forest owners. It allows diversification in the rural production
and an extra income to farmers. Eucalyptus flowers are very much
attractive to honey bees (Apis mellifera) due to the amount and
quality of the pollen and nectar they have. Some species such as
Eucalyptus robusta, E. melliodora, E. urophylla and many others
are able to have rich blossoming periods, increasing its importance
to the apiculture. The Eucalyptus nectar is collected by bees and
stored in honeycombs inside the beehives, serving as food source
to the bees colonies. However, since the beginning of mankind civilization,
the humans started to eat and to enjoy eating honey, rearing and
taming bees for better honey production and other products they
can make and offer to us.
Honey, this viscous liquid is not only consumed by humans because
its sweetness and amazing flavor, but also because it has relevant
nutritional and medicinal properties. Some apiculture experts even
confirm that the Eucalyptus is, from all exotic plants established
in Brazil, the most capable and apt for honey production: it has
ideal nectar and pollen characteristics for beehives and colonies
developments (Marchini, 2003). The same author states that pollen
and nectar exploiting by bees occurs in function of their nutritional
needs, especially because they are considered the major sources
of carbohydrates and proteins to the bees. The Eucalyptus flowers
can represent up to 28.6% of those visited by bees in relation
to other plants (Amaral apud Marchini, 2003).
Other important Eucalyptus characteristic that shows up its apiculture
potential is the precocious flowering age. In general, a pulp and
paper oriented Eucalyptus forest plantation starts flowering on
the second or third year of age, in a seven-year rotation. In case
the forests are managed especially for honey production or in some
clonal populations, this blossoming age can even be reduced. In
planted forests oriented for flower production, soil fertilizing
is required to optimize blooming.
The planting spacing is another important aspect: it has to be
larger than those used for fast yield wood production. The most
recommended are 5X5 m to 6X6 m. Other alternative that also yields
valuable wood production is the plantation on 3X3 m (1.111 trees/ha),
reducing by thinning to half of original population after some
Eucalyptus urophylla and its hybrids, in adequate management
conditions, can produce flowers before the second year after planting.
Eucalyptus management for apiculture includes the plantation of several different
species or clones, allowing blossoming during all over the year
and reducing to zero the shortage of food to bees. The remarkable
Eucalyptus expert Mr. Edmundo Navarro de Andrade on his book "The
eucalypt", second edition on 1961, showed one good example
of this management. At that time, the author suggested a mosaic
of plantations with different species, in order to guarantee all
year blooming on Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The suggested apiculture
management was: E. robusta flowers on February to April; E.
tereticornis, from May to September; and E.
resinifera, from October to December.
In the past, on some regions of the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil;
the death of bees during Autumn was common, mainly due to the absence
of native vegetation flower production. Some farmers observed that
when E. robusta was present in the area, the problem wasn’t
noticed. This was understood and explained by this Eucalyptus species
blossoming on this season of the year (March to June), providing
good nutrition to those bees (Azambuja, 2007). Flower production
also varies according to the environment the tree species interacts.
As an example, E. saligna can flower from April to September
on Sao Paulo state, but on the southern state of Santa Catarina – Brazil,
the same species blossoming occurs later, from August to September.
The weather conditions can promote or disfavor Eucalyptus blooming.
There are some species such E.dunnii that are known to produce
few flowers and seeds on Brazil. This situation may bring negative
relationships between farmers and forest owners. Most of the beekeepers
expect E.dunnii to behave as well as the other Eucalyptus species,
so they should be previously alerted to avoid disappointments with
the reduced honey production near this species areas.
The Eucalyptus honey production can occur associated with other
forest plantation purposes, promoting aggregated earnings in the
forest and wood productive chain. One possible and welcome alternative
is agro-forestry, combining the production of different types of
foods and woods.
The Eucalyptus flower attractiveness to bees stops right after
its fecundation, which occurs on 5 to 8 days, depending on the
species (INTA, 2005). On the other hand, the Eucalyptus have very
wide blossoming periods and this fact favors and enables flower
synchronization for pollination and fecundation. There are Eucalyptus breeding programs objecting the production of even better flowering
and to increase the already high honey ability. One Brazilian university
(ESALQ/USP) has a program named TUME - Multiple Use Testing of
Eucalyptus. They aim to develop multiple uses for the Eucalyptus plantations. TUME has also the objective to better orient the Eucalyptus users, including those wondering to make honey from their flowers.
Different Eucalyptus species produce different honey properties
and colors (Navarro de Andrade, 1961). E. corymbosa, E. scabra,
E. paniculata and E. tereticornis give dark color honey and
very good flavor. On the other hand, E. triantha, Corymbia
maculata, E. microcorys, E. pilularis, E. melliodora and E.viminalis can
produce light color and flavored honey, and as good as well. Corymbia
citriodora and E. camaldulensis honey differ on color and taste.
The honey color may vary from the almost white to the red amber
and the sugar concentration can reach 50% (REMADE, 2001). Although,
honeys originated from E. robusta and E. saligna flowers are very
tasty, they have fast crystallization. Some consumers like this
characteristic, but most of them prefer the fluid ones.
The bees are also vital to help on pollination between different
trees on Eucalyptus clonal orchards. As a major consequence, bees
help increasing the number of seeds/capsules on Eucalyptus
production areas. Apis mellifera can transport pollen from E.
saligna providing pollination on other trees up to 300 meters far; even
the commonest distance of pollination be related as 100 meters
as most usual (Pacheco et al. 1986).
The vigorous and healthy beehives can be positioned on clean and
well-ventilated places close to or at the Eucalyptus plantations,
obeying a certain distance and ratio, depending on the trees and
flowers exuberance. Harvesting of honey begins when 75-80% of the
honeycombs are closed (operculated). During Winter time, make sure
that the beehives near the Eucalyptus plantations have a good amount
of food and flowers in the surroundings to guarantee the health
of the colonies (INTA, 2005).
The mono-flowers honeys (mono-specific ones), originated from the
Brazilian Eucalyptus flowers, have great acceptance on
national and international markets. They are already exported to
European countries (Azambuja, 2007) and can provide good economic
results on the trade. According to Azambuja (2007), it’s
possible to install 4 beehives/hectare in an Eucalyptus forest
plantation. If well-managed, they can produce 50-60 kg/beehive/year.
The same author relates that Brazilian average honey production
is 20-kg honey/beehive/year.
Besides honey, there are some other bees products that can become
very profitable for beekeepers. The pollen is something already
very commercialized due to its high protein content. In beehives
properly managed, it’s possible to collect 2-3 kg of Eucalyptus pollen/beehive/flowering period. The Eucalyptus pollen color can
vary from light green up to white greenish, depending on the species
The wax, propolis and the real jam are other bee products that
have great demand on markets, especially because of their medicinal
properties. The wax is excreted by glands located on bees ventral
surface of the abdomen and serves for beehive construction and
honey storage. So, on apiculture, the wax is extracted with the
honey from honeycombs, equivalent to 2 % of their weights. Wax
is a valuable by-product, improving the earnings to the beekeepers.
The wax is fully utilized by the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and furniture
industries. It also has an important utilization on the apiculture
to help bees to reconstruct the honeycombs (Azambuja, 2007).
Propolis is a resinous substance produced by bees to help protection
against humidity and to prevent the attack of harmful microorganisms
to beehives. The propolis is dark green colored and its major medicinal
properties are: antibiotic, anti-infection, anesthetics and it
can be used on many disease cures (REMADE, 2001).
The Eucalyptus flower honeys are well-known for the proved antiseptical
characteristics they have. They are indicated as complementary
therapy on some breathing diseases. This kind of honey can also
help on digestive and urinary infection problems.
The main Eucalyptus honey constituents are: reducing sugars - from
67.7 to 77.1% (w/w); total reducing sugars - from 67.8 to 88.3%;
sacarose, from 0.1 to 15.2%; and proteins, from zero to 1.0 mg/mL
(Komatsu, 2002). The Eucalyptus honey also have flavoring agents
as aldeids and alcohol; water (around 17%); acids - varying up
to 0.5 % solids; mineral salts (0.02 - 1 %); vitamins B and C and
amino acids. Enzymes, pollen, nectar, microorganisms, yeast, and
other elements can be also present on Eucalyptus honeys (REMADE,
The association between Eucalyptus wood production and apiculture
can provide great advantages to mankind and such honey is considered,
nowadays, one of the major non-wood forest products obtained from
Eucalyptus plantations. The apiculture development in one region
can benefit all of the involved workers. It can help other associated
industry development and the creation of new jobs and incomes.
Besides that, the proper Eucalyptus wood may be used as raw-material
to beehives construction. Definitively, a forest cluster can be
developed (Azambuja, 2007).
With all these positive key-points, several forest industries and
governments are investing on educating, communicating and promoting
apiculture and new technologies of honey production from Eucalyptus.
That’s why many beekeepers, private and public institutions,
and research centers partnerships have been created. Their prime
objective is to improve community life quality with important social
programs. The apiculture based on Eucalyptus plantations can offer
huge advantages to our society, mainly in developing countries.
Other very relevant point that can’t be forgotten in this
context is that most forest activities use small amounts and few
agro-chemical products during all plantation cycle (Vasques et
al. 2007). Such procedure can provide ideal conditions to bee’s
development. These insects are very sensitive to many insecticides
and other toxic compounds. So, the beehives installed on Eucalyptus plantations are free from pollutants and they originate honeys
that have good purity, quality and quantity.
The relationship between Eucalyptus forests and apiculture is being
presented to all interested people in many literature references
just below. There is a great number of scientific articles, websites,
speeches and other kind of relevant publications about the benefits
the association Eucalyptus/bees offers. You can read also about
nutritional and medicinal advantages that Eucalyptus honey offers
to human health and you can find other bees products information
articles and selected websites about the production of honey
Apicultura wiki: Eucalyptus. Available on 10/09/2008
http://es.beekeeping.wikia.com/wiki/Portada (in Spanish)
http://es.beekeeping.wikia.com/wiki/Eucalipto (in Spanish)
imediata e reflorestamento apicola. R. R. Dosouto.
Pasto Apicola. Available on 10/09/2008
sobre pasto apicola, melioponicola e reflorestamento. Melioponario Dende. Available on 10/09/2008
apicola. Specialized website. Available on 10/09/2008
http://www.culturaapicola.com.ar (in Spanish)
Apicola Uruguaya. Specialized website. Available on 10/09/2008
Honey bee (Apis
mellifera). Available on 10/09/2008
http://www.bee-info.com/index.html (in English)
melliodora. Digital Enciclopedia Wikipedia. Available
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eucalyptus_melliodora (in English)
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eucalyptus_melliodora (in Spanish)
colmenas & beehives. Digital Enciclopedia Wikipedia. Available on 09/09/2008
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beehive (in English)
http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colmeia (in Portuguese)
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colmena (in Spanish)
Apicultura e plantas fornecedoras de polen. E.O. Magalhaes. Available
http://apicultura-ediney.blogspot.com/2008/01/plantas-fornecedoras-de-plen.html (in Portuguese)
eucalipto e a apicultura. TUME ESALQ/USP. Specialized website.
Available on 09/09/2008
http://www.tume.esalq.usp.br/usos/mel.php (in Portuguese)
abelhas e o mel. C. Pereira. Available on 02/09/2008
http://www.naturlink.pt/canais/Artigo.asp?iArtigo=139&iLingua=1 (in Portuguese)
production. Available on 02/09/2008
http://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/enrc/inquiries/old/enrc/unff/report/util3-06.htm (in English)
honey varieties. Available on 02/09/2008
http://www.benefits-of-honey.com/honey-varieties.html (in English)
Mel. Associacao Apicola de Minas Gerais. Available on 02/09/2008
http://www.apimig.com.br/mel.html (in Portuguese)
melifera - Manual para productores de eucaliptos de la Mesopotamia
Argentina. Available on 02/09/2008
http://www.inta.gov.ar/concordia/info/indices/tematica/cd-manual-prod-eucaliptos/25.pdf (in Spanish)
melifera del eucalipto. AGROBIT. Available on 02/09/2008
http://www.agrobit.com/Info_tecnica/alternativos/apicultura/AL_000012ap.htm (in Spanish)
do eucalipto na apicultura. R. R. Dosoto. Available
http://br.geocities.com/fabio_moolive/arquivos/A-IMPORTANCIADO-EUCALIPTO.doc (in Portuguese)
Apiaries. A selected Australian producer of Eucalyptus honeys
(Stringybark Eucalyptus). Available on 02/09/2008:
e mel. V. E. R. Azambuja. Ageflor Articles. (2007)
http://www.ageflor.com.br/index2.php?iProduct=1434&p=productMore (in Portuguese)
o doce sabor do eucalipto. Painel Florestal. Forest News
http://www.ageflor.com.br/index2.php?p=productMore&iProduct=2797 (in Portuguese)
melifera del eucalipto. INTA Argentina. (2005)
http://www.sada.org.ar/Articulos/Tecnicos/polinizacion_eucaliptus.htm (in Spanish)
de mel em eucaliptais da Veracel chega a 12 toneladas. Veracel News. (2003)
http://www.veracel.com.br/web/pt/outros/noticias0006.html (in Portuguese)
pollen grain morphology. O. Davis. (2002)
http://geo.arizona.edu/palynology/pid00046.html (in English)
Scientific articles, papers and speeches related to honey production
methods and processes for innovative apiculture development:
Experiences from Ada’a-Liben Woreda, Oromia Regional State,
Ethiopia. M. Girma; S. Ballo; A. Tegegne; N. Alemayehu; L. Belayhun.
Working Paper 8. 38 pp. (2008) http://www.ilri.org/Infoserv/webpub/fulldocs/IPMS_WP8_Approach/Apiculture_IPMSWP8.pdf (in English)
Producao de mel de Eucalyptus. D.A. Anacleto. III Simposio TUME
-GELQ/ESALQ. PowerPoint presentation: 24 slides. (2008)
http://www.gelq.com.br/imagens/eucalyptus/daniea_mel.pdf (in Portuguese)
Recursos troficos de Apis
mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) na
regiao de Morro Azul do Tingua, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. C.F.P.
da Luz; M. L. Thome; O. M. Barth. Revista Brasileira de Botanica
30(1): 29-36. (2007)
Uma sintese da contribuicao do genero Pinus para
o desenvolvimento sustentavel no sul do Brasil. A. G. Vasques; A. S. Nogueira; F.
F. Kirchner; R. Berger. Floresta 37(3): 445-450. (2007)
volatile compounds of Eucalyptus honey by solid phase
extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. L. C. Vazquez; M. C. Diaz-Maroto; E. Guchu; M. S. Perez-Coello.
Eur. Food Res. Technol. 224: 27–31. (2006)
http://www.springerlink.com/content/4m87001k0534jv68/fulltext.pdf (in English)
propiedades medicinales de las plantas y su relacion con las
mieles monoflorales nativas o endemicas. D. Potocnjak; C. Rios;
R. Pizarro; G. Montenegro. Fundacion para la Inovacion Agraria
Chile. 8 pp. (2006)
-nativas-o-end%C3%A9micas-uc (in Spanish)
bees, skinny bees – A manual on honey bee nutrition
for beekeepers. D. Somerville. RIRDC - Australian Government. 150
http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/HBE/05-054.pdf (in English)
intensivo para la produccion de material vivo, miel en primavera
y otono en los montes de Eucalyptus grandis. D. Hernandez.
1er. Congreso de Apicultura del Mercosur. 17 pp. (2005)
de agrupamento, com base na composicao fisico quimica, de amostras
de meis produzidos por Apis mellifera L. no estado
de Sao Paulo. L. C. Marchini; A. C. C. C. Moreti; I. P. Otsuk.
Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos 25(1): 8-17. (2005)
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612005000100003 (in Portuguese)
y origen botanico de mieles del noreste de Uruguay. E. Corbella; L.Tejera;
F. Cernuschi. Revista INIA nº 3: 6 - 7.
http://www.inia.org.uy/publicaciones/documentos/revista/2005/93.pdf (in Spanish)
flowering synchrony of box-ironbark eucalypts. M. R. Keatley; A.D. I. L.
Hudson; T. D. Fletcher. Australian Journal
of Botany 52: 47–54. (2004)
http://www.culturaapicola.com.ar/apuntes/floraapicola/65_sincronizacion_flores_eucaliptus.pdf (in English)
of the botanical origin of honeys commercialised as protected
indication "Mel de Galicia". M. C. Seijo;
F. J. Rodriguez-Rajo; J. Mendez; J. M. Chouza. First European Conference
of Apidology. p. 137. (2004)
http://web.uniud.it/eurbee/Proceedings/quality%20control%20residues.pdf (in English)
for non-wood forest products. P. Collier; I. Short; J.
Dorgan. COFORD. 84 pp. (2004)
de coleta de alimento por Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera,
Apidae) em cinco especies de Eucalyptus. L. C. Marchini;
A. C. Moreti. Arch. Latinoam. Prod. Anim. 11(2): 75-79. (2003)
http://www.alpa.org.ve/PDF/Arch%2011-2/AL%20112-1.pdf (in Portuguese)
Characterization of Eucalyptus and Citrus monofloral honey
in Sao Paulo State by thermoanalysis. M.L. Felsner. Revista
Instituto Adolfo Lutz 62(1): 64. (2003)
Characterization of Eucalyptus and Citrus monofloral honey
in Sao Paulo State by pollen and physical-chemical analysis. C. B. Cano. Revista Instituto Adolfo Lutz 62(1): 63. (2003)
fisico-quimicas de amostras de mel e desenvolvimento de enxames
de Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera. Apidae), em
cinco especies de eucaliptos. L. C. Marchini; A. C. C. C. Moreti;
S. Silveira Neto. Boletim Centro de Pesquisa de Processamento de
Alimentos 21(1): 193-206. (2003)
http://ojs.c3sl.ufpr.br/ojs2/index.php/alimentos/article/view/1159/960 (in Portuguese)
Honey & pollen
flora suitable for planting in south-eastern NSW. D.
Somerville. NSW Agriculture. 4 pp. (2002)
honey-pollen-flora-for-planting-nsw.pdf (in English)
fisico-quimicas de amostras de meis de flores silvestres, de
eucalipto e de laranjeira, produzidos Apis mellifera L., 1758
(Hymenoptera, Apidae) no estado de Sao Paulo. S. S. Komatsu; L.
C. Marchini; A. C. C. C. Moreti. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos
22(2): 143-146. (2002)
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/cta/v22n2/a07v22n2.pdf (in Portuguese)
Fatty acids in honeybee-collected pollens from six endemic
Australian eucalypts and the possible significance to the
Western Australian beekeeping industry. R. Manning; M. Harvey.
Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 42(2):217–223.
http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/EA00160.htm (in English)
analysis of eucalypts in Western Australia. R. Manning.
RIRDC Publication 01/53. 63 pp. (2001)
09_analisis_polen_eucaliptus_australia.pdf (in English)
eucalipto e a apicultura. REMADE 59 Year 11. (2001)
http://www.remade.com.br/pt/revista_materia.php?edicao=59&id=2 (in Portuguese)
for world honey markets: an Alberta perspective. Competitive
Intelligence Unit. Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development.
134 pp. (2001)
honey_book-Alberta_Canada.pdf (in English)
polinico de amostras de mel de Apis mellifera L., coletadas
na Bahia. A. C. C. C. Moreti; C. A. L. Carvalho; L. C. Marchini;
P. C. F. Oliveira. Bragantia 59(1):1-6. (2000)
http://www.iac.sp.gov.br/bragantia/volume/5901/1078.pdf (in Portuguese)
Estudo da dispersao de polen de Eucalyptus
saligna Smith por abelhas
Apis mellifera L. utilizando-se o radiofosforo 32
P. I. A. Pacheco.
IPEF 34:47-52. (1986)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/scientia/nr34/cap07.pdf (in Portuguese)
Efeito de colmeias de Apis
mellifera L. em pomar de sementes de
Eucalyptus saligna Smith. I.A. Pacheco; P. Y. Kageyama; E. Berti
Filho; F. M. Wield. IPEF 29:11-17. (1985)
http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/scientia/nr29/cap01.pdf (in Portuguese)
eucalipto. E. N. Andrade. 2nd Edition. Companhia Paulista de
Estradas de Ferro. 653 pp. (1961) (in Portuguese)
como estrategia do negocio. Votorantim Celulose
e Papel. PowerPoint presentation: 26 slides. (Undated)
palestras/S%E9rgio%20Marnio%20Gandra%20Vaz.pdf (in Portuguese)
alternativos dos plantios de eucalipto. Apicultura solidaria.
E. B. Loureiro. Aracruz Celulose. PowerPoint presentation: 25 slides.
*We thanks very much our dear friend, the forest engineer Rildo
Moreira, from IPEF, for the help by providing to us the interesting
picture showing a beehive hung in an Eucalyptus tree.
mini-article by Celso Foelkel
Communicating to Society the Realities of the Forest-Based Sector
For several very good reasons, I guess, accumulated
along this sector history, in general with mills located far from
big cities, the pulp
and paper industry has learned to have a "low profile" behavior
in the communications to the society. In short, this means the following:
to stay distant from the media, far from the communication vehicles,
to invest little in image marketing, and to leave the conflicting
problems with society to be solved by the time, as they run to accommodate
by themselves. The lack of dialogue was one of the major consequences.
Having a look on this industry historical development, it is easy
to understand this behavior. The pulp and paper segment has always
aimed for locating the forests and the mills far from the large urban
areas. These places are more appropriate to grow the forests, because
the cost of the land is less expensive. On the other hand, due to
environmental impact of the kraft process, a lot more pronounced
in the mills with old and today obsolete technologies, these companies
had many times conflicting situations with the local communities,
due to the odor, solid residues disposal, water pollution, contamination's,
forest monocultures, etc. A mission not very simple and not pleasant
they had. However, the situation now-a-days is completely different.
Our pulp and paper mills have minimum environmental impact, and the
plantation forests are established and managed with excellence, eco-efficiency
and sustainability. Mills and forests are certified in accordance
to renowned and recognized systems of very good international reliability.
Furthermore, the better information and communication are becoming
essential to the business sustainability too, for the acceptance
of the company and its activities by the society. For all these reasons,
it is difficult to understand the why we are still failing in the
communication process. In the global scenario, several very good
and modern new pulp and paper mills undertakings have been rejected
by the local communities in the places they would like to be born
and to prosper. The fantastic eco-mosaics in the sustainable forest
plantation management are seen by the society as plantations of monocultures
or green deserts. Our advances in environmental protection and pollution
prevention are unknown or ignored. Unfortunately, our executives
and technical representatives have difficulties to well-express to
public, in a language people could understand and trust. As far as
most of the time our human resources are used to talk to other technicians,
bankers, economists, politicians, and related positions, they have
a way to express that sometimes is understood as prepotency by normal
citizens, although this is not the purpose. On the other hand, the
community associations and the NGOs are today living a historical
moment due to the Third Sector boom and to the dynamism provided
by the Internet. Since our activities are considered of major impact
by some of them (socially and environmentally speaking) and combined
with our lack of ability to dialogue and to explain our points, the
damage is being enormous. There exists only a single way to us to
face successfully this problem: it is to better inform about our
achievements, our technologies, our daily life at the forests and
mills, and about the benefits originated from our existence. The
truth is that as a technician, we do not feel confortable in participating
in debates where the involved opposing people speak a different idiom
in relation to ours, and who are also criticizing our way of working
and our behavior. Our arguments are in general very academic and
technical, our abilities to handle and to manage emotions are little,
close to nil. This needs a great change, and immediately. Good communication
and reliability are now new exigencies in the curriculum vitae of
any new engineer or technician who may wonder to work in the business.
An important step at the companies is the development of a very wide
process for inside-the-fences people education and sectorial awareness.
Everybody linked to the company should be invited to learn more about:
employees, sub-contracted people, suppliers, etc. After all, everybody
has the right, the opportunity and the obligation to be one of the
company's voices (or spoke-persons) in the daily-life. It is important
to explain our realities with good knowledge, and in a franc, candid,
honest and convincing manner. To be persuasive demands knowledge
and trust. We need to join efforts to develop the right answers,
to learn how to present them in appropriate language, decodified
to the ordinary citizens. Society needs better explanations to better
understand us. The institutional associations may help on this task.
When information targets and positions become ready and in the right
format, the next step would be to scatter them. Nothing better than
the utilization of paper, people and internet to disseminate our
realities to the interested parties. Even in the case they are not
so much interested. We are still shy, perhaps incompetent in this
regard. However, this is the right timing for changes, we cannot
keep waiting more. Without a good communication process we will be
threatened by not aggregating the communities support to our growth
plans for a successful business. The support and the positive image
with the local authorities are also vital. Thus, my friends, let's
join efforts and to be ready for hard-working. This needs fast speed.
It is no longer good to be "low profile" or "no profile
at all". This must be considered as past.
Some forest and wood based companies and also associations representing
these sectors have been very well-succeeded in using the web to inform
about the sector. Others, unfortunately not. Dear friends, please
have in mind that today, all companies and associations have their
own websites. It is a must in the modern days. However, pay attention
to what they offer to the society - close to 100% of the companies
offer a heavy annual report file or the charming Sustainability Report
for downloading. They are very heavy files, taking long time for
downloading, and they are more written to explain about the company
to investors, bankers, or decision-makers, than really to tell society
about our sector or our daily activities. They may be useful to some
hundreds of persons, when we have millions to be touched at hearts
with a simpler language and more didactic texts. Within these millions
of people we have: students, judges, prosecutors, researchers, professors,
investors, curious, children, farmers, etc. Our ability to explain
about our processes, products, markets, forests, etc. is still poor,
we need to tell better about our benefits and strengths.
Some companies are used to disclose their productive process flowsheets
in the website, sometimes with some interesting animation (movies,
cartoons, etc.). See (http://www.fanapel.com.uy/historia/asi_se_hace.asp;
http://www.vcp.com.br/sitevcp/shared/swf/processo_produtivo_celulose.swf). Sometimes this information is difficult to be captured by citizens,
they need a didactic explanation, not a technical one. This means
that a good existing procedure can be improved even further. This
is real life, always we may improve anything we are doing. Don't
Due to these enormous difficulties that our sector has to perform
well by communicating its realities to society, I decided to bring
some good examples already available in our segment. Some are very
clever, interesting, educational and didactic ones. We have very
good websites, books, magazines and even videos, some of them with
fantastic quality, good examples to be multiplied. I strongly suggest
to our companies, manufacturers, and sectorial associations to have
a reflection and a proactive thinking in how to multiply these examples
to many more. It would be amazing to be navigating in the web and
finding good quality information about the role of our forest based
products in our daily life. Also, it would be great to see available
in Internet the respect and awareness of our companies regarding
the environmental and social issues. There are so many wonderful
and interesting things to be disclosed: the paper origin, how wood
is formed in nature and its main anatomical and chemical constituents,
how pulp and paper are manufactured, what are fibers, how to pack
articles with wooden materials, how matches are made, and furniture,
and wooden houses, etc., etc. Everything could be explained in a
simple, candid and didactic manner. On the sections a more technical
or business languages would be needed, then, a change in the idiom
and in the style. So simple this. Furthermore, we could have sections
to each group of interested people: high-school or college students,
kids, rural farmers, customers of wood and paper products, legislators,
economists, etc., etc.
Some organizations go even further to the utilization
of Internet. TAPPI / USA - The Technical Association of the Pulp
and Paper Industry,
during a time length of six years, promoted and maintained at Disneyworld/Orlando
Epcot Center a permanent exhibition named "Forests for our Future".
It was visited by millions of people, unbelievable. Visitors could
learn about paper-making, sustainable forest management, the process
to liberate fibers from wood to make pulp, how fibers are seen in
the microscope, etc., etc. Everything in an interactive and funny
way. There is still something available in the web about this great
and well-succeed TAPPI/Disney project: http://www.tappi.org/s_tappi/doc.asp?CID=13&DID=526976,
or in a Forest Products Journal article (http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-71324730.html ). It has been a great pity that the North-American pulp and paper
industry is facing a long competitiveness crisis and this fabulous
process for sectorial communication has been abandoned. Anyhow, TAPPI
still has another successful and celebrated educational website called "TAPPI
Paper University - PaperU". At this webpage students and teachers
may learn a lot about the world of pulp and paper. It is precious,
have a visit, joy and enjoy with the available knowledge (http://www.tappi.org/paperu/welcome.htm).
Something so simple and easy to be constructed and maintained. By
far, helpful to thousands of users. TAPPI has this website for several
years, but it may be seen that it needs some updates.
Another educational online resource presented by one organization
is the Paperonline, a creation by CEPI - Confederation of Paper Industries
(http://www.paperonline.org). Although the information is a good
quality one, the website could have better images, more figures and
illustration. Many many times, the images tell better than a whole
written page of explanation. Some other Paperonline and CEPI e-publications
are very useful to society. Make a visit.
In a similar model, the CPI / UK - Confederation
of the Paper Industries - has a fabulous "Teacher Information Pack", oriented to
provide reliable and good explanations about papermaking to high-school
PDF/-Secondary%20Pack%20(full).pdf). And there is a lot more there - CPI website has a "Kids Korna" section
to inform children about paper manufacture, uses, advantages, etc.
Please, have a look at: http://www.paper.org.uk/info/kids/kidshome.htm. It pays the time.
I have a great admiration to the educational website developed by
CMPC, a Chilean pulp and paper company. It is simple, efficient,
with good communication, good images, well-illustrated, very clear
to students, nice, good-looking and pleasant. Have a visit to PapelNet
at the address http://www.papelnet.cl. There, you may learn about
wood, pulp and paper, forest management, environment, etc. At the
same time the page may be read, in case you like it, there is the
possibility to download pdf files to keep the information in your
computer. See how efficient, simple and efficacious this website
In Brazil, we also have some interesting educational
initiatives, some are in an optimization process, and others have
disappeared. There is something that for me is outstanding, but it
seems that most of the sector personnel don't know, or they have
even forgotten. It is the small Pedro Bandeira's booklet titled "O
misterio da fabrica de livros - The mystery of the book factory" or
also called in other editions "The fantastic book factory".
Bandeira tells in a very didactic manner, and specially to children,
how pulp and paper are manufactured from the planted forests wood.
His book is able to educate and to bring joy to kids, helping the
formation and education of the future Brazilian citizens. Today,
his book is only found in few used-book shops, for an insignificant
price. I have the privilege to own both, the book and the video CD,
an animation of the book. A pearl, a precious work. Please, visit
to know more about:
amazing little booklet to kids is "The story of paper",
in Brazil presented with the title "A aventura do papel - The
paper adventure". They are also exhausted in the libraries,
only places you may find are used-book stores or in my personal
library. The book author is Odile Limousin and the illustrations
Brusch. Know more at:
Since the idea is to bring good examples, it is also
fair to know the blog "Campaigning for the Tree of the Life". The blog
aims to bring associations among the sustainable processes in the
production, utilization for the Eucalyptus planted trees (http://www.presscomunicacao.com.br/blog).
Another marvelous example is the educational magazine "Nosso
Papel - Our Paper" created by ABTCP - The Brazilian Technical
Association of Pulp and Paper (http://www.abtcp.org.br/Pagina.aspx?IdSecao=137,145).
Both initiatives are also available in digital format to cross the
country's borders. They show imagination and creativeness. ABTCP
magazine "Nosso Papel" has now around 20 issues, being
also distributed in paper format to over 70,000 people.
When good information resources are unavailable, it is always possible
to check the digital encyclopedias, freely available in the web.
The most renowned is Wikipedia, a free encyclopedia that the readers
may help to be improved or constructed.
Have a look in what may be found about pulp, paper, Eucalyptus,
MDF panels, OSB wood panels, etc., etc.:
• About pulp: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose
• About paper: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper
• About paper recycling: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper_recycling
• About Eucalyptus: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eucalyptus
• About Pinus: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pine
About MDF wood panels ("Medium Density Fiberboard"): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medium-density_fibreboard
About OSB wood panels ("Oriented Strand Board"): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oriented_strand_board
In the way these wiki-type encyclopedias are built,
we may even contribute to text writing, and also to place links
to direct the
readers to valuable websites. We, for example, have inserted links
with Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter and PinusLetter in the
pages Wikipedia describes the Eucalyptus and the Pinus.
What we definitively have in abundance in the web are texts, images
and websites telling the history of paper, the utilization of several
paper grades and the ways and advantages for paper recycling. Some
of these explanations are provided by school/colleges websites or
by NGOs. In many of them it is possible to identify a lack of knowledge
or misinformation. For these reasons, good arguments should be provided
by the forest based industry to help the construction of these third
parties websites, they need better arguments to improve what they
want to tell to society. Visit some interesting pages in the web
about these topics, but I'm sorry to say that most of them are in
Origin and history of paper:
How to make paper:
How to recycle paper:
many other positive examples of good communication through the web,
please, visit the selection of websites and institution's just
below. You are to find companies, associations, and NGO's websites
with valuable communication tools.
- Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. (Brazil)
In the section "Linha do Tempo - Time-line" ABTCP introduces
to society the most relevant facts along the history of pulp and
papermaking in Brazil, such as different stages and industry phases,
historical pictures, interviews, etc. Visit at:
AF&PA - American Forest & Paper Association.
AF&PA has documents to clarify many of the society doubts with
regard to the American paper industry and forestry. Social and environmental
issues have clear explanations, as well as processes, products, raw
- Brazilian Association of Tobacco Planters. (Brazil)
AFUBRA displays in the association website a large number of very
good books, guidelines, and reviews about forests. All these material
is made available to society, the example is worth.
(Books of the Ecology Series)
Celulose - Kids website. (Brazil)
Aracruz website has an excellent section to kids education, very
interactive, didactic, and plenty of videos, images, games, text
writing contests, drawings, etc. Go to visit and to know the nice
aunt Iara Cruz.
- Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper. (Brazil)
BRACELPA has an educational section in the website called "Saiba
Mais - Know more". It is oriented to clarify society about the
pulp and paper and forest plantation segments. Visit, please:
- Portuguese Association of the Paper Industry. (Portugal)
The Portuguese association CELPA is giving a great example of good
quality information. Visit this interesting and educational website
(http://www.celpa.pt). Also navigate at:
CELPA editions - http://www.celpa.pt/?article=213&visual=22
The Eucalyptus: http://www.celpa.pt/images/articles/213/art213_eucalipto.pdf
Pulp and paper - how to manufacture them:
Wood and paper products sink green house gases :
Arvore - Click Tree. (Brazil)
It consists in an afforestation program through the web to promote
planting native trees at Atlantic Forest exhausted areas. In the
moment of this edition, around 17 million trees had been planted.
ForestrySA is a company created to manage Australian government forests.
It has very good technical material available at the website, such
as guidebooks, folders, educational guidelines, images, etc.
- Forest Products Association of Canada. (Canada)
This Canadian association has a website section named "Briefing
Notes", to publish position papers and clarification news about
issues demanded by society. It consists in an innovative way to present
what the sector has as official positions in relation to question-marks
arisen from the society.
Forest Discovery Network. (Canada)
J.D. Irving Ltd. website is a very educative one, presenting the
natural resources in the New Brunswick region, Canada. The webpage
contains videos, games, information to teachers, to kids, etc.
Paulo Olympic Games on Chemistry - ABQ - Brazilian Chemistry
A very creative way to incentive the education and the knowledge
about chemistry and paper manufacturing. In 2006, the main purpose
of the games was the competition on texts about the issue "From
trees to notebooks: the paper chemistry".
http://allchemy.iq.usp.br/agregando/ABQ/oqsp06.html (2006 Chemistry
Olympic Games website)
http://allchemy.iq.usp.br/agregando/ABQ/oqsp06red (Classified to
the final texts)
Discovery Center. (USA)
Paper Industry International Hall of Fame educational website, a
more than interactive museum about paper, in Appleton, WI, USA.
http://www.paperdiscoverycenter.org/index4.shtml ( "Learn more" section)
http://www.paperdiscoverycenter.org/news/2007_february.pdf (Exhibit "A
child's view of papermaking")
in Wisconsin - Wisconsin Paper Council. (USA)
WPC is a commercial association to represent the pulp, paper and
associated products in the state of Wisconsin. The website is very
informative and well-illustrated. Please, visit:
http://www.wipapercouncil.org/fun&learning.htm (A section to
teachers, educators and children)
- Primary Industries and Resources of South Australia. (Australia)
Excellent guidebooks, handouts and educational material about forests,
forest management and forest products utilization.
Forest Service - Northeastern Area. (USA)
Know the creative section "How to", with several guidebooklets
to all those having interest to know more about the sustainable management
of forests in USA.
I would like to complete this mini-article saying the following:
there is a great number of simple and effective things to be done,
most are low-cost and have high power to leverage results. I have
introduced to you some of them along this mini-article. Internet
is here to help us. The NGOs that are against us are taking all advantage
on this fact. They know how to use the web to disseminate their concepts.
We have all or even better conditions to do the same, generating
and scattering reliable and good quality information to different
target publics and in different languages. We need to be always attemptive
and helpful to well serve the society, the same society we are part
of. Let's uncross the arms. We have no time, we cannot stay waiting
we don't know what. We are not to stay sleeping in a splendid cradle.
Time and society have changed. We need to change too, and fast, immediately.
Is it all right to you? In case yes, let's work hard, and together...
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forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus. It depends only on registering
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Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
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