Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,
Dear friends, here we are again,
now with the issue number 30 of our Eucalyptus
Newsletter. We hope that
this edition may fulfill your expectations and interests, allowing that
readers may gain additional knowledge and understanding about the Eucalyptus
planted forests and about the products and services they provide to the
benefit of our society.
this edition, the traditional section, "The
Friends of the Eucalyptus" brings
a renowned expert in the sector of market pulps, including those
made from Eucalyptus woods. It has the mission to share
with you some of the dedicated and productive professional career
of our dear
and competent friend Mr. Dave Hillman, one of the most renowned experts
on the knowledge about the properties and uses of pulp fibers for
paper manufacturing. I have a great and long friendship, moreover
my enormous professional respect for Dave, so I am very happy with
the opportunity to share with you his achievements with market pulps
and paper properties, emphasizing the Eucalyptus. In my conversations
with Dave to learn more about his life and activities, I received
from him the offer to reward us with a technical article. Then, it
came to me the idea of creating a new section at our newsletter about
the Eucalyptus. I decided to call it "Eucalyptic
Technological Essays by the Friends of the Eucalyptus".
In this issue, Dave is writing
and giving us his opinion about the fantastic option to
paper manufacturing that are the superior bleached Eucalyptus kraft
pulps from Brazil.
In this edition, we are continuing with the prestigious
section "The World of the Eucalyptus" and we're bringing
some updates on the state of Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil. Although
we've had recently written about this region of Brazil, it is rapidly
being converted in a leading global Eucalyptus production center due
to its huge and rapid growth. For this reason, we are offering the
latest news on it, to try explaining why the city of Tres Lagoas and
other locations close to it are turning into the most concentrated
region in the production of Eucalyptus market pulp in the world. Forest
activity is also intense in the state of MS to supply the industry,
not only for pulp and paper, but also for charcoal for steel and pig-iron
In the section "Curiosities
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" the
agronomist M.Sc. Ester Foelkel has written this time something unique
and new to most of you: "Demolition Wood: New Uses and Advantages
to the Wood of the Eucalyptus".
Another theme that we brought to you is a wide selection
of different virtual xylotheques or wood
collections. They offer to
users the opportunity to learn more about the morphology, anatomy and
technical data from many types of woods, including those coming from
the genus Eucalyptus. I hope you keep this information as a reference
for browsing any time you may need to know more about timbers of the
In the two traditional sections Euca-Links and References
about Events and Courses, we offer both accesses to the materials of
recent events of great relevance, but also suggest browsing websites
with a lot of academic literature covering the basic and technical
fundamental issues in pulp and paper science and technology, this time
oriented to students and interested parties on this industrial sector.
mini-article continues the series of texts on performance indicators
for our pulp and paper mills and forests, an initiative of ABTCP
- Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper in its efforts
to strengthen and enhance the competitiveness of Brazilian companies.
This time we are writing on "Performance and Productivity
Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Mills".
We hope this newsletter issue may be very useful to all
of you, since the thematic selection was made in a way to bring interesting
and diversified topics about the Eucalyptus.
In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus
Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus
Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following
here for registration.
We have several non-financial supporting partners to the
Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI,
RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE,
AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel
Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales, Papermakers' Wiki
and Åbo Akademi - Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology.
They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in
countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia,
Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland and South
Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are
helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much
to our partners for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus.
more about all of our today’s partners and
meet them at the URL address:
Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus are
currently being sent to an extensive "mailing list" through
our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association,
a number that today is equivalent to several thousands of registered
addresses. This happens in addition to the accesses made directly
to the websites www.abtcp.org.br; www.eucalyptus.com.br and www.celso-foelkel.com.br,
or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book
chapters are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal
from now is
very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus
Online Book & Eucalyptus
Newsletter that they will be always on the first
page, when any single person in the world, using a search engine
Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the word Eucalyptus. This
service aims to better inform stakeholders and interested parties
about the Eucalyptus, with relevant information and a lot
of credibility, too. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about
our project to your
friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them.
Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius
Degree, ABTCP, International
Paper do Brasil and
from the supporting partners.
Our best wishes and a friendly hug to all of you,
and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have
prepared to you this time.
this Edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter
Friends of the Eucalyptus - Mr. Dave Hillman
Section: Eucalyptic Technological Essays by the Friends of
the Eucalyptus - Brazil's
Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps - The Superior Eucalyptus Wins
the World Pulp Markets Over -
by Dave Hillman
World of the Eucalyptus: Updates about the State
of Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil
- Academic Websites with Emphasis in Pulp and Paper Science & Technology
about Events and Courses
Xylotheques or Wood Collections
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - Demolition Wood: New
Uses and Advantages to the Wood of the Eucalyptus - by Ester
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
and Productivity Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp
and Paper Mills
Friends of the Eucalyptus
Mr. Dave Hillman
In this present edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter,
I am very pleased to introduce to you another great friend of the Eucalyptus and of the Eucalyptus (BEK) market pulps. He is also a dear friend
of mine, someone above all I most admire in the pulp and paper world.
He is a very well-known personality throughout the pulp and paper industry
for his knowledge, charisma and creative ideas for the end- uses and
applications of pulp fibers. Furthermore, he is an excellent and enthusiastic
speaker, being admired for his dynamic and convincing way he has in
transferring his knowledge. I have known Dave Hillman for about 20
years, when I first became acquainted with him and his ideas about
pulp and fibers, and in particular for his enthusiasm and passion for
Brazilian Eucalyptus fibers.
Dave Hillman has been a devoted student and researcher of pulp fibers
for over 40 years. He has an excellent vision on the uses and practical
applications for each type of fiber thanks to the years of working
in paper mills, from his role in the marketing of pulp and paper and
also to his insightful technical studies which have always characterized
his professional life. Since starting to conduct his well-known and
widely recognized "Market Pulp Seminars", almost 30 years
ago, Dave has been gaining increasing expertise in pulp and fibers
and their different attributes to recommend the correct use of them
in the manufacture of many types of regular and speciality papers.
Today, Dave Hillman is recognized internationally as one of the experts
with a high level of understanding of virtually all types of market
pulps, but also of the markets for those products themselves. This
fact he has widely proved through his studies and market analysis,
as well as for the lectures and publications which are available to
readers later in this section of our present newsletter. His masterpiece "The
World of Market Pulp" (http://www.worldofmarketpulp.com/) written
with his friends Hiroki Nanko and Alan Button clearly demonstrates
his enormous technical expertise and strategic ability to propose technical
solutions for papermakers (on their machines) and investors (in their
new mills). Therefore, many people have found it difficult in defining
a professional profile for Dave, because he moves very well in both
marketing strategies, and the technical aspects of paper manufacture
as well as creating appropriate furnishes and refining levels for speciality
I first met Dave Hillman in 1989, when he was invited
by our mutual friend Sergio Nicolau Kilpp to present one of his "Market Pulp
Seminars" in the former and fondly remembered Riocell in Guaíba
/ RS/Brazil. Thereafter, and on several occasions, I have regularly
found Dave in pulp meetings, in our travels around the world. Dave
is very commonly found in international conferences on market pulps,
such as those organized by the PPPC - Pulp and Paper Products Council,
or by PPI/RISI. Those who participate in the annual International Pulp
Week or in Market Pulp Conferences always have a chance to hear him
and/or to meet Dave personally. Also, I had the opportunity to work
with Dave in a workshop on market pulps which we both presented together
to a major manufacturer of this product in Brazil, each of us presenting
our views on the theme of how Eucalyptus compares with other main fibers
and what are proving to be the major applications for them.
Dave Hillman was also instrumental in the commercialization of unbleached
kraft pulp made from Eucalyptus by the former Riocell, in particular
to the U.S. speciality paper markets of filtration - latex saturated
grades. His dedication in developing new applications was much appreciated
considering unbleached Eucalyptus had previously not had such speciality
application. It now is recognized that short-fibered bleached kraft
pulps do have a place in speciality markets, but prior to this, the
preferred unbleached pulps were the long-fibered pulp species, not
Eucalyptus. Dave established this pulp and succeeded in getting it
specified in the furnishes of numerous new opportunities, thanks to
his ability to match the fiber's distinctive characteristics to the
application's critical requirements.
Since 1987, Dave Hillman has operated as an independent consultant,
offering his services to pulp producers as well as papermakers. He
conducted his professional activities in many countries outside the
USA, such as Chile, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, South Africa, and several
other countries in Europe. His expertise is enormous and is well recognized.
Hillman (David C. Hillman) was born in June 1935
on a small farm of about five hectares in the agricultural area near
the city of Erie,
Pennsylvania/USA. His family, who is of German origin, was poor at
that time and had economic difficulties. However, Dave claims to have
not realized this fact as a child, stating that he had a good and happy
childhood as far as he did not feel the lack of material goods such
as television, telephone, automobile, etc. For this reason of scarce
resources, after having completed the high-school, Dave went to work
for Hammermill Paper Co. in its corporate labs. His performance and
enthusiasm in the job made the company's technical team encourage Dave
to resume studies at university level. He did this at Georgia Institute
of Technology, having graduated as BS (Bachelor of Science) in Industrial
Engineering in 1958. Unfortunately, he says, this career choice was
not the most appropriate, since it would have been better if he had
studied chemical engineering or chemistry. At the university he learned
a lot about the strength of materials, hydraulics, machine design,
etc. "My formal education would have been better used if I had
additional technical courses in organic chemistry, polymers, physical
His wife Jean was one of his "drivers" encouraging him to
go back to college and to complete his academic studies. Dave first
met Jean in high-school in 1953, they became engaged in 1954, and married
in 1956. The couple enjoys great happiness for 54 years and have four
daughters and five grandchildren. One fact that helped a lot in the
education of children and family stability was the evangelical Christian
religious activities of Dave, Jean and other family members.
Dave's early professional career, as we have seen, began at Hammermill
for the first two years, and then continued until 1981 at Westvaco.
He worked on the development of paper products, both in operational
tests of performance as well in the specification of new products.
In 1975, when at Westvaco, he was promoted to the commercial area to
develop new markets for the company's flash dried SBHK and SBSK. His
success was quickly noticed, even outside the company. So much, that
in 1981 he left Westvaco to become vice-president of speciality technical
sales at Woodpulp International Limited (1981 to 1982).
His first assignment in Woodpulp Intl. was to introduce bleached kraft Eucalyptus pulp (in this case, manufactured
by the Portuguese company Portucel) in the U.S. market. At that time,
the Eucalyptus fibers were
quite unknown in the USA - as was the case in many other countries.
Thus, he decided to develop and present technical mini-seminars (workshops)
to have the chance to introduce this pulp to potential new customers
(his audiences were mill technical and production people). In his first
year in these new activities, with pride, Dave mentions that he achieved
no fewer than 36 production trials using Portucel's Eucalyptus pulp.
Immediately, he recognized that the easiest way to sell an unusual
pulp is to educate and inform the potential customers who are to use
the product. This must be done in the mill of the new user, through "hands-on" in
plant workshops, concludes Dave. The main points usually highlighted
in the Eucalyptus pulp were: the fact of being a "single species
pulp" (pulp of a single type of tree) - and the high fiber population,
which favors formation, opacity and surface smoothness in the papers.
In the United States of America, the production of pulp is based on
wood chips sourced from many tree species (such the case as wood chips
purchased from sawmills). Dave mentions that the only short-fibered
pulp he had previously worked with had at least 12 forest species in
its composition. The softwood he was selling had four diffferent species.
It is definitively hard to keep an uniform product with such diverse
and varying fibrous raw materials. The unique attributes and benefits
that came to be admired by the new customers of the Eucalyptus pulps
were: uniformity, machine performance, reliability and advantages on
paper porosity, bulk, smoothness and opacity.
Late in 1982, Dave returned to his original company Hammermill to become
manager of market pulp sales till 1987. In 1987, he started to act
as an independent consultant, conducting the traditional "Market
Pulp Seminars", consulting on product development and acting as
sales agent for several forest products.
One thing that really impressed Dave in his professional life was the
fact that almost everyone with whom he had business relations in the
paper mills seemed to believe that while they were producers of paper,
their pulp suppliers only knew about the production of pulp. It became
obvious that pulp suppliers needed to know the technical needs of their
customers. Dave concluded very soon: it was necessary to build a "bridge" between
the technical and the marketing areas of pulp producers and the papermakers.
He then decided to shape his professional career profile to create
this kind of bridge between these important areas. To accomplish this,
he tried to understand what would be the unique and distinctive attributes
of each pulp, so he could cooperate in the preparation of the fibrous
stock recipes (fiber furnishes), helping papermakers to easily meet
the requirements of technical and aesthetic properties in the papers
they were producing. It became quite apparent there was not, as it
is still the case in many situations, an understanding that this fact
may be the key to technical sales. Dave concluded that his mission
has been to "open the eyes" of technicians and vendors/buyers
of pulps so that these people may see and understand the virtues of
the different market pulps.
Dave's life in issues related to the commercial side of the business
was very intense and extensive...from 1975 to the present. During this
time, he was able to come into contact and to learn virtually about
all types of pulps - from mechanical to chemical pulps, dried sheets
or flash dried bales, short or long fibers, also becoming acquainted
with non-wood pulps.
With all this accumulated understanding of market pulps, from 2005
onwards Dave opted to transfer more intensely this type of information
and wealth of knowledge to the sector. This decision has given rise
to the magnificent book/CD "The World of Market Pulp" which
he wrote with his skilled friends Hiroki Nanko and Alan Button. I also
had the privilege of being one of the authors of this book with the
chapter titled "The magic of the Eucalyptus plantation forests" (pages
According to Dave, this new professional phase of his career is both
rewarding and well received by the industry with his purposes to teach,
educate and transfer knowledge to be helpful to the people who operate
papermills. His greatest professional reward has been the thousands
of "thank you's" received from papermakers, who feel they
have become more technically competent after being exposed to Dave's
Dave Hillman has gained worldwide renown and is recognized as one of
the few specialists in market pulps that is both an excellent paper-maker
and a good pulp&paper products specialist. He is also a person
who emphasizes the practical aspects of papermaking, always associating
sales to technical issues. After about 30 years working as this "bridge",
Dave's attitude is very simple: this is a path that needs to be built
for the new generation of papermakers. "Those who sell and supply
market pulps should do these tasks based on technical sales, convincing
and talking with the technical people who are often instrumental in
specifying these pulps in their various furnishes. People should endeavor
to focus less on the traditional emphasis on prices and delivery schedules
that always have been the subject of sales discussions between the
sales manager (pulp supplier) and the paper mill's raw materials manager".
This is an area about which Dave has come to feel quite strongly.
Dave still believes there is much to be done in this direction, especially
now with the entry of new market pulp producing countries as major
producers. The pulp market has largely shifted to lower cost producers
in Asia and Latin America. And, it should not be overlooked that China
and India have become major pulp consumers.
In addition to his rich and extensive career, Dave finds time for many
other parallel activities. This occurs both in religion (evangelical
Christian church), in which he is an active volunteer in many issues,
and music. It surprised me to know that Dave was for three years president
of the Erie Philharmonic Orchestra in Pennsylvania.
To conclude this short biography about Dave Hillman, I'll tell you
a curious fact that Dave has shared with me. This story is related
as how Eucalyptus fibers were developed to form a top layer
to bring extremely high tactile softness on the surface of the ultra
tissue paper from Procter & Gamble. By the early 1990's, when Dave
was teaching one of his "Market Pulp Seminars" in East Brunswick,
NJ/USA, he had among his students a person who reported the fact. This
attendee said that in the mid 70's he was working at a P&G's laboratory,
in Hamilton/Ohio. Nearby, there was an important paper mill from Champion
International. One of the "next-door neighbors of his residence" was
an employee at the Champion mill at Hamilton. This person had scheduled
a trip to the Champion mill in Mogi-Guacu/Brazil. The neighbor offered
to bring some Brazilian coffee, but the story teller said he preferred
to ask 2 kg of Brazilian Eucalyptus pulp. With this sample,
has begun testing Eucalyptus fibers to make an ultra facial paper with
a layer of these fibers over a fibrous strong/smooth base of Canadian
black spruce. Imagine if instead of Eucalyptus pulp, the neighbor
had made the decision to bring 2 kg of coffee? The success story could
not have happened and the papermaking world could have lost this great
opportunity. Dave reports that, in 2009, Procter & Gamble and Kimberly
Clark together imported more than one million tons of Eucalyptus market
pulps from Brazil to provide the exceptional tactile softness to their
premium ultra facial tissue, resulting in these highly regarded, value-added
(and very profitable) tissue grades. "There is no doubt that our
industry should spend more money and use more the skills of talented
people to develop new applications and uses for paper products, understanding
and helping to meet the needs of pulp and paper users," concludes
our friend Dave.
To gain more knowledge about Dave
career and professional life, our "Friend
of the Eucalyptus" in
this Eucalyptus Newsletter edition, please, browse his curriculum,
articles, reviews, books, etc.,
made available to you just ahead:
Dave Hillman's executive bio / Curriculum
at WOMP website)
at Gerson Lehrman Group website)
Know more about Dave Hillman though some photos from him:
CD and the masterpiece work by Dave Hillman in cooperation with
his friends Hiroki Nanko and Alan Button:
World of Market Pulp - WOMP. H. Nanko; A. Button; D. Hillman. WOMP.
283 pp. (2005)
of the CD version - in English)
and extracts from the book - in English)
information about the WOMP book/CD at:
atlas sample - in English)
Tech Institute - in English)
selection of about 50 articles, essays, viewpoints, market analyses
by Dave Hillman:
Fibria moves ahead to reduce future BEK shortage. D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
Chilean pulp mill closures to be felt in many sectors. D. Hillman.
GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
Falling euro may hinder further pulp price increases.
D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
Will China's closure of pulp mills buoy pulp prices? D. Hillman. GLGroup
Market Analysis. (2010)
US$1,000 pulp stimulates new Brazilian pulp mill. D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
Gunns Tasmania's market pulp mill progresses toward becoming
a reality. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
Acetate dissolving pulp is booming. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market
Fluff pulp: the US's jewel in the crown. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market
Fluff pulp producers have cause for rejoicing. D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
Hardwood pulp prices projected to drop in the 4th quarter. D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
Major new market pulp mills announced in Brazil and Russia. D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
A possible pulp price decrease. The pros and cons. D. Hillman.
GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
China's demand may outstrip supply of OCC, ONC and SOP. D. Hillman.
GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
Outstrip-Supply-Of-OCC-ONP--SOP-46612.html (in English)
China's pulp purchases reaches 13.68 million metric tons in 2009. D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
13.68-MILLION-MT-IN-2009.-46557.html (in English)
Newsprint capacity shrinks as demand declines. D. Hillman.
GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
Is Indonesia pulp industry about to explode? D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
Industry-About-To-Explode--35352.html (in English)
Tax credits: a reward, subsidy or foolish give-away. D. Hillman.
GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
SUBSIDY-OR-FOOLISH-GIVE-AWAY--36382.html (in English)
What is fueling the turnaround in pulp prices? D. Hillman. D. Hillman.
GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
turnaround-in-pulp-prices--40508.html (in English)
CMPC to increase Brazilian BEK capacity. D. Hillman. D. Hillman. GLGroup
Market Analysis. (2009)
Containerboard - A comprehensive overview. D. Hillman.
Paper Asia (July/August): 24-27. (2009)
After the global recovery: what will the market pulp business
look like? D. Hillman. Paper Asia (March/April):
16 - 20. (2009)
A new pulp mill for Uruguay coming soon. D. Hillman.
GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
Uruguay-coming-soon--39732.html (in English)
India's paper industry must expand to meet growing demand. D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
VCP+Aracruz = a Brazilian superpower. D. Hillman. GLGroup
Market Analysis. (2009)
-A-Brazilian-Superpower-31900.html (in English)
Number 1 + number 2 Eucalyptus producers = World's biggest. D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
Producers-=-Worlds-Biggest-42912.html (in English)
China's enormous appetite for recovered paper. D. Hillman.
GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
With demand shrinking what will future newsprint mills look
like? D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
China's Shandong Chenming seeks to become number 1. D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
Even commodity printing and writing grades are not recession
proof. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
China's forests cannot support these planned pulp mills.
D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008)
Are super-corrugators the wave of the future? D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008)
Recession is accelerating the closure of many pulp/paper
mills. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008)
The Chinese are buying North American pulp mills: is this
good or bad? D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008)
Can China alone keep the market tight? What about India? D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008)
Will newsprints decline in demand ever end? D. Hillman.
GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008)
Pulp mills formerly dependent on sawmills chips. What do they do now? D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008)
Why is softwood market pulp in such short supply? D. Hillman.
GLGroup Market Analysis. (2007)
Uncoated free sheet: can Domtar and IP control the market? D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2007)
In defense of Gunns proposed Eucalyptus pulp mill
in Tasmania. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2007)
IP, GP and Weyerhaeuser increase fluff pulp production. D.
Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2006)
The cloning of Eucalyptus. A significant market
benefit. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2006)
An industry in transition. CPBIS - The Center for
Paper Business and Industry Studies V(11): 1-2. (2006)
The myth of commodity pulps. A. Button; H. Nanko;
D. C. Hillman. TAPPI Engineering, Pulping and Environmental Conference.
11 pp. (2005)
species pulping: the world's preferred market pulp. D.
C. Hillman. Solutions (November): 27-30. (2002)
Pittfalls of trading market pulp on the internet. D.
Hillman. TAPPI Journal 83(11): 43-45. (2000)
for the title of the article - in English)
Market pulp: a finished product. D. Hillman. TAPPI
Pulping Conference. 14 pp. (1999)
Websites where you may find more information
and market analyses on the pulp and paper business by Dave Hillman:
Gerson Lehrman Group:
Asia Paper Markets:
Servicio de Prensa Forestal:
The Center for Paper Business and Industry Studies:
Hillman is not just a great technician or a pulp
and paper market expert. His charisma is much more of the personal
kind, since he has the ability to get people involved by the
things he defends and believes. His lessons on pulp fibers have
already reached thousands of people in different parts of the
world, either through his seminars/workshops, by his writing
web texts or his speaches at several events on market pulps.
I, therefore, have a huge admiration for the competence and the
achievements of this great friend of the Eucalyptus trees and
pulps, in special those from Brazil. In addition to Dave's talent,
we have a great friendship for over 20 years. For all I know
and admire about my dear friend Dave Hillman, I am honored for
have telling you a little about the life of this great "Friend
of Eucalyptus" and sharing some of his published achievements
throughout his productive career.
My dear friend Dave Hillman, thank you very much for your fantastic pulp and
paper journeys around the world, focusing also the Eucalyptus and for promoting
the advantages of their pulps. Thank you also for everything you have done
and will continue doing for the art of making paper, knowing exactly to take
full advantage of the inherent advantages of each type of fiber being used
in the paper furnishes.
Section: Eucalyptic Technological Essays by the Friends of the Eucalyptus
Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps - The Superior Eucalyptus Wins the
World Pulp Markets Over
Dave Hillman (email@example.com)
The world's total capacity of the 26 market pulp producing countries
(only 20 of these are really major producers) is estimated to be 59
million metric tonnes/year. This is in contrast to the world's total
market pulp demand of 58 million. This spread is much too narrow! And,
why is this slim a spread not healthy? Because pulp prices are governed
predominantly by supply and demand (assuming the world's consuming
nations are all experiencing reasonable positive growths in their Gross
Domestic Products). An often quoted rule states "if there are
10 buyers and only 9 sellers, prices will always rise". And why
is this? Simply because senior management in that 10th papermill will
not permit its mill to shut down for lack of pulp – especially
if they've just invested US$100+ million to purchase and install a
brand new papermachine and also have a multitude of supply contracts
with major customers. Shutting down for lack of papergrade pulp is
simply not an option. This is the reason why it being essential that
Brazil’s market pulp producers are in a process of accelerating
their plans for new capacity expansion.
How did Brazil become the number 1 Eucalyptus pulp producer?
#1 It's a huge country with millions of hectares available for agriculture
and for Eucalyptus plantations. The needed land can either be purchased
outright or acquired through long term leases. Often the balance is
about 80/20 to 50/50 for owned versus leased land, depending on local
conditions and the destination of the planted forests.
#2 It has excellent and favorable climate ranging from tropical in
the north to temperate in the south with all areas capable to provide
the rapid growth of Eucalyptus trees – especially the hybrids
which were developed and adapted to local environments for fast growing
rates (among other reasons).
#3 Adequate rainfall throughout the year to allow good growth in the
#4 Fairly level terrain for easy planting and harvesting (mechanization
is vital for lowering costs).
#5 A number of excellent deep water ports for overseas shipping / exports
of the pulp/paper products.
#6 A highly developed domestic infrastructure – rails, highways,
#7 Educated workers (and with high skills) in abundance, who have also
shown a desirable good ethics.
#8 Cooperative role and incentives from federal, state and local governments.
#9 A well established banking system with good connections to the global
#10 Last but not least is the fact that they got a head start – back
in the late 50's when silviculture began in earnest and oriented to
the local paper industry. Prior to that Eucalyptus was grown for logging,
firewood and charcoal.
Now that we know the foundations of the Brazilian success - what can
we tell about the pulp itself?
If a survey was made of pulp customers around world – those paper
companies producing printing and writing paper grades, premium facial
tissue and toweling made from 100% virgin fibers, most of them would
undoubtedly reply that their preferred market pulp was Brazilian BEK.
This high ranking did not come about accidentally, but rather, is the
result of a concerted effort put forth by many different R&D groups
at academic and corporate level along with the technical and operations
groups who are charged with actually producing the pulp. Research and
operational efficiency have paved this road of success.
Brazilian BEKP is considered the preferred pulp - Why is this?
The major species being cultivated today in Brazil is a cloned, hybridized
variety of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla which has produced
a fast growing in wood volume, fair wood density with very uniform
fiber dimensions. It is a classic single-species pulp. Many measurements
have been made by many laboratories using the most sophisticated instruments
and have arrived at a typical adult fiber dimensions of about 0.95
mm in length by 16 microns in diameter with a cell wall thickness of
3 microns. The fiber population has been determined to be over 16 million
fibers/gram. However, these are not absolute numbers since there are
many variables affecting them – the climate, the clone being
reproduced, sampling, and age of the forest. Years ago the Spanish
Technical Foundation presented their findings that Eucalyptus fibers
reach maturity at about 12 years of the tree's life. Older the trees
- longer, wider and thicker-walled are the formed fibers, until reaching
the age of maturity. This means that the differences in the wood fibers
near pith and bark are wider. Therefore, harvesting the forests on
a 7 year cycle is very helpful in maintaining the individual fiber's
conformity to the average, not in large spams. Eucalyptus trees harvested
after their 12th year do exhibit a greater variation in fiber dimensions.
Is there one major application where Brazilian BEK's excel performances?
The top rated tissue in the world today is facial tissue and is now
Ultra Facial Tissue;
Premium Facial Tissue;
Standard or simply Facial Tissue.
As the reader might expect, Ultra Facial is the most expensive and
the most highly regarded. It is produced primarily by Procter & Gamble
and Kimberly Clark in their mills located all around the world. In
each mill, regardless of country location, the fiber furnish is very
similar or identical. Here is the basic formula for each of the various
• Ultra Facial Tissue: ideally the
supporting base is produced from Canadian Black Spruce fibers which
is a relatively long (3.5mm) and slender
conifer fiber. These fibers exhibit both excellent smoothness and "hand" (which
could also be called a lack of stiffness). On top of these Black Spruce
fibers is layered the Brazilian BEK and it is here that a rather difficult
to define quality comes into play. It has been called "single
fiber flex" which appears to signify that the individual fibers
possess a lower degree of stiffness. This means they can "wiggle" when
the consumer feels the surface of Ultra Facial Tissue... it appears
to feel just as soft as cotton. This is technically known as tactile
softness. This grade of tissue is then processed over a Thru-Air-Dryer
(TAD) machine which tends to float the tissue rather than pressing
it against a 5-6 meter (in diameter) steam filled Yankee Dryer. Thru
Air Drying significantly enhances the bulk and absorbency of the tissue.
• Premium Facial Tissue: is made from
100% virgin fiber with either Eucalyptus or Acacia being
mixed throughout the furnish – mixed with either
Chilean radiata pine or NBSK from Canada, Russia or Sweden/Finland.
The Eucalyptus or Acacia usually constitutes 70-80%
of the fiber furnish. If processed in a TAD it will possess some of
the same bulk and absorbency
as Ultra Facial Tissue, but without the highly regarded tactile softness
on the surface. This is often used in the better quality "away
from home" (AfH) applications used by hotels, hospitals, country
clubs, nursing homes, business offices, government offices, airports
and airplanes, cruise ships, etc.
• Facial Tissue: is pretty much a commodity
or generic grade often private/own branded for sale in grocery stores,
discount and department stores
(as well as many others too numerous to mention). Private branded products
always do better in a depressed economy as consumers shop around and "trade
down" to save money. With little or no money spent on advertising,
they are always able to undercut the better quality branded products.
What's in their furnish? Almost anything...virgin fibers, recycled,
deinked office papers, BCTMP and white/unprinted waste from local printers.
While not of the same high quality as Ultra or Premium Tissue, these
tissue grades have always found favor with the price buyers and also
with those who could be classified as "environmentally conscientious" -
those who look for the degree of recycled content on their paper purchases.
Is tactile softness the only area of superiority of the Brazilian BEK
The answer, as the reader might expect, is "No"...otherwise
the question wouldn't be asked.
In the area of lightweight printing papers (Bible paper, lightweight
opaques, prospectuses for the financial community, high quality directory
stock, etc). where there is a great demand for printed opacity (lack
of show-through) the Eucalyptus pulps play a great role. Printed opacity
is different than simple opacity as measured by instruments such as
the Bausch and Lomb opacimeter which measures the passage of light
through the sheet. Printed opacity, on the other hand, measures the
penetration of ink and the degree to which that printed image can show
through when the paper is turned over. The test for printed opacity
is quite simple. Smear some non-drying black K&N ink on the surface
of a sheet of paper. A 15 x 20 cm sample is quite sufficient. Rub with
a soft dry cloth for a few seconds then turn over the paper. Measure
the brightness behind the black smear and then move the instrument
over away from the black smear. Note the difference in readings. The
smaller the difference, the more opaque is the paper.
Some twenty years ago, the author of this essay conducted a side-by-side
trial between a lightweight Bible paper made from 30% Birch plus 70%
NBSK and another paper made where BEK was the substitute for the Birch
pulp. To everyone's surprise the BEK paper exhibited a behind-the-black-smear
brightness 2.5 points higher than the paper made with Birch. The reason
for this significant difference was difficult to pin point... was it
the BEK's higher population? Or, could it be that BEK has a higher
tendency to absorb the oil ink? Or, was the ink held more on the surface
by the BEK and prevented from penetrating? Or... was it a combination
of all of these? The operations and technical staff at the papermill
where this trial was conducted didn't seem to care so much for the
reason as much as for the result... they determined on the spot that
they would henceforth begin to use BEK in all their lightweight papers
which would be printed on both sides. Before the day was over the M.D.
instructed the materials manager to order 3 cars of BEK.
In addition to the higher printed opacity, many printers in Asia and
Europe have also found the BEK, especially the Brazilian grades, have
shown an outstanding ability to produce papers with significantly improved
formation (lack of mottle and streakiness). This resulted in more even
ink lay, holdout, and printed gloss. When the job being printed is
4/Can labels, printed gloss is particularly important since customers
tend to equate printed gloss with freshness. A dull label, in the mind
of consumer, indicates the cans may have been sitting on the shelf
for an extended duration.
Many papermakers have learned, by experience, that many quality problems
can be overcome by replacing whatever hardwood they're using (i.e.
Aspen, Birch, Maple) with Brazilian BEK to improve the formation and/or
the smoothness. This is understandable since the Brazilian BEK fibers
tend to be more flexible and not clump up to form mottle or streakiness
in the formation. As for improved smoothness this is achieved with
less calendering, since the more flexible fibers react so much more
readily to the pressure of the (usually) soft nip single roll calendering
operation. This is very important where the paper grade being produced
is bulk sensitive. Many hardwoods will eventually produce the desire
smoothness, but only with high pressure at the calender nip... which
has the unwanted effect of reducing caliper and bulk. Brazilian BEK
is able to reach the desired smoothness and still maintain the bulk
A4 Copybond is a grade where these attributes are really appreciated.
The 75 gsm A4 Copybond paper must have sufficient stiffness (i.e. rigidity)
so as to not stumble when being fed into the copier. Yet, the paper
must have sufficient smoothness to accept the toner in an even/unbroken
manner. Brazilian BEK will allow the papermaker to achieve a 120-140
Sheffield smoothness (i.e. a "bond finish") without a significant
drop in caliper. Keeping a good stiffness in the paper is directly
related to its caliper. This is known in engineering circles as "moment
of inertia" and is also the reason that the I-beams in bridge
construction are always tall and skinny rather than short and fat.
The higher the caliper, the greater the stiffness. Therefore, to be
able to achieve the desired smoothness for more even toner coverage
it is necessary to reach the desired smoothness with minimal caliper
reduction. The flexible Brazilian BEK's fiber allows this to be happen.
It is a happy coincidence when an already major producer country
is moving ahead to significantly increase its production tonnage
the products it will be producing possess unusual commercial benefits.
Usually, it turns out that the country's products are fortunate to
possess one or the other, but seldom both. The world's graphic arts
paper makers and tissue producers should welcome the good news that
they'll soon not only be getting more Brazilian BEK, but that this
BEK should permit them to produce products possessing highly regarded
commercial benefits. These benefits almost always translate into
higher profits and full order books.
World of the Eucalyptus
about the State of Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil
The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul has been gaining
worldwide recognition and admiration for its forestry expertise and ability
to develop a modern and efficient silviculture with excellent results.
Gradually and quickly the state is being able in converting itself to
a forest industrial basis with appropriate levels of sustainability.
This has happened in meteoric speed and with great effectiveness.
In April 2009, exactly 18 months ago, I wrote a technical review on this
same section "The World of the Eucalyptus" about the Brazilian
states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul (http://www.eucalyptus.com.br/newseng_ap09.html#quatro).
At that time, the state of MS was rejoicing because it had reached about
250,000 hectares of planted forests and because the opening of two industrial
mega-projects in the pulp and paper sector, both in the city of Tres
Lagoas: the units of Fibria (market pulp) and International Paper do
Brasil (printing paper for copy and graphics). There was much enthusiasm
at that time, but it was difficult to predict that few months later the
situation would change so strongly, reaching new and huge areas of plantation
forests and new prospects for pulp industrial expansion. Today, it is
estimated that the area of planted forests in the state has reached 370,000
hectares and that in some years ahead could reach one million hectares,
as far be confirmed the expansion of Fibria pulp mill and the entry of
the Portuguese company Portucel in the state (there are comments that
at the municipalities of Santa Rita and/or Bataguassu). These additional
market pulp units are in the range of 1.2 to 1.5 million tonnes per year
and requiring each mill an area of approximately 150,000 hectares of
plantation forests of effective Eucalyptus (not considering conservation
and protected areas).
However, the major surprise was the announcement of Eldorado Brazil,
an entrant in the market pulp business, that "emerged from nowhere
in the sector" and has started to build a new greenfield pulp mill,
also in the range of 1.5 million tonnes/year to star-up in 2012. Of course,
such a pulp mill would also require large areas of Eucalyptus plantations.
Therefore, the expectation that in a few years MS will be competing with
the state of Sao Paulo for the second position in area of planted forests
in Brazil. I guess the surprise occurs mainly in the city of Tres Lagoas,
on the banks of the Parana River, with excellent access and logistics,
primarily because it is almost side-by-side to the fantastic infrastructure
of the state of Sao Paulo. The growth of Tres Lagoas was so intense that
the city now proclaims itself the world's capital of market pulp, as
with the announced Fibria expansion and new pulp mill of the Eldorado
Brasil project, all together with existing mills will be manufacturing
around 4.3 million tonnes of market pulp per year. Not to mention the
paper mill of International Paper do Brasil, which uses part of this
pulp, adding value in manufacturing printing and writing paper. There
are also studies for expansion of this manufacturing unit of paper, although
still not said much about when and how much.
All this makes me jump back into the past of some four decades ago, when
- through the Program of Tax Incentives for Reforestation - areas of
Eucalyptus were planted in the former large state of Mato Grosso, that
in 1977 was divided into two states by Complementary Law 31 signed by
the former military president General Ernesto Geisel. The image I had
(at that time) of the Eucalyptus forests growing in the the states of
Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul was of low productive forests, abandoned
and attacked by ants. Things began to change when the former Champion
Paper and Pulp Co. decided to create a subsidiary forest company in the
municipality of Tres Lagoas. This occurred in 1988, with the founding
of the Chamflora Tres Lagoas Agroforestry Co., serving this business
as the platform to the plantation of about 90,000 hectares of valuable
and productive forests of Eucalyptus, with all the technology that my
dear friend forest engineer Manoel de Freitas knows very well. I remember
when he was president of IPEF - Institute for Forest Research and Studies
(I was his vice-president) and director of Champion Forest Department
- he told me proudly about the operations in Mato Grosso do Sul and I
imagined something far and distant. This image for me was only changed
in my mind when I first went to Tres Lagoas to assist in the preparation
of the Environmental Impact Assessment Study of the current Fibria pulp
mill, which at the time was a project of International Paper do Brasil.
This happened in early 2006 and has allowed me to see that there were
available all the ingredients to work things out (and quickly). There
were: talent, enthusiasm and desire to create and to grow. There were
also political and community supports. The logistics network encompassing
paved highways, Parana-Tiete river navigation and nearby railroad would
shorten the distances to seaports for exporting goods. With all these
facilities, the pulp market is now a major revenue for the state - generating
products and exports to MS. The market pulp mill that would be the starting
for all this development in the region fared better than the original
proposal, as the VCP - Votorantim Celulose e Papel and International
Paper do Brasil have strategically exchanged assets and industrial unit
projects. Both are now operating successfully in the city of Tres Lagoas.
Everything happened very quickly as an industrial revolution in a city
historically based on livestock production and on state public jobs in
the extinct Federal Railway.
The state of Mato Grosso do Sul has unique environmental and economic
wealth. The climate is favorable to pine and Eucalyptus plantations,
the topography favors forest mechanization, land prices are attractive
and partnerships with local farmers have been a success. All acthors
are expecting to grow together and the wood has become, in less than
a decade, an important key economic factor for the state.
However, not only for pulp and paper are focused the state entrepreneurs:
there are many opportunities in the area of steel and pig-iron manufacturing
based on charcoal from Eucalyptus, because the local steel industry has
well recovered from the economic crisis caused by the hurricane of the
years 2008/2009. There are still expectations for wood energy and also
for biofuels based on ethanol from sugar cane.
In association to the forestry businesses potential in
MS, the local people of the state is not hindering, as this fact has
happened in other
states that have had equal opportunities, as it was the case in the state
where I live, Rio Grande do Sul. By contrary, the state of MS has orchestrated
very well the required services, hiring the best consultancies, proposing
a viable plan of forestry development, and also has greased legislation/bureaucracy
and worked for developing funding sources so that things could happen
without delay. There are much political will and things are expected
to happen leading to a development based on appropriate levels of sustainability.
This starts with top quality manufacturing companies with state-of-the-art
technologies, the basic condition for competitiveness and sustainability.
For all that, we are returning in this section to bring more information
on what is being considered the new golden eldorado of the pulp and paper
industry in Brazil. Nothing more fair than once again honor the state
of Mato Grosso do Sul in the "World of the Eucalyptus", after
all, these trees are being very fortunate and privileged in that state
because of their superior forestry performance .
Then, I kindly ask you to browse our selected indications for this section
to be able to read additional knowledge about the fantastic opportunities
for the Eucalyptus in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, with emphasis
to the pulp and paper industry development:
Some selected websites:
based company oriented to the future production of market pulp
for exports. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
of the new pulp mill)
issues of the Eldorado Brasil pulp mill project)
Paper do Brasil. Printing (copy and graphic) paper
manufacturing mill located in Tres Lagoas/MS. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
the IP mill in Tres Lagoas)
year of operations of the IP Tres Lagoas paper mill - in Portuguese)
Chamflora - in Portuguese)
Impact Assessment Report for the IP pulp+paper mill to be originally
built in Tres Lagoas - 126 pp. - in Portuguese)
pulp mill oriented to exports. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
Lagoas pulp mill at MS)
http://www.fibria.com.br/web/pt/negocios/floresta/matogrosso.htm (Eucalyptus forestry at MS)
forestry management plan for Mato Grosso do Sul plantations - in
forestry guidebook - in Portuguese)
Brasil. Forest plantations of Eucalyptus. Accessed on
- in Portuguese)
the Eucalyptus - in Portuguese)
the seedling production and forest nursery with many photos -
the silvicultural practices in Eucalyptus plantations with many
photos - in Portuguese)
Florestal Brasil at the Portal do Agronegocio - in Portuguese)
information about Florestal Brasil at the Portal do Agronegocio
- in Portuguese)
video presented by Painel Florestal TV- in Portuguese)
- Mato Grosso do Sul Environment Institute. Licensing and controlling
organization for the state of MS. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
- in Portuguese)
do empreendimento da Eldorado Florestal divulgado pelo IMASUL
Chapter 01 - Introduction: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%201%20-%20Introdução.pdf
Chapter 02 - General information: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%202%20-%20Informações%20Gerais.pdf
Chapter 03 - Characterization of the enterprise: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%203%20-%20Caracterização%20do%20Empreendimento.pdf
Chapter 04 - Areas of influence: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%204%20-%20Áreas%20de%20Influência.pdf
Chapter 05.1- Physical environment: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%205.1%20-%20Meio%20Físico.pdf
Chapter 05.2 - Biotic environment: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%205.2%20-%20Meio%20Biótico.pdf
Chapter 05.3 - Human environment: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%205.3%20-%20Meio%20Antrópico.pdf
Chapter 06 - Analysis of environmental impacts and mitigation measures: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%206%20-%20Análise%20dos%20Impactos%20Ambientais%20e%20Medidas%20Mitigadoras.pdf
Chapter 07 - Environmental programs: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%207%20-%20Programas%20Ambientais.pdf
Chapter 08 - Atmospheric dispersion: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%208%20-%20Dispersão%20Atmosférica.pdf
Chapter 09 - Risk analysis: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%209%20-%20Análise%20de%20Risco.pdf
Chapter 10 - Final remarks: http://www.imasul.ms.gov.br/Audiencias/Florestal1/Capítulo%2010%20-%20Considerações%20Finais.pdf
Florestal. Forest information web portal. Accessed on
Excellent vehicle for information on forestry and forest based industry
in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, but also with lots of information about
the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Tocantins, Minas Gerais, Piaui, Goias,
Maranhao, etc. Our greetings to our dear friends Robson Trevisan and Paulo
Cardoso for the excellent services they offer providing technical and journalistic
news and updates to the plantation forest sector in Brazil.
Below is a selection of some news and informational videos about the state
of Mato Grosso do Sul in this website - unfortunately to foreigners the
news are just in Portuguese) :
the possibility of growth of the planted area in the state of MS to
about 1 million hectares)
the recent pulp exports of Fibria - Tres Lagoas)
the success of Tres Lagoas on manufacturing market pulp from Eucalyptus)
the possible merger between Eldorado Brasil and Florestal Brasil)
and videos about the plantation forestry and the pulp industrialization
process in Mato Grosso do Sul:
Mato Grosso do Sul. Wikipedia Digital Encyclopedia. Accessed on
Historia do Mato Grosso do Sul. (History of Mato Grosso do Sul). Wikipedia
Digital Encyclopedia. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
Tres Lagoas. (The municipality of Tres Lagoas). Wikipedia Digital Encyclopedia.
Accessed on 29.10.2010:
Ribas do Rio Pardo. (The municipality of Ribas do
Rio Pardo). Wikipedia Digital Encyclopedia. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
Eucalipto em Mato Grosso do Sul. (Eucalyptus in Mato
Grosso do Sul). A. Salmeron. Agrosoft video. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
Mato Grosso do Sul: a bola da vez na silvicultura. (Mato Grosso do
Sul: the cue ball in forestry). A.Silva Jr.; P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal
TV Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
Como anda a silvicultura no Mato Grosso do Sul. (How the silviculture
is performing in Mato Grosso do Sul). L.C. Ramires Jr. Painel Florestal
Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
As perspectivas do setor florestal em Mato Grosso do Sul. (The forestry
segment perspectives at the Mato Grosso do Sul state). M. Freitas;
P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal TV Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
A silvicultura em Mato Grosso do Sul. (Forestry in Mato Grosso do Sul).
T. Cristina; P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal TV Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
importancia do carvao vegetal no Mato Grosso do Sul - Carvao vegetal
e essencial. (The importance of
charcoal in Mato Grosso do Sul -
Charcoal is essential). M. Brito; P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal TV
Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
01 - in Portuguese)
02 - in Portuguese)
Plano estadual de florestas de Mato Grosso do Sul. (Mato Grosso do
Sul State Forestry Plan). Painel Florestal TV Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
Eldorado Brasil a caminho. (Eldorado Brasil on the way). C.
Martin. O Papel 71(8): 41 - 45. (2010)
Plano estadual de desenvolvimento florestal do Mato Grosso do
Grosso do Sul State Forestry Plan). L.C. Ramires Jr. Sistemas Agroflorestais
EMBRAPA. 08 pp. (2009)
Mato Grosso do Sul. Plano estadual para o desenvolvimento
sustentavel de florestas plantadas. (Mato Grosso do Sul. State plan for the sustainable
development of planted forests). STCP Engenharia de Projetos. (2009)
report - 50 pp. - in Portuguese)
report - 48 pp. - in Portuguese)
Fibria. Horizon(te) pulp mill. Andritz. (2009)
Zoneamento ecologico economico do Mato Grosso do Sul. (Ecological
economic zoning for the state of Mato Grosso do Sul). MS State Government.
1 - 206 pp. - in Portuguese)
2 - 311 pp. - in Portuguese)
of Mato Grosso do Sul - Eucalyptus forests - Pulp - Paper:
Grosso do Sul and Eucalyptus forests)
Grosso do Sul and pulp manufacturing)
Grosso do Sul and paper manufacturing)
Websites with Emphasis in Pulp and Paper Science & Technology
In this section, which was prepared specially for technicians
and students in pulp and paper science and technology, we are showing Euca-Links with some academic institutions whose personal pages of some
of their professors offer relevant educational material to this type
of web audience. They are also valuable to those wondering to learn about
pulping and papermaking with the utilization of Eucalyptus. You have
just to click on the addresses of URLs referenced to open the webpages
and to know what we selected specially for you. Our sincere thanks to
these teachers by the cooperative way they offer to society, voluntarily
and freely sharing their knowledge with all stakeholders.
University of Misiones - College of Exact, Chemistry and Natural
Sciences - Argentina. (UNaM - Universidad Nacional de Misiones - FCEQyN
- Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Quimicas y Naturales - Argentina). Accessed
on 27.10.2010. (in Spanish)
The FCEQyN, a college at UNAM, through its Department of Industry and
Environment, provides extensive and interesting teaching materials about
the processes for production of pulp and paper and also on environmental
issues associated with the sector. The virtual classes are written by
the qualified professors of the college, our dear friends: Maria Cristina
Area, Carlos Eduardo Nunez, Laura Lidia Villalba, Claudio Ariel Pavlik,
Fernando E. Felissa, Graciela B. Gavazzo, Hector Eduardo Queirolo and
Hector Russo. To access the classes you need to register on the website,
and then with your registered password, you can download the lessons
to study. Notice that there is still the need to register for each of
the available courses. Register yourself and your password at:
register as a user of virtual classes - do not be affraid, it is very
Virtual classes at: http://www.aulavirtual-exactas.dyndns.org/index.php?category=INMAN (Don't
miss - you shall not lose this chance)
University of Parana - Wood Industrial Engineering Career. (UFPR -
Universidade Federal do Parana - Curso de Engenharia Industrial Madeireira).
Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in Portuguese)
The career on Wood Industrial Engineering at the Federal University of
Parana was created in 1998 by initiative of the faculty from the Department
of Forest Engineering and Technology - Sector of Agricultural Sciences,
being the first university course for top-level human resources graduation
(BA) oriented to the Lumber Industry in Brazil. The webpage of the course
is quite rich in information about this career. Many of the lessons of
the university professors are available for public access, also a must
for anyone who wants to read and learn about the pulp and paper technology.
There are other industries covered, but at this newsletter edition we
will focus only on subjects related to pulping and papermaking issues.
website - Course on Wood Industrial Engineering)
content&view=section&id=4&Itemid=81 (Availacle courses/classes)
Following are some selected courses and the corresponding
teachers, each one with valuable educational material for downloading
and reading. Our greetings to our dear friends and renowned professors
Dr. Umberto Klock, Dr. Ghislaine Bonduelle, Dr. Joao Carlos Moreschi
and Dr. Alan Sulati de Andrade, for the magnificent work in favor of
education in the wood sector.
• Course: Introduction to Wood Industrial Engineering
- by professor Dr. Umberto Klock.
The course covers fundamental and basic issues as quality, chemistry and wood
properties, as well as something about planted forests as source of wood.
• Course: Pulp and Paper - by professor Dr. Umberto
The course covers fundamental issues about processes and production of pulp and
paper, as well as the industrial operations involved in this type of industry.
• Course: Physical Properties of Wood - by professor
Mrs. Dr. Ghislaine
The course covers physical, thermal and electric properties of the wood.
• Course: Technological Properties of the Wood - by
professor Dr. Joao
The course offers fundamental concepts about the wood for industrial and technological
- in Portuguese)
hand-outs - in Portuguese)
• Course: Wood Chemistry - by professor Dr. Umberto
The course aims to discuss formation, anatomy, structure and chemical components
of the wood.
• Courses: Thermodynamics, Heat and Mass Transfer,
Machine Components, Hydraulic Machines and Thermal Machines - by professor
Dr. Alan Sulato de Andrade
The course brings the required fundamentals on thermodynamics and unit operations
to the students.
Mrs. Edna Scremin Dias' Webpage. Federal University of Mato Grosso
do Sul. (Webpage Professora Edna Scremin Dias. Universidade
Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in Portuguese)
Dr. Mrs. Edna Scremin Dias teaches undergraduate and graduate courses
in the Department of Biology at the Center of Biological and Health Sciences
in the UFMS - Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul. She has under
her responsibility the disciplines that deal with anatomy, morphology,
physiology and ecology of plants. Her classes are available on the website
of the institution and are available to be visited by our readers. Besides
the academic classes, professor Edna Dias has some books on forestry
that may also be of interest to you:
biology and botany of plants)
guide to the production of seeds from native forest species - with other
guide to the production of seedlings from native forest species - with
Carlos Eduardo Nunez's Webpage. UNaM/FCEQyN
- Argentina. (Webpage Professor Carlos Eduardo Nunez. UNaM/FCEQyN - Argentina).
Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in Spanish)
Our dear friend Carlos Eduardo Nunez (http://www.cenunez.com.ar/Index_archivos/Identidad.htm)
at UNaM / Argentina has a very interesting academic webpage to scatter
knowledge about wood and pulp, and highlights the following themes: analytical
laboratories; anatomy, structure and composition of woods; data on properties
of several wood, pulp and paper samples. It definitively worth to visit
and browse - do not miss accessing it.
Carlos Eduardo Nunez's webpage)
papers published by Dr. Nunez with links on several of them for downloading)
texts for access)
texts about wood, pulp and paper)
texts about chemical laboratories for the P&P sector)
document.php?cmd=exChDir&file=%2FPco._Refino_abril_2009 (Beaten fibers
cmd=exChDir&file=%2FPr%E1ctico_Rec._Fibrosos_MAMCYP_2009 (Several images
on wood anatomy, including Pinus and Eucalyptus)
%2FPco._An%E1l_Microsc._de_Papeles_08.doc (Microscopic images of paper
Dr. Martin A. Hubbe's Webpage - NCSU - North Carolina State University. (Webpage Professor Dr. Martin A. Hubbe - NCSU
- North Carolina State University). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in English)
Dr. Martin A. Hubbe is associate professor in the Department of Wood
and Paper Science at NCSU, where he works with "Chemistry of Papermachine
Wet-End" since 1998. He is in charge of managing a famous program
on this important area of the paper industry, in partnership with Buckman
Laboratories. He is also the coordinator of TAPPI - Technical Association
of the Pulp and Paper Industry course on "Introduction on wet-end
chemistry." Dr. Hubbe has international recognition in this field
of research and his classes, both to undergraduate and graduate students,
are regarded as some of the most advanced that you can find on this field
Hubbe's home page)
in chemistry of the paper machine wet-end)
in chemistry of the paper machine wet-end)
http://legacy.ncsu.edu/classes/wps595b002/ (Course "Wet-End
and Colloidal Chemistry")
for downloading and reading)
in chemistry of the wet-end)
to the paper sciences)
?page=author&pos=1&aid=2959 (NCSU Publication Repository for searching
Dr. Orlando Rojas' Webpage - NCSU - North Carolina State University. (Webpage Professor Dr. Orlando Rojas - NCSU - North Carolina State
University). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in English)
Our esteemed friend, Dr. Orlando Rojas is a competent and renowned
Venezuelan researcher who is working at NCSU since 2003 in the Department
of Forest Biomaterials, where he holds several positions of academic
prominence. He also has a role as visiting professor at other educational
institutions such as the Federal University of Amazonas (Brazil) and
Aalto University (Finland). His areas of R&D include lignocellulosic
materials and chemical agents/polymers used in pulp and paper manufacturing
processes, paper recycling as well. He also teaches courses on paper
properties. Visit his various publications, they are precious in the
field of paper chemistry, complementing very well with Dr. Martin Hubbe's
website. Dr. Rojas and Dr. Hubbe form a famous partnership in many
technical articles available in paper science.
(Dr. Orlando Rojas's home page)
Orlando Rojas's CV)
Rojas' academic courses)
Dr. Dimitris S. Argyropoulus' Webpage - NCSU - North Carolina State
University. (Webpage Professor Dr. Dimitris S. Argyropoulus - NCSU
- North Carolina State University). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in English)
Dr. Dimitris S. Argyropoulus is one of the most renowned researchers
in the field of wood and pulp and paper chemistry. Since 2002 he is
professor at the Department of Forest Biomaterials (http://cnr.ncsu.edu/fb/)
at NCSU, where he has created a very interesting personal webpage,
which provides many of the research papers developed by the research
team he integrates.
Dimitris Argyropoulus' webpage)
Degree - Dr. Celso Foelkel's Webpage. (Grau
Celsius - Webpage Dr. Celso Foelkel). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in Portuguese)
The author of this Eucalyptus Newsletter has a long career as professor
in several universities in Brazil, teaching pulp and paper courses. Some
of the hand-outs offered to his past students are available at www.celso-foelkel.com.br
for downloading. Although they are relatively old, some of them are still
valid and many times visited by Latin American P&P students.
http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_ufv.html (Hand-outs and master
dissertations from the time Dr. Foelkel was professor at UFV - Federal
University of Vicosa, Brazil)
http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_ufsm2.html (Hand-outs and master
dissertations from the time Dr. Foelkel was professor at UFSM- Federal
University of Santa Maria, Brazil)
about Events and Courses
This section has as aim to introduce to you several
very good links with recently already happened events (congresses, seminars,
conferences, workshops, courses). The advantage provided to web readers
is that the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings
available for free downloading to all interested parties. This is a very
good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere
thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the
event material with the interested parties. I would like to emphasize
the importance of visiting the material of these suggested events. Most
of them have exceptional PowerPoint presentations, rich on data, photos,
images and references. By doing this visit you can learn a lot more about
the discussed topics. Other courses or events offer the entire book of
technical articles, true sources of knowledge to our readers.
I hope you may enjoy this edition selection:
ABTCP/TAPPI Congress/Exhibition and 1st Latin American Tissue Symposium.
ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. (43º Congresso
e Exposicao Internacional ABTCP/TAPPI and 1º Simposio Latino-Americano
de "Tissue". ABTCP - Associacao Brasileira Tecnica de Celulose
e Papel). (in Portuguese and English)
ABTCP, in this year of 2010, and in partnership with TAPPI - Technical
Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry/USA, has held, past October,
the 43rd edition of its traditional Annual Congress/Exhibition, something
that happens since 1968. Parallel to this event, ABTCP also organized
the International Latin American Symposium on Tissue Paper, which also
had many highlights. In both cases, events were complemented by a large
technological exhibition in Sao Paulo. The sessions and technical presentations
of both events have together reached 1,046 participants and exhibition
had 8,087 unique visitors - both cases were considered cases of success
and have cooperated to the diffusion of technological knowledge. For
the first time in its history, ABTCP offers the PowerPoint presentations
of this magnum annual event to the general public and opens freely this
material to all interested parties who may eventually want to download
their preferences through the website www.abtcp.org.br. There are dozens
of excellent speeches in ppt/pdf which can be accessed until 31.12.2010,
which is the date on which they will be in the web for free. After this
date, they will only be accessed by members of the entity (or by request).
Please, check what valuable and rich material may be downloaded. Just
be patient with the downloads, since there are some speeches that are
robust and may take some time to the downloads.
Workshop on Wood Biorefinery and Tree Biotechnology.
FUNCFIBER/Biorefinery of the Future. (in English)
Biorefinery 2010 was an event organized and promoted by the Swedish
Center of Excellence in Wood - FUNCFIBER (http://www.funcfiber.se/)
with the aim to bring together groups from different research organizations
(academic and private) on the theme of biorefineries in forest-based
industry. As a partner in organizing the event there was also the
cooperative research center Biorefinery of the Future (http://www.bioraffinaderi.se/projectweb/portalproject/Home_en.html).
The event took place from 21 to 23 June 2010 and it was attended
by dozens of renowned speakers and an audience of distinguished researchers
in a worldwide basis. Lectures and abstracts of the articles are
available for downloading. In the event, we had an interesting speech
given by Dr. Dario Grattapaglia, a renowned "Friend of the Eucalyptus".
The title of the speech was: "More and better wood faster: genomic
selection in tropical Eucalyptus."
program and speeches)
book - 107 pp)
Dario Grattapaglia's speech)
Annual Trade and Commodity Finance in Brazil Conference. EuroMoney
Seminars. (in English)
An event organized by the Euromoney Seminars, which was held in Sao Paulo
in September 2010. The seminar presentations highlight the country of
Brazil as a place plenty of investment opportunities, reporting its exporting
capacity and foreign exchange generation. The highlights were the presentations
on the productive sectors: ethanol, soybean and pulp and paper (with
a lecture of BRACELPA's president - Mrs. Elizabeth Carvalhaes).
of the event)
- Speeches in Events - Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper. (BRACELPA
- Palestras em Eventos. Associacao Brasileira de Celulose e Papel).
(in Portuguese and English)
In the recently rebuilt BRACELPA's website, you can find some great
lectures/speeches presented by the organization staff in several national
forums. We suggest that you know these presentations, rich in images
on sustainability and Brazilian P&P industry statistics.
speeches from events)
http://www.bracelpa.org.br/bra2/sites/default/files/apresenta/ABTCP-TAPPI-2010.pdf (Mrs. Simone Nagai's BRACELPA presentation at ABTCP/TAPPI 2010
- P&P sector forum -
Technical Scientific Seminar on Forest Nurseries. IPEF - Institute
of Forest Research and Studies. (III Seminario Tecnico-Cientifico
de Viveiros Florestais. IPEF - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais).
The IPEF cooperative research program PTSM - Technical Program of Forestry
Management (http://www.ipef.br/ptsm/) recently organized and held its
third technical and scientific seminar on forest nurseries. The event
was held in Campo Grande/MS from 28 to 30 September 2010. The event site
selection was associated with the great move for seedling production
due to the expansions in new planting areas - something that is occurring
in that region. The outstanding event was aimed for disseminating new
technologies, information on legislation and scientific knowledge about
the production of forest seedlings, either from native or exotic species.
Check and select the materials of your interest - they are outstanding
lectures and with great technical merit.
and speeches in Portuguese)
Florestal TV video about the event - in Portuguese)
Xylotheques or Wood Collections
Until recently, xylotheques were considered to be physical
spaces specially designed and capable of housing collections of wood
samples of any size, shape or parts of woody species. To make things
easier to handle and to store, the physical wood collections often keep
the samples in pieces of predetermined dimensions, which are taken as
longitudinal, transverse and radial sections from the wood logs. In the
case of virtual wood collections, which emerged with the advent of the
Internet, they often show pictures of wood sections and of pieces taken
from the woods, as well as their morphological, anatomical, physical,
mechanical properties, and even pictures of the tree that represents
the specific type of wood. In general, the wood (or xylem) samples are
collected and stored by following a systematic classification, the same
type as used to taxonomically classify the plants. (http://www.cb.ufrn.br/atlasvirtual/sistematica.htm).
One of the most used is the systematic or taxonomic Engler's classification
Just as any sample collection, wood collections are the answer for some
purposes, among which we emphasize the scientific and practical applications.
Based on known and available samples, the scientists may perform research
on anatomy, quality and identification of wood and plant species. There
is also the available opportunity to visit the technical data sheets
for each timber that exists at the xylotheques. A user of a wood collection
can relatively easily identify and gather the unknown wood sample, discovering
its relevant properties, characteristics in appearance and more appropriate
uses and performances for this timber. It is also possible by the knowledge
of the characteristics of a given wood to infer about the plant species
that produced it, thereby serving as a repository for the identificatiom
of even the plant species or tree. In the case of Eucalyptus and pine,
the separation of plant species based on the wood characteristics is
very difficult, because the woods are very similar among the different
species within each genus. However, at the level of genus segregation
is quite possible to do this with a good level of reliability. Another
purpose is that the wood collections permit their use in studies of archeology
and history of civilizations. Historical objects of wood may be better
known by its woody characteristics and constitution. In general, dendrochronology
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dendrochronology) is another science that
is often associated with wood collections. With the use of simple devices
such as magnifier lens (minimum 10X magnification), binocular and optical
microscopes any type of timber can easily be identified by experts working
Wood collections are also associated to other botanical collections of
plant items such as: herbaria, slides of plant anatomy and collections
of fruits and seeds. Thus, these collections have important roles in
studies of taxonomy and plant identification. Through these collections,
research and educational institutions provide important services, both
in educating their students, as in the clarification and solution of
common problems coming from society.
There are hundreds of xylotheques in the world. In Brazil we have wonderful
collections of woods due to the rich biodiversity of woody species that
we have across the country. The most popular Brazilian wood collections
are: xylotheque "Calvin Mainieri" from IPT - Institute of Technological
Research in Sao Paulo State; xylotheque "Octavio Vecchi" at
Sao Paulo Forestry Institute; wood collection at INPA - National Institute
for Amazon Research; wood collection of Federal University of Amazon;
wood collection "Walter Egler" at Para Museum "Emilio
Goeldi"; wood collection of the Forest Products Laboratory from
IBAMA/DF; as well as wood collections owned by departments and institutes
of Botany in virtually all major Brazilian universities that have research
in its field of science.
The xylotheques usually have networks of mutual cooperation, exchanging
samples, information, training and services. There is a well-known text
written in four editions by William Louis Stern, who had as objectives
to relate and describe the major and renowned wood collections in the
world, assigning each with an alphabetic acronym. The article "Xylariorum
Index - Institutional wood collections of the world" was first published
in 1957 and then had upgrades in 1967, 1978 and 1988. This article was
most recently upgraded by Lynch & Glasson and is available in a link
below mentioned. The terms xylariorum, xylarium, xylaria and xylotheque
are used to express in English the collections of woods. Globally, some
of the most famous wood collections are located at Yale University (USA),
Forest Products Technology Research and Development Center (Indonesia),
CSIRO - Forestry and Forest Products (Australia), Forest Products Laboratory
(USA), etc. There's even a worldwide association of collectors of wood,
the International Wood Collectors Society (http://www.woodcollectors.org/).
Collecting wood is something that stimulates even the amateur collectors,
like myself. I started my private collection of small pieces of wood
still a student and continued throughout my professional career. I think
today I have some few hundred pieces, which allowed me to even create
a section on my website about the wood - wwww.celso
is a small collection, but I'm proud of it, for the fact that it allows
me to interact and to have empathy to the timber samples it holds. Quantum
Physics usually try to explain this empathy between objects and people,
by the interaction of physical waves emitted and exchanged between both.
I am the kind of people who collect things, so I should not fail in having
a collection of wood samples. I also have a pulp collection, much larger,
perhaps over one thousand samples and each one with the corresponding
data sheet, but that's another topic to tell you later.
Only the IPT/SP "Calvino Mainieri" wood collection reports
to have nearly 20,000 different cataloged wood pieces. With the advantage
that their data-sheets are also available online for browsing by stakeholders.
Almost all wood collections have data-sheets for the wood comprising
the collection. These sheets can be transfered to public and various
blogs and websites help to scatter this information sheets through the
web. I'll try to give some indication of where to find them just ahead
in this section.
some references of wood collections located in Brazil and also in a
world and web bases. Doing this, you may become astonished
by the beauty
of these collections of woods, or to seek knowledge that you are
demanding to work or when using any piece of wood.
Wikipedia Digital Encyclopedia. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
Woods". Xylotheque of the IBAMA Forest Products Laboratory. (Xiloteca "Madeiras
Brasileiras" do Laboratorio de Produtos Florestais do IBAMA).
(Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010:
page - in Portuguese)
search of Brazilian woody species - in Portuguese)
IPT/SP "Calvino Mainieri" Xylotheque. (Xiloteca "Calvino
Mainieri" - IPT/SP). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010:
tool for woods and technical data-sheets - in Portuguese)
REMADE Xylotheque. (Xiloteca REMADE - Revista da Madeira). (Brazil). Accessed
search for a great number of woody species in the world
- in Portuguese)
The Inside Wood Database. (USA). Accessed on 28.10.2010:
- in English)
data-base - in English)
Eucalyptus in the data-base - in English)
- Madison Wood Collection - USDA/FS - Forest Products Laboratory. (USA). Accessed on 28.10.2010:
at Forest Products Laboratory. R.B. Miller. 13 pp. 1999
- in English)
at MADw - in English)
AndKeywords05=&phrasesAndKeywords06= (Search about Eucalyptus - in
Species information. Timber Building in Australia. (Australia).
Accessed on 28.10.2010:
search woody species - in English)
IAWA - International Association of Wood Anatomists. (Belgium). Accessed
with wood catalogues and basic courses in wood structure
and anatomy - in English)
Xylariorum 4 - Upgraded by A.H. Lynch; P.E. Glasson - in
the 18 Brazilian xylotheques referred at the Xylariorum
4 - in English)
Xylotheque "Walter A. Egler". Para Museum "Emilio
Goeldi". (Xiloteca "Walter A. Egler" - Museu
Paraense "Emilio Goeldi"). (Brazil). Accessed
website - in Portuguese)
the "Emilio Goeldi" museum xylotheque by C.N.
Fonseca and co-workers. 76 pp. 2005 - in Portuguese)
of species and general data - in Portuguese)
- Virtual xylotheque of Amazon woody species - in Portuguese)
Xylotheque of the Federal University of Amazon. (Xiloteca
do Universidade Federal do Amazonas). (Brazil). Accessed
woody species by name - in Portuguese)
INPA Xylotheque - National Institute for Amazon
Research. (Xiloteca INPA - Instituto Nacional
de Pesquisas da Amazonia). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010:
species- in Portuguese)
of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden. (Xiloteca Jardim Botanico Rio de Janeiro). (Brazil). Accessed
Xylotheque "Octavio Vecchi" - Sao Paulo Forestry
Institute. (Xiloteca "Octavio Vecchi" - Instituto
Florestal Estado Sao Paulo). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010:
Xylotheque "Manuel Soler". (Spain). Accessed
page - in Spanish)
- in Spanish)
to other wood collections- in Spanish)
- About the wood: some species of Brazilian trees. (Sobre a madeira:
algumas especies de arvores brasileiras. SINDIMASP - Sindicato do Comercio
Atacadista de Madeiras do Estado de Sao Paulo). (Brazil). Accessed
woody species with corresponding data-sheet - in Portuguese)
the wood. Alefe Viana's Blog. (Conhecendo a madeira. Blog
de Alefe Viana). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010:
samples originated from forest species - in Portuguese)
the woods from Eucalyptus. Portal da Madeira. (Conhecendo as madeiras
de eucalipto. Portal da Madeira). (Portugal). Accessed on 28.10.2010:
samples. Laboratory of Forest Research UTAD - Portugal. (Amostras de madeiras. Laboratorio de
UTAD - Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro). (Portugal).
Accessed on 28.10.2010:
anatomic slides of several woods, including Eucalyptus and Pinus
- in Portuguese)
Hardwood species. AHEC-American Hardwood Export Council. (USA).Accessed
EcoData Xylotheque Project. (Italy). Accessed on 28.10.2010:
in a compacted file - in Italian)
Landscapes in wood anatomy. Celso Foelkel's Website. (Paisagens
em anatomia de madeiras. Website Celso Foelkel). (Brazil).
Accessed on 28.10.2010:
IWCS - International Wood Collectors Society. (USA). Accessed
(Website - in English)
woods - in English)
- in English)
Criacao de uma xiloteca electronica (e-xiloteca)
tropical e sua utilizacao para identificacao e caracterizacao
madeiras com fins cientificos e economicos. [Creating an
electronic tropical wood collection (e-wood tropical collection)
and its use for identification and characterization of
wood for scientific and economic purposes]. F.M.S. Bessa.
Ph.D. Thesis. Technical University of Lisboa. Superior
Institute of Agronomy. 368 pp. (2009)
Diretrizes e estrategias para a modernizacao de
colecoes botanicas brasileiras: infra-estrutura, capacitacao
da informacao. (Guidelines and strategies for the modernization
of Brazilian botanical collections: infrastructure, training
and information management). L.C. Maia; M. Menezes; A.L.
Porto; M.R. Barbosa. PowerPoint presentation: 29 slides.
Xilotecas brasileiras: panorama atual e contextualizacao. (Brazilian wood collections: an overview and contextualization).
(Undated and without references about source and authors)
Wood: New Uses and Advantages to the Wood of the Eucalyptus*
The concerns about environmental conservation are growing
every day, in similar proportion to the increasing number of conscious
Thus, the markets are rising for sustainable products and services,
which have been produced in a rational, environmentally friendly and
with fewer impacts to the ecosystems (Spezia, 2008). Production items
labeled as "friends of Nature" or "green labeled" can
already be found in significant number in the forest-based sector.
The wood itself is a renewable natural resource; but even so, it must
be used as rationally and correctly as possible, what means minimizing
wastes and residues. The use of wasted wooden materials for the manufacture
of new products and additional aggregation of value throughout the
lumber chain of production is a strong option (environmentally friendly),
leading to a proper reuse and disposal of the final wood residues.
The recycled wood is an example of correct usage of this natural asset.
Recycled wood markets are growing, being this type of wood utilized
primarily for the same purposes of the raw wood. Doing such, the recycled
wood also provides economic, social and especially environmental benefits
Demolition wood is a waste generated by dismantling or renovation of
buildings, houses, facilities and old industries that need to be demolished
or rebuilt to make the urban area available for other purposes. Contrary
to the clean wooden waste generated in saw-mills, the demolition wood
parts are considered dirty residues, since they contain decayed and
dirty wood pieces as: rotted, damaged, painted with various inks, attacked
by termites and having unknown quantities of nails and other objects
inserted in them (Falk and McKeever, 2004). This fact brings the need
for separation the wood from the debris of demolished concrete and
other materials. It is a difficult activity and that many civil industry
contractors, unfortunately, do not often like to perform. But this
reality is changing, mainly due to the socio-environmental benefits
that the demolition wood may bring.
The reuse of demolition wood reduces the need for harvesting new trees,
and mitigate the amount of wastes at landfills and industrial disposal
areas. Often, the wood is disposed in improper manners, causing pollution
on soil, groundwater and air, if improperly burned. Thus, the reuse
of this waste can help to a safer environment, in sinking carbon longer;
and creating new products that are increasingly demanded and appreciated
in the markets because they are environmentally friendly and have ecological
appeal. The markets for demolition wood also creates new jobs, favoring
new industries to appear, benefiting communities. Today, there is a
growing number of applications for such waste material (USDA, 2002).
The main timber wastes possible to be found in old demolished buildings
and construction works are: doors, beams, structural components of
walls and roofs, handrails, windows, floors, stairs, fences, poles,
stakes, ties, among others (Falk and McKeever , 2004). According to
Taylor and Warnken (2008), many of demolition wastes are shattered
into pieces and mixed with chunks of concrete, plastics, paper and
even some toxic wastes. In the latter case, the wood becomes unfit
to be reused. Pallets, railways sleepers, wooden cross-arms removed
from power poles and scraps of wooden packaging materials are also
important for human beings and are considered demolition wood, too
(USDA, 2002). They all deserve a second chance to be useful again.
The construction industry increasingly uses the wood of Eucalyptus replacing the indigenous hardwood trees. For this reason, the Eucalyptus are being found in many elements known as demolition wood such as pallets,
railway sleepers, furniture, poles, fences, etc. This paper aims to
add some technical information about this timber residues which are
becoming important raw materials and sources of additional incomes.
Demolition wood is being a completely new and unusual product at many
and sometimes sophisticated markets.
According to USDA (2002) the main demolition wood utilization's are:
- To be used as wood itself
The reuse of demolition wood as structural element of new constructions,
or as part of architectural projects, is the first objective, trying
to recover the original wood use. This purpose is the one that adds
more value to the residue. If the destination of demolition wood is
related to the structure of a building, it is recommended that an inspection
and certification be made by an expert in timber for the safe utilization
and the guarantee of the mechanical and physical wood properties (USDA,
In a great part of the world, including Brazil, demolition wood is
already quite used for the production of furniture, in special of the
rustic designing. This model of furniture is increasingly demanded
and appreciated not only because the environmental appeal they have,
but also for the quality, pattern, beauty and comfort. Many architects
prefer the use of wood from demolition in their creations and designs,
for believing that the aged appearance of the wood creates a cozy environment,
especially for homes (Martins, 2009).
In Brazil, pieces of wood from old houses are eventually separated
by civil industry contractors, because they have very good value as
demolition wood. This happens because they may be originated from native
species commonly used in the past and that are very rare to be found
today. The remaining trees of these species in Brazilian native forests
are now protected by law. Thus, someone can still find demolition wood
of cedar, ipe, rosewood, mahogany, rose mahogany, cinnamon, araucaria,
among others. What would be discarded in landfills along with the concrete
and brick debris can now be recycled, achieving some very interesting
marketing values. A significant part of the wood removed at building
demolitions are in good condition, despite having more than one hundred
years of use (Martin, 2009). Demolition wood furniture can be manufactured
from them, such as: chairs, tables, mirror frames, cabinets, screens,
beds, sofas, benches, decks and pools walkways (Cruzetas..., 2010).
Many artists also have the demolition wood as raw material for paintings
and sculptures. Architects, who work with demolition wood, feel that
as long as the environment is harmonious, the furniture of this type
of raw material may be supplemented with other modern elements containing
fresh or reconstituted wood (Martins, 2009). According to one architect
interviewed by this author, people are looking for differentiated furniture,
durable and looking old, however with high quality. These characteristics
can be found in the furniture made by several artisans using demolition
The increased demand, the rarity of some woods, as well as the difficulty
of separating the other debris, cause the prices of these products
to be often high in the markets (Santana, 2010; Barauna, 2009). However,
there are furniture made with less rare wood from demolition, as it
is the case of the Eucalyptus, yielding products with more accessible
values and showing all the advantages of environmental, social and
economic benefits as the rare demolition woods. Many railways sleepers,
poles and cross-arms made from Eucalyptus are used in making furniture
and pool accessories, such as floors, countertops and decks (Cruzetas...,
Taylor and Warnken (2008) reported that in Australia there are already
entrepreneurs specialized in separating wood and other demolition materials,
and there are internet websites that provide guidance on the acquisition
and certification of wood from demolition. The addition of value in
demolition wood (which is often overlooked) is significant, particularly
when such wood is used again as raw material for noble purposes in
the furniture industry. There are even cases that the demolition wood
is worth more than fresh and raw wood (Turek, 2009).
According to Barauna (2009), in addition to furniture, flooring, window
frames, ceilings and other decorative objects that can be made with
wood from demolition, this material is also versatile enough for architecture
purposes, receiving different treatments and making possible to change
the look of the environments over the years.
- To be used as raw material for engineered or reconstituted wood
Small pieces of wood originated from demolition works can be separated
and reused in the manufacture of wood panels. In this process, the
small pieces of wood (sawdust or wood chips) receive thermal treatment
along with the addition of adhesives, resins and other chemicals to
form a wooden panel also known as reconstituted wood (USDA, 2002).
One of the main kinds of wood panels that can be manufactured from
the demolition wood is the OSB (Oriented Strand Board), one of the
least demanding in terms of raw material quality and specifications.
According to Taylor and Warnken (2008), MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard)
panels can also be manufactured with wood from demolition. The chipped
wood receives treatments which combines mechanical defibration in water
with the use of thermal heating, before the manufacture of a new panel.
Damaged used pallets and packaging wood that no longer can be reused
for these specific functions, are considered important wastes to be
converted into wood raw materials for panels. They can be reused to
the manufacture either fiberboards or wood panels. There are companies
chipping the wooden pallets in specialized machinery (wood chippers),
subsequently removing metals such as nails with magnets. Then, the
chips are able to be sold to the process industry of forming panels,
going for new grinders and screeners to better purify the fibers (Biblioteca...,
Wood plants in the United Kingdom are said being able to reprocess
80% of wood waste from post-consumer collection. Even the sawdust generated
in chipping of demolition wood is not wasted. It may be composted for
the generation of organic fertilizers for agriculture or burned as
fuel (Biblioteca..., 2010).
- To be used as raw material for composting and organic fertilizing
The sawdust and wood meal generated from demolition wastes are excellent
raw materials for composting, requiring the addition of nitrogen (found
in animal manure) for their more efficient and quick decomposition
and stabilization. After composting, the produced organic fertilizer
can be used in agriculture to supply nutrients to crops (USDA, 2002).
- To be used as biomass fuel
According to Biblioteca... (2010), a great percentage of the demolition
wood cannot be reused for noble use. Rotten doors, decayed walls and
floor coverings become wastes during processing of these wood pieces.
They will no longer have physical or mechanical conditions to perform
again as wood. So, the best destination for such waste, in some cases,
is burning them as biomass for power generation (USDA, 2002).
In all cases of reusing wood from demolition, it is important to pay
attention to the fact whether the wood had been treated or not with
any kind of harmful chemical preservative that may have some residual
levels (example: creosote, pentachlorphenol, chromium, copper, boron
or arsenic). They all may bring some toxicity when the wood gets another
specific purpose. In such cases, the destination of the wood waste
needs to be reevaluated, and for many purposes, this kind of treated
wood shall not be recommended.
The environmentally correct wood is beingincreasingly demanded by conscious
consumers, who require that the products they consume are the most
sustainable and natural as possible. Thus, demolition wood is today
a "fashion" among these consumers, mainly because it is a
recycling waste that adds a surplus value, instead of being improperly
disposed. The use of demolition wood for architectural purposes is
one of the most valuable and noble of all utilization's, and can reach
very attractive economic value. Many fashion furniture are manufactured
with demolition wood, whose raw materials were taken from old houses,
having a long story behind each of their pieces, which often show up
more than 200 years of age. This fact is very popular with the buyers,
who want to know details of the species, age, stories, origin, and
intrinsic qualities of the woods. According to USDA (2002), the sale
of demolition wood to civil construction works, artistic, structural
or architectural purposes can generate revenues 20 to 30 times higher
than the same quantity of wood sold for combustion or composting. The
same author commented that the demolition wood used for the production
of wood panels have results up to four times higher with respect to
its sale to power generation or organic fertilizer.
Despite the great advantages that the demolition wood features andeven
considering its increasing worldwide use, including in Brazil, there
are still people who know close to nothing about this kind of product.
Thus, the reuse of wood should be encouraged by public and private
organizations and authorities, through advertising and more research.
Such measures would help to encourage proper separation of waste wood
from building sites in process of demolishing. These wastes would have
the best possible environmental destinations, particularly by the fact
of deserving new opportunities that would be offered to the segregated
wood pieces. What would be a problem and a waste very easily may be
converted into a valuable raw material. Exactly how eco-efficiency
To all those interested in this issue, there is just ahead a series
of technical articles, scientific papers, news, videos and websites
of organizations and companies that are specialized in demolition wood.
Meet the incredible work is being done in the processing of wood waste
into products with high added value.
- Institute for the Development of Ecological Housing. (Instituto
para o Desenvolvimento da Habitacao Ecologica). Accessed on 25.10.2010:
- in Portuguese)
com residuos. (Building with wastes). M.A. Uruena. IDHEA. 01 pp.
Accessed on 25.10.2010:
Materiais ecologicos e tecnologias sustentaveis. Praticas e aplicacoes. (Ecological
materials and sustainable technologies. Practices and applications). IDHEA.
Available at Scribd. Accessed on 25.10.2010:
Tecnologias-Sustentaveis-Praticas-e-Aplicacoes (in Portuguese)
de madeira reciclada. (Pole cross-arms or hangers made in recycled
wood). Website Cruzetasdemadeira.com. Accessed on 25.10.2010:
em madeira de demolicao. (Art in demolition wood). Inariwei's channel.
Youtube. Accessed on 25.10.2010:
coluna. Parte 3. (Mechanical lathing of columns. Part 3). JorgeIzidoro's
channel. Youtube. Accessed on 22.09.2010:
de demolicao. (Demolition wood). Hades2206's channel. Youtube. Accessed
de demolicao. (Demolition wood). Searching at Youtube. Accessed on
madeira+de+demoli%C3%A7%C3%A3o%22&aq=f (in Portuguese)
de demolicao. (Demolition wood). Blog. Accessed on 22.09.2010:
video-cruzetas-de-madeira-deck-de-cruzetas/ (Video: Pole hangers/cross-arms
of demolition wood - in Portuguese)
de demolicao. (Demolition wood). Specialized Website. Accessed on
Como transformar casa antiga em arte. (How to change your old house into
art). Madeiradedemolicao.com. Accessed on 22.09.2010:
Processo para reciclagem e reutilizacao. (Process of recycling and
recovery). Biblioteca FHM Zero-C. Library FHM Zero-C. (2010)
de demolicao. (Demolition wood). R. Santana. Sustentaculos. (2010)
de demolicao e tendencia em Itaipava. (Demolition wood is a trend
in Itaipava). M. Martins. Comunicacao e Informacao. (2009)
madeira-de-demolicao-e-tendencia-em.html (in Portuguese)
madeira de demolicao na sua casa. (Sustainability: demolition wood
in your house). V. K. T. Barauna. EcoReleases. Portal do Meio Ambiente.
para revestir paredes. (Wood for wall coverings). C. Turek. Reciclagem.
Vila do Artesao. (2009)
recovery and recycling: a source book for Australia. J. Taylor; M. Warnken.
Forest and Wood Products. Australia Limited. 48 pp. (2008)
PNA017-0708_Wood_Recycling.pdf?pn=PNA017-0708 (in English)
ecologicas. (Ecological woods). M. Spezia. Jornal da Comunidade.
Decor. 01 pp. (2008)
de gestion de residuos de demolicion (EGRCD). (Study of the demolition
waste management). EGR Demolicion. Ministerio de la Presidencia.
Espanha. 08 pp. (2008)
sobre residuos de contruccion y demolicion. (A monograph on construction
and demolition wastes). IHOBE. 48 pp. (2004)
impacts of preservative-treated wood. Florida Center of Environmental
Solutions. Post-Conference Proceedings. 435 pp. (2004)
of the market development potential of the waste wood and wood
products reclamation and reuse sector. BFM Ltd; BRE Ltd. The
Waste and Resources Action
Programme. 125 pp. (2004)
wood for reuse and recycling - a United States perspective. R. H.
Falk; D. B. McKeever. 13 pp. FPL/USDA (2004)
approaches to recycling urban wood waste. USDA - United
States Department of Agriculture. Solid Waste Association of North America. General
Technical Report 133. 22 pp. (2002)
wood waste resource assessment. G. Wiltsee. 227 pp. (1998)
LEED de edificios sustentables. Materiales y recursos. (LEED
certification of sustainable buildings. Materials and resources).
Miranda y Nasi
Consultores Ltda. PowerPoint presentation: 113 slides. (Undated)
design and wood. A wood frame building performance fact sheet. Forest
Products Association of Canada. 08 pp. (Undated)
wood images - including Eucalyptus woods:
(Furniture manufactured in demolition wood)
manufactured in demolition wood)
-em-bancadas-e-banheiros/ (Demolition wood in bathrooms)
151&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=33 (Eucalyptus railroad sleepers)
N&start=0&ndsp=20 (Madeira de demolicao - Demolition wood - Google
com_virtuemart&Itemid=33 (Demolition wood decks)
wood - Google images)
UTF-8&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi ("Madera de demolicion" -
*We would like to thank the friends of the demolition
wood, Mr. Anderson and Mr. Junior, from "Bicho da Madeira", who
gave me the opportunity to meet their manufacturing process of making furniture
from demolition wood and the photos of their products, one of which is the
image of a table manufactured with Eucalyptus demolition wood, and serving
for the purpose of opening this section.
Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Performance and Productivity Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper
The pulp and paper industry has gradually been changing its geographical
distribution in the face of comparative and competitive advantages
that some regions and companies have over others. An industry that
for decades has heavily been concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere
(Europe, North America and Japan) has gradually lost importance in
these regions showing now a strong growth in the Southern Hemisphere
and at the countries named by the acronym BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India
and China). This change has its reasons associated with the performance
of the companies of market pulp and paper manufacturing in these
regions of recent emergency in the paper business; and also because
other systemic issues that these regions were able to well solve,
such as: legislation, licensing, image, monetary policies, financing,
infrastructure and logistics, bureaucracy, political and financial
However, the major driving force for the growth of this sector in
these emerging regions has been the competence to perform well in
what we call key competitiveness factors for the industry. To be
competitive, any company in the pulp and paper industry at least
needs to be performing above the overall production average for the
product it manufactures. In our case, the key factors of competitiveness
are clearly known and played. Among them we have: manufacturing unit
costs (fixed and variable costs), quality and product performance,
productivity and operational performance, distribution and logistics,
corporate image, environmental and economic health. When a company
is doing well on these issues, it tends to rapidly grow and to increase
capacity, thereby gaining greater participation in the markets ("market
share"). Financial institution's and investors are closely watching
these performances, including the operational, as it has immediate
impact on the value of their shares in the stock exchanges and capital
Winning companies are those able to develop good and appropriate
strategies (effectiveness) and management of their operations (efficiency).
They can successfully select the strategies (choice of things to
do), as well as having efficiency in operations (doing very well
the chosen things). Achieved this integration strategy / management,
they can add more value than competitors and start acting in the "plus
world" (growth, development, successes) and not in the "minus
world" (daily battle for survival and constant surprises).
However, the real business competitiveness depends not only the company
itself, but also the country and the region where the business is
located. Gone are the days when a company could be successful by
exploiting local natural resources and located in a miserable region,
poor and without infrastructure to provide happiness to its workers.
Economic globalization has forced companies to be increasingly competitive.
That's because they need today to compete not only overseas, by exporting
their products, but also in their own regional markets (which can
freely import products from abroad if they are better and/or with
The famous management experts argue that to be competitive a company
must act in the following strategic areas:
• management and strategies;
• integration and optimization of productive processes;
• strengthening and development of industrial clusters within its value
chain network ;
• monitoring performance against direct competitors (benchmarking)
and the same in relation to alternative products on the market;
• stimulating creativity and innovation capacity, especially in technologies
Low competitive companies are easily identified because:
• they do not have consistent strategies and plans;
they act in a hasty way in various markets, "shooting at random
to see if they get something, even without knowing what";
• they have mixed and diverse entrepreneurial cultures among managers;
• they are unable to get the involvement and integration of the own
team in pursuit of the goals and strategic challenges;
• they are unable to achieve the minimum required continuous improvement;
• they show no growth (companies with problems show no signs of civil
constructions and new equipment additions - they are static along
• they have inadequate levels of productivity;
• they have low technological, business and marketing performances;
• they have no credibility in the forums where they act.
Thus, both the selection of strategic options as well as the competence
in operating and properly managing processes are vital things to
the competitive success of companies in the pulp and paper business.
Doing such, they can identify their level of competitiveness. This
means they must have adequate and continuous monitoring mechanisms
on the key performance indicators. This performance needs to be above
average, even outstanding, in all areas of the business: production,
materials, marketing, technology, financial, environmental, forestry,
etc. Of course, without an efficient integration of these areas and
without a road to follow in relation to performance indicators, it
is nowadays very difficult to perform a winning management.
Definitely, there are many important words related to business results.
For each of these words the company should have indicators to monitor
and evaluate the situation in which it performs. Please, see in a
simple way where the companies should be focused by the mere mention
of words and phrases: production, price, costs, contribution margins
by each product, inventories, markets, capital, profit, working capital,
results, customers, quality, productivity, continuous improvement,
best practices, technology, information, knowledge, experience, training,
resources and materials, vital processes, logistics, strategy, vision,
focus, planning, organization, added value, operational efficiency,
flexibility, timing (time response), decision making, production
scale, risks, wastes, threats, opportunities, brands, image, people/persons,
Since all leading Brazilian companies in this industry are certified
by the ISO series of standards for quality and environment management
systems, they all have developed their vital indicators (or not so
vital) to monitor their production systems. With this, they can not
only check their performances, but also make comparisons with their
peers and eventually to their competitors.
The competitiveness of the Eucalyptus pulp and paper business in
Brazil depends basically in the following items:
• forest productivity;
• cost of wood and/or pulp fibers;
• unit cost of production;
• cash cost of the product;
• cost and availability of capital;
• effective use of capital;
• working capital needs;
• modernization of mills;
• capacity expansion and scaling up production;
• state-of-the-art technologies;
• market share;
• legal compliance;
• financial health (cash management and capital to be spent);
• environmental health and compliance;
• effective strategies;
• efficiency in operations;
• productivity in the production line;
• product quality;
• vital skills and competence's;
• distribution and logistics;
• relationship and cooperation with customers;
• innovation plus research and development;
• value creation for the company and the consumer;
• portfolio of products, etc.
For all these factors, companies need to have exemplary performance.
This requires the construction of indicators for each vital factor
- not too many in each case - just the most important. All companies
try to do this, some with varying degrees of sophistication. Some
rely heavily on information technology, but just IT is not enough.
We must have a sound dialogue with data and processes and to know
the best ways to interpret them. Otherwise, we'll just build beautiful
and fancy graphics and tables that IT helps building. And nothing
Among the success factors one cannot discard to the background the
available technological quality, and competence that people in the
mill have to operate and to maintain these technologies in good shape.
In our type of industry there are some basic rules that are well-known
by everyone (and sometimes they are nasty to executive management):
• pulp and paper mills can not stop because the cost of downtime is
• every penny saved per tonne of product will become a significant
number at the end of the year due to the production scale factor;
• money is not a gift given to play with it, but it requires a result
and a return;
• the price of products is determined by market forces and supply/demand
as it is for all other commodities;
• high prices in one period does not mean they can not fall sharply
in a short time and vice-versa (cyclical prices trends);
• manufacturing costs depend on effectiveness and efficiency;
• high fixed costs per tonne indicate insufficient scale of production
or chronic management;
• high unit variable costs or expensive inputs indicate inefficient
• operational performance in manufacturing of products is the basic
foundation of any business, both pulp and/or papermaking;
• unskilled companies at production processes have a daily struggle
to operate in this business, unless privileged by some hidden force
or magic (if that still exists in democratic countries).
Taking into account that a full assessment of all these factors would
require much more than a simple mini-article in our Eucalyptus Newsletter,
we will focus just the operational performance and productivity at
our mills. After all, our companies are typically oriented to process
production lines and to a few products. Therefore, they are simple
to be tracked and monitored. Furthermore, our goal is to have economic
results from our products and not from other kind of financial arrangements
Productivity and operating performance are associated with technical
efficiencies in production and in the use of scarce resources (raw
materials, energy, labor, etc.) at manufacturing lines. They are
generally numerical relations that indicate the efficiency in the
use of a machine, an input of a raw material, labor, etc. Productivity
indicators can be created in thousands of them, but managers should
not exaggerate. Otherwise, it becomes difficult to manage and this
fact ends up creating a management by justifications and explanations
of numbers through the use of information tools.
Productivity and operating performance of the pulp/paper companies
are in turn associated with some very important items, such as:
• age and technological level of machinery;
• efficiency in the use of the machines (known as operational efficiency);
• efficiency in the utilization of inputs, raw materials and energy;
• technical training of operators;
• level of automation and online control instruments;
• organizational practices (best practices);
• adoption of programs of quality and productivity with motivation
for continuous improvements;
• efficiency in decision-making;
• traceability of the processes, etc.
In general, managers know very well where to focus, but there is
always something hidden under the carpet to be discovered. Therefore,
one of the main points that we shall always improve in the mills
is to strengthen the interpretation of the indicators aiming to leverage
improvements and not to generate explanations. Another crucial point
is the need to be quick in decisions and actions, assuming that the
mills cannot stop (downtime) and that every penny saved per tonne
of product has enormous consequences over the time.
Just to give a simple example about this, let us understand what
it means in terms of lost revenue for a market pulp mill producing
2,400 tonnes per day of pulp when the mill stop production for one
hour. This means 100 tonnes per hour. If the mill has a downtime
of one hour, at least 100 tonnes of pulp will not be produced to
be sold. However, there are also other losses that we did not include
here. If the net selling price of this product is U.S. $ 700 per
tonne and the variable cost of production is U.S. $ 250 per tonne,
we have a contribution margin per product unit of U.S. $ 450. Therefore,
the lost revenue by one hour downtime is exactly what was not received
as the gross contribution margin. The mill did not spend the U.S.
$ 250 variable cost per product unit, but also failed to earn 450.
Considering a lost production of 100 tonnes of pulp in the downtimed
hour, the value of lost revenue would amount to 100 x 450 = U.S.
$ 45,000. Simple to understand why mills cannot stop, isn't it?
For these mentioned reasons, many pulp & paper
mills are structured to perform detailed assessments of operational
to understand the causes of production losses and operational downtimes.
Very often, these causes are related to the machines and maintenance,
but these are not the only reasons. Most of the times, it's easier
to complain about the machinery, raw materials and maintenance; however,
without making mistakes, there are many other reasons. Production
losses and operational discontinuity occur in all manufacturing areas.
As our mills are actually networks of operations, a downtime in one
area can surely affect others or even the entire mill. The correct
identification of operational issues and downtimes - either mechanical,
electrical, instrumental, etc. - can help improving operational efficiency
and productivity indicators, as consequence.
Quality and productivity programs have simple tools that are very
suitable for identifying causes and effects of downtime and lost
production/quality: Pareto charts, fish-bone graphs, statistical
controls charts, etc. Also, the evaluation systems for quality
and productivity awards, such the criteria for excellence of the
National Quality Award (Brazil) and the Baldrige National Quality
Program (USA) induce, instruct and suggest how and what to develop
as key indicators, those vital to the operations of the company
in several aspects. The quality control staff in our mills is also
very creative in establishing indicators of compliance to processes
and products, aiming to show the performance of each one in relation
to technical specifications, wastes, losses, downtime, yields,
Any person, even without a good knowledge in industrial processes,
can easily enumerate some reasons for lack of productivity in our
mills, such as:
• excessive downtime of the machinery;
• reduction in machine speeds;
• unreliability of equipment;
• excessive maintenance;
• excessive generation of wastes, rework, losses, etc.
There is no need to be an engineer oriented to process optimization
to understand that lowering productivity will strongly impact on
the production unit costs. Lower productivity will increase both
the fixed costs per unit (for the reduction of the production in
a given time) as the variable costs (by increasing on the waste
of raw materials, energy, reprocessing, etc.).
Today, there are many consulting firms for performance optimizations
services. It's a full plate for any consulting company with good
methodology, good people and good systems for assessments and training.
This is because another simple rule: there is no single mill in
the world that does not have inefficiencies and opportunities for
improvements. Often, workers and managers are so used to their
performance problems that they tolerate them or no longer notice
them. Since they never worried too much on performing a careful
evaluation to quantify and identify these inefficiencies, they
simply forget about them, with the trust that things will take
care to adjust for better by themselves. A foolish thought.
The great and unquestionable truth is that any mill can operate
by far with better utilization of resources/inputs, since wastes
always occur. This will also result in losses of money and more
pollution. At any productive place, where something is being manufactured,
we will always be wasting resources, and having yields below the
stoichiometrics. That's part of mankind culture, a species that
had its own development in a planet rich in resources seemed to
be inexhaustible. Only now things are changing. Eco-efficiency
is the science that seeks to find and value these inefficiencies
and to propose solutions for adjustments and improvements in the
use of resources (which are all natural resources, of course).
Our pulp and paper mill managers very wiselyare able to associate
operational efficiency to production costs. Some of them place large
and dramatic efforts to minimize costs, when they should be acting
on the inefficiencies, instead. With the optimization of operations
and efficiencies, costs will be naturally reduced. When working just
on costs, we are not acting on the causes, but on the consequences.
Easy to understand this. The difficult issue to explain are the reasons
why most of time the managers focus more on costs and less on inefficiencies.
Would it be more charming? Or is a cutting-cost program more appealing
to top executives, who like to talk more on the language of money?
Any kind of plant optimization is to require appropriate systems
for obtaining reliable data and information, as well as lubricated
decision-making processes. The focus should be on productivity,
efficiency, wastes and broke reductions, yields, rework and costs,
as well. But not just costs, costs and expenses, to vary a little
the words. I have always said with conviction that by making a
management only on top of costs, someone is performing a management
of the mill misery, instead of the management of an industrial
process in all its vital aspects.
A good system for evaluating the operational performance
must always seek to "separate the wheat from the darnel." This
• to understand and interact with the machines and operators to know
the peculiar things and bottlenecks/restrictions of the manufacturing
• to understand what are the critical and vital operations;
• to establish performance indicators for these vital operations;
• to understand the causes for non-compliance and inappropriate levels
• to find opportunities for improvements;
• to evaluate the opportunities on their economic, environmental and
to calculate the "pay back" for every opportunity;
• to decide what to do;
• to implement and then monitor the gains to ensure the perpetuity
Supervisors and process operators are key persons to help to achieve:
lower cost, higher yields, higher productivity, consistent quality,
clean environment and business success. For this reason, they are
to be the first people who should be involved in the processes of
performance indicators implementation and operational optimization.
Training programs, education, knowledge transfer are key elements,
as well as behavioral and motivational programs. They should also
be the main proponents of new operational practices and suggestions
Within the proposals for better performance, benchmarking the operations
is very valuable. Benchmarking is a performance measurement tool
that aims to bring the industrial process to the best practices and
best performances in a specific industry segment. However, comparisons
must be made based on the same methodological basis and appropriate
measurements. Otherwise, the comparisons will be inaccurate and may
lead to false conclusions. For example, it is common the practice
of measuring paper-machines production and performance. Inappropriate
measurements will lead to errors in the comparison of performances
among them. For this reason, much attention is recommended when someone
wants to compare performances among mills.
Each performance indicator is created with the aim of optimizing
a process, not to generate historical data, justifications, and
nothing else. These indicators need to be well-understood by those
who operate the machines and processes. This only happens with
education, training and awareness. It is also necessary to give
more time to mill personnel, allowing them to think, reflect, discuss
and integrate. The management by pressure "based on the breath
on the neck" can definitely halter mind and reduce people's
There are no mill operators or supervisors who do not know where
the inefficiencies of the process are, or "where resources
and supplies are being lost down to the sewer". They know
very well about: wasted inputs, energy being thrown away, abnormal
inventories, machines always stopping, under or over-sized machinery,
machines running below capacity, wastes and off-grades, inadequate
yields, erroneous measurements, imperfect maintenance, inappropriate
materials, idle time, unnecessary services, avoidable downtimes,
etc., etc. There is much perversity in all these issues, reducing
the chance of success to the business. Often, the solutions are
so simple that we should be ashamed of saying them and to tell
why they have not been implemented, yet.
In the past, when markets were protected and oligopoly a common
market situation, those paying for our inefficiencies were the
customers, who were obliged to pay higher prices. Today, with competition
and globalization of the economy, we have no control over prices.
So, the one who will pay for our inefficiencies will be exactly
our company, which will have higher costs and lower profits. To
make things even worst, everything that is wasted turns into pollution
and the costs will be even higher by the need to treat waste waters,
solid wastes and air emissions.
Operational performance indicators have the function to open our
eyes and we must demand this mission from them. They are designed
to support our operational process improvements. In general, they
are linked to specific consumption of inputs or raw materials,
to the efficiency of operation of machines and workers, to the
yields in the conversion of a raw material to a product, to the
generated off-grades due to poor operation, etc.
In the case of paper-machines they are generally divided into sub-indices
that seek to measure:
• time availability of the paper-machine being ready to operate;
• efficient use of available time;
• performance in relation to sustainable manufacturing capacity for
• yield quality;
• losses due to broke generation and the need to return them for
reprocessing, since this return to the machine will occupy room
in machine capacity.
As a rule, the performance indicators have the mission to open
the doors to process and operational opportunities and to allow
us to value them for facilitating the decisions about implementation
of mill improvements. On this basis, we can establish the plans
for the continuous process improvements. From this point onwards,
it will be typically a matter of management efficiency. Decisions
may be in favor of doing something. However, someone needs to know
what to do, and to have the wish to do it well. Once again, we
are talking about effectiveness and efficiency. With a sound practice
on both, our pulp and paper mills will be better, more efficient
and more productive. Result: our competitiveness will be further
enhanced and our industry success will be more sustainable.
Reference from literature and suggestions for reading:
Throughout this long list of valuable references, you will find
several publications related to the project "Performance Indicators
and Benchmarking", a valuable service being provided by ABTCP
- Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper, something
well-established and managed by our dear friend Dorian Bachmann.
Do not miss reading them.
Benchmarking. ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. Accessed
Indicadores de desempenho. Referencias ABTCP para celulose
e papel. (Performance indicators. ABTCP references for pulp
and paper). Bachmann & Associados. Accessed on 01.11.2010:
/ gestao / estrategias / cadeias produtivas. Competitiveness / management / strategies
/ productive chain).
C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. PowerPoint presentation: 51 slides.
Accessed on 01.11.2010:
oportunidades de renovacao nas nossas empresas de celulose e
papel. (Discovering opportunities for revitalizing our pulp
and paper companies).
C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. PowerPoint presentation: 46 slides. Accessed on
Desempenho operacional. (Operational performance). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius.
PowerPoint presentation: 34 slides. Accessed on 01.11.2010:
Gestao de custos nao deve ser entendida como gestao da miserabilidade. (Cost management should not be understood as management of misery). C.
Foelkel. Grau Celsius. 04 pp. Accessed on 01.11.2010:
Resultados: muito alem de remendos e justificativas. (Results: far
beyond patches and justifications). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. 06
pp. Accessed on 01.11.2010:
Indicadores de desempenho. Papel e celulose. (Performance indicators.
Pulp and paper). Productive Development Policy. MDIC - Ministry of
Development, Industry and Foreign Commerce. Accessed on 01.11.2010:
Celulose e Papel&path=Relat%C3%B3rios-Celulose%20e%20Papel (Page
of the program related to the pulp and paper sector - in Portuguese)
up report - September 2010 - in Portuguese)
Papel%20e%20Celulose_Desempenho.pdf (Performance indicators for the
P&P sector - in Portuguese)
Por que se
deteriora la productivad
de una planta papelera? (Why does a paper mill productivity deteriorate?). Jorge E.
Torres C. ACOTEPAC Colombia. Accessed on 01.11.2010:
Sistema de gestao da producao. (System for production management).
ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. PowerPoint
presentation: 25 slides. Accessed on 01.11.2010:
Criterios de excelencia 2010. (Criteria for excellence 2010). Foundation
for National Quality Award. 112 pp. (2010)
Indicadores de desempenho com o conceito do triple bottom line e a metodologia
do balanced scorecard. (Performance indicators with the concept
of triple bottom line and the balanced scorecard methodology). R.T.S. Lages;
Lages; S.L.B. Franccedilha. VI National Congress of Excellence on Management.
19 pp. (2010)
Criteria for performance excellence - 2009/2010. Baldrige National
Quality Program. 88 pp. (2009)
Benchmarking de custos de manutencao na industria de celulose. (Benchmarking maintenance costs in the pulp industry). D.L.
Bachmann. O Papel (April): 76-80. (2009)
Benchmarking de maquinas de papel para embalagem. (Benchmarking packaging
paper machines). D.L. Bachmann; C. Machado. O Papel (October): 81-88. (2009)
Benchmarking ABTCP - Conhecendo o desempenho das fábricas de
celulose e papel. (ABTCP benchmarking - Getting acquainted with
the pulp and paper mill performance). D. Bachmann; J.H. Destefani. O Papel
Portuguese and English)
Benchmarking ABTCP - Um projeto de sucesso. (ABTCP
benchmarking - A project of success). D.L. Bachmann; C. Machado;
O Papel (December): 70 - 76. (2009)
5_Um%20%20projeto%20de%20sucesso.pdf (in Portuguese
Indicadores de automacao na industria de celulose e papel. Levantamento
preliminar. (Indicators of automation in the pulp and paper industry. Preliminary
assessment). Bachmann & Associados. 32 pp. (2008)
20de%20Automacao%20ABTCP%202007.pdf (in Portuguese)
A influencia da analise de desempenho operacional e de gestores
no resultado das empresas. (The influence of performance analysis and operational managers
evaluation in the business bottom line). A.M. Nascimento; L. Reginato;
D.F. Lerner. 5th USP Congress on Scientific Initiative and Accounting.
16 pp. (2008)
Um indicador de desempenho para selecao de ativos das
empresas de celulose e papel no mercado financeiro. (A performance indicator
for asset selection in the financial market for pulp and paper
companies). B.M. Moura. Master Dissertation. Universidade of
Brasilia. 116 pp. (2008)
Principais fatores que influenciam no preco das acoes
das empresas de papel e celulose no BM&FBovespa - Mercado de capitais.
(Key factors influencing the share price of pulp and paper
companies in the BM&FBovespa - Stock Markets). A.M. Sant'Anna.
UNIVALI - Vale do Itajai University. Training period report.
65 pp. (2008)
Improving paper machine efficiency. Part 01. M. Lyles. TAPPI Frontline
Focus 4(11): 1-2. (2008)
Improving paper machine efficiency. Part 02. M. Lyles. TAPPI Frontline
Focus 4(12): 1-2. (2008)
comparativa do custo de manutencao de fabricas de celulose. (Comparative
analysis of the maintenance cost of pulp
Bachmann & Associados. 48 pp. (2007)
Quality, sustainability and indicators of energy systems. N.H. Afgan;
M.G. Carvalho. Begell House. 251 pp. (2007)
review - in English)
Medidas de performance como determinantes de remuneracao
dos gestores: merito do gestor ou caracteristicas do setor? (Performance
measures as determinants of managers's remuneration: merit
of the manager or characteristics of the industry?). F.Z. Dalmacio;
A.J. Rezende; V. Slomski. 10th Cost Congress. Madrid. 17 pp.
Gestao da competitividade: o processo sob medida. (Management of
competitiveness: tailoring the process). P. Capo. O Papel (October):
Avaliacao de desempenho na gestao de cadeias de suprimentos:
um caso no setor de papel e celulose. (Performance evaluation in the
management of supply chains: a case in pulp and paper sector). P.R. Avancini.
Master Dissertation. UNIMEP - Methodist University of Piracicaba. 140
Indicadores de maquinas de papel. Uma referencia de
desempenho. (Indicators for paper machines. A reference of performance).
E.C. Ebeling; D.L. Bachmann. 37th Annual Congress ABTCP - Brazilian
Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. PowerPoint presentation:
26 slides. (2004)
Indicadores de maquinas de papel. Uma referencia de
desempenho. (Indicators for paper machines. A reference of performance).
E.C. Ebeling; D.L. Bachmann. 37th Annual Congress ABTCP - Brazilian
Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. 09 pp. (2004)
Analise comparativa de desempenho. Uma nova ferramenta
de gestao operacional para a industria de celulose e papel. (Comparative
analysis of performance. A new operational management tool
for the pulp and paper industry). D.L. Bachmann. 36th Annual
Congress ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and
Paper. PowerPoint presentation: 40 slides. (2003)
comparativa de desempenho. Uma nova ferramenta de gestao operacional
para a industria de celulose e papel. (Comparative analysis
of performance. A new operational management tool for the pulp
and paper industry).
D.L. Bachmann. 36th Annual Congress ABTCP - Brazilian Technical
Association of Pulp and Paper. 11 pp. (2003)
Avaliacao de desempenho em cadeia de suprimentos. (An evaluation
of performancein a supply chain). G.R. Durski. Revista FAE
6(1): 27 - 38. (2003)
Indicadores de competitividade para o BNDES. (Performance indicators
to the BNDES). S.L. Cafe; R. Silva; D.J. Allen. Revista BNDES
2(3): 69 - 88. (1995)
de ocorrencia de desvios eventuais nos processos de producao
de papel e celulose - um enfoque operacional. (Preventing the occurrence
process deviations in the production of pulp and paper - an operational focus).
E.S. Campos. 26th Annual Congress ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of
Pulp and Paper.18 pp. (1993)
sem perdas: o caminhoe planejar bem. (Producing without wastes:
the way is well-planning). R.M. Savastano. O Papel. 02 pp. (Undated)
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