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Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,

Dear friends
, here we are again, now with the issue number 30 of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. We hope that this edition may fulfill your expectations and interests, allowing that readers may gain additional knowledge and understanding about the Eucalyptus planted forests and about the products and services they provide to the benefit of our society.

In this edition, the traditional section, "The Friends of the Eucalyptus" brings a renowned expert in the sector of market pulps, including those made from Eucalyptus woods. It has the mission to share with you some of the dedicated and productive professional career of our dear and competent friend Mr. Dave Hillman, one of the most renowned experts on the knowledge about the properties and uses of pulp fibers for paper manufacturing. I have a great and long friendship, moreover my enormous professional respect for Dave, so I am very happy with the opportunity to share with you his achievements with market pulps and paper properties, emphasizing the Eucalyptus. In my conversations with Dave to learn more about his life and activities, I received from him the offer to reward us with a technical article. Then, it came to me the idea of creating a new section at our newsletter about the Eucalyptus. I decided to call it "Eucalyptic Technological Essays by the Friends of the Eucalyptus". In this issue, Dave is writing and giving us his opinion about the fantastic option to paper manufacturing that are the superior bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulps from Brazil.

In this edition, we are continuing with the prestigious section "The World of the Eucalyptus" and we're bringing some updates on the state of Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil. Although we've had recently written about this region of Brazil, it is rapidly being converted in a leading global Eucalyptus production center due to its huge and rapid growth. For this reason, we are offering the latest news on it, to try explaining why the city of Tres Lagoas and other locations close to it are turning into the most concentrated region in the production of Eucalyptus market pulp in the world. Forest activity is also intense in the state of MS to supply the industry, not only for pulp and paper, but also for charcoal for steel and pig-iron manufacturing.

In the section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" the agronomist M.Sc. Ester Foelkel has written this time something unique and new to most of you: "Demolition Wood: New Uses and Advantages to the Wood of the Eucalyptus".

Another theme that we brought to you is a wide selection of different virtual xylotheques or wood collections. They offer to users the opportunity to learn more about the morphology, anatomy and technical data from many types of woods, including those coming from the genus Eucalyptus. I hope you keep this information as a reference for browsing any time you may need to know more about timbers of the world.

In the two traditional sections Euca-Links and References about Events and Courses, we offer both accesses to the materials of recent events of great relevance, but also suggest browsing websites with a lot of academic literature covering the basic and technical fundamental issues in pulp and paper science and technology, this time oriented to students and interested parties on this industrial sector.

Our mini-article continues the series of texts on performance indicators for our pulp and paper mills and forests, an initiative of ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper in its efforts to strengthen and enhance the competitiveness of Brazilian companies. This time we are writing on "Performance and Productivity Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Mills".

We hope this newsletter issue may be very useful to all of you, since the thematic selection was made in a way to bring interesting and diversified topics about the Eucalyptus.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales, Papermakers' Wiki and Åbo Akademi - Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus.

Know more about all of our today’s partners
and meet them at the URL address:

Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus are currently being sent to an extensive "mailing list" through our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, a number that today is equivalent to several thousands of registered addresses. This happens in addition to the accesses made directly to the websites; and, or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book chapters are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal from now is very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus Online Book & Eucalyptus Newsletter that they will be always on the first page, when any single person in the world, using a search engine like Google, Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the word Eucalyptus. This service aims to better inform stakeholders and interested parties about the Eucalyptus, with relevant information and a lot of credibility, too. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, International Paper do Brasil and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a friendly hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Mr. Dave Hillman

New Section: Eucalyptic Technological Essays by the Friends of the Eucalyptus - Brazil's Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps - The Superior Eucalyptus Wins the World Pulp Markets Over - by Dave Hillman

The World of the Eucalyptus: Updates about the State of Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil

Euca-Links - Academic Websites with Emphasis in Pulp and Paper Science & Technology

References about Events and Courses

Virtual Xylotheques or Wood Collections

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - Demolition Wood: New Uses and Advantages to the Wood of the Eucalyptus - by Ester Foelkel

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Performance and Productivity Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Mills

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Mr. Dave Hillman

In this present edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter, I am very pleased to introduce to you another great friend of the Eucalyptus and of the Eucalyptus (BEK) market pulps. He is also a dear friend of mine, someone above all I most admire in the pulp and paper world. He is a very well-known personality throughout the pulp and paper industry for his knowledge, charisma and creative ideas for the end- uses and applications of pulp fibers. Furthermore, he is an excellent and enthusiastic speaker, being admired for his dynamic and convincing way he has in transferring his knowledge. I have known Dave Hillman for about 20 years, when I first became acquainted with him and his ideas about pulp and fibers, and in particular for his enthusiasm and passion for Brazilian Eucalyptus fibers.

Dave Hillman has been a devoted student and researcher of pulp fibers for over 40 years. He has an excellent vision on the uses and practical applications for each type of fiber thanks to the years of working in paper mills, from his role in the marketing of pulp and paper and also to his insightful technical studies which have always characterized his professional life. Since starting to conduct his well-known and widely recognized "Market Pulp Seminars", almost 30 years ago, Dave has been gaining increasing expertise in pulp and fibers and their different attributes to recommend the correct use of them in the manufacture of many types of regular and speciality papers. Today, Dave Hillman is recognized internationally as one of the experts with a high level of understanding of virtually all types of market pulps, but also of the markets for those products themselves. This fact he has widely proved through his studies and market analysis, as well as for the lectures and publications which are available to readers later in this section of our present newsletter. His masterpiece "The World of Market Pulp" ( written with his friends Hiroki Nanko and Alan Button clearly demonstrates his enormous technical expertise and strategic ability to propose technical solutions for papermakers (on their machines) and investors (in their new mills). Therefore, many people have found it difficult in defining a professional profile for Dave, because he moves very well in both marketing strategies, and the technical aspects of paper manufacture as well as creating appropriate furnishes and refining levels for speciality paper grades.

I first met Dave Hillman in 1989, when he was invited by our mutual friend Sergio Nicolau Kilpp to present one of his "Market Pulp Seminars" in the former and fondly remembered Riocell in Guaíba / RS/Brazil. Thereafter, and on several occasions, I have regularly found Dave in pulp meetings, in our travels around the world. Dave is very commonly found in international conferences on market pulps, such as those organized by the PPPC - Pulp and Paper Products Council, or by PPI/RISI. Those who participate in the annual International Pulp Week or in Market Pulp Conferences always have a chance to hear him and/or to meet Dave personally. Also, I had the opportunity to work with Dave in a workshop on market pulps which we both presented together to a major manufacturer of this product in Brazil, each of us presenting our views on the theme of how Eucalyptus compares with other main fibers and what are proving to be the major applications for them.

Dave Hillman was also instrumental in the commercialization of unbleached kraft pulp made from Eucalyptus by the former Riocell, in particular to the U.S. speciality paper markets of filtration - latex saturated grades. His dedication in developing new applications was much appreciated considering unbleached Eucalyptus had previously not had such speciality application. It now is recognized that short-fibered bleached kraft pulps do have a place in speciality markets, but prior to this, the preferred unbleached pulps were the long-fibered pulp species, not Eucalyptus. Dave established this pulp and succeeded in getting it specified in the furnishes of numerous new opportunities, thanks to his ability to match the fiber's distinctive characteristics to the application's critical requirements.

Since 1987, Dave Hillman has operated as an independent consultant, offering his services to pulp producers as well as papermakers. He conducted his professional activities in many countries outside the USA, such as Chile, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, South Africa, and several other countries in Europe. His expertise is enormous and is well recognized.

Dave Hillman (David C. Hillman) was born in June 1935 on a small farm of about five hectares in the agricultural area near the city of Erie, Pennsylvania/USA. His family, who is of German origin, was poor at that time and had economic difficulties. However, Dave claims to have not realized this fact as a child, stating that he had a good and happy childhood as far as he did not feel the lack of material goods such as television, telephone, automobile, etc. For this reason of scarce resources, after having completed the high-school, Dave went to work for Hammermill Paper Co. in its corporate labs. His performance and enthusiasm in the job made the company's technical team encourage Dave to resume studies at university level. He did this at Georgia Institute of Technology, having graduated as BS (Bachelor of Science) in Industrial Engineering in 1958. Unfortunately, he says, this career choice was not the most appropriate, since it would have been better if he had studied chemical engineering or chemistry. At the university he learned a lot about the strength of materials, hydraulics, machine design, etc. "My formal education would have been better used if I had additional technical courses in organic chemistry, polymers, physical chemistry, etc."

His wife Jean was one of his "drivers" encouraging him to go back to college and to complete his academic studies. Dave first met Jean in high-school in 1953, they became engaged in 1954, and married in 1956. The couple enjoys great happiness for 54 years and have four daughters and five grandchildren. One fact that helped a lot in the education of children and family stability was the evangelical Christian religious activities of Dave, Jean and other family members.

Dave's early professional career, as we have seen, began at Hammermill for the first two years, and then continued until 1981 at Westvaco. He worked on the development of paper products, both in operational tests of performance as well in the specification of new products. In 1975, when at Westvaco, he was promoted to the commercial area to develop new markets for the company's flash dried SBHK and SBSK. His success was quickly noticed, even outside the company. So much, that in 1981 he left Westvaco to become vice-president of speciality technical sales at Woodpulp International Limited (1981 to 1982).

His first assignment in Woodpulp Intl. was to introduce bleached kraft Eucalyptus pulp (in this case, manufactured by the Portuguese company Portucel) in the U.S. market. At that time, the Eucalyptus fibers were quite unknown in the USA - as was the case in many other countries. Thus, he decided to develop and present technical mini-seminars (workshops) to have the chance to introduce this pulp to potential new customers (his audiences were mill technical and production people). In his first year in these new activities, with pride, Dave mentions that he achieved no fewer than 36 production trials using Portucel's Eucalyptus pulp. Immediately, he recognized that the easiest way to sell an unusual pulp is to educate and inform the potential customers who are to use the product. This must be done in the mill of the new user, through "hands-on" in plant workshops, concludes Dave. The main points usually highlighted in the Eucalyptus pulp were: the fact of being a "single species pulp" (pulp of a single type of tree) - and the high fiber population, which favors formation, opacity and surface smoothness in the papers. In the United States of America, the production of pulp is based on wood chips sourced from many tree species (such the case as wood chips purchased from sawmills). Dave mentions that the only short-fibered pulp he had previously worked with had at least 12 forest species in its composition. The softwood he was selling had four diffferent species. It is definitively hard to keep an uniform product with such diverse and varying fibrous raw materials. The unique attributes and benefits that came to be admired by the new customers of the Eucalyptus pulps were: uniformity, machine performance, reliability and advantages on paper porosity, bulk, smoothness and opacity.

Late in 1982, Dave returned to his original company Hammermill to become manager of market pulp sales till 1987. In 1987, he started to act as an independent consultant, conducting the traditional "Market Pulp Seminars", consulting on product development and acting as sales agent for several forest products.

One thing that really impressed Dave in his professional life was the fact that almost everyone with whom he had business relations in the paper mills seemed to believe that while they were producers of paper, their pulp suppliers only knew about the production of pulp. It became obvious that pulp suppliers needed to know the technical needs of their customers. Dave concluded very soon: it was necessary to build a "bridge" between the technical and the marketing areas of pulp producers and the papermakers. He then decided to shape his professional career profile to create this kind of bridge between these important areas. To accomplish this, he tried to understand what would be the unique and distinctive attributes of each pulp, so he could cooperate in the preparation of the fibrous stock recipes (fiber furnishes), helping papermakers to easily meet the requirements of technical and aesthetic properties in the papers they were producing. It became quite apparent there was not, as it is still the case in many situations, an understanding that this fact may be the key to technical sales. Dave concluded that his mission has been to "open the eyes" of technicians and vendors/buyers of pulps so that these people may see and understand the virtues of the different market pulps.

Dave's life in issues related to the commercial side of the business was very intense and extensive...from 1975 to the present. During this time, he was able to come into contact and to learn virtually about all types of pulps - from mechanical to chemical pulps, dried sheets or flash dried bales, short or long fibers, also becoming acquainted with non-wood pulps.

With all this accumulated understanding of market pulps, from 2005 onwards Dave opted to transfer more intensely this type of information and wealth of knowledge to the sector. This decision has given rise to the magnificent book/CD "The World of Market Pulp" which he wrote with his skilled friends Hiroki Nanko and Alan Button. I also had the privilege of being one of the authors of this book with the chapter titled "The magic of the Eucalyptus plantation forests" (pages 114-118).

According to Dave, this new professional phase of his career is both rewarding and well received by the industry with his purposes to teach, educate and transfer knowledge to be helpful to the people who operate papermills. His greatest professional reward has been the thousands of "thank you's" received from papermakers, who feel they have become more technically competent after being exposed to Dave's teachings.

Dave Hillman has gained worldwide renown and is recognized as one of the few specialists in market pulps that is both an excellent paper-maker and a good pulp&paper products specialist. He is also a person who emphasizes the practical aspects of papermaking, always associating sales to technical issues. After about 30 years working as this "bridge", Dave's attitude is very simple: this is a path that needs to be built for the new generation of papermakers. "Those who sell and supply market pulps should do these tasks based on technical sales, convincing and talking with the technical people who are often instrumental in specifying these pulps in their various furnishes. People should endeavor to focus less on the traditional emphasis on prices and delivery schedules that always have been the subject of sales discussions between the sales manager (pulp supplier) and the paper mill's raw materials manager". This is an area about which Dave has come to feel quite strongly.

Dave still believes there is much to be done in this direction, especially now with the entry of new market pulp producing countries as major producers. The pulp market has largely shifted to lower cost producers in Asia and Latin America. And, it should not be overlooked that China and India have become major pulp consumers.

In addition to his rich and extensive career, Dave finds time for many other parallel activities. This occurs both in religion (evangelical Christian church), in which he is an active volunteer in many issues, and music. It surprised me to know that Dave was for three years president of the Erie Philharmonic Orchestra in Pennsylvania.

To conclude this short biography about Dave Hillman, I'll tell you a curious fact that Dave has shared with me. This story is related as how Eucalyptus fibers were developed to form a top layer to bring extremely high tactile softness on the surface of the ultra facial tissue paper from Procter & Gamble. By the early 1990's, when Dave was teaching one of his "Market Pulp Seminars" in East Brunswick, NJ/USA, he had among his students a person who reported the fact. This attendee said that in the mid 70's he was working at a P&G's laboratory, in Hamilton/Ohio. Nearby, there was an important paper mill from Champion International. One of the "next-door neighbors of his residence" was an employee at the Champion mill at Hamilton. This person had scheduled a trip to the Champion mill in Mogi-Guacu/Brazil. The neighbor offered to bring some Brazilian coffee, but the story teller said he preferred to ask 2 kg of Brazilian Eucalyptus pulp. With this sample, P&G has begun testing Eucalyptus fibers to make an ultra facial paper with a layer of these fibers over a fibrous strong/smooth base of Canadian black spruce. Imagine if instead of Eucalyptus pulp, the neighbor had made the decision to bring 2 kg of coffee? The success story could not have happened and the papermaking world could have lost this great opportunity. Dave reports that, in 2009, Procter & Gamble and Kimberly Clark together imported more than one million tons of Eucalyptus market pulps from Brazil to provide the exceptional tactile softness to their premium ultra facial tissue, resulting in these highly regarded, value-added (and very profitable) tissue grades. "There is no doubt that our industry should spend more money and use more the skills of talented people to develop new applications and uses for paper products, understanding and helping to meet the needs of pulp and paper users," concludes our friend Dave.

To gain more knowledge about Dave Hillman's career and professional life, our "Friend of the Eucalyptus" in this Eucalyptus Newsletter edition, please, browse his curriculum, articles, reviews, books, etc., made available to you just ahead:

Dave Hillman's executive bio / Curriculum vitae : (Available at WOMP website) (Available at Gerson Lehrman Group website)
(Available at Linkedin)

Know more about Dave Hillman though some photos from him:

Book, CD and the masterpiece work by Dave Hillman in cooperation with his friends Hiroki Nanko and Alan Button:

The World of Market Pulp - WOMP. H. Nanko; A. Button; D. Hillman. WOMP. 283 pp. (2005) (in English) (Summary of the CD version - in English) (Summary and extracts from the book - in English)

More information about the WOMP book/CD at: (in English) (Fiber atlas sample - in English) (Georgia Tech Institute - in English)

A selection of about 50 articles, essays, viewpoints, market analyses by Dave Hillman:

Fibria moves ahead to reduce future BEK shortage. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010) (in English)

Chilean pulp mill closures to be felt in many sectors
. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010) (in English)

Falling euro may hinder further pulp price increases. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010) (in English)

Will China's closure of pulp mills buoy pulp prices?
D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010) (in English)

US$1,000 pulp stimulates new Brazilian pulp mill. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)$1000-Pulp-Stimulates-New-Brazilian-Pulp-Mill-47743.html (in English)

Gunns Tasmania's market pulp mill progresses toward becoming a reality. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
(in English)

Acetate dissolving pulp is booming. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)

Fluff pulp: the US's jewel in the crown
. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010) (in English)

Fluff pulp producers have cause for rejoicing. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010) (in English)

Hardwood pulp prices projected to drop in the 4th quarter. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010) (in English)

Major new market pulp mills announced in Brazil and Russia. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
(in English)

A possible pulp price decrease. The pros and cons. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
(in English)

China's demand may outstrip supply of OCC, ONC and SOP.
D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
(in English)

China's pulp purchases reaches 13.68 million metric tons in 2009. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
(in English)

Newsprint capacity shrinks as demand declines. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010) (in English)

Is Indonesia pulp industry about to explode? D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2010)
(in English)

Tax credits: a reward, subsidy or foolish give-away. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
(in English)

What is fueling the turnaround in pulp prices?
D. Hillman. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
(in English)

CMPC to increase Brazilian BEK capacity
. D. Hillman. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009) (in English)
(in English)

Containerboard - A comprehensive overview. D. Hillman. Paper Asia (July/August): 24-27. (2009) (in English)

After the global recovery: what will the market pulp business look like? D. Hillman. Paper Asia (March/April): 16 - 20. (2009) (in English)

A new pulp mill for Uruguay coming soon. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
(in English)

India's paper industry must expand to meet growing demand. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
(in English)

VCP+Aracruz = a Brazilian superpower. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
(in English)

Number 1 + number 2 Eucalyptus producers = World's biggest. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009)
(in English)

China's enormous appetite for recovered paper. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009) (in English)

With demand shrinking what will future newsprint mills look like? D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009) (in English)

China's Shandong Chenming seeks to become number 1. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009) (in English)

Even commodity printing and writing grades are not recession proof. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2009) (in English)

China's forests cannot support these planned pulp mills. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008) (in English)

Are super-corrugators the wave of the future? D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008) (in English)

Recession is accelerating the closure of many pulp/paper mills. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008) (in English)

The Chinese are buying North American pulp mills: is this good or bad? D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008) (in English)

Can China alone keep the market tight? What about India? D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008) (in English)

Will newsprints decline in demand ever end? D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008) (in English)

Pulp mills formerly dependent on sawmills chips. What do they do now?
D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2008)

Why is softwood market pulp in such short supply? D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2007) (in English)

Uncoated free sheet: can Domtar and IP control the market? D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2007) (in English)

In defense of Gunns proposed Eucalyptus pulp mill in Tasmania. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2007) (in English)

IP, GP and Weyerhaeuser increase fluff pulp production. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2006)

The cloning of Eucalyptus. A significant market benefit. D. Hillman. GLGroup Market Analysis. (2006) (in English)

An industry in transition. CPBIS - The Center for Paper Business and Industry Studies V(11): 1-2. (2006) (in English)

The myth of commodity pulps. A. Button; H. Nanko; D. C. Hillman. TAPPI Engineering, Pulping and Environmental Conference. 11 pp. (2005) (in English)

Single species pulping: the world's preferred market pulp. D. C. Hillman. Solutions (November): 27-30. (2002) (in English)
(in English)

Pittfalls of trading market pulp on the internet. D. Hillman. TAPPI Journal 83(11): 43-45. (2000) (Search for the title of the article - in English)

Market pulp: a finished product. D. Hillman. TAPPI Pulping Conference. 14 pp. (1999) (in English)

Websites where you may find more information and market analyses on the pulp and paper business by Dave Hillman:

Gerson Lehrman Group:

Asia Paper Markets:

Servicio de Prensa Forestal:

The Center for Paper Business and Industry Studies:

Dave Hillman is not just a great technician or a pulp and paper market expert. His charisma is much more of the personal kind, since he has the ability to get people involved by the things he defends and believes. His lessons on pulp fibers have already reached thousands of people in different parts of the world, either through his seminars/workshops, by his writing web texts or his speaches at several events on market pulps. I, therefore, have a huge admiration for the competence and the achievements of this great friend of the Eucalyptus trees and pulps, in special those from Brazil. In addition to Dave's talent, we have a great friendship for over 20 years. For all I know and admire about my dear friend Dave Hillman, I am honored for have telling you a little about the life of this great "Friend of Eucalyptus" and sharing some of his published achievements throughout his productive career.

My dear friend Dave Hillman, thank you very much for your fantastic pulp and paper journeys around the world, focusing also the Eucalyptus and for promoting the advantages of their pulps. Thank you also for everything you have done and will continue doing for the art of making paper, knowing exactly to take full advantage of the inherent advantages of each type of fiber being used in the paper furnishes.

New Section: Eucalyptic Technological Essays by the Friends of the Eucalyptus

Brazil's Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulps - The Superior Eucalyptus Wins the World Pulp Markets Over

by Dave Hillman (


The world's total capacity of the 26 market pulp producing countries (only 20 of these are really major producers) is estimated to be 59 million metric tonnes/year. This is in contrast to the world's total market pulp demand of 58 million. This spread is much too narrow! And, why is this slim a spread not healthy? Because pulp prices are governed predominantly by supply and demand (assuming the world's consuming nations are all experiencing reasonable positive growths in their Gross Domestic Products). An often quoted rule states "if there are 10 buyers and only 9 sellers, prices will always rise". And why is this? Simply because senior management in that 10th papermill will not permit its mill to shut down for lack of pulp – especially if they've just invested US$100+ million to purchase and install a brand new papermachine and also have a multitude of supply contracts with major customers. Shutting down for lack of papergrade pulp is simply not an option. This is the reason why it being essential that Brazil’s market pulp producers are in a process of accelerating their plans for new capacity expansion.

How did Brazil become the number 1 Eucalyptus pulp producer?

#1 It's a huge country with millions of hectares available for agriculture and for Eucalyptus plantations. The needed land can either be purchased outright or acquired through long term leases. Often the balance is about 80/20 to 50/50 for owned versus leased land, depending on local conditions and the destination of the planted forests.

#2 It has excellent and favorable climate ranging from tropical in the north to temperate in the south with all areas capable to provide the rapid growth of Eucalyptus trees – especially the hybrids which were developed and adapted to local environments for fast growing rates (among other reasons).

#3 Adequate rainfall throughout the year to allow good growth in the forests.

#4 Fairly level terrain for easy planting and harvesting (mechanization is vital for lowering costs).

#5 A number of excellent deep water ports for overseas shipping / exports of the pulp/paper products.

#6 A highly developed domestic infrastructure – rails, highways, airports.

#7 Educated workers (and with high skills) in abundance, who have also shown a desirable good ethics.

#8 Cooperative role and incentives from federal, state and local governments.

#9 A well established banking system with good connections to the global financial system.

#10 Last but not least is the fact that they got a head start – back in the late 50's when silviculture began in earnest and oriented to the local paper industry. Prior to that Eucalyptus was grown for logging, firewood and charcoal.

Now that we know the foundations of the Brazilian success - what can we tell about the pulp itself?

If a survey was made of pulp customers around world – those paper companies producing printing and writing paper grades, premium facial tissue and toweling made from 100% virgin fibers, most of them would undoubtedly reply that their preferred market pulp was Brazilian BEK. This high ranking did not come about accidentally, but rather, is the result of a concerted effort put forth by many different R&D groups at academic and corporate level along with the technical and operations groups who are charged with actually producing the pulp. Research and operational efficiency have paved this road of success.

Brazilian BEKP is considered the preferred pulp - Why is this?

The major species being cultivated today in Brazil is a cloned, hybridized variety of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla which has produced a fast growing in wood volume, fair wood density with very uniform fiber dimensions. It is a classic single-species pulp. Many measurements have been made by many laboratories using the most sophisticated instruments and have arrived at a typical adult fiber dimensions of about 0.95 mm in length by 16 microns in diameter with a cell wall thickness of 3 microns. The fiber population has been determined to be over 16 million fibers/gram. However, these are not absolute numbers since there are many variables affecting them – the climate, the clone being reproduced, sampling, and age of the forest. Years ago the Spanish Technical Foundation presented their findings that Eucalyptus fibers reach maturity at about 12 years of the tree's life. Older the trees - longer, wider and thicker-walled are the formed fibers, until reaching the age of maturity. This means that the differences in the wood fibers near pith and bark are wider. Therefore, harvesting the forests on a 7 year cycle is very helpful in maintaining the individual fiber's conformity to the average, not in large spams. Eucalyptus trees harvested after their 12th year do exhibit a greater variation in fiber dimensions.

Is there one major application where Brazilian BEK's excel performances?

The top rated tissue in the world today is facial tissue and is now classified as:

• Ultra Facial Tissue;
• Premium Facial Tissue;
• Standard or simply Facial Tissue.

As the reader might expect, Ultra Facial is the most expensive and the most highly regarded. It is produced primarily by Procter & Gamble and Kimberly Clark in their mills located all around the world. In each mill, regardless of country location, the fiber furnish is very similar or identical. Here is the basic formula for each of the various tissue grades:

Ultra Facial Tissue: ideally the supporting base is produced from Canadian Black Spruce fibers which is a relatively long (3.5mm) and slender conifer fiber. These fibers exhibit both excellent smoothness and "hand" (which could also be called a lack of stiffness). On top of these Black Spruce fibers is layered the Brazilian BEK and it is here that a rather difficult to define quality comes into play. It has been called "single fiber flex" which appears to signify that the individual fibers possess a lower degree of stiffness. This means they can "wiggle" when the consumer feels the surface of Ultra Facial Tissue... it appears to feel just as soft as cotton. This is technically known as tactile softness. This grade of tissue is then processed over a Thru-Air-Dryer (TAD) machine which tends to float the tissue rather than pressing it against a 5-6 meter (in diameter) steam filled Yankee Dryer. Thru Air Drying significantly enhances the bulk and absorbency of the tissue.

Premium Facial Tissue: is made from 100% virgin fiber with either Eucalyptus or Acacia being mixed throughout the furnish – mixed with either Chilean radiata pine or NBSK from Canada, Russia or Sweden/Finland. The Eucalyptus or Acacia usually constitutes 70-80% of the fiber furnish. If processed in a TAD it will possess some of the same bulk and absorbency as Ultra Facial Tissue, but without the highly regarded tactile softness on the surface. This is often used in the better quality "away from home" (AfH) applications used by hotels, hospitals, country clubs, nursing homes, business offices, government offices, airports and airplanes, cruise ships, etc.

Facial Tissue: is pretty much a commodity or generic grade often private/own branded for sale in grocery stores, discount and department stores (as well as many others too numerous to mention). Private branded products always do better in a depressed economy as consumers shop around and "trade down" to save money. With little or no money spent on advertising, they are always able to undercut the better quality branded products. What's in their furnish? Almost fibers, recycled, deinked office papers, BCTMP and white/unprinted waste from local printers. While not of the same high quality as Ultra or Premium Tissue, these tissue grades have always found favor with the price buyers and also with those who could be classified as "environmentally conscientious" - those who look for the degree of recycled content on their paper purchases.

Is tactile softness the only area of superiority of the Brazilian BEK pulps?

The answer, as the reader might expect, is "No"...otherwise the question wouldn't be asked.

In the area of lightweight printing papers (Bible paper, lightweight opaques, prospectuses for the financial community, high quality directory stock, etc). where there is a great demand for printed opacity (lack of show-through) the Eucalyptus pulps play a great role. Printed opacity is different than simple opacity as measured by instruments such as the Bausch and Lomb opacimeter which measures the passage of light through the sheet. Printed opacity, on the other hand, measures the penetration of ink and the degree to which that printed image can show through when the paper is turned over. The test for printed opacity is quite simple. Smear some non-drying black K&N ink on the surface of a sheet of paper. A 15 x 20 cm sample is quite sufficient. Rub with a soft dry cloth for a few seconds then turn over the paper. Measure the brightness behind the black smear and then move the instrument over away from the black smear. Note the difference in readings. The smaller the difference, the more opaque is the paper.

Some twenty years ago, the author of this essay conducted a side-by-side trial between a lightweight Bible paper made from 30% Birch plus 70% NBSK and another paper made where BEK was the substitute for the Birch pulp. To everyone's surprise the BEK paper exhibited a behind-the-black-smear brightness 2.5 points higher than the paper made with Birch. The reason for this significant difference was difficult to pin point... was it the BEK's higher population? Or, could it be that BEK has a higher tendency to absorb the oil ink? Or, was the ink held more on the surface by the BEK and prevented from penetrating? Or... was it a combination of all of these? The operations and technical staff at the papermill where this trial was conducted didn't seem to care so much for the reason as much as for the result... they determined on the spot that they would henceforth begin to use BEK in all their lightweight papers which would be printed on both sides. Before the day was over the M.D. instructed the materials manager to order 3 cars of BEK.

In addition to the higher printed opacity, many printers in Asia and Europe have also found the BEK, especially the Brazilian grades, have shown an outstanding ability to produce papers with significantly improved formation (lack of mottle and streakiness). This resulted in more even ink lay, holdout, and printed gloss. When the job being printed is 4/Can labels, printed gloss is particularly important since customers tend to equate printed gloss with freshness. A dull label, in the mind of consumer, indicates the cans may have been sitting on the shelf for an extended duration.

Many papermakers have learned, by experience, that many quality problems can be overcome by replacing whatever hardwood they're using (i.e. Aspen, Birch, Maple) with Brazilian BEK to improve the formation and/or the smoothness. This is understandable since the Brazilian BEK fibers tend to be more flexible and not clump up to form mottle or streakiness in the formation. As for improved smoothness this is achieved with less calendering, since the more flexible fibers react so much more readily to the pressure of the (usually) soft nip single roll calendering operation. This is very important where the paper grade being produced is bulk sensitive. Many hardwoods will eventually produce the desire smoothness, but only with high pressure at the calender nip... which has the unwanted effect of reducing caliper and bulk. Brazilian BEK is able to reach the desired smoothness and still maintain the bulk (caliper) specification.

A4 Copybond is a grade where these attributes are really appreciated. The 75 gsm A4 Copybond paper must have sufficient stiffness (i.e. rigidity) so as to not stumble when being fed into the copier. Yet, the paper must have sufficient smoothness to accept the toner in an even/unbroken manner. Brazilian BEK will allow the papermaker to achieve a 120-140 Sheffield smoothness (i.e. a "bond finish") without a significant drop in caliper. Keeping a good stiffness in the paper is directly related to its caliper. This is known in engineering circles as "moment of inertia" and is also the reason that the I-beams in bridge construction are always tall and skinny rather than short and fat. The higher the caliper, the greater the stiffness. Therefore, to be able to achieve the desired smoothness for more even toner coverage it is necessary to reach the desired smoothness with minimal caliper reduction. The flexible Brazilian BEK's fiber allows this to be happen.

Summary and conclusions

It is a happy coincidence when an already major producer country is moving ahead to significantly increase its production tonnage and that the products it will be producing possess unusual commercial benefits. Usually, it turns out that the country's products are fortunate to possess one or the other, but seldom both. The world's graphic arts paper makers and tissue producers should welcome the good news that they'll soon not only be getting more Brazilian BEK, but that this BEK should permit them to produce products possessing highly regarded commercial benefits. These benefits almost always translate into higher profits and full order books.

The World of the Eucalyptus

Updates about the State of Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil

The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul has been gaining worldwide recognition and admiration for its forestry expertise and ability to develop a modern and efficient silviculture with excellent results. Gradually and quickly the state is being able in converting itself to a forest industrial basis with appropriate levels of sustainability. This has happened in meteoric speed and with great effectiveness.

In April 2009, exactly 18 months ago, I wrote a technical review on this same section "The World of the Eucalyptus" about the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul ( At that time, the state of MS was rejoicing because it had reached about 250,000 hectares of planted forests and because the opening of two industrial mega-projects in the pulp and paper sector, both in the city of Tres Lagoas: the units of Fibria (market pulp) and International Paper do Brasil (printing paper for copy and graphics). There was much enthusiasm at that time, but it was difficult to predict that few months later the situation would change so strongly, reaching new and huge areas of plantation forests and new prospects for pulp industrial expansion. Today, it is estimated that the area of planted forests in the state has reached 370,000 hectares and that in some years ahead could reach one million hectares, as far be confirmed the expansion of Fibria pulp mill and the entry of the Portuguese company Portucel in the state (there are comments that at the municipalities of Santa Rita and/or Bataguassu). These additional market pulp units are in the range of 1.2 to 1.5 million tonnes per year and requiring each mill an area of approximately 150,000 hectares of plantation forests of effective Eucalyptus (not considering conservation and protected areas).

However, the major surprise was the announcement of Eldorado Brazil, an entrant in the market pulp business, that "emerged from nowhere in the sector" and has started to build a new greenfield pulp mill, also in the range of 1.5 million tonnes/year to star-up in 2012. Of course, such a pulp mill would also require large areas of Eucalyptus plantations. Therefore, the expectation that in a few years MS will be competing with the state of Sao Paulo for the second position in area of planted forests in Brazil. I guess the surprise occurs mainly in the city of Tres Lagoas, on the banks of the Parana River, with excellent access and logistics, primarily because it is almost side-by-side to the fantastic infrastructure of the state of Sao Paulo. The growth of Tres Lagoas was so intense that the city now proclaims itself the world's capital of market pulp, as with the announced Fibria expansion and new pulp mill of the Eldorado Brasil project, all together with existing mills will be manufacturing around 4.3 million tonnes of market pulp per year. Not to mention the paper mill of International Paper do Brasil, which uses part of this pulp, adding value in manufacturing printing and writing paper. There are also studies for expansion of this manufacturing unit of paper, although still not said much about when and how much.

All this makes me jump back into the past of some four decades ago, when - through the Program of Tax Incentives for Reforestation - areas of Eucalyptus were planted in the former large state of Mato Grosso, that in 1977 was divided into two states by Complementary Law 31 signed by the former military president General Ernesto Geisel. The image I had (at that time) of the Eucalyptus forests growing in the the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul was of low productive forests, abandoned and attacked by ants. Things began to change when the former Champion Paper and Pulp Co. decided to create a subsidiary forest company in the municipality of Tres Lagoas. This occurred in 1988, with the founding of the Chamflora Tres Lagoas Agroforestry Co., serving this business as the platform to the plantation of about 90,000 hectares of valuable and productive forests of Eucalyptus, with all the technology that my dear friend forest engineer Manoel de Freitas knows very well. I remember when he was president of IPEF - Institute for Forest Research and Studies (I was his vice-president) and director of Champion Forest Department - he told me proudly about the operations in Mato Grosso do Sul and I imagined something far and distant. This image for me was only changed in my mind when I first went to Tres Lagoas to assist in the preparation of the Environmental Impact Assessment Study of the current Fibria pulp mill, which at the time was a project of International Paper do Brasil. This happened in early 2006 and has allowed me to see that there were available all the ingredients to work things out (and quickly). There were: talent, enthusiasm and desire to create and to grow. There were also political and community supports. The logistics network encompassing paved highways, Parana-Tiete river navigation and nearby railroad would shorten the distances to seaports for exporting goods. With all these facilities, the pulp market is now a major revenue for the state - generating products and exports to MS. The market pulp mill that would be the starting for all this development in the region fared better than the original proposal, as the VCP - Votorantim Celulose e Papel and International Paper do Brasil have strategically exchanged assets and industrial unit projects. Both are now operating successfully in the city of Tres Lagoas. Everything happened very quickly as an industrial revolution in a city historically based on livestock production and on state public jobs in the extinct Federal Railway.

The state of Mato Grosso do Sul has unique environmental and economic wealth. The climate is favorable to pine and Eucalyptus plantations, the topography favors forest mechanization, land prices are attractive and partnerships with local farmers have been a success. All acthors are expecting to grow together and the wood has become, in less than a decade, an important key economic factor for the state.

However, not only for pulp and paper are focused the state entrepreneurs: there are many opportunities in the area of steel and pig-iron manufacturing based on charcoal from Eucalyptus, because the local steel industry has well recovered from the economic crisis caused by the hurricane of the years 2008/2009. There are still expectations for wood energy and also for biofuels based on ethanol from sugar cane.

In association to the forestry businesses potential in MS, the local people of the state is not hindering, as this fact has happened in other states that have had equal opportunities, as it was the case in the state where I live, Rio Grande do Sul. By contrary, the state of MS has orchestrated very well the required services, hiring the best consultancies, proposing a viable plan of forestry development, and also has greased legislation/bureaucracy and worked for developing funding sources so that things could happen without delay. There are much political will and things are expected to happen leading to a development based on appropriate levels of sustainability. This starts with top quality manufacturing companies with state-of-the-art technologies, the basic condition for competitiveness and sustainability. For all that, we are returning in this section to bring more information on what is being considered the new golden eldorado of the pulp and paper industry in Brazil. Nothing more fair than once again honor the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in the "World of the Eucalyptus", after all, these trees are being very fortunate and privileged in that state because of their superior forestry performance .

Then, I kindly ask you to browse our selected indications for this section to be able to read additional knowledge about the fantastic opportunities for the Eucalyptus in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, with emphasis to the pulp and paper industry development:

Some selected websites:

Eldorado Brasil. Forest based company oriented to the future production of market pulp for exports. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (Webpage) (Project of the new pulp mill) (Environmental issues of the Eldorado Brasil pulp mill project)

International Paper do Brasil. Printing (copy and graphic) paper manufacturing mill located in Tres Lagoas/MS. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (About the IP mill in Tres Lagoas) (One year of operations of the IP Tres Lagoas paper mill - in Portuguese) (About Chamflora - in Portuguese)
(Environmental Impact Assessment Report for the IP pulp+paper mill to be originally built in Tres Lagoas - 126 pp. - in Portuguese)

Fibria. Market pulp mill oriented to exports. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (Tres Lagoas pulp mill at MS) (Eucalyptus forestry at MS) (Fibria forestry management plan for Mato Grosso do Sul plantations - in Portuguese) (Safe forestry guidebook - in Portuguese) (Intitutional videos)

Florestal Brasil. Forest plantations of Eucalyptus. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (Webpage - in Portuguese) (About the Eucalyptus - in Portuguese) (About the seedling production and forest nursery with many photos - in Portuguese) (About the silvicultural practices in Eucalyptus plantations with many photos - in Portuguese) (About Florestal Brasil at the Portal do Agronegocio - in Portuguese) (More information about Florestal Brasil at the Portal do Agronegocio - in Portuguese) (Institutional video presented by Painel Florestal TV- in Portuguese)

IMASUL - Mato Grosso do Sul Environment Institute. Licensing and controlling organization for the state of MS. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (Webpage - in Portuguese)

EIA/RIMA do empreendimento da Eldorado Florestal divulgado pelo IMASUL em 2009:

Chapter 01 - Introduction:ítulo%201%20-%20Introdução.pdf
Chapter 02 - General information:ítulo%202%20-%20Informações%20Gerais.pdf
Chapter 03 - Characterization of the enterprise:ítulo%203%20-%20Caracterização%20do%20Empreendimento.pdf
Chapter 04 - Areas of influence:ítulo%204%20-%20Áreas%20de%20Influência.pdf
Chapter 05.1- Physical environment:ítulo%205.1%20-%20Meio%20Físico.pdf
Chapter 05.2 - Biotic environment:ítulo%205.2%20-%20Meio%20Biótico.pdf
Chapter 05.3 - Human environment:ítulo%205.3%20-%20Meio%20Antrópico.pdf
Chapter 06 - Analysis of environmental impacts and mitigation measures:ítulo%206%20-%20Análise%20dos%20Impactos%20Ambientais%20e%20Medidas%20Mitigadoras.pdf
Chapter 07 - Environmental programs:ítulo%207%20-%20Programas%20Ambientais.pdf
Chapter 08 - Atmospheric dispersion:ítulo%208%20-%20Dispersão%20Atmosférica.pdf
Chapter 09 - Risk analysis:ítulo%209%20-%20Análise%20de%20Risco.pdf
Chapter 10 - Final remarks:ítulo%2010%20-%20Considerações%20Finais.pdf

Painel Florestal. Forest information web portal. Accessed on 29.10.2010:
Excellent vehicle for information on forestry and forest based industry in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, but also with lots of information about the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Tocantins, Minas Gerais, Piaui, Goias, Maranhao, etc. Our greetings to our dear friends Robson Trevisan and Paulo Cardoso for the excellent services they offer providing technical and journalistic news and updates to the plantation forest sector in Brazil.
Below is a selection of some news and informational videos about the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in this website - unfortunately to foreigners the news are just in Portuguese) : (On the possibility of growth of the planted area in the state of MS to about 1 million hectares) (About the recent pulp exports of Fibria - Tres Lagoas) (About the success of Tres Lagoas on manufacturing market pulp from Eucalyptus) (On the possible merger between Eldorado Brasil and Florestal Brasil)

Articles and videos about the plantation forestry and the pulp industrialization process in Mato Grosso do Sul:

Mato Grosso do Sul.
Wikipedia Digital Encyclopedia. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (in Portuguese) (in English)

Historia do Mato Grosso do Sul. (History of Mato Grosso do Sul). Wikipedia Digital Encyclopedia. Accessed on 29.10.2010:ória_de_Mato_Grosso_do_Sul (in Portuguese)

Tres Lagoas. (The municipality of Tres Lagoas). Wikipedia Digital Encyclopedia. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

Ribas do Rio Pardo. (The municipality of Ribas do Rio Pardo). Wikipedia Digital Encyclopedia. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

Eucalipto em Mato Grosso do Sul. (Eucalyptus in Mato Grosso do Sul). A. Salmeron. Agrosoft video. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

Mato Grosso do Sul: a bola da vez na silvicultura. (Mato Grosso do Sul: the cue ball in forestry). A.Silva Jr.; P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal TV Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

Como anda a silvicultura no Mato Grosso do Sul.
(How the silviculture is performing in Mato Grosso do Sul). L.C. Ramires Jr. Painel Florestal TV Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

As perspectivas do setor florestal em Mato Grosso do Sul. (The forestry segment perspectives at the Mato Grosso do Sul state). M. Freitas; P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal TV Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

A silvicultura em Mato Grosso do Sul. (Forestry in Mato Grosso do Sul). T. Cristina; P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal TV Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

A importancia do carvao vegetal no Mato Grosso do Sul - Carvao vegetal e essencial. (The importance of charcoal in Mato Grosso do Sul - Charcoal is essential). M. Brito; P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal TV Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (Part 01 - in Portuguese) (Part 02 - in Portuguese)

Plano estadual de florestas de Mato Grosso do Sul. (Mato Grosso do Sul State Forestry Plan). Painel Florestal TV Video. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

Eldorado Brasil a caminho.
(Eldorado Brasil on the way). C. Martin. O Papel 71(8): 41 - 45. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Plano estadual de desenvolvimento florestal do Mato Grosso do Sul. (Mato Grosso do Sul State Forestry Plan). L.C. Ramires Jr. Sistemas Agroflorestais EMBRAPA. 08 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Mato Grosso do Sul. Plano estadual para o desenvolvimento sustentavel de florestas plantadas. (Mato Grosso do Sul. State plan for the sustainable development of planted forests). STCP Engenharia de Projetos. (2009) (Final report - 50 pp. - in Portuguese) (Executive report - 48 pp. - in Portuguese)

Fibria. Horizon(te) pulp mill. Andritz. (2009) (in English)

Zoneamento ecologico economico do Mato Grosso do Sul. (Ecological economic zoning for the state of Mato Grosso do Sul). MS State Government. (2008) (Volume 1 - 206 pp. - in Portuguese) (Volume 2 - 311 pp. - in Portuguese)

Images of Mato Grosso do Sul - Eucalyptus forests - Pulp - Paper:
(Mato Grosso do Sul and Eucalyptus forests)
(Mato Grosso do Sul and pulp manufacturing)
(Mato Grosso do Sul and paper manufacturing)


Academic Websites with Emphasis in Pulp and Paper Science & Technology

In this section, which was prepared specially for technicians and students in pulp and paper science and technology, we are showing Euca-Links with some academic institutions whose personal pages of some of their professors offer relevant educational material to this type of web audience. They are also valuable to those wondering to learn about pulping and papermaking with the utilization of Eucalyptus. You have just to click on the addresses of URLs referenced to open the webpages and to know what we selected specially for you. Our sincere thanks to these teachers by the cooperative way they offer to society, voluntarily and freely sharing their knowledge with all stakeholders.

National University of Misiones - College of Exact, Chemistry and Natural Sciences - Argentina. (UNaM - Universidad Nacional de Misiones - FCEQyN - Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Quimicas y Naturales - Argentina). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in Spanish)
The FCEQyN, a college at UNAM, through its Department of Industry and Environment, provides extensive and interesting teaching materials about the processes for production of pulp and paper and also on environmental issues associated with the sector. The virtual classes are written by the qualified professors of the college, our dear friends: Maria Cristina Area, Carlos Eduardo Nunez, Laura Lidia Villalba, Claudio Ariel Pavlik, Fernando E. Felissa, Graciela B. Gavazzo, Hector Eduardo Queirolo and Hector Russo. To access the classes you need to register on the website, and then with your registered password, you can download the lessons to study. Notice that there is still the need to register for each of the available courses. Register yourself and your password at: (To register as a user of virtual classes - do not be affraid, it is very simple).
Virtual classes at: (Don't miss - you shall not lose this chance)

Federal University of Parana - Wood Industrial Engineering Career. (UFPR - Universidade Federal do Parana - Curso de Engenharia Industrial Madeireira). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in Portuguese)
The career on Wood Industrial Engineering at the Federal University of Parana was created in 1998 by initiative of the faculty from the Department of Forest Engineering and Technology - Sector of Agricultural Sciences, being the first university course for top-level human resources graduation (BA) oriented to the Lumber Industry in Brazil. The webpage of the course is quite rich in information about this career. Many of the lessons of the university professors are available for public access, also a must for anyone who wants to read and learn about the pulp and paper technology. There are other industries covered, but at this newsletter edition we will focus only on subjects related to pulping and papermaking issues. (CEIM website - Course on Wood Industrial Engineering)
(Availacle courses/classes)

Following are some selected courses and the corresponding teachers, each one with valuable educational material for downloading and reading. Our greetings to our dear friends and renowned professors Dr. Umberto Klock, Dr. Ghislaine Bonduelle, Dr. Joao Carlos Moreschi and Dr. Alan Sulati de Andrade, for the magnificent work in favor of education in the wood sector.

• Course: Introduction to Wood Industrial Engineering - by professor Dr. Umberto Klock.
The course covers fundamental and basic issues as quality, chemistry and wood properties, as well as something about planted forests as source of wood. (in Portuguese)

• Course: Pulp and Paper - by professor Dr. Umberto Klock
The course covers fundamental issues about processes and production of pulp and paper, as well as the industrial operations involved in this type of industry.
(in Portuguese)

• Course: Physical Properties of Wood - by professor Mrs. Dr. Ghislaine Bonduelle
The course covers physical, thermal and electric properties of the wood.
(in Portuguese)

• Course: Technological Properties of the Wood - by professor Dr. Joao Carlos Moreschi
The course offers fundamental concepts about the wood for industrial and technological utilizations. (Summary - in Portuguese) (Complete hand-outs - in Portuguese)

• Course: Wood Chemistry - by professor Dr. Umberto Klock
The course aims to discuss formation, anatomy, structure and chemical components of the wood.
(in Portuguese)

• Courses: Thermodynamics, Heat and Mass Transfer, Machine Components, Hydraulic Machines and Thermal Machines - by professor Dr. Alan Sulato de Andrade
The course brings the required fundamentals on thermodynamics and unit operations to the students.
(in Portuguese)

Professor Mrs. Edna Scremin Dias' Webpage. Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul. (Webpage Professora Edna Scremin Dias. Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in Portuguese)
Dr. Mrs. Edna Scremin Dias teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in the Department of Biology at the Center of Biological and Health Sciences in the UFMS - Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul. She has under her responsibility the disciplines that deal with anatomy, morphology, physiology and ecology of plants. Her classes are available on the website of the institution and are available to be visited by our readers. Besides the academic classes, professor Edna Dias has some books on forestry that may also be of interest to you:
Visit at: (about biology and botany of plants) (A guide to the production of seeds from native forest species - with other co-authors) (A guide to the production of seedlings from native forest species - with other co-authors)

Professor Carlos Eduardo Nunez's Webpage. UNaM/FCEQyN - Argentina. (Webpage Professor Carlos Eduardo Nunez. UNaM/FCEQyN - Argentina). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in Spanish)
Our dear friend Carlos Eduardo Nunez ( at UNaM / Argentina has a very interesting academic webpage to scatter knowledge about wood and pulp, and highlights the following themes: analytical laboratories; anatomy, structure and composition of woods; data on properties of several wood, pulp and paper samples. It definitively worth to visit and browse - do not miss accessing it. (Dr. Carlos Eduardo Nunez's webpage)ón.htm (Research papers published by Dr. Nunez with links on several of them for downloading) (Laboratory techniques) (Many texts for access) (Independent texts about wood, pulp and paper)
(Independent texts about chemical laboratories for the P&P sector)
(Beaten fibers photos)
(Several images on wood anatomy, including Pinus and Eucalyptus)
(Microscopic images of paper fibers)

Professor Dr. Martin A. Hubbe's Webpage - NCSU - North Carolina State University. (Webpage Professor Dr. Martin A. Hubbe - NCSU - North Carolina State University). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in English)
Dr. Martin A. Hubbe is associate professor in the Department of Wood and Paper Science at NCSU, where he works with "Chemistry of Papermachine Wet-End" since 1998. He is in charge of managing a famous program on this important area of the paper industry, in partnership with Buckman Laboratories. He is also the coordinator of TAPPI - Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry course on "Introduction on wet-end chemistry." Dr. Hubbe has international recognition in this field of research and his classes, both to undergraduate and graduate students, are regarded as some of the most advanced that you can find on this field of knowledge. (Martin Hubbe's home page) (Education in chemistry of the paper machine wet-end) (Opportunities in chemistry of the paper machine wet-end) (Course "Wet-End and Colloidal Chemistry") (Literatures for downloading and reading) (Mini-encyclopedia in chemistry of the wet-end) (Mini-glossary to the paper sciences) (Abstracts of publications)
(NCSU Publication Repository for searching knowledge) (Suggested links)

Professor Dr. Orlando Rojas' Webpage - NCSU - North Carolina State University. (Webpage Professor Dr. Orlando Rojas - NCSU - North Carolina State University). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in English)
Our esteemed friend, Dr. Orlando Rojas is a competent and renowned Venezuelan researcher who is working at NCSU since 2003 in the Department of Forest Biomaterials, where he holds several positions of academic prominence. He also has a role as visiting professor at other educational institutions such as the Federal University of Amazonas (Brazil) and Aalto University (Finland). His areas of R&D include lignocellulosic materials and chemical agents/polymers used in pulp and paper manufacturing processes, paper recycling as well. He also teaches courses on paper properties. Visit his various publications, they are precious in the field of paper chemistry, complementing very well with Dr. Martin Hubbe's website. Dr. Rojas and Dr. Hubbe form a famous partnership in many technical articles available in paper science. (Dr. Orlando Rojas's home page) (Dr. Orlando Rojas's CV) (Main projects) (Publications for downloading) (Professor Rojas' academic courses)

Professor Dr. Dimitris S. Argyropoulus' Webpage - NCSU - North Carolina State University. (Webpage Professor Dr. Dimitris S. Argyropoulus - NCSU - North Carolina State University). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in English)
Dr. Dimitris S. Argyropoulus is one of the most renowned researchers in the field of wood and pulp and paper chemistry. Since 2002 he is professor at the Department of Forest Biomaterials ( at NCSU, where he has created a very interesting personal webpage, which provides many of the research papers developed by the research team he integrates. (Dr. Dimitris Argyropoulus' webpage) (Dr. Argyropoulus' CV) (Publications for downloading)

Celsius Degree - Dr. Celso Foelkel's Webpage. (Grau Celsius - Webpage Dr. Celso Foelkel). Accessed on 27.10.2010. (in Portuguese)
The author of this Eucalyptus Newsletter has a long career as professor in several universities in Brazil, teaching pulp and paper courses. Some of the hand-outs offered to his past students are available at for downloading. Although they are relatively old, some of them are still valid and many times visited by Latin American P&P students. (Hand-outs and master dissertations from the time Dr. Foelkel was professor at UFV - Federal University of Vicosa, Brazil) (Hand-outs and master dissertations from the time Dr. Foelkel was professor at UFSM- Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil)

References about Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events (congresses, seminars, conferences, workshops, courses). The advantage provided to web readers is that the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading to all interested parties. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties. I would like to emphasize the importance of visiting the material of these suggested events. Most of them have exceptional PowerPoint presentations, rich on data, photos, images and references. By doing this visit you can learn a lot more about the discussed topics. Other courses or events offer the entire book of technical articles, true sources of knowledge to our readers.

I hope you may enjoy this edition selection:

43rd International ABTCP/TAPPI Congress/Exhibition and 1st Latin American Tissue Symposium. ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper.
(43º Congresso e Exposicao Internacional ABTCP/TAPPI and 1º Simposio Latino-Americano de "Tissue". ABTCP - Associacao Brasileira Tecnica de Celulose e Papel). (in Portuguese and English)
ABTCP, in this year of 2010, and in partnership with TAPPI - Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry/USA, has held, past October, the 43rd edition of its traditional Annual Congress/Exhibition, something that happens since 1968. Parallel to this event, ABTCP also organized the International Latin American Symposium on Tissue Paper, which also had many highlights. In both cases, events were complemented by a large technological exhibition in Sao Paulo. The sessions and technical presentations of both events have together reached 1,046 participants and exhibition had 8,087 unique visitors - both cases were considered cases of success and have cooperated to the diffusion of technological knowledge. For the first time in its history, ABTCP offers the PowerPoint presentations of this magnum annual event to the general public and opens freely this material to all interested parties who may eventually want to download their preferences through the website There are dozens of excellent speeches in ppt/pdf which can be accessed until 31.12.2010, which is the date on which they will be in the web for free. After this date, they will only be accessed by members of the entity (or by request). Please, check what valuable and rich material may be downloaded. Just be patient with the downloads, since there are some speeches that are robust and may take some time to the downloads. (Speeches)

International Workshop on Wood Biorefinery and Tree Biotechnology. FUNCFIBER/Biorefinery of the Future. (in English)
Biorefinery 2010 was an event organized and promoted by the Swedish Center of Excellence in Wood - FUNCFIBER ( with the aim to bring together groups from different research organizations (academic and private) on the theme of biorefineries in forest-based industry. As a partner in organizing the event there was also the cooperative research center Biorefinery of the Future ( The event took place from 21 to 23 June 2010 and it was attended by dozens of renowned speakers and an audience of distinguished researchers in a worldwide basis. Lectures and abstracts of the articles are available for downloading. In the event, we had an interesting speech given by Dr. Dario Grattapaglia, a renowned "Friend of the Eucalyptus". The title of the speech was: "More and better wood faster: genomic selection in tropical Eucalyptus." (Technical program and speeches) (Abstracts book - 107 pp) (Dr. Dario Grattapaglia's speech)

IV Annual Trade and Commodity Finance in Brazil Conference. EuroMoney Seminars. (in English)
An event organized by the Euromoney Seminars, which was held in Sao Paulo in September 2010. The seminar presentations highlight the country of Brazil as a place plenty of investment opportunities, reporting its exporting capacity and foreign exchange generation. The highlights were the presentations on the productive sectors: ethanol, soybean and pulp and paper (with a lecture of BRACELPA's president - Mrs. Elizabeth Carvalhaes).
(Webpage of the event)

BRACELPA - Speeches in Events - Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper. (BRACELPA - Palestras em Eventos. Associacao Brasileira de Celulose e Papel). (in Portuguese and English)
In the recently rebuilt BRACELPA's website, you can find some great lectures/speeches presented by the organization staff in several national and international forums. We suggest that you know these presentations, rich in images on sustainability and Brazilian P&P industry statistics. (Several speeches from events) (Mrs. Simone Nagai's BRACELPA presentation at ABTCP/TAPPI 2010 - P&P sector forum - in Portuguese)

III Technical Scientific Seminar on Forest Nurseries. IPEF - Institute of Forest Research and Studies. (III Seminario Tecnico-Cientifico de Viveiros Florestais. IPEF - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais). (in Portuguese)
The IPEF cooperative research program PTSM - Technical Program of Forestry Management ( recently organized and held its third technical and scientific seminar on forest nurseries. The event was held in Campo Grande/MS from 28 to 30 September 2010. The event site selection was associated with the great move for seedling production due to the expansions in new planting areas - something that is occurring in that region. The outstanding event was aimed for disseminating new technologies, information on legislation and scientific knowledge about the production of forest seedlings, either from native or exotic species. Check and select the materials of your interest - they are outstanding lectures and with great technical merit. (Program and speeches in Portuguese)
(Painel Florestal TV video about the event - in Portuguese)

Virtual Xylotheques or Wood Collections

Until recently, xylotheques were considered to be physical spaces specially designed and capable of housing collections of wood samples of any size, shape or parts of woody species. To make things easier to handle and to store, the physical wood collections often keep the samples in pieces of predetermined dimensions, which are taken as longitudinal, transverse and radial sections from the wood logs. In the case of virtual wood collections, which emerged with the advent of the Internet, they often show pictures of wood sections and of pieces taken from the woods, as well as their morphological, anatomical, physical, mechanical properties, and even pictures of the tree that represents the specific type of wood. In general, the wood (or xylem) samples are collected and stored by following a systematic classification, the same type as used to taxonomically classify the plants. ( One of the most used is the systematic or taxonomic Engler's classification (

Just as any sample collection, wood collections are the answer for some purposes, among which we emphasize the scientific and practical applications. Based on known and available samples, the scientists may perform research on anatomy, quality and identification of wood and plant species. There is also the available opportunity to visit the technical data sheets for each timber that exists at the xylotheques. A user of a wood collection can relatively easily identify and gather the unknown wood sample, discovering its relevant properties, characteristics in appearance and more appropriate uses and performances for this timber. It is also possible by the knowledge of the characteristics of a given wood to infer about the plant species that produced it, thereby serving as a repository for the identificatiom of even the plant species or tree. In the case of Eucalyptus and pine, the separation of plant species based on the wood characteristics is very difficult, because the woods are very similar among the different species within each genus. However, at the level of genus segregation is quite possible to do this with a good level of reliability. Another purpose is that the wood collections permit their use in studies of archeology and history of civilizations. Historical objects of wood may be better known by its woody characteristics and constitution. In general, dendrochronology ( is another science that is often associated with wood collections. With the use of simple devices such as magnifier lens (minimum 10X magnification), binocular and optical microscopes any type of timber can easily be identified by experts working in xylotheques.

Wood collections are also associated to other botanical collections of plant items such as: herbaria, slides of plant anatomy and collections of fruits and seeds. Thus, these collections have important roles in studies of taxonomy and plant identification. Through these collections, research and educational institutions provide important services, both in educating their students, as in the clarification and solution of common problems coming from society.

There are hundreds of xylotheques in the world. In Brazil we have wonderful collections of woods due to the rich biodiversity of woody species that we have across the country. The most popular Brazilian wood collections are: xylotheque "Calvin Mainieri" from IPT - Institute of Technological Research in Sao Paulo State; xylotheque "Octavio Vecchi" at Sao Paulo Forestry Institute; wood collection at INPA - National Institute for Amazon Research; wood collection of Federal University of Amazon; wood collection "Walter Egler" at Para Museum "Emilio Goeldi"; wood collection of the Forest Products Laboratory from IBAMA/DF; as well as wood collections owned by departments and institutes of Botany in virtually all major Brazilian universities that have research in its field of science.

The xylotheques usually have networks of mutual cooperation, exchanging samples, information, training and services. There is a well-known text written in four editions by William Louis Stern, who had as objectives to relate and describe the major and renowned wood collections in the world, assigning each with an alphabetic acronym. The article "Xylariorum Index - Institutional wood collections of the world" was first published in 1957 and then had upgrades in 1967, 1978 and 1988. This article was most recently upgraded by Lynch & Glasson and is available in a link below mentioned. The terms xylariorum, xylarium, xylaria and xylotheque are used to express in English the collections of woods. Globally, some of the most famous wood collections are located at Yale University (USA), Forest Products Technology Research and Development Center (Indonesia), CSIRO - Forestry and Forest Products (Australia), Forest Products Laboratory (USA), etc. There's even a worldwide association of collectors of wood, the International Wood Collectors Society (

Collecting wood is something that stimulates even the amateur collectors, like myself. I started my private collection of small pieces of wood still a student and continued throughout my professional career. I think today I have some few hundred pieces, which allowed me to even create a section on my website about the wood - wwww.celso It is a small collection, but I'm proud of it, for the fact that it allows me to interact and to have empathy to the timber samples it holds. Quantum Physics usually try to explain this empathy between objects and people, by the interaction of physical waves emitted and exchanged between both. I am the kind of people who collect things, so I should not fail in having a collection of wood samples. I also have a pulp collection, much larger, perhaps over one thousand samples and each one with the corresponding data sheet, but that's another topic to tell you later.

Only the IPT/SP "Calvino Mainieri" wood collection reports to have nearly 20,000 different cataloged wood pieces. With the advantage that their data-sheets are also available online for browsing by stakeholders. Almost all wood collections have data-sheets for the wood comprising the collection. These sheets can be transfered to public and various blogs and websites help to scatter this information sheets through the web. I'll try to give some indication of where to find them just ahead in this section.

Know some references of wood collections located in Brazil and also in a world and web bases. Doing this, you may become astonished by the beauty of these collections of woods, or to seek knowledge that you are demanding to work or when using any piece of wood.

Xiloteca/Xylotheque. Wikipedia Digital Encyclopedia. Accessed on 29.10.2010: (in Portuguese) (in English) (in Spanish)

"Brazilian Woods". Xylotheque of the IBAMA Forest Products Laboratory. (Xiloteca "Madeiras Brasileiras" do Laboratorio de Produtos Florestais do IBAMA). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (Opening page - in Portuguese) (Online search of Brazilian woody species - in Portuguese)

IPT/SP "Calvino Mainieri" Xylotheque. (Xiloteca "Calvino Mainieri" - IPT/SP). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010:
_foi_pioneiro_na_identificacao_e_aplicacao_das_madeiras_brasileiras.htm (Search tool for woods and technical data-sheets - in Portuguese)

REMADE Xylotheque. (Xiloteca REMADE - Revista da Madeira). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010:: (Online search for a great number of woody species in the world - in Portuguese)

The Inside Wood Database
. (USA). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (Webpage - in English);jsessionid=e558fed3918ba0be28246d159c77 (Searching data-base - in English) (Searching Eucalyptus in the data-base - in English)

MADw - Madison Wood Collection - USDA/FS - Forest Products Laboratory. (USA). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (in English) (Xylaria at Forest Products Laboratory. R.B. Miller. 13 pp. 1999 - in English) (Search at MADw - in English)
(Search about Eucalyptus - in English)

Timber. Species information. Timber Building in Australia. (Australia). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (To search woody species - in English)

IAWA - International Association of Wood Anatomists.
(Belgium). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (Links with wood catalogues and basic courses in wood structure and anatomy - in English) (Index Xylariorum 4 - Upgraded by A.H. Lynch; P.E. Glasson - in English) (Know the 18 Brazilian xylotheques referred at the Xylariorum 4 - in English)

Xylotheque "Walter A. Egler". Para Museum "Emilio Goeldi". (Xiloteca "Walter A. Egler" - Museu Paraense "Emilio Goeldi"). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (Museum website - in Portuguese) (About the "Emilio Goeldi" museum xylotheque by C.N. Fonseca and co-workers. 76 pp. 2005 - in Portuguese) (List of species and general data - in Portuguese) (XiloMAM - Virtual xylotheque of Amazon woody species - in Portuguese)

Xylotheque of the Federal University of Amazon. (Xiloteca do Universidade Federal do Amazonas). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (in Portuguese)
(Search woody species by name - in Portuguese)

INPA Xylotheque - National Institute for Amazon Research. (Xiloteca INPA - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (in Portuguese) (Wood species- in Portuguese)

Xylotheque of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden. (Xiloteca Jardim Botanico Rio de Janeiro). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

Xylotheque "Octavio Vecchi" - Sao Paulo Forestry Institute. (Xiloteca "Octavio Vecchi" - Instituto Florestal Estado Sao Paulo). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

Xylotheque "Manuel Soler".
(Spain). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (Home page - in Spanish) (Publications - in Spanish) (Links to other wood collections- in Spanish)

SINDIMASP - About the wood: some species of Brazilian trees. (Sobre a madeira: algumas especies de arvores brasileiras. SINDIMASP - Sindicato do Comercio Atacadista de Madeiras do Estado de Sao Paulo). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (Several woody species with corresponding data-sheet - in Portuguese)

Knowing the wood. Alefe Viana's Blog. (Conhecendo a madeira. Blog de Alefe Viana). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (in Portuguese) (Wood samples originated from forest species - in Portuguese)

Knowing the woods from Eucalyptus. Portal da Madeira. (Conhecendo as madeiras de eucalipto. Portal da Madeira). (Portugal). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

Wood samples. Laboratory of Forest Research UTAD - Portugal. (Amostras de madeiras. Laboratorio de Pesquisas Florestais. UTAD - Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro). (Portugal). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (Fantastic anatomic slides of several woods, including Eucalyptus and Pinus - in Portuguese)

Hardwood species. AHEC-American Hardwood Export Council.
(USA).Accessed on 28.10.2010: (in English)

EcoData Xylotheque Project. (Italy). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (in Italian) (Presentation in a compacted file - in Italian)

Landscapes in wood anatomy. Celso Foelkel's Website. (Paisagens em anatomia de madeiras. Website Celso Foelkel). (Brazil). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

IWCS - International Wood Collectors Society. (USA). Accessed on 28.10.2010: (Website - in English) (Collecting woods - in English) (Publications - in English)

Criacao de uma xiloteca electronica (e-xiloteca) tropical e sua utilizacao para identificacao e caracterizacao de madeiras com fins cientificos e economicos. [Creating an electronic tropical wood collection (e-wood tropical collection) and its use for identification and characterization of wood for scientific and economic purposes]. F.M.S. Bessa. Ph.D. Thesis. Technical University of Lisboa. Superior Institute of Agronomy. 368 pp. (2009),fms-d.pdf (in Portuguese)

Diretrizes e estrategias para a modernizacao de colecoes botanicas brasileiras: infra-estrutura, capacitacao e gestao da informacao. (Guidelines and strategies for the modernization of Brazilian botanical collections: infrastructure, training and information management). L.C. Maia; M. Menezes; A.L. Porto; M.R. Barbosa. PowerPoint presentation: 29 slides. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Xilotecas brasileiras: panorama atual e contextualizacao. (Brazilian wood collections: an overview and contextualization). (Undated and without references about source and authors) (in Portuguese)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus
(by Ester Foelkel)

Demolition Wood: New Uses and Advantages to the Wood of the Eucalyptus*

The concerns about environmental conservation are growing every day, in similar proportion to the increasing number of conscious consumers. Thus, the markets are rising for sustainable products and services, which have been produced in a rational, environmentally friendly and with fewer impacts to the ecosystems (Spezia, 2008). Production items labeled as "friends of Nature" or "green labeled" can already be found in significant number in the forest-based sector. The wood itself is a renewable natural resource; but even so, it must be used as rationally and correctly as possible, what means minimizing wastes and residues. The use of wasted wooden materials for the manufacture of new products and additional aggregation of value throughout the lumber chain of production is a strong option (environmentally friendly), leading to a proper reuse and disposal of the final wood residues. The recycled wood is an example of correct usage of this natural asset. Recycled wood markets are growing, being this type of wood utilized primarily for the same purposes of the raw wood. Doing such, the recycled wood also provides economic, social and especially environmental benefits (Wiltsee, 1996).

Demolition wood is a waste generated by dismantling or renovation of buildings, houses, facilities and old industries that need to be demolished or rebuilt to make the urban area available for other purposes. Contrary to the clean wooden waste generated in saw-mills, the demolition wood parts are considered dirty residues, since they contain decayed and dirty wood pieces as: rotted, damaged, painted with various inks, attacked by termites and having unknown quantities of nails and other objects inserted in them (Falk and McKeever, 2004). This fact brings the need for separation the wood from the debris of demolished concrete and other materials. It is a difficult activity and that many civil industry contractors, unfortunately, do not often like to perform. But this reality is changing, mainly due to the socio-environmental benefits that the demolition wood may bring.

The reuse of demolition wood reduces the need for harvesting new trees, and mitigate the amount of wastes at landfills and industrial disposal areas. Often, the wood is disposed in improper manners, causing pollution on soil, groundwater and air, if improperly burned. Thus, the reuse of this waste can help to a safer environment, in sinking carbon longer; and creating new products that are increasingly demanded and appreciated in the markets because they are environmentally friendly and have ecological appeal. The markets for demolition wood also creates new jobs, favoring new industries to appear, benefiting communities. Today, there is a growing number of applications for such waste material (USDA, 2002).

The main timber wastes possible to be found in old demolished buildings and construction works are: doors, beams, structural components of walls and roofs, handrails, windows, floors, stairs, fences, poles, stakes, ties, among others (Falk and McKeever , 2004). According to Taylor and Warnken (2008), many of demolition wastes are shattered into pieces and mixed with chunks of concrete, plastics, paper and even some toxic wastes. In the latter case, the wood becomes unfit to be reused. Pallets, railways sleepers, wooden cross-arms removed from power poles and scraps of wooden packaging materials are also important for human beings and are considered demolition wood, too (USDA, 2002). They all deserve a second chance to be useful again. The construction industry increasingly uses the wood of Eucalyptus replacing the indigenous hardwood trees. For this reason, the Eucalyptus are being found in many elements known as demolition wood such as pallets, railway sleepers, furniture, poles, fences, etc. This paper aims to add some technical information about this timber residues which are becoming important raw materials and sources of additional incomes. Demolition wood is being a completely new and unusual product at many and sometimes sophisticated markets.

According to USDA (2002) the main demolition wood utilization's are:

- To be used as wood itself

The reuse of demolition wood as structural element of new constructions, or as part of architectural projects, is the first objective, trying to recover the original wood use. This purpose is the one that adds more value to the residue. If the destination of demolition wood is related to the structure of a building, it is recommended that an inspection and certification be made by an expert in timber for the safe utilization and the guarantee of the mechanical and physical wood properties (USDA, 2002).

In a great part of the world, including Brazil, demolition wood is already quite used for the production of furniture, in special of the rustic designing. This model of furniture is increasingly demanded and appreciated not only because the environmental appeal they have, but also for the quality, pattern, beauty and comfort. Many architects prefer the use of wood from demolition in their creations and designs, for believing that the aged appearance of the wood creates a cozy environment, especially for homes (Martins, 2009).

In Brazil, pieces of wood from old houses are eventually separated by civil industry contractors, because they have very good value as demolition wood. This happens because they may be originated from native species commonly used in the past and that are very rare to be found today. The remaining trees of these species in Brazilian native forests are now protected by law. Thus, someone can still find demolition wood of cedar, ipe, rosewood, mahogany, rose mahogany, cinnamon, araucaria, among others. What would be discarded in landfills along with the concrete and brick debris can now be recycled, achieving some very interesting marketing values. A significant part of the wood removed at building demolitions are in good condition, despite having more than one hundred years of use (Martin, 2009). Demolition wood furniture can be manufactured from them, such as: chairs, tables, mirror frames, cabinets, screens, beds, sofas, benches, decks and pools walkways (Cruzetas..., 2010). Many artists also have the demolition wood as raw material for paintings and sculptures. Architects, who work with demolition wood, feel that as long as the environment is harmonious, the furniture of this type of raw material may be supplemented with other modern elements containing fresh or reconstituted wood (Martins, 2009). According to one architect interviewed by this author, people are looking for differentiated furniture, durable and looking old, however with high quality. These characteristics can be found in the furniture made by several artisans using demolition wood.

The increased demand, the rarity of some woods, as well as the difficulty of separating the other debris, cause the prices of these products to be often high in the markets (Santana, 2010; Barauna, 2009). However, there are furniture made with less rare wood from demolition, as it is the case of the Eucalyptus, yielding products with more accessible values and showing all the advantages of environmental, social and economic benefits as the rare demolition woods. Many railways sleepers, poles and cross-arms made from Eucalyptus are used in making furniture and pool accessories, such as floors, countertops and decks (Cruzetas..., 2010).

Taylor and Warnken (2008) reported that in Australia there are already entrepreneurs specialized in separating wood and other demolition materials, and there are internet websites that provide guidance on the acquisition and certification of wood from demolition. The addition of value in demolition wood (which is often overlooked) is significant, particularly when such wood is used again as raw material for noble purposes in the furniture industry. There are even cases that the demolition wood is worth more than fresh and raw wood (Turek, 2009).

According to Barauna (2009), in addition to furniture, flooring, window frames, ceilings and other decorative objects that can be made with wood from demolition, this material is also versatile enough for architecture purposes, receiving different treatments and making possible to change the look of the environments over the years.

- To be used as raw material for engineered or reconstituted wood

Small pieces of wood originated from demolition works can be separated and reused in the manufacture of wood panels. In this process, the small pieces of wood (sawdust or wood chips) receive thermal treatment along with the addition of adhesives, resins and other chemicals to form a wooden panel also known as reconstituted wood (USDA, 2002). One of the main kinds of wood panels that can be manufactured from the demolition wood is the OSB (Oriented Strand Board), one of the least demanding in terms of raw material quality and specifications.

According to Taylor and Warnken (2008), MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard) panels can also be manufactured with wood from demolition. The chipped wood receives treatments which combines mechanical defibration in water with the use of thermal heating, before the manufacture of a new panel. Damaged used pallets and packaging wood that no longer can be reused for these specific functions, are considered important wastes to be converted into wood raw materials for panels. They can be reused to the manufacture either fiberboards or wood panels. There are companies chipping the wooden pallets in specialized machinery (wood chippers), subsequently removing metals such as nails with magnets. Then, the chips are able to be sold to the process industry of forming panels, going for new grinders and screeners to better purify the fibers (Biblioteca..., 2010).

Wood plants in the United Kingdom are said being able to reprocess 80% of wood waste from post-consumer collection. Even the sawdust generated in chipping of demolition wood is not wasted. It may be composted for the generation of organic fertilizers for agriculture or burned as fuel (Biblioteca..., 2010).

- To be used as raw material for composting and organic fertilizing

The sawdust and wood meal generated from demolition wastes are excellent raw materials for composting, requiring the addition of nitrogen (found in animal manure) for their more efficient and quick decomposition and stabilization. After composting, the produced organic fertilizer can be used in agriculture to supply nutrients to crops (USDA, 2002).

- To be used as biomass fuel

According to Biblioteca... (2010), a great percentage of the demolition wood cannot be reused for noble use. Rotten doors, decayed walls and floor coverings become wastes during processing of these wood pieces. They will no longer have physical or mechanical conditions to perform again as wood. So, the best destination for such waste, in some cases, is burning them as biomass for power generation (USDA, 2002).

In all cases of reusing wood from demolition, it is important to pay attention to the fact whether the wood had been treated or not with any kind of harmful chemical preservative that may have some residual levels (example: creosote, pentachlorphenol, chromium, copper, boron or arsenic). They all may bring some toxicity when the wood gets another specific purpose. In such cases, the destination of the wood waste needs to be reevaluated, and for many purposes, this kind of treated wood shall not be recommended.

The environmentally correct wood is beingincreasingly demanded by conscious consumers, who require that the products they consume are the most sustainable and natural as possible. Thus, demolition wood is today a "fashion" among these consumers, mainly because it is a recycling waste that adds a surplus value, instead of being improperly disposed. The use of demolition wood for architectural purposes is one of the most valuable and noble of all utilization's, and can reach very attractive economic value. Many fashion furniture are manufactured with demolition wood, whose raw materials were taken from old houses, having a long story behind each of their pieces, which often show up more than 200 years of age. This fact is very popular with the buyers, who want to know details of the species, age, stories, origin, and intrinsic qualities of the woods. According to USDA (2002), the sale of demolition wood to civil construction works, artistic, structural or architectural purposes can generate revenues 20 to 30 times higher than the same quantity of wood sold for combustion or composting. The same author commented that the demolition wood used for the production of wood panels have results up to four times higher with respect to its sale to power generation or organic fertilizer.

Despite the great advantages that the demolition wood features andeven considering its increasing worldwide use, including in Brazil, there are still people who know close to nothing about this kind of product. Thus, the reuse of wood should be encouraged by public and private organizations and authorities, through advertising and more research. Such measures would help to encourage proper separation of waste wood from building sites in process of demolishing. These wastes would have the best possible environmental destinations, particularly by the fact of deserving new opportunities that would be offered to the segregated wood pieces. What would be a problem and a waste very easily may be converted into a valuable raw material. Exactly how eco-efficiency teaches us.

To all those interested in this issue, there is just ahead a series of technical articles, scientific papers, news, videos and websites of organizations and companies that are specialized in demolition wood. Meet the incredible work is being done in the processing of wood waste into products with high added value.

IDHEA - Institute for the Development of Ecological Housing. (Instituto para o Desenvolvimento da Habitacao Ecologica). Accessed on 25.10.2010: (Webpage - in Portuguese) (Ecoproducts- in Portuguese)

Contruir com residuos. (Building with wastes). M.A. Uruena. IDHEA. 01 pp. Accessed on 25.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

Materiais ecologicos e tecnologias sustentaveis. Praticas e aplicacoes.
(Ecological materials and sustainable technologies. Practices and applications). IDHEA. Available at Scribd. Accessed on 25.10.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Cruzetas de madeira reciclada. (Pole cross-arms or hangers made in recycled wood). Website Accessed on 25.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

Arte em madeira de demolicao. (Art in demolition wood). Inariwei's channel. Youtube. Accessed on 25.10.2010: (in Portuguese)

Torneando coluna. Parte 3. (Mechanical lathing of columns. Part 3). JorgeIzidoro's channel. Youtube. Accessed on 22.09.2010: (in Portuguese)

Madeira de demolicao. (Demolition wood). Hades2206's channel. Youtube. Accessed on 22.09.2010: (in Portuguese)

Madeira de demolicao. (Demolition wood). Searching at Youtube. Accessed on 22.09.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Madeira de demolicao. (Demolition wood). Blog. Accessed on 22.09.2010: (in Portuguese)
(Video: Pole hangers/cross-arms of demolition wood - in Portuguese)

Madeira de demolicao. (Demolition wood). Specialized Website. Accessed on 22.09.2010: (in Portuguese)

Como transformar casa antiga em arte.
(How to change your old house into art). Accessed on 22.09.2010: (in Portuguese)

Processo para reciclagem e reutilizacao. (Process of recycling and recovery). Biblioteca FHM Zero-C. Library FHM Zero-C. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

Madeira de demolicao. (Demolition wood). R. Santana. Sustentaculos. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Madeira de demolicao e tendencia em Itaipava. (Demolition wood is a trend in Itaipava). M. Martins. Comunicacao e Informacao. (2009)
(in Portuguese)

Sustentabilidade: madeira de demolicao na sua casa. (Sustainability: demolition wood in your house). V. K. T. Barauna. EcoReleases. Portal do Meio Ambiente. (2009)
(in Portuguese)

Madeira para revestir paredes. (Wood for wall coverings). C. Turek. Reciclagem. Vila do Artesao. (2009)

Wood recovery and recycling: a source book for Australia. J. Taylor; M. Warnken. Forest and Wood Products. Australia Limited. 48 pp. (2008)
(in English)

Madeiras ecologicas. (Ecological woods). M. Spezia. Jornal da Comunidade. Decor. 01 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Estudio de gestion de residuos de demolicion (EGRCD). (Study of the demolition waste management). EGR Demolicion. Ministerio de la Presidencia. Espanha. 08 pp. (2008) (in Spanish)

Monografia sobre residuos de contruccion y demolicion. (A monograph on construction and demolition wastes). IHOBE. 48 pp. (2004)
(in Spanish)

Environmental impacts of preservative-treated wood. Florida Center of Environmental Solutions. Post-Conference Proceedings. 435 pp. (2004)
(in English)

Evaluation of the market development potential of the waste wood and wood products reclamation and reuse sector. BFM Ltd; BRE Ltd. The Waste and Resources Action Programme. 125 pp. (2004) (in English)

Recovering wood for reuse and recycling - a United States perspective. R. H. Falk; D. B. McKeever. 13 pp. FPL/USDA (2004) (in English)

Successful approaches to recycling urban wood waste. USDA - United States Department of Agriculture. Solid Waste Association of North America. General Technical Report 133. 22 pp. (2002) (in English)

Urban wood waste resource assessment. G. Wiltsee. 227 pp. (1998)

Certificacion LEED de edificios sustentables. Materiales y recursos. (LEED certification of sustainable buildings. Materials and resources). Miranda y Nasi Consultores Ltda. PowerPoint presentation: 113 slides. (Undated) (in Spanish)

Sustainable design and wood. A wood frame building performance fact sheet. Forest Products Association of Canada. 08 pp. (Undated) (in English)

Demolition wood images - including Eucalyptus woods: (Furniture manufactured in demolition wood) (Furniture manufactured in demolition wood)
(Demolition wood in bathrooms)
(Eucalyptus railroad sleepers)
(Madeira de demolicao - Demolition wood - Google images)
(Demolition wood decks)
(Demolition wood - Google images)
("Madera de demolicion" - Google images)

*We would like to thank the friends of the demolition wood, Mr. Anderson and Mr. Junior, from "Bicho da Madeira", who gave me the opportunity to meet their manufacturing process of making furniture from demolition wood and the photos of their products, one of which is the image of a table manufactured with Eucalyptus demolition wood, and serving for the purpose of opening this section.

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel

Performance and Productivity Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Mills

The pulp and paper industry has gradually been changing its geographical distribution in the face of comparative and competitive advantages that some regions and companies have over others. An industry that for decades has heavily been concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere (Europe, North America and Japan) has gradually lost importance in these regions showing now a strong growth in the Southern Hemisphere and at the countries named by the acronym BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China). This change has its reasons associated with the performance of the companies of market pulp and paper manufacturing in these regions of recent emergency in the paper business; and also because other systemic issues that these regions were able to well solve, such as: legislation, licensing, image, monetary policies, financing, infrastructure and logistics, bureaucracy, political and financial soundness, etc.

However, the major driving force for the growth of this sector in these emerging regions has been the competence to perform well in what we call key competitiveness factors for the industry. To be competitive, any company in the pulp and paper industry at least needs to be performing above the overall production average for the product it manufactures. In our case, the key factors of competitiveness are clearly known and played. Among them we have: manufacturing unit costs (fixed and variable costs), quality and product performance, productivity and operational performance, distribution and logistics, corporate image, environmental and economic health. When a company is doing well on these issues, it tends to rapidly grow and to increase capacity, thereby gaining greater participation in the markets ("market share"). Financial institution's and investors are closely watching these performances, including the operational, as it has immediate impact on the value of their shares in the stock exchanges and capital markets.

Winning companies are those able to develop good and appropriate strategies (effectiveness) and management of their operations (efficiency). They can successfully select the strategies (choice of things to do), as well as having efficiency in operations (doing very well the chosen things). Achieved this integration strategy / management, they can add more value than competitors and start acting in the "plus world" (growth, development, successes) and not in the "minus world" (daily battle for survival and constant surprises).

However, the real business competitiveness depends not only the company itself, but also the country and the region where the business is located. Gone are the days when a company could be successful by exploiting local natural resources and located in a miserable region, poor and without infrastructure to provide happiness to its workers.

Economic globalization has forced companies to be increasingly competitive. That's because they need today to compete not only overseas, by exporting their products, but also in their own regional markets (which can freely import products from abroad if they are better and/or with lower prices).

The famous management experts argue that to be competitive a company must act in the following strategic areas:

• management and strategies;
• integration and optimization of productive processes;
• strengthening and development of industrial clusters within its value chain network ;
• monitoring performance against direct competitors (benchmarking) and the same in relation to alternative products on the market;
• stimulating creativity and innovation capacity, especially in technologies and marketing.
Low competitive companies are easily identified because:
• they do not have consistent strategies and plans;
• they act in a hasty way in various markets, "shooting at random to see if they get something, even without knowing what";
• they have mixed and diverse entrepreneurial cultures among managers;
• they are unable to get the involvement and integration of the own team in pursuit of the goals and strategic challenges;
• they are unable to achieve the minimum required continuous improvement;
• they show no growth (companies with problems show no signs of civil constructions and new equipment additions - they are static along the time);
• they have inadequate levels of productivity;
• they have low technological, business and marketing performances;
• they have no credibility in the forums where they act.

Thus, both the selection of strategic options as well as the competence in operating and properly managing processes are vital things to the competitive success of companies in the pulp and paper business. Doing such, they can identify their level of competitiveness. This means they must have adequate and continuous monitoring mechanisms on the key performance indicators. This performance needs to be above average, even outstanding, in all areas of the business: production, materials, marketing, technology, financial, environmental, forestry, etc. Of course, without an efficient integration of these areas and without a road to follow in relation to performance indicators, it is nowadays very difficult to perform a winning management.

Definitely, there are many important words related to business results. For each of these words the company should have indicators to monitor and evaluate the situation in which it performs. Please, see in a simple way where the companies should be focused by the mere mention of words and phrases: production, price, costs, contribution margins by each product, inventories, markets, capital, profit, working capital, results, customers, quality, productivity, continuous improvement, best practices, technology, information, knowledge, experience, training, resources and materials, vital processes, logistics, strategy, vision, focus, planning, organization, added value, operational efficiency, flexibility, timing (time response), decision making, production scale, risks, wastes, threats, opportunities, brands, image, people/persons, eco-efficiency, etc.

Since all leading Brazilian companies in this industry are certified by the ISO series of standards for quality and environment management systems, they all have developed their vital indicators (or not so vital) to monitor their production systems. With this, they can not only check their performances, but also make comparisons with their peers and eventually to their competitors.

The competitiveness of the Eucalyptus pulp and paper business in Brazil depends basically in the following items:

• forest productivity;
• cost of wood and/or pulp fibers;
• unit cost of production;
• cash cost of the product;
• cost and availability of capital;
• effective use of capital;
• working capital needs;
• modernization of mills;
• capacity expansion and scaling up production;
• state-of-the-art technologies;
• market share;
• legal compliance;
• financial health (cash management and capital to be spent);
• environmental health and compliance;
• effective strategies;
• efficiency in operations;
• productivity in the production line;
• product quality;
• vital skills and competence's;
• distribution and logistics;
• relationship and cooperation with customers;
• innovation plus research and development;
• value creation for the company and the consumer;
• portfolio of products, etc.

For all these factors, companies need to have exemplary performance. This requires the construction of indicators for each vital factor - not too many in each case - just the most important. All companies try to do this, some with varying degrees of sophistication. Some rely heavily on information technology, but just IT is not enough. We must have a sound dialogue with data and processes and to know the best ways to interpret them. Otherwise, we'll just build beautiful and fancy graphics and tables that IT helps building. And nothing else.

Among the success factors one cannot discard to the background the available technological quality, and competence that people in the mill have to operate and to maintain these technologies in good shape.

In our type of industry there are some basic rules that are well-known by everyone (and sometimes they are nasty to executive management):

• pulp and paper mills can not stop because the cost of downtime is extremely nasty;
• every penny saved per tonne of product will become a significant number at the end of the year due to the production scale factor;
• money is not a gift given to play with it, but it requires a result and a return;
• the price of products is determined by market forces and supply/demand as it is for all other commodities;
• high prices in one period does not mean they can not fall sharply in a short time and vice-versa (cyclical prices trends);
• manufacturing costs depend on effectiveness and efficiency;
• high fixed costs per tonne indicate insufficient scale of production or chronic management;
• high unit variable costs or expensive inputs indicate inefficient operations;
• operational performance in manufacturing of products is the basic foundation of any business, both pulp and/or papermaking;
• unskilled companies at production processes have a daily struggle to operate in this business, unless privileged by some hidden force or magic (if that still exists in democratic countries).

Taking into account that a full assessment of all these factors would require much more than a simple mini-article in our Eucalyptus Newsletter, we will focus just the operational performance and productivity at our mills. After all, our companies are typically oriented to process production lines and to a few products. Therefore, they are simple to be tracked and monitored. Furthermore, our goal is to have economic results from our products and not from other kind of financial arrangements or games.

Productivity and operating performance are associated with technical efficiencies in production and in the use of scarce resources (raw materials, energy, labor, etc.) at manufacturing lines. They are generally numerical relations that indicate the efficiency in the use of a machine, an input of a raw material, labor, etc. Productivity indicators can be created in thousands of them, but managers should not exaggerate. Otherwise, it becomes difficult to manage and this fact ends up creating a management by justifications and explanations of numbers through the use of information tools.

Productivity and operating performance of the pulp/paper companies are in turn associated with some very important items, such as:

• age and technological level of machinery;
• efficiency in the use of the machines (known as operational efficiency);
• efficiency in the utilization of inputs, raw materials and energy;
• technical training of operators;
• level of automation and online control instruments;
• organizational practices (best practices);
• adoption of programs of quality and productivity with motivation for continuous improvements;
• efficiency in decision-making;
• traceability of the processes, etc.

In general, managers know very well where to focus, but there is always something hidden under the carpet to be discovered. Therefore, one of the main points that we shall always improve in the mills is to strengthen the interpretation of the indicators aiming to leverage improvements and not to generate explanations. Another crucial point is the need to be quick in decisions and actions, assuming that the mills cannot stop (downtime) and that every penny saved per tonne of product has enormous consequences over the time.

Just to give a simple example about this, let us understand what it means in terms of lost revenue for a market pulp mill producing 2,400 tonnes per day of pulp when the mill stop production for one hour. This means 100 tonnes per hour. If the mill has a downtime of one hour, at least 100 tonnes of pulp will not be produced to be sold. However, there are also other losses that we did not include here. If the net selling price of this product is U.S. $ 700 per tonne and the variable cost of production is U.S. $ 250 per tonne, we have a contribution margin per product unit of U.S. $ 450. Therefore, the lost revenue by one hour downtime is exactly what was not received as the gross contribution margin. The mill did not spend the U.S. $ 250 variable cost per product unit, but also failed to earn 450. Considering a lost production of 100 tonnes of pulp in the downtimed hour, the value of lost revenue would amount to 100 x 450 = U.S. $ 45,000. Simple to understand why mills cannot stop, isn't it?

For these mentioned reasons, many pulp & paper mills are structured to perform detailed assessments of operational efficiency, trying to understand the causes of production losses and operational downtimes. Very often, these causes are related to the machines and maintenance, but these are not the only reasons. Most of the times, it's easier to complain about the machinery, raw materials and maintenance; however, without making mistakes, there are many other reasons. Production losses and operational discontinuity occur in all manufacturing areas. As our mills are actually networks of operations, a downtime in one area can surely affect others or even the entire mill. The correct identification of operational issues and downtimes - either mechanical, electrical, instrumental, etc. - can help improving operational efficiency and productivity indicators, as consequence.

Quality and productivity programs have simple tools that are very suitable for identifying causes and effects of downtime and lost production/quality: Pareto charts, fish-bone graphs, statistical controls charts, etc. Also, the evaluation systems for quality and productivity awards, such the criteria for excellence of the National Quality Award (Brazil) and the Baldrige National Quality Program (USA) induce, instruct and suggest how and what to develop as key indicators, those vital to the operations of the company in several aspects. The quality control staff in our mills is also very creative in establishing indicators of compliance to processes and products, aiming to show the performance of each one in relation to technical specifications, wastes, losses, downtime, yields, etc.

Any person, even without a good knowledge in industrial processes, can easily enumerate some reasons for lack of productivity in our mills, such as:

• excessive downtime of the machinery;
• reduction in machine speeds;
• unreliability of equipment;
• excessive maintenance;
• excessive generation of wastes, rework, losses, etc.

There is no need to be an engineer oriented to process optimization to understand that lowering productivity will strongly impact on the production unit costs. Lower productivity will increase both the fixed costs per unit (for the reduction of the production in a given time) as the variable costs (by increasing on the waste of raw materials, energy, reprocessing, etc.).

Today, there are many consulting firms for performance optimizations services. It's a full plate for any consulting company with good methodology, good people and good systems for assessments and training. This is because another simple rule: there is no single mill in the world that does not have inefficiencies and opportunities for improvements. Often, workers and managers are so used to their performance problems that they tolerate them or no longer notice them. Since they never worried too much on performing a careful evaluation to quantify and identify these inefficiencies, they simply forget about them, with the trust that things will take care to adjust for better by themselves. A foolish thought.

The great and unquestionable truth is that any mill can operate by far with better utilization of resources/inputs, since wastes always occur. This will also result in losses of money and more pollution. At any productive place, where something is being manufactured, we will always be wasting resources, and having yields below the stoichiometrics. That's part of mankind culture, a species that had its own development in a planet rich in resources seemed to be inexhaustible. Only now things are changing. Eco-efficiency is the science that seeks to find and value these inefficiencies and to propose solutions for adjustments and improvements in the use of resources (which are all natural resources, of course).

Our pulp and paper mill managers very wiselyare able to associate operational efficiency to production costs. Some of them place large and dramatic efforts to minimize costs, when they should be acting on the inefficiencies, instead. With the optimization of operations and efficiencies, costs will be naturally reduced. When working just on costs, we are not acting on the causes, but on the consequences. Easy to understand this. The difficult issue to explain are the reasons why most of time the managers focus more on costs and less on inefficiencies. Would it be more charming? Or is a cutting-cost program more appealing to top executives, who like to talk more on the language of money?

Any kind of plant optimization is to require appropriate systems for obtaining reliable data and information, as well as lubricated decision-making processes. The focus should be on productivity, efficiency, wastes and broke reductions, yields, rework and costs, as well. But not just costs, costs and expenses, to vary a little the words. I have always said with conviction that by making a management only on top of costs, someone is performing a management of the mill misery, instead of the management of an industrial process in all its vital aspects.

A good system for evaluating the operational performance must always seek to "separate the wheat from the darnel." This means:

• to understand and interact with the machines and operators to know the peculiar things and bottlenecks/restrictions of the manufacturing process;
• to understand what are the critical and vital operations;
• to establish performance indicators for these vital operations;
• to understand the causes for non-compliance and inappropriate levels of performance;
• to find opportunities for improvements;
• to evaluate the opportunities on their economic, environmental and social advantages;
• to calculate the "pay back" for every opportunity;
• to decide what to do;
• to implement and then monitor the gains to ensure the perpetuity for them.

Supervisors and process operators are key persons to help to achieve: lower cost, higher yields, higher productivity, consistent quality, clean environment and business success. For this reason, they are to be the first people who should be involved in the processes of performance indicators implementation and operational optimization. Training programs, education, knowledge transfer are key elements, as well as behavioral and motivational programs. They should also be the main proponents of new operational practices and suggestions for improvements.

Within the proposals for better performance, benchmarking the operations is very valuable. Benchmarking is a performance measurement tool that aims to bring the industrial process to the best practices and best performances in a specific industry segment. However, comparisons must be made based on the same methodological basis and appropriate measurements. Otherwise, the comparisons will be inaccurate and may lead to false conclusions. For example, it is common the practice of measuring paper-machines production and performance. Inappropriate measurements will lead to errors in the comparison of performances among them. For this reason, much attention is recommended when someone wants to compare performances among mills.

Each performance indicator is created with the aim of optimizing a process, not to generate historical data, justifications, and nothing else. These indicators need to be well-understood by those who operate the machines and processes. This only happens with education, training and awareness. It is also necessary to give more time to mill personnel, allowing them to think, reflect, discuss and integrate. The management by pressure "based on the breath on the neck" can definitely halter mind and reduce people's innovative creation.

There are no mill operators or supervisors who do not know where the inefficiencies of the process are, or "where resources and supplies are being lost down to the sewer". They know very well about: wasted inputs, energy being thrown away, abnormal inventories, machines always stopping, under or over-sized machinery, machines running below capacity, wastes and off-grades, inadequate yields, erroneous measurements, imperfect maintenance, inappropriate materials, idle time, unnecessary services, avoidable downtimes, etc., etc. There is much perversity in all these issues, reducing the chance of success to the business. Often, the solutions are so simple that we should be ashamed of saying them and to tell why they have not been implemented, yet.

In the past, when markets were protected and oligopoly a common market situation, those paying for our inefficiencies were the customers, who were obliged to pay higher prices. Today, with competition and globalization of the economy, we have no control over prices. So, the one who will pay for our inefficiencies will be exactly our company, which will have higher costs and lower profits. To make things even worst, everything that is wasted turns into pollution and the costs will be even higher by the need to treat waste waters, solid wastes and air emissions.

Operational performance indicators have the function to open our eyes and we must demand this mission from them. They are designed to support our operational process improvements. In general, they are linked to specific consumption of inputs or raw materials, to the efficiency of operation of machines and workers, to the yields in the conversion of a raw material to a product, to the generated off-grades due to poor operation, etc.

In the case of paper-machines they are generally divided into sub-indices that seek to measure:

• time availability of the paper-machine being ready to operate;
• efficient use of available time;
• performance in relation to sustainable manufacturing capacity for each product;
• yield quality;
• losses due to broke generation and the need to return them for reprocessing, since this return to the machine will occupy room in machine capacity.

As a rule, the performance indicators have the mission to open the doors to process and operational opportunities and to allow us to value them for facilitating the decisions about implementation of mill improvements. On this basis, we can establish the plans for the continuous process improvements. From this point onwards, it will be typically a matter of management efficiency. Decisions may be in favor of doing something. However, someone needs to know what to do, and to have the wish to do it well. Once again, we are talking about effectiveness and efficiency. With a sound practice on both, our pulp and paper mills will be better, more efficient and more productive. Result: our competitiveness will be further enhanced and our industry success will be more sustainable.

Reference from literature and suggestions for reading:

Throughout this long list of valuable references, you will find several publications related to the project "Performance Indicators and Benchmarking", a valuable service being provided by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper, something well-established and managed by our dear friend Dorian Bachmann. Do not miss reading them.

Benchmarking. ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. Accessed on 01.11.2010:,101 (in Portuguese)

Indicadores de desempenho. Referencias ABTCP para celulose e papel.
(Performance indicators. ABTCP references for pulp and paper). Bachmann & Associados. Accessed on 01.11.2010: (in Portuguese)

Competitividade / gestao / estrategias / cadeias produtivas. Competitiveness / management / strategies / productive chain). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. PowerPoint presentation: 51 slides. Accessed on 01.11.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Encontrando oportunidades de renovacao nas nossas empresas de celulose e papel. (Discovering opportunities for revitalizing our pulp and paper companies). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. PowerPoint presentation: 46 slides. Accessed on 01.11.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Desempenho operacional. (Operational performance). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. PowerPoint presentation: 34 slides. Accessed on 01.11.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Gestao de custos nao deve ser entendida como gestao da miserabilidade.
(Cost management should not be understood as management of misery). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. 04 pp. Accessed on 01.11.2010: (in Portuguese)

Resultados: muito alem de remendos e justificativas. (Results: far beyond patches and justifications). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. 06 pp. Accessed on 01.11.2010: (in Portuguese)

Indicadores de desempenho. Papel e celulose. (Performance indicators. Pulp and paper). Productive Development Policy. MDIC - Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Commerce. Accessed on 01.11.2010:
Celulose e Papel&path=Relat%C3%B3rios-Celulose%20e%20Papel
(Page of the program related to the pulp and paper sector - in Portuguese) (Following up report - September 2010 - in Portuguese)
(Performance indicators for the P&P sector - in Portuguese)

Por que se deteriora la productivad de una planta papelera? (Why does a paper mill productivity deteriorate?). Jorge E. Torres C. ACOTEPAC Colombia. Accessed on 01.11.2010: (in Spanish)

Sistema de gestao da producao.
(System for production management). ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. PowerPoint presentation: 25 slides. Accessed on 01.11.2010:ão%20da%20Produção.pdf (in Portuguese)

Criterios de excelencia 2010. (Criteria for excellence 2010). Foundation for National Quality Award. 112 pp. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Indicadores de desempenho com o conceito do triple bottom line e a metodologia do balanced scorecard.
(Performance indicators with the concept of triple bottom line and the balanced scorecard methodology). R.T.S. Lages; R.T.S. Lages; S.L.B. Franccedilha. VI National Congress of Excellence on Management. 19 pp. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Criteria for performance excellence - 2009/2010. Baldrige National Quality Program. 88 pp. (2009) (in English)

Benchmarking de custos de manutencao na industria de celulose.
(Benchmarking maintenance costs in the pulp industry). D.L. Bachmann. O Papel (April): 76-80. (2009)
(in Portuguese)

Benchmarking de maquinas de papel para embalagem
. (Benchmarking packaging paper machines). D.L. Bachmann; C. Machado. O Papel (October): 81-88. (2009)
(in Portuguese)

Benchmarking ABTCP - Conhecendo o desempenho das fábricas de celulose e papel. (ABTCP benchmarking - Getting acquainted with the pulp and paper mill performance). D. Bachmann; J.H. Destefani. O Papel (February): 62-72. (2009) (in Portuguese and English)

Benchmarking ABTCP - Um projeto de sucesso. (ABTCP benchmarking - A project of success). D.L. Bachmann; C. Machado; A.M. Moura. O Papel (December): 70 - 76. (2009)
(in Portuguese and English)

Indicadores de automacao na industria de celulose e papel. Levantamento preliminar. (Indicators of automation in the pulp and paper industry. Preliminary assessment). Bachmann & Associados. 32 pp. (2008)
(in Portuguese)

A influencia da analise de desempenho operacional e de gestores no resultado das empresas. (The influence of performance analysis and operational managers evaluation in the business bottom line). A.M. Nascimento; L. Reginato; D.F. Lerner. 5th USP Congress on Scientific Initiative and Accounting. 16 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Um indicador de desempenho para selecao de ativos das empresas de celulose e papel no mercado financeiro. (A performance indicator for asset selection in the financial market for pulp and paper companies). B.M. Moura. Master Dissertation. Universidade of Brasilia. 116 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Principais fatores que influenciam no preco das acoes das empresas de papel e celulose no BM&FBovespa - Mercado de capitais. (Key factors influencing the share price of pulp and paper companies in the BM&FBovespa - Stock Markets). A.M. Sant'Anna. UNIVALI - Vale do Itajai University. Training period report. 65 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Improving paper machine efficiency. Part 01. M. Lyles. TAPPI Frontline Focus 4(11): 1-2. (2008) (in English)

Improving paper machine efficiency. Part 02
. M. Lyles. TAPPI Frontline Focus 4(12): 1-2. (2008) (in English)

Analise comparativa do custo de manutencao de fabricas de celulose. (Comparative analysis of the maintenance cost of pulp mills). Bachmann & Associados. 48 pp. (2007)
(in Portuguese)

Quality, sustainability and indicators of energy systems.
N.H. Afgan; M.G. Carvalho. Begell House. 251 pp. (2007) (in English) (Book review - in English)

Medidas de performance como determinantes de remuneracao dos gestores: merito do gestor ou caracteristicas do setor? (Performance measures as determinants of managers's remuneration: merit of the manager or characteristics of the industry?). F.Z. Dalmacio; A.J. Rezende; V. Slomski. 10th Cost Congress. Madrid. 17 pp. (2007) (in Spanish)

Gestao da competitividade: o processo sob medida. (Management of competitiveness: tailoring the process). P. Capo. O Papel (October): 54-57. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Avaliacao de desempenho na gestao de cadeias de suprimentos: um caso no setor de papel e celulose.
(Performance evaluation in the management of supply chains: a case in pulp and paper sector). P.R. Avancini. Master Dissertation. UNIMEP - Methodist University of Piracicaba. 140 pp. (2006)

Indicadores de maquinas de papel. Uma referencia de desempenho. (Indicators for paper machines. A reference of performance). E.C. Ebeling; D.L. Bachmann. 37th Annual Congress ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. PowerPoint presentation: 26 slides. (2004) (in Portuguese)

Indicadores de maquinas de papel. Uma referencia de desempenho. (Indicators for paper machines. A reference of performance). E.C. Ebeling; D.L. Bachmann. 37th Annual Congress ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. 09 pp. (2004) (in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Analise comparativa de desempenho. Uma nova ferramenta de gestao operacional para a industria de celulose e papel. (Comparative analysis of performance. A new operational management tool for the pulp and paper industry). D.L. Bachmann. 36th Annual Congress ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. PowerPoint presentation: 40 slides. (2003) (in Portuguese)

AAnalise comparativa de desempenho. Uma nova ferramenta de gestao operacional para a industria de celulose e papel. (Comparative analysis of performance. A new operational management tool for the pulp and paper industry). D.L. Bachmann. 36th Annual Congress ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. 11 pp. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Avaliacao de desempenho em cadeia de suprimentos.
(An evaluation of performancein a supply chain). G.R. Durski. Revista FAE 6(1): 27 - 38. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Indicadores de competitividade para o BNDES.
(Performance indicators to the BNDES). S.L. Cafe; R. Silva; D.J. Allen. Revista BNDES 2(3): 69 - 88. (1995)
(in Portuguese)

Prevencao de ocorrencia de desvios eventuais nos processos de producao de papel e celulose - um enfoque operacional. (Preventing the occurrence of eventual process deviations in the production of pulp and paper - an operational focus). E.S. Campos. 26th Annual Congress ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper.18 pp. (1993) (in Portuguese)

Produzir sem perdas: o caminhoe planejar bem. (Producing without wastes: the way is well-planning). R.M. Savastano. O Papel. 02 pp. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter
are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus.
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