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Dear friends,

Here we are again, with another issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter to provide to you valuable information about the eucalyptus. In this issue, we are again bringing to you something new. It consists in a new section, where we will present a condensation of talks with my dear friend Alberto Mori. In this dialogue and debate, we intend to take advantage of all Mori's expertise in the field of paper manufacturing and specialty papers properties. The intention is to better understand the advantages of the eucalyptus for different paper grades. We will start with unusual paper grades as filter, decor, cigarettes, supercalendered, coated, and other papers. One paper grade at a time. We are calling this section as "A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Made with Eucalyptus Fibers". I'm sure that it will be rewarding to you all.

In the section "The Friends of the Eucalyptus" we are telling the professional life, scientific production, and career of one of the world's most renowned expert on fibers for papermaking: our dear friend Dr. Robert Paul Kibblewhite. Paul is definitively a legend, a myth and a patrimony to the pulp and paper sector. I'm very proud to have had the chance to introduce him to you.

Another issue that I'm bringing again to you is about "Costs and Profits in the Eucalyptus Wood Production by Coppice/Clear Cutting Forest Management". Also, in other section in this newsletter, I'm widening the issue about BATs ("Best Available Techniques") to the manufacture of bleached kraft eucalyptus pulp. Both issues have been exhaustibly covered for your reading. Several valuable euca-links are also presented for even further updating you in these two topics.

In this issue, we are also bringing to you the fifth chapter of our Eucalyptus Online Book. The title of this chapter (only in Portuguese till now) is:"SOLID WASTES GENERATED IN THE EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP PRODUCTION. Part 01: Fibrous organic wastes"

The English translations for chapters 04 and 05 are on the way, please, wait a little more. The mini-article of this newsletter closes my comments about the water consumption and water cycle closure in the production of eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp. Since the past mini-article about water consumption, I have received many comments from readers, asking for additional information on this theme. For this reason, I decided to bring a complement on this issue, and some other suggestions. Evething very feasible and sound. My suggestions are very applicable to many mills, it is just a question of reflections and actions.

As you may notice, I'm placing a lot of efforts in environmental issues and pulp production. This is a key point nowadays. I hope to be bringing my contribution to the forestry and pulp and paper segments. I'm being quite strong and positive on this. My purpose is that the eucalyptus pulp and paper production continues to grow in an environmentally sound way in the direction of the dreamed sustainability.

As we are used to do, in this newsletter issue, we are bringing a lot of interesting subjects about the eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer knowledge in a way that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this, we are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books and interesting events.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletters and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have now several non financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the eucalyptus in countries as Brazil, USA, Chile, Portugal, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing. Know more about all of our today’s partners at the URL address:

Thanks again for the support to our work. I beg your help to inform about and to promote our project to your friends , in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from ABTCP, BOTNIA, ARACRUZ and partners.

Our best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading.

Celso Foelkel

In this edition

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 05 in Portuguese

Online Technical References

References on Events and Courses

Online Technical Journals

Best Available Techniques to the Manufacture of Eucalyptus Pulp - (a continuation on this topic)

Costs and Profits in the Eucalyptus Wood Production by Coppice / Clear Cutting Forest Management

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Dr. Robert Paul Kibblewhite

New section: A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Made with Eucalyptus Fibers

Technical mini-article by Celso Foelkel
Closing Water Cycle for Further Reductions on Water Consumption in the Manufacture of Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 05

(in Portuguese)

This chapter in English will soon be released. Thanks for the patience.


Online Technical References

In this section, we are offering some very good euca-links with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they are very much connected with the eucalyptus. In this section, we are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that are helping to build the foundations and the history of the eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas related to these magic trees.

An UNICAMP Master Dissertation about Genomics in Brazil (Portuguese)
Redes de pesquisa em genomica no Brasil : politicas publicas e estrategias privadas frente a programas de sequenciamento genetico. (Research networks on genomic in Brazil : public policies and private strategies toward genetic sequencing programs). E. L. Dias. Master Dissertation. UNICAMP - University of Campinas. 225 pp. (2006)

An Online Book about Field Pests and Diseases of the Eucalyptus (Spanish)
Manual de campo. Plagas y enfermedades de eucaliptos y pinus en Uruguay. (Field handbook. Pests and diseases of eucalyptus and pines in Uruguay). Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca de Uruguay. 173 pp. (2006)

Proceedings of the Symposium Genomics for Future Forests (English)
Genomics for future forests. Canadian Symposium. Natural Resources Canada. 83 pp. (2006)[1].pdf

2006 ABRAF Statistics - Associacao Brasileira dos Produtores de Florestas Plantadas - Brazilian Association of the Planted Forests Producers (Portuguese and English)
Statistical Yearbook ABRAF Base year 2006. Publication 2007 (English)

Anuario Estatistico ABRAF Ano Base 2006. Publicacao 2007 (Portuguese)

Proceedings of the Wood Fibre Cell Wall Structure Conference - Building a cell wall (English)
A publication by The Finnish Forest Research Institute, University of Helsinki & Cost Action E20 Working Group. 85 pp. (2003)

An USP PhD Thesis about Eco-efficiency in the Pulp and Paper Industry (Portuguese)
Eco-eficiencia na industria de celulose e papel - Estudo de caso. (Eco-efficiency in the pulp and paper industry - A case study). Z.C.Piotto. University of Sao Paulo. 379 pp. (2003)

An Online Book about Changes in the Land Utilization (English and Spanish)
Land use, land use change and forestry. R.T.Watson; I.R.Noble; B.Bolin; N.H.Ravindranath; D.J.Verardo; D.J.Dokken. IPCC Report - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (English) (Spanish)

A FAO Online Book about Forest Biotechnology (English)
Biotechnology in forest tree improvement. R.Haines. FAO Forestry Paper 118. (1994)

FAO State of the World's Forests Reports (English, Spanish and French)
State of the World's Forests Reports (from 1994 till 2007 annual reports). FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization

An Online Article about Eucalyptus Cloning (Portuguese)
Clonagem de Eucalyptus sp. (Cloning of Eucalyptus sp.). A.Araujo. Federal University of Vicosa.

References on Events and Courses

Symposium on System Analysis in Forest Resources (English)
An event organized by Pacific Northwest Research Station, Rocky Mountain Research Station, US Forest Service. Edited by M.Bevers; T.M.Barrett. The symposium covers forest economy, planning and management. (2003)

II Latin American Symposium on Forest Management and Economics (English and Spanish)
An event organized by CTFC - Centro de Tecnologia Florestal da Catalunha, also about forest economy, planning and management. (2004)

IIII Simposio Ibero Americano de Gestao e Economia Florestal - III Iberian American Symposium on Forest Management and Economics (English and Portuguese)
Organized by IPEF - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais (Institute of Forest Research and Studies). It really pays to navigate in the papers, have a look. (2005)

I Seminar on Forest Hydrology - Riparian Zones (Portuguese)
Organized by the Federal University of Santa Catarina. 157 pp. (2003)

Online PowerPoint Course "From forests to fibers" by Dr. Hasan Jameel (English)
A kind offer from North Carolina State University, Pulp and Paper Science Program. There are many excellent slides to the beginners in this topic. (2002)

Online PowerPoint Course "Major pulp tests" by Dr. Hasan Jameel (English)
A North Carolina State University course about the fundamental tests to determine the quality of a pulp. (2002)

Online PowerPoint Course "Papermaking: fibers into paper" by Dr. Ethan K. Andrews (English)
A North Carolina State University course about the fundamentals of papermaking. (2002)

COST E32 Events - "Characterization of Paper Surfaces for Improved Printing Grades" (English)
The COST E32 has a very rich webpage. It is housed by the PFI - Paper and Fiber Research Institute, in Norway. In this page we may find the presentations of several COST E32 events that took place in European cities since 2003. COST is the acronym for European Cooperation in the Field of Science and Technical Research, with several working groups in different science and technology fields. Fortunately to us, they have a working group on printing papers and their surface quality. Please, visit the several events and check the "Presentations".
Also visit the PFI website:

A Chilean Modular Course to the Certification of Labor Competence of Forest Workers (Spanish)
Excellent online course offered by CORMA - Corporacion Chilena de la Madera, Bio Bio Division. An example to be pursued.

Forest Forum in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Portuguese)
A great event organized by the Uniao Nacional dos Engenheirandos Florestais and by Floresta Junior - Federal University of Santa Maria. Congratulations to this new harvest of young and entrepreneur Brazilian forest engineers.

Online Technical Journals

Here, we are bringing to you a selection of excellent online journals with connection to the eucalyptus. In these journals, you may freely download articles or read the news, without the need of memberships, passwords or payments. They are journals or article collections at our hands (or eyes), available to all those wondering to read and to learn more about forestry, environment, pulp, paper, woods, and eucalyptus, surely. Please, go the the search tool in each journal, and type "Eucalyptus". Then, have a look in the result. In this way, many times you may find valuable technical material. To the editors of these journals, our most sincere appreciation and thanks. We hope many other journals may join forces to this scientific and technical knowledge chain.

Silva Fennica
A technical and scientific journal edited by The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute. Articles in English.

Paper 360º

Formerly, this magazine was named Solutions, and edited by TAPPI - Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, and PIMA - Paper Industry Management Association. Recently, Questex Media took the publication to their responsibility, in an agreement with TAPPI and PIMA. The journal keeps a link with both associations. It is a very nice and good reading magazine, with articles, interviews, news and information about the pulp and paper industry. Edited in English, with free web access.

Floresta e Ambiente
Scientific magazine of the Instituto de Florestas da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Institute of Forestry - Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro). Edited in Portuguese, with English abstracts.

Online scientific journal of North Carolina State University. It is oriented to studies about biomass, bioenergy, paper, pulp, and lignocellulosic materials. It is an excellent journal, with several papers from Brazilian scientists. Publication in English.

Bosques y Desarrollo

An online journal about forest issues edited by ICI - Instituto de Ciencia e Investigacion do Uruguai (Institute of Science and Research of Uruguay). Articles are preferably in Spanish, but you may also find articles in English and Portuguese, depending on the sources.

Mi Papel
Internal online publication of the company CMPC Chile. It brings fresh information about the different CMPC businesses. Publication in Spanish.

Best Available Techniques to the Manufacture of Eucalyptus Pulp

(a continuation on this topic)

In a recent Eucalyptus Newsletter, I presented my personal vision about what I consider to be modern, feasible and state-of-the-art in terms of available technologies and best environmental practices to the manufacture of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp and paper ( This topic is something very attractive and deserves a lot of attention. There are several pulp mills that have recently been or are still being built in countries as Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, China, Indonesia, etc. In all cases, the objective should be oriented to the construction of modern mills, with the best available technologies. This is valid for operational efficiency in production and environmental protection. But, what are the best available techniques? Which are the signals of the technological state-of-the-art? Where to find information about these topics? Who could provide reliable and updated information about what could be considered minimum environmental impact pulp and paper mills? How to know whether or not the new pulp and paper mills being built are really based on BATs? For this reason, I decided to bring more information on this topic. The purpose is to offer to all stakeholders, a valuable source of information and references about the "BATs" (Best Available Techniques or Technologies) ou "ESTs" (Environmentally Sound Technologies) to the pulp and paper industry . The euca-links may be accessed and the issue better understood. Also, the existing mills may have a chance to search the BATs for their modernization projects and better environmental performances. This kind of information is also valid to several niches of the general society, to better understand about the pulp and paper industry, and about the care of such industry on environment preservation. I consider also important that these documents may become a source of realistic references to the government control agencies. Having them at the hands, they may better evaluate the level of the impacts of the pulp and paper mills they are responsible for controlling and/or licensing.

Before presenting the list of references, I suggest you to have a look in a questionnaire I have prepared as a check list to identify the technological stage of a bleached kraft pulp mill. It allows the identification of the technological stage of any kraft pulpmill. After grabbing the information about key areas in the mill, you may search the sectorial benchmarks. By a detailed evaluation of each of the suggested areas, you may reach the conclusion about whether or not the mill has a BAT or a EST in each of these areas. The benchmarks you may obtain reading the suggested euca-links in this section.

See Celso Foelkel's questionnaire at:

The most traditional document to define the BATs to the pulp and paper industry is the BREF, developed by EIPPCB. By BREF you may understand the term as being "Reference Document on BAT - Best Available Techniques in the Pulp and Paper Industry". The EIPPCB (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) is the European Union technical committee to work on issues on prevention and controlling industrial pollution. This BREF reference document was delivered on December 2001, it has already 6 years of age. The development of the document happened along 2000 and 2001. The techniques, suggested benchmarks and references are those from that time. The EIPPCB has already an agenda for updating this document till November 2008, when a new version is expected to be released.

BREF December 2001 - EIPPCB - in English (alternative websites for download)

For following up the updating process of the pulp and paper BREF, please visit:

There are several official publications from the EIPPCB and also many available articles commenting the BREF. A country that pays a lot of attention on the BREF, BATs and ESTs is Finland. There are several papers about these topics by the Finnish. There are sound reasons for this: Finland has today the most advanced development of technologies and machinery suppliers to the pulp and paper industry. Finland is also very strong in terms of pulp and paper production. Several Finnish companies are world leading producers in distinct market segments of this business, with mills located both in Scandinavia and throughout the world.

Please, find some references about the BREF, BATs and ESTs in the following links:

The Impact of Best Available Techniques (BAT) in the Competitiveness of European Industry. D.Hitchens; F.Farrell; J.Lindblom; U.Triebswetter. European Comission, Report EUR 20133 EN. 120 pp. (2001)

Best Available Techniques in European Environmental Legislation: the case of Finland. A.R.Lindgren. Congress ABTCP/PI (2005)

Techniques to Consider in the Determination of BAT.

Emerging Techniques. 7 pp.

Continuum - Rethinking BAT Emissions of the Pulp and Paper Industry in the European Union. P.Nilsson; K.Puurunen; P.Vasara; T.Jouttijarvi. Finnish Environment Report 12/2007. 41 pp. (2007)

A Strategic Concept for Best Available Techniques in the Forest Industry. P.Vasara; H.Jappinen; L.Lobbas. Finnish Environment Report 425. 75 pp. (2001)

Driving Forces for Environmentally Sounder Innovations. The case of the Finnish pulp and paper industry. P.Kivimaa; P.Mickwitz. Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. 25 pp. (2003)

Evaluation of Environmenal Cross-Media and Economic Aspects in Industry - Finnish BAT expert case study. P.Vasara; K.Silvo; P.Nilsson; L.Peuhkuri; A.Perrels. Finnish Environment Report 528. 117 pp. (2002)

IPPC General Principles of Monitoring. EIPPCB Report. 123 pp. (2003)

IPPC Sector Guidance: pulp and paper. EIPPCB S6.01. 108 pp. (2000)

IPPC Sector Guidance: pulp and paper - Applicant version. EIPPCB S6.01e. 52 pp. (2000)

Environmental Performance, Regulations and Technologies in the Pulp and Paper Industry. Ekono strategic study. Brochure. 5 pp. (2005) - Study to be obtained through Ekono.

Independent Advice on the Development of Environmental Guidelines for Any New Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill in Tasmania. BECA/AMEC & RPDC, Tasmania, Australia. 53 pp. (2004)

El Futuro de la Produccion de Celulosa y las Tecnicas de Produccion mas Favorables para el Medio Ambiente. Greenpeace Argentina. 48 pp. (2006)

Forest Products Technologies: energy savings via R&D. US Department of Energy. 24 pp.

Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report. Jacobs & IPST. 116 pp. (2006)

Emission Scenario Document on Non-Integrated Paper Mills. OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Environmental, health and safety publications. 36 pp. (2006)

Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Auditing in the Pulp and Paper Industry. FAO Forestry Paper 129. (1996)

Two other important sources for defining BATs to the pulp and paper industry are the Stockholm Convention on POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants), and the series of documents about environment, occupational safety and health from IFC - International Finance Corporation, a World Bank Organization.

About the IFC series, the former document issued in 1998 is being replaced by a new one. The new version (June 2007) is in the draft format, being submitted for comments by stakeholders.

The former document from 1998 may still be accessed at:

Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook - Pulp and paper mills. IFC. 6 pp. (1998)$FILE/pulp_PPAH.pdf

The new document, in an updated and new version is available at:

Environmental, Health and Safety Guidelines - Pulp and paper mills. IFC. 31 pp. (2007)$FILE/

Finally, the Stockholm Convention on POPs presented several industrial segment technologies, and proposals for improvements as regards to the POPs generation and elimination. Several websites about the Convention have being released to the public.

Many papers related to the Stockholm Convention and the POPs have being released to the public. UNEP - The United Nations Environment Programme also has important contributions on the POPs. Some of these relevant documents may be obtained in links as those presented below:

Stockholm Convention on POPs - Article 5. Annex C - Measures to reduce or eliminate releases from unintentional production

Guidelines on Best Available Techniques and Provisional Guidance on Best Environmental Practices. Stockholm Convention on POPs. Working Group. Advanced Draft. 317 pp. (2004)

Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxins and Furans Releases. UNEP Draft Document. 194 pp. (2001)

Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxins and Furans Releases. UNEP Final Document. 253 pp. (2005)

Costs and Profits in the Eucalyptus Wood Production by Coppice / Clear Cutting Forest Management

Today, there is an enormous movement among rural farmers in considering eucalyptus for plantations. Many investors and farmers are really willing to go to this potentially profitable business. There is a projection for reasonable economic gains with the forestry activity. On the other hand, there is a great level of lack on knowledge in simple issues as: how to plant? how to manage? where to obtain good quality seedlings? how to get the licenses for planting and harvesting? and mainly: which are the potential economic results of such activity? I am receiving many comments and questions about these topics in my website We definitively have a lack of information to the regular people, the newcomers in the business. Some sources are informing very high profitability to the eucalyptus plantation forests, even difficult to be achieved. This may lead to frustration to farmers, in case they go planting eucalyptus anticipating huge results. Also, the silvicultural activity involves risks. The final economic results depend on the weather, on the silvicultural techniques, the genetic material being used, on the attacks of pests or diseases, on forest fires, etc. It is very important to be acquainted to the forest technologies, to have good genetic material and a good definition about the type of forest management to be adopted. There are several possibilities: to harvest the forest in a clear cutting in an early age (7 years in Brazil) or to manage the forest by adopting thinning at intermediate ages, saving the best trees to a final harvest, later. This second management gives more valuable wood, but the majority of the income is delayed to the end of the cycle. Another option is to adopt agroforestry, a combination of plantations of trees with agricultural crops or pastures for cattle growing. Each of these selected forest management may provide you a different result, and associated risks. The timing for income inputs also may vary from one option to another.

For all these reasons, I strongly recommend to all farmers who may be willing to start in this business to place an effort on studying and reading the subject, as much as possible. There are many options, and you may find valuable websites and books with considerations about forestry for the eucalyptus plantations. However, be careful, there are also information sources not so reliable. When we are considering the potential economic gains of the plantation forests, each possibility demands for an economic evaluation. This is because different cash flows lead to different financial results. It is very important to dialogue, to understand the steps, and to be very realistic, in some cases, even conservative. Sound figures and reliable financial analyses may provide you the required information for taking the best decisions.

In many cases, the forest planter may be willing to have a fast income, and to harvest the forest by clear cutting at the age 7, as usual in Brazil. In case he adopts a poor forest technology, with bad quality seedlings, no fertilization, no combat to weeds, ants and other pests, etc, his productivity will be very poor. It will be very difficult to reach the dreamed values of 40 to 45 m³/ha.year. There are cases that even doing everything right, with good forest productivity, the farmers face problems to sell the wood: how to sell? to whom? what are the market prices? which is the minimum price to pay his costs and to give him some profit? how to sell the wood? Harvested wood? Standing tree forest? Each situation will give him new costs and changes the economic results, for better or for worse. For this reason, it is very important that the rural farmers be used to financial mathematics calculations. A clear understanding and definitions of all business steps are vital. For all these, please, when in the business, read a lot, search for benchmarks, try to adopt the best forest technologies and best genetic materials. Also, value each dollar you spend, and work the cash flow for a final good result. Don't try to save money in things that are to damage your growth yield. The economic result is very sensitive to the final harvested volume of wood. Remember, the cost/benefit ratio is more important than the cost.

In Brazil, any farmer who has a land has options for its use. One of the options is to rent or to lease the land to another farmer or to a large scale agricultural company. The land may be leased for planting soybean, sugar cane, corn, planted forests, etc. The leased land may provide a sum of money to the farmer. This money has no risk, as far there are good guarantees in the leasing contract. The land owner has only to care about a good use of the land, without soil degradation and exhaustion. Let's call this money received for the rental as "land rental result". This value corresponds to a payment to the money invested by the landowner to purchase and to preserve the land. It is very fair to be considered in the financial evaluations. Let's consider a value of 100 US$ per hectare per year for the potential rental/leasing of the land (an example in Brazil). On the other hand, let's suppose that the farmer decides for planting an eucalyptus forest. Any money he spends to plant the forest could be saved and invested in a saving account in his favorite bank. It is a conservative investment, with close to nil risks. In the year 2007, in Brazil, a conservative investment in a saving account pays you 8% of interest rate per year. As a consequence of these two factors: a planted forest must reward the land and the spent capital, do you agree? The final result shall consider the remuneration of the land (rental/leasing) and the financial result for the invested capital.

Many forest-based companies in Brazil have a forest management that considers the replacement of the planted forest by another one when the original forest is harvested at the age 7. The purpose is to replace the forest by another more productive one, and with better wood quality. In 7 years, the foresters in the leading companies are able to find more valuable genetic materials in their breeding programs. The rural farmers may not be interested in doing such. They are to replace the forest just in case the productivity be very poor. The eucalyptus may be managed by coppicing: the trees may sprout after harvesting. A second generation of trees may be harvested in 7 years ahead, again, and again. It all depends on the quality of the forest stand and in the ability of maintaining it productive by good management and silvicultural practices.

Let's admit some assumptions for our preliminary financial evaluation. This will be a very simple example, just to give to rural farmers a model to use. All costs will be placed in US$, for better understanding of the international readers. Costs and incomes are to be presented in dollars per hectare. The costs are very similar to those in force in Brazil, for a high quality silviculture

  • the adopted forest management system was coppicing with clear cutting at the end of the rotation
  • the cost of forest plantation per hectare in the "zero year" was the equivalent to 1250 US$ (seedlings, fertilizers, herbicides, soil preparation, ants combat, road improvement, etc). In case the farmer receives the seedlings as donation from a forest company or from a government organization, the cost may be reduced to 1100 US$. Another cash flow is needed.
  • the cost in the first year with fertilization, silvicultural practices , combat to weeds, ants, etc, will be 500 US$ per hectare
  • the land rental is 100 US$/hectare.year
  • maintenance costs (ants combat, repairs in fences, protection against fires, vigilance, etc) from the second to the seventh year will be 50 US$/hectare.year
  • forest growth yield will be adopted as 40 m³ of solid trunk with bark/ha.year
  • average bark content to be 12% in volume
  • adopted discount rate equal to 8% per year (this 8% is equivalent to the interest rate being paid by the Brazilian banks for keeping the farmer capital in a saving account)
We are now presenting two options for evaluations. We could have many more, it all depends on the way the farmer wants to manage and to harvest his plantations. Let's assume that the farmer wants to clear cut the forest to sell the wood for pulp, panels or any other commodity-like product.
Option 1: the forest is harvested at the age 7. The farmer (or the forester) will replace the forest by another one he expects to have a much better performance. All remuneration of the invested capital and land rental must be paid in one plantation forest cycle.
Option 2: the farmer (or the forester) decides to leave the forest for another rotation, even knowing that the forest yield will be somewhat lower due to some trees that will die. Let's admit that the forest growth rate for the second rotation will be 35 m³/ha.year. The second harvesting will be kept at the age 7, as in the first rotation. Since the trees will not be so large in diameter, the bark content was assumed to grow to 15%. Poorer the forests, higher the bark content. In the first year of the second rotation, the farmer will spend 600 US$/hectare in activities as fertilization, combat to weeds, soil protection, etc. Furthermore, the usual values for land rental and forest maintenance will be applicable, as well.

Let's make the financial projections for these two case studies. The purpose in both cases is to discover the price of the wood that pays the investment in terms of a discount rate of 8%, and a land rental of 100 US$/hectare.year. What we need to do is to find a wood price that brings the NPV - Net Present Value to be zero. Any price that do not reach this value is not remunerating the land and the capital as it should be. Values above are paying better than the assumed 8% for the discount rate. To the investor, it is very important to know these figures.

The results may be easily obtained using any calculating machine, you do not need to have a financial calculator to do this. However, in case you have, it makes your exercise simpler and faster. Cash flows were simulated for the two selected options.

Results for Option 1: The price for selling the wood in the standing forest should be the equivalent to 15,3 US$ per cubic meter of wood with bark, standing trees, no costs involved with the harvesting. In case the option be to sell the wood with no bark, the price for the debarked wood has to be 17,4 US$ / m³ of debarked wood, but considered in the standing forest. This is due to the fact that wood is only 88% on the trees.

Results for Option 2: In this case, the price for selling the wood has to be a minimum of 13,2 US$ per cubic meter with bark in the standing forest. For debarked wood, the value grows to 15,5 US$ per cubic meter.

The methodology is very simple, we need to find the price for the wood that generates a null NPV- Net Present Value. We do this by attempts, changing the prices and checking the NPV. In case we are able to find a better price than the one calculated for zero NPV, we may work to discover the IRR - Internal Return Rate. This will be the new rate of discount that is being applicable to your cash flow. In case we get 15% for example, we are gaining more results than keeping the money in the bank saving account. It depends on you to take the decision to invest and to take the risks.

For a better understanding of the wood market prices in Brazil, there are some available sources to be searched. One is the website of CEPEA - Center of Advanced Studies in Applied Economy - ESALQ/USP at:

Another possibility is to visit the REMADE forestry portal at:

Dear friends, please make sound analyses and good reflections to be the bases for your decisions on going to this new business. You may make good money, but you also may lose money: it depends a lot on you. This fact is inherent to any type of business. In case of bad decisions and not using appropriate technologies, you may lose even more than you have spent. You need patience, wisdom, knowledge and good practices. Our eucalyptus trees grow very well, but they need care. We also need to provide the conditions they need for this growth.

Following these discussions, I'm bringing to you a large list of euca-links, with selected articles that may be obtained in the online literature. They are in Portuguese and Spanish. Most of them deal with eucalyptus plantation costs and profits. There are many cases of different forest management, you must be careful on reading them.

In the previous Eucalyptus Newsletter number 03, I had already presented to you some of these articles ( Now, since the topic is very hot and demanded, I decided to offer a long list, with many more references for your reading. Pay a lot of attention to each case, try to identify those more similar to your situation. Time is money, please use your time to make more money, OK? Just in case, a financial maths calculator is a good purchasing. The price is negligible in comparison to the costs for planting a forest.

Please, visit the euca-links below, although most of then are written in Portuguese or Spanish. However, you may find abstracts in English:ão%20Técnica%20sobre%2

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Dr. Robert Paul Kibblewhite

Dr. R. Paul Kibblewhite is one of the most prominent and renowned names in the world of the pulp and paper technology. His career and his life have always been associated to challenges and the need to overcome them. Despite his difficulties with his eyes and the problems to see, Paul's wills to create, to innovate, to develop and to win were growing at the same time his vision was fading. A curious and unique situation: higher the difficulties, stronger the determination and better the achievements. An example to be followed.

Paul is, besides all, a captivating, charming and charismatic person. This is due both for his knowledge and skills, and because the fantastic human being he is. For these reasons, Paul is admired not only in New Zealand and Australia, but in all the pulp and paper world. His name is notably known in the area of paper physics and pulp fiber morphology.

Paul, as his preference to be called, was born in a small town in New Zealand, in Christchurch. Along the years of his early ages, his life was linked to the beauty of Nature, because the amazing surroundings in the place he grew up. This factor motivated him to study and to grow interest in issues as botany and natural sciences. Soon, he developed the interest to work with the New Zealand Forest Service, a dream he was able to accomplish still very young. As an option to his professional career, he decided to study Plant Science and Chemistry, obtaining his Bachelor of Science in 1965 through the University of Auckland. Immediately, he moved to United States of America, to work for the Master of Science degree at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, in Appleton, Wisconsin. The PhD at the same institute was a natural consequence oh his successes in his academic studies. His researches were oriented to the wood and fiber structure. He tried to combine his knowledge in fundamentals of botany and wood chemistry to the practical utilization of the trees, a sound match. Early before this, he had obtained his position at the New Zealand Forest Service. The organization soon had identified Paul's potentials and skills. For this reason, the NZ Forest Service has provided support and help to Paul's career development with the academic studies. When back to New Zealand, he was ready to grab a professional position as researcher at the FRI - Forest Research Institute, Forest Products Division, in Rotorua. The FRI was the forest and wood technology branch of the NZ Forest Service. In Rotorua, Paul could begin and to dedicate to the study of fibers, pulps and woods for pulping and papermaking. This was a sector considered to be vital to the country's development. His successes in the career and in the researches soon rewarded the investments made by the Forest Service with Paul's studies abroad. His technological and scientific contribution along the 40 years of professional career have been outstanding. Paul has never satisfied himself only with science: he always tried to combine science with the practical utilization of the woods and fibers. Based on this fact, he developed new technical ways to measure fiber attributes that could be strongly related to fiber uses for existing and new products. His attention was driven to species growing in forest plantations. These species could provide the needs for wood to the country development, helping to preserve the natural forests. Based on this principle, Paul placed many efforts to investigate the utilization for papermaking of several woods, mainly those from Pinus radiata, Acacia spp. and the most commonly planted eucalyptus in New Zealand: Eucalyptus nitens, E.fastigata, E.regnans and E.globulus. Although so close to Australia, the eucalyptus do not grow naturally in New Zealand, they need to be planted in man-made plantation forests. For this reason, the interest of developing these woods for industrial utilization. The potential of the eucalyptus for New Zealand was defined as very promising. As a consequence, special attention has been always provided by Paul and his research team in the evaluation of eucalyptus species with good potential to New Zealand.

Despite his practical sense, Paul has never discarded science and new knowledge development to explain his findings and to upgrade forest products. Paul was one of the first scientists to work the concept of fiber deformations ("kinks" and "curl") to differentiate fiber properties and to add new papermaking characteristics to them. He placed a hard working in searching new fiber attributes, new ways to evaluate pulps, in an attempt to diversify fiber uses.

Along his career, Paul was able to build a fantastic data bank about wood, fibers, pulps and papers. The knowledge he has in these issues has been the main reason for Paul's reputation, not only locally, but internationally. Paul is one of the most renowned and awarded scientists in New Zealand.

One of the most important phases of his career happened along the time when the FRI was converted to PAPRO - New Zealand Pulp and Paper Research Organization. The names Kibblewhite and PAPRO were so tightly linked that could be associated as name and surname. More recently, PAPRO has become a part of ENSIS, a R&D joint venture between the Australian CSIRO and the New Zealander SCION. In spite of the fact of so many managerial changes, Paul is still working at the same place, doing what he knows as few people in the world: research and development. Today, Paul is principal scientist of ENSIS in studies related to pulp fibers and uses for them (papers, fiber/cement composites, etc).

Today, Paul is also dedicating part of his time to transfer his accumulated knowledge in courses, speeches and seminars. He is doing this in several countries, as recently happened in Brazil and Chile. His professional career started with the natural forests, and later received an specialization in planted trees for commercial uses. His admiration and enthusiasm for the trees has always been the same, independently the way they have been planted.

Paul's main areas of expertise are the following:

  • hardwood and softwood fibers and their attributes for papermaking;
  • relationships between fiber fundamental properties and fibers multiple uses;
  • development of new fiber products;
  • improvements on fiber uses through forest tree breeding and industrial process variables optimization;
  • comparisons and benchmarking for fibers and pulps;
  • forest tree breeding for better fiber designing and wood engineering;
  • consolidation of paper sheet and paper machine performance;
  • pulp refining and effects on pulp fibers;
  • pulp blends for the production of better quality papers;
  • evaluations of papermaking furnishes, industrial process variables and quality of pulp and paper products;
  • strong emphasis on developing and training people.

The results of his professional career are proved by his over 150 published papers, one patent, and over 250 consulting reports.

Some additional information about Dr. R. Paul Kibblewhite, his curriculum, his seminars and his scientific awards may be seen in the below mentioned links:

Pulp fibre – from forest to paper end use. Course brochure. R.P.Kibblewhite

Pulp fibres for the future. Symposium brochure. R.P.Kibblewhite.

R.P.Kibblewhite’s publication list 2006. 10 pp. (2006)

Dr R. Paul Kibblewhite – Eucalypt Research. 3 pp. (2006)

Dr. R.P.Kibblewhite. The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Dr. R.P.Kibblewhite. ScionResearch. New Zealand.

Some of the most recent Paul's technical articles , and the most relevant related to the eucalyptus are presented to you as euca-links. Dr. Kibblewhite has also a considerable number of papers related to the study of Pinus radiata, another very popular forest species being planted in New Zealand.

Paul, it is a honor to me being a friend of yours and to have had the opportunity to know more about you and your life and career. Thanks very much for all you have done in favor of the eucalyptus. Our most sincere appreciation and recognition for all you have done and still are to do to the pulp and paper industry.

Hardwood market kraft fibre and pulp qualities. R.P.Kibblewhite; A.D.Bawden; M.C.Hughes. Appita Journal 44(5): 325 – 332 (1991). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Reinforcement and optical properties of separate and co-refined softwood and eucalypt market kraft pulps. R.P.Kibblewhite. Appita Journal 47(2): 149 – 153, 158 (1994). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Refining requirements of softwood and eucalypt kraft market pulps and blends. R.P.Kibblewhite. Appita Journal 47(5): 375 – 379, 401 (1994). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Comparison of refining response of eucalypt and mixed hardwood and their blends with softwood. C.L.Brindley; R.P.Kibblewhite. Appita Journal 49(1): 37 – 42 (1996). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Kraft fibre and pulp quality of 29 trees of New Zealand grown Eucalyptus nitens. R.P.Kibblewhite; M.J.C.Riddell; C.J.A.Shelbourne. Appita 51(2): 114 – 121 (1998). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Kraft fibre property variation among 29 trees of 15-year-old Eucalyptus fastigata and comparison with Eucalyptus nitens. R.P.Kibblewhite; C.J.McKenzie. Appita Journal 52(3): 218 – 225 (1999). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Designer fibres for improved papers through exploiting genetic variation in wood microstructure. R.P.Kibblewhite. Appita Journal 52(6): 429 – 435, 440 (1999). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Wood and kraft fibre property variation within and among nine trees of Eucalyptus nitens. R.P.Kibblewhite; M.J.C.Riddell. Appita Journal 53(3): 237 – 244 (2000). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Reinforcing potential of different eucalypt softwood blends during separate and co-PFI mill refining. S.D.Mansfield; R.P.Kibblewhite. Appita Journal 53(5): 385 – 392 (2000). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Variation of microfibril angle, density and fibre orientation in twenty-nine Eucalyptus nitens trees. R.Evans; S.Stringer; R.P.Kibblewhite. Appita Journal 53(5): 450 – 457 (2000). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Within-tree variation of some wood and kraft fibre properties of Eucalyptus fastigata and E.nitens. R.P.Kibblewhite; M.J.C.Riddell. Appita Journal 54(2): 136 – 143 (2001). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Changes in density and wood fibre properties with height position in 15/16-year-old Eucalyptus nitens and E.fastigata. R.P.Kibblewhite; R.Evans; M.J.C.Riddell; C.J.A.Shelbourne. Appita Journal 57(3): 240 – 247 (2004). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Interrelationships between kraft handsheet and wood fibre and chemical properties for the trees and logs of 29 Eucalyptus fastigata and 29 E.nitens. R.P.Kibblewhite; R.Evans; M.J.C.Riddell. Appita Journal 57(4): 317 – 325 (2004). A courtesy of Appita / Australia.

Fibre and fibre wall response to refining in softwood and hardwood kraft pulps. R.P.Kibblewhite; A.D.Bawden. Proceedings of the PIRA Conference “Current and Future Technologies of Refining”. 36 pp. (1991). A courtesy of PIRA/UK.

Effects of refined softwood : eucalypt pulp mixtures on paper properties. R.P.Kibblewhite. Transactions of the 10th Fundamental Research Symposium “Products of Papermaking”. 34 pp: 127 – 157, 1365 – 1367. (1993). A courtesy of FRC / UK.

Genetic selection of trees with designer fibres for different paper and pulp grades. R.P.Kibblewhite; C.J.A.Shelbourne. Transactions of the 11th Fundamental Research Symposium “The Fundamentals of Papermaking Materials”. pp:439 – 472, 1435. (1997). A courtesy of FRC / UK.

Variation in wood, kraft fibre, and handsheet properties among 29 trees of Eucalyptus regnans, and comparison with E.nitens and E.fastigata. R.P.Kibblewhite; M.J.C.Riddell; C.J.A.Shelbourne. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 30(3): 458 – 474 (2000). A courtesy from the New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science.

Refining and papermaking properties of eucalypt, mixed hardwood and softwood market pulp blends. R.P.Kibblewhite; C.L.Brindley. PAPRO Report, New Zealand. 4 pp. (1993). A courtesy from PAPRO / New Zealand.

Kraft pulp qualities of Eucalyptus nitens, E.globulus and E.maidenii at ages 8 and 11 years. R.P.Kibblewhite; B.Johnson; C.J.A.Shelbourne. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 30(3): 447 – 457 (2000). A courtesy from the New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science.

Wood-fibre for future products from pulp. R.P.Kibblewhite. Powerpoint Presentation: 26 slides.

A tool for the rapid assessment of wood and fiber quality. R. Evans; R.P.Kibblewhite; G.Downes; J.Ilic; M.Hughes; S.O.Lundqvist. PowerPoint Presentation: 44 slides. Marcus Wallenberg Prize Symposium. (2001)

Product-driven eucalypt-fibre selection for papermaking. R.P.Kibblewhite. 2nd International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. PowerPoint Presentation: 64 slides. (2005)

Fibre influences on tissue quality. R.P.Kibblewhite. 2nd International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. PowerPoint Presentation: 59 slides. (2005)

Method of treating lignocellulosic or cellulosic pulp to promote the kinking of pulp fibers and/or to improve paper tear strength. A.J.Kerr; R.P.Kibblewhite. US Patent 4227964. (1980)

New Section:
A Talk with Alberto Mori about the Papers Made with Eucalyptus Fibers

About Alberto Mori:
Alberto Mori was born in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. He got his graduation in Chemical Engineering by the Maua Engineering College in 1970. He had in his career several technical and industrial managerial positions in some companies in Brazil: MD Papeis and EKA Chemicals, as example. Today, he is acting as consultant in the paper technological area, through his company Mori Consult. Mori is also president of ABTCP - The Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper.
The result of our first talk:
"There is a wide range of utilization for the eucalyptus short fibers. In less than 40 years, the eucalyptus were able to leave a marginal position in the pulp markets to become today one of the preferred fibers in paper manufacturing. The success of the eucalyptus are more concentrated in the bleached kraft fibers, than in the unbleached segment. This is very understandable: unbleached papers are more valued by their strengths properties, and this is not the main feature for the eucalyptus short fibers. However, even in the strong packaging papers, we are able to find eucalyptus fibers in the furnish blend. For example, it is very common in Brazil the addition of some eucalyptus wood chips to the pinewood chips in the kraft digestion. The blend provides gains in pup yield, and reduction in pulp costs. The mills, mainly those bottlenecked, are able to raise daily production due to the eucalyptus addition.

There are very good reasons to the growth in consumption for the eucalyptus pulps. Some are strictly technical, and others are typically economic. Since eucalyptus wood leads to better pulping yield, lower specific wood consumption and better pulp bleachability than softwoods, the pulp production costs are smaller than those for the softwoods. Because of these issues, the eucalyptus pulp manufacturer is able to better negotiate the pulp prices. He is able to sell the eucalyptus short fibered pulps for a lower price than the softwood pulps. Today, the price difference between eucalyptus fibers and softwoods is about 100 US$/adt. This is a tremendous driver to motivate the papermaker to do all his efforts to use more and more eucalyptus fibers. Another eucalyptus pulp advantage is the pulp homogeneity. Eucalyptus pulps, mainly in Brazil, are made using wood from cloned forests. The cloned trees are more uniform in shape, size, dimensions, wood and pulp quality. Because of these features, the eucalyptus pulp specifications are more efficiently and more easily achieved. Remember that the pulps in North Hemisphere are commonly made with a blend of pulpwoods, and not from a single wood species.

Because the quality the eucalyptus fibers have, they are able to participate in most of fibrous furnishes to paper manufacturing. Almost all paper grades may contain eucalyptus fibers. The eucalyptus fibers may also be engineered as the sole fibrous material to several paper grades: tissue, printing & writing, coated papers, etc. The two already mentioned factors: pulp quality and pulp costs are vital to the papermaker, more specifically to the non-integrated. Since the pulp participation in the paper cost is the most important parameter, the papermaker is always willing to have more of this not so expensive pulp in his paper composition. To the papermaker, pulp quality and uniformity in the paper products are vital. The papermaker also values the minimum wastes and minimum off-grade generation, that may be referred in terms of broke generation. Broke is a driver force to raise paper production costs. The eucalyptus short fibers, when well characterized, evaluated, specified and controlled may have their participation in the paper furnish in a growing move, no matter in which paper market or which paper grade we are talking about. Also, the differentiated fiber mix allows the papermaker to develop differentiation in his paper products. He becomes able to reach specific niches in the markets: something not well possible when manufacturing commodities. Due to these reasons, he continuously adds new value to paper products: new qualities and product performances are expected to reach the paper business thanks to the eucalyptus fibers. Today, there is a strong move in the direction of basis weight reduction to several paper grades. The purpose is to save fibers, to reduce paper costs, and to reduce the generation of paper garbage by society. The numerous and relatively slender and stiff eucalyptus fibers are good enough to provide very good paper bulk, porosity and caliper. Although the paper basis weight may be reduced, the papers may be still good in performance due to the eucalyptus fibers. Another advantage to the eucalyptus fibers.

The papers that are made using eucalyptus fibers varies from typical commodity grades (tissue, offset, coated, writing papers) up to specialty papers, with high technologies and pulp and paper specifications (filters, decor, labels, thermal, glassine, cigarette, supercalendered, etc). It is clear that to some of these papers the eucalyptus fibers are important part of the furnish. They are imparting their properties to the required paper specifications. They are adding economic value and technical advantages to the paper manufacture.

The majority of the pulp manufacturers acting in the market are commodity oriented. In these markets, it is clearly important the low production costs, the uniform product quality, and the production scale. This is also valued in paper mills also manufacturing commodity papers. On the other hand, the papermakers manufacturing specialty papers demand for other pulp and fiber qualities that are far beyond the regular evaluations of pulp cleanliness, brightness, and viscosity. There are other characteristics in the fibers and pulps that are very welcome: fiber wall thickness, fiber coarseness, fiber population, resistance to sheet compressibility both in the wet or dry paper sheet, speed for resin impregnation, size of paper porous in the sheet, etc. For these reasons, it is a clear advantage to the pulp and paper makers if both could become closer. This could even further improve the development of specialty pulps to specialty papers. The market for eucalyptus fibers could grow even more. The pulp manufacturer could also better design the trees and wood by forest breeding in the direction of special qualities. In the production of specialty papers, the specifications for the eucalyptus pulps are rather different than the normal evaluations that are regularly presented by the market pulp manufacturers. While these pulp makers are only oriented to few pulp tests, a maximum they provide is a pulp beating curve, the specialty paper maker deals with very sophisticated pulp and paper properties. For example, to the filter papermaker, not only the regular porosity is important, but also the uniformity in size and distribution of pores, including those in the Z direction of the paper. There are also requirements about the paper sheet behavior when submitted to intense forces and pressures, as the case of supercalendered papers. There are also requirements in the decor papers for very rigid specifications in the speed and retention of resin: impregnation, absorption and resin holding capacity are vital properties for such papers. After all, the specifications for the pulp fibers in the specialty papers manufacturing may be very unique, depending on the paper grade. Pulp manufacturer may contribute to changes in the pulp quality depending on the wood quality he is using, but also in the way he is cooking or bleaching the pulp. He may also affects the pulp quality, according to the process of drying the pulp sheet. Just a simple example to better explain the importance of these topics: the uniformity of the kappa number in the individual fibers is very important to the pulp behavior in specialty papers manufacturing. When the average kappa number is 16, the individual fibers in the pulp may have kappa numbers from 14 to 18; or from 12 to 23, for example. For sure, the first case is much better to be utilized in specialty papers manufacturing, because the uniformity in the fibers."

After discussing these fundamental issues with Alberto Mori, in our next conversation we are to talk with him about some specific paper grade and the importance of the eucalyptus fibers to add value and quality to it. Please, wait one of our next Eucalyptus Newsletters.

Technical mini-article by Celso Foelkel
Closing Water Cycle for Further Reductions on Water Consumption in the Manufacture of Eucalyptus Bleached Kraft Pulp

Water system closures are generic measures oriented to the reduction on water consumption and effluent generation in pulp and paper mills. There are many ways to close water cycles: they depend on people creativeness and on the methodologies being used by the technicians. However, to close water circuits should not be understood as to transfer one exceeding amount of water from one area to another one in the mill. This may eventually be appropriate in some cases. However, if we do not have discipline, analysis and control, we can always have the possibility that the transferred water may start to become overexceeded in some other area in the mill. To close water cycle is definitively related to the phrase "close the faucets". This means that first of all, we need to find ways to reduce consumption in the places the water is being used. This is to be the general procedure: to identify how much water is being used?; What is the required water quality?; How much and where water is being lost?; What are the quantities and qualities of the discarded effluents? This may be summarized by a water balance, a typical mass balance for water, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and suspended solids. By doing such, we are to have a good understanding of all water inputs and outputs from any mill system. The second and very important question to be answered is: what is really the water quality required in any mill area? For example: to wash logs, do we need clean and fresh water? Could it be done with recovered water from another mill area? Could we use an effluent to wash the logs? Which one could be feasible for such service? What temperature could this water have: cold? hot? room temperature? Are there limitations about this water? We should do this analysis to each place in the mill demanding important water utilization.
Material balances and overall evaluations and diagnosis for water qualities may be performed by any chemical engineer in the mill. It is only a matter of good will and determination. Even in the most difficult conditions, it is possible to reach reasonable mass balances. There are precious softwares freely available on the web. Please, try to see the example of the "WaterPlanner" ( This software is made available by GEMI (Global Environmental Management Initiative). The software is possible to be used directly at GEMI website ( It is very helpful and powerful for simple and even more complicated water balances. It is recommended for mill and area optimizations.
The third point in our methodology is to identify and to make visible the water wastes. Where are they? Where more water than needed is being used? How much in excess? Where and for what reason water is being discarded? How to avoid this? The water mass balance is a powerful tool to help us to identify and to give answers to these questions.
Having at our hands the mill and area water balances, we'll be better able to continue our job in the target to close water circuits. The final purpose is to reduce water consumption and effluent discharges. Why do I say this? In my professional life, I've seen several times people in the mills, trying to save water, or transferring water from one place to another. They usually try this by attempts, without previous mass balances and water quality evaluations. The results are what they should be: after some time, the situation becomes reverse, and people's dispair is evident. Lack of analysis, wrong methodologies, or no methodology at all, are common mistakes. Attempts/errors are not the right procedures to do this type of optimization service.
After developing the basis for our work, we may go to the next step. We need our creative thinking to develop good ideas and to try solving the problems. We need also a good negotiation skill. To innovate and to develop a creative topic is very good. On the other hand, we need to deal with other interested parties in the mill. For this reason, to negotiate and to convince people to be part of the problem solution is essential.
In any kind of industrial process the possibilities to reduce water consumption exist. The operators know this very well. They know the area they work as no other people in the mill. This mean they must be involved in the search of solutions. An alliance with operators is a good step in the direction we want to go. We know that the possibilities exist, but where are they? Are they feasible? In our recent Eucalyptus Newsletter number 09 ( I have placed a great emphasis on the topic about water consumption in the pulp and paper mills. Because the points I covered, I received several comments from readers. They asked me for additional suggestions and potential measures for closing even further the water systems in eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mills. Well, as a writer oriented to my readers, I became motivated to write more on this issue. How to give a reasonable reply to the target to achieve a maximum water consumption of 25 m³/adt and an effluent discharge of no more than 15 m³/adt? To offer sound suggestions to you, I decided to divide the pulp mill according to the areas demanding more water. From now onwards, my purpose is to talk about consumed waters and generated effluents in key areas in the eucalyptus kraft pulp mill. My points have always been added as suggestions for reflections or actions. In this example, I decided to take a modern mill demanding a specific flow of 40 m³ of raw water/adt (adt = "air dry ton"). This same mill had also a specific treated effluent generation of 30 m³/adt. This is a very typical case for modern and state-of-the-art mills, according to the engineering people projecting and building the today's new pulp mills.

Let's see where and how we may do things better in an eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mill?

1. Eucalyptus wood chips

Higher the moisture of the wood, more water is being added to our system. Wood is an important source of water, most of the times, neglected. In case our wood moisture be 45%, the wood brings to the mill something in the range of 1.7 m³ water/adt of pulp. In case the wood moisture goes up to 55%, then the mill will be receiving 2.5 m³ water/adt of manufactured pulp. Green wood is better because the water it brings, and also for pulping. The kraft pulping process performs better with wet wood: pulp yield is better, and higher the pulp viscosity is after cooking. All technical people in the mill are used to this. A possibility we have is to add moisture to the chip pile. This may be done using a residual water or an alkaline condensate or filtrate. Instead of sending this condensate or filtrate to the effluent, we may use a certain volume to irrigate the wood chips. Wood has always a natural acidity, due to hemicellulosic acetyl and uronyl groups. This acidity is responsible for some active alkali consumption to be neutralized. The use of a condensate as wood chips irrigation water has at least four benefits: water addition to the process, reduction in effluent generation, improvements in the diffusion of kraft pulping cooking liquor, and consumption of part of the natural acidity of the wood chips. It is very possible that we may add up to 0.5 m³/adt of an alkaline filtrate or condensate for this job.

2. WTP - Water treatment plant

It is hard to believe, but there are many water losses in a standard water treatment plant. I'm talking about the water from the back-washing of sand filters, and the water that is the vehicle of the diluted sludge leaving this area to the WWTP - Waste water treatment plant. These two types of wasted water correspond to about 1 m³/adt. They may be easily recovered, close to all of the discarded flows. With the use of a filter press or centrifuge to the sludge, a major amount of this water may be recycled back. This removed sludge water, and the dirt water from the back-washing of the sand filters may be reintroduced as intake water. They may follow again the water treatment, and the loop will be closed. The water flows may be recovered up to the extent of 0.8 m³/adt. It is very simple to be done, and corresponds to substantial gains.

3. Wood preparation area

We always have water losses in this area: both due to evaporation and by wasting water and misuses .The wood preparation area normally consumes an average of 1.5 to 2.5 m³/adt of water, and generates about 1 to 2 m³/adt of effluent, depending on the system closure and design. These water losses can easily be reduced to a minimum: only the evaporated water, and the water that follows with the logs, after log washing. In this area, it is very simple to close the water cycle. The required water does not need to be fresh and treated water. By adopting a simple system for removing dirt (sand, soil, branches, bark and leaves), the water is good again to be reused. Make up water may be a recovered water, as a condensate from evaporation or a filtrate from bleaching line. There is even the possibility to use the final treated effluent, as make up water (a secondary treated effluent is perfect for this task). As we always say that our effluents are excellent in quality, why not give to it the responsibility to participate effectively in our process?

4. Unbleached pulp area

In the digesting and washing/screening areas, the water losses are not expected to be high. I'm referring to modern mills, where this area is very closed. Water losses in these areas reach about 0.5 m³/adt. However, this water may be heavily contaminated with COD. The ideal is to definitively close this area, and to send this effluent back to the system (or to evaporation). In the worst case, it will be changed to a condensate.

5. Bleaching line

This area is still the main effluent generator in a kraft mill. A modern ECF bleaching line contributes with 10 m³/adt of an acid effluent, and about 3 m³/adt of alkaline effluent, depending on the design and engineering of the water cycle. The alkaline effluent may be partially recovered by the system. The today's most recommended utilization is to wash pulp in the unbleached area. Bleaching line also provides water to the forming and drying machine, and fills its obligation to receive also a part of this water (white water) back from the pulp machine. White water is clean and suitable for washing the pulp along the bleaching operation. Today, the bleaching line water consumption and effluent generation may be further optimized. There are mills with bleaching line effluent generation with a maximum of 10 m³/adt. This flow corresponds to 40 to 60% of total mill effluent. It is very important that all this flow be filtered to recover the fibers. Doing this, the fibers are recovered, the COD in the effluent is lower, and the effluent is clean enough to become a low solids one. In this case, the bleaching line effluent does not need to go to a primary clarifier. An excellent saving in capital costs.

6. Pulp drying machine

This area is a great user of water, mainly clean and hot water, and steam. Until now, I cannot understand why this area through away so much water to the effluent. The water is clear and clean, the contamination level is minimum. The pH is also getting better because the new requirements for market pulps with neutral pH. It is hard to believe that the forming and pulp drying machines may waste something from 1.5 to 2.5 m³/adt of good water to the effluent. For me, the chance to close this water leakage is excellent. The only water that could be separated is the drain from the centrifugal cleaners. This effluent is dirt, although it has fibers that deserve also to be recovered by other measures. The remaining water has very good quality. The eventual contamination of this water with felt fibers could be easily solved by sending this effluent to the water intake (water treatment system). The water would be treated again, and the sand filters could take care of removing the felt fibers.

7. Evaporation line

The evaporation line is a great producer of dirty and hot effluents in a kraft pulp mill. The total generation of condensates in the evaporation line is about 6 to 8 m³/adt. Part of these condensates may be reused and recovered to wash logs and pulp, and also in the production of white liquor. There is a potential for further recovery of these condensates. Today, the wasted condensates are still in the range of 4 to 5 m³/adt. The WWTP receives this huge volume, and the effort to treat this high COD load is high. An option to use a part of this condensate flow is to give additional moisture to the wood chips in the chip pile.

8. WWTP - Waste water treatment plant

The own WWTP generates an effluent to be treated and cycled back to early stages of the treatment. This WWTP effluent (about 1 m³/adt) is generated in the sludges pressing area, in washing the floors, overflows, etc. This water shall not be lost to the soil or evaporated. We need to keep this loop well closed to avoid extra losses

9. Solid wastes

Sludges, dregs, grits, bark, wet soil and sand, etc, are very wet solid wastes. They carry about 0.05 to 0.15 m³/adt of water far away from the mill site (to landfills or to the forests). We need a very good solid waste management and well maintained machinery to remove as much as possible of water from these wastes. We need to focus this issue. Unfortunately, few people in the mills pay attention to this kind of water losses.

10. Sealing waters

The water that is being discarded as sealing water is still very high in volume. The addition of all sealing waters from a modern pulp mill gives a number close to 2 to 2.5 m³/adt. It is always a good quality water being discarded as waste: we should have no mercy to this engineering concept. It is completely out-of-date, and not applicable to the today's world. Sealing waters may be minimized, recovered and recycled in a pulp mill. They may even be returned back to the WTP to be retreated again, in case we may be afraid of eventual contaminations

11. Air compressors

This volume is variable depending on the technological age and air compressor concept. On the other hand, this volume is not negligible: from 0.4 to 0.7 m³/adt. Air compressor waters deserve the same treatment as the sealing waters.

12. Recovery boiler and Power boilers

The boilers are relatively closed areas in terms of water balance, with an effluent generation of 0.5 to 1 m³/adt all together. One of the major ingenuity in boilers is wasting the purged waters. These excellent quality waters don't deserve to be thrown away as wastewaters.

13. Cooling towers for hot waters

Cooling towers are far the most important machinery wasting waters in a pulp and paper mill. They through as mist the impressive volume of 4 to 6 m³/adt. An enormity! This is seen by everybody in the mill, and no single person spend his time working to reduce this loss. Everybody considers this waste as normal, it is a natural loss they think. My goodness, we are being blinded by the technology! The adoption of indirect heat exchangers or the use of demisters to recover the mist drops are ways to reduce and to minimize this water loss. Please, pay attention to the fact that these losses correspond to about 10 to 15% of the mill water intake. We are sending all this to the atmosphere, without any preventive measure.

It is also very common in pulp and paper mills an excess of hot water. In many cases, a good quality hot water is discarded to the effluent. Unbelievable, a very good water being wasted just because it is hot. This water deserves another opportunity in the mill, don't you agree?

14. Cooling towers in the WWTP - Waste water treatment plant

The trend is to receive effluents in the WWTP with the minimum temperature as possible. The heat is recommended to be recovered along the process, using exchangers to warm the process water. The purpose is to discard the use of cooling towers to reduce temperatures in effluents, replacing them for indirect heat exchangers, with minimum consumption of cooling waters. The cooling waters used in the indirect heat exchangers may go to cooling towers, because the mist derived from them is not harmful. Water losses as mist in the wastewater treatment plant may be in the average of 0.5 to 1.5 m³/adt. Also here, the use of demisters should be considered.

15. Water demineralization

The system based on ion exchange resins is gradually losing ground to reverse osmosis. The impact derived from the use of ion exchange resins is very high. The resins need to be regenerated by strong solutions of acids and alkalis. The resulting effluents are very strong and with completely antagonic characteristics. Specific flows are also high: about 1 m³/adt. For this reason, the reverse osmosis technology is more suitable. The RO concentrated solution is an ion rich solution. This water can be directed again to the water treatment plant, replacing a part of the water intake. Instead of being an effluent, the water becomes raw material.

16. Minor areas consuming water and generating effluents

There are other sources of effluents and points of water consumption:

  • Lime kiln and causticizing: 0.15 m³/adt
  • Evaporation in lagoons, ponds, floors, etc: 0.6 to 1.2 m³/adt
  • Chemical plant: 0.2 m³/adt
  • Wasted steam: 0.3 a 0.5 m³/adt

    17. New sources of waters

There are some interesting new sources of process waters to be included in our water balances:

• Rain or storm water: they may be saved and stored for mill utilization (0.4 to 0.8 m³/adt)

• Water used in the dilution of purchased chemicals (caustic soda, peroxide, anti-foamers, etc): about 0.1 m³/adt.

As you could notice, there are many opportunities for water system closures. When we close the system, in many cases the recovered water reduces the need of water intake, and reduces also the generation of effluent. We are gaining in both sides. Fort this reason, the water cycle closures have to be pursued with determination.

I have the opinion that our eucalyptus kraft pulp mills should have in their mill design a buffer pond to save waters. The water saved in this lagoon could be recycled as such or it could again be directed to the water treatment plant. This flow would be replacing water from the river: a very good option. The pond could be constructed in the same way those for keeping effluents are. It would be made as an emergency lagoon, however for saving good quality waters. Since we place efforts at the end of the pipe, let's also do something in the beginning of the pipe. The size could be smaller than those for keeping effluents: I understand that a volume equivalent to 15 m³/adt/day, corresponding to the tonnage of a day of production. This mean that a mill with a daily production of 2.000 adt would need a pond with 30.000 m³ capacity. To this pond, we could send good quality waters, those in conditions to be recovered or to replace part of the water intake: rain water, purged water from boilers, air compressor water, refrigerating water, hydraulic unit water, sealing water, filtered effluent from the pulp drying machine, vacuum pump water, osmosis reverse concentrated solution, condensed mist from cooling towers, back-washing water from sand filters, condensed steam, excess of hot water, etc. It is something very simple to be made, and with a tremendous potential for recover and recycle waters in the mill.

Dear friends, I guess this mini-article was not so mini, sorry for that. However, I have been motivated by friends to bring more comments on this important issue. They are the result of my observations in close to 40 years in the pulp and paper segment. My purpose is very clear: I want to help as much as possible the sector to reach the dreamed sustainability. If a right time exists for closing water cycle, this is just the one. In case you are using some of the mentionned water saving practices, I'll be very happy. In case not yet, please, use a fraction of your time to think about them.

Eucalyptus Newsletter consists of technical information texts written and made available to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the eucalyptus
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2005-2007

This Eucalyptus Newsletter is a Celsius Degree production and it was made possible through sponsoring support provided by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper, Botnia and Aracruz. The opinions expressed in the texts are those of the author or coming from the referenced technical literature or websites suggested as euca-links. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

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