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Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,

Dear friends
, here we are again, now with the issue number 35 of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. We hope that this edition may fulfill your expectations and interests, allowing that readers may gain additional knowledge and understanding about the Eucalyptus planted forests and about the products and services they provide to the benefit of our society. This target we try to fulfill bringing a selection of themes combining history, science, technology, innovation, emotion and culture.

In this edition, we have started making a rescue to the general public (“or a recovery through internet”) of all scientific publications (articles, lectures and "posters") so far presented in the fantastic event International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp - internationally known as ICEP. This type of event began with its first edition in 2003, in Vicosa-Brazil, having as its great founder and driver the Professor Dr. Jorge Luiz Colodette, from UFV - Federal University of Vicosa, in partnership with Dr. Jose Livio Gomide, professor at the same university. Then, after the first event, we had four other more that happened in both Brazilian and Chilean cities. To date, there were five editions of the colloquium. We begin this edition with the presentation of the lectures / articles of the first event. In subsequent editions of our Eucalyptus Newsletter, we will offer the technical materials from the others, gradually. We have achieved this amazing possibility for sharing all this knowledge to public thanks to the support and enthusiasm coming from Dr. Colodette, who has allowed us to display all these presentations from the various conferences at With this, we are helping to perpetuate the enormous amount of good science and technology introduced in these colloquiums, and that are being, up to certain extent, limited to a restricted number of people interested on knowing more about the Eucalyptus. We are grateful to all the other organizers of the ICEP's for this opportunity.

We are also offering to you in this issue a lot of the technical knowledge about the Eucalyptus that has been developed by two renowned Brazilian researchers: one working in the area of forest pests (Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede) and the other in science and technology of wood, pulp and paper (Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Junior).

The section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus", written by the agronomist M.Sc. Ester Foelkel, presents to all of you a very interesting and valuable issue: "The Wood of Eucalyptus Used for the Construction of Bridges". It is a use that is growing in all places because it has gained advanced technology, and for which several Brazilian universities have placed much effort to allow the safe construction of bridges using the wood of Eucalyptus plantations. An environmentally friendly way to provide the modernization of the secondary road network in Brazil, which has many wooden bridges that need repairs, maintenance and also the construction of new bridges made on wood. Today, Eucalyptus plays a vital role to make this happen.

Our technical article in this edition brings my thoughts about two great management tools for helping the achievement of sustainability at the Eucalyptus pulp and paper supply chain: the environmental labelling (or eco-labelling) and the ecoefficiency. Read and know the reasons: "The Environmental Labelling and the Ecoefficiency as Vital Managerial Tools for the Construction of Sustainability in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Production Chain".

We hope this newsletter issue may be very useful to all of you, since the thematic selection was made in a way to bring interesting and diversified topics about the Eucalyptus. We hope and believe they may be valuable to you who honor us with your reading.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales, Papermakers' Wiki, Åbo Akademi - Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology and Blog do Papeleiro. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland and South Africa. However, thanks to the World Wide Web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus.

Know more about all of our today’s partners
and meet them at the URL address:

Thanks to all of you dear readers for your support and constant presence visiting our websites. Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus are currently being sent to a long "mailing list" through our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, a number that today is equivalent to several thousands of registered addresses. This happens in addition to the accesses made directly to the websites; and,or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book chapters are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal from now is very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus Online Book & Eucalyptus Newsletter that they will be always on the first page, when any single person in the world, using a search engine like Google, Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the word Eucalyptus. This service aims to better inform stakeholders and interested parties about the Eucalyptus, with relevant information and a lot of credibility, too. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree and ABTCP, and also from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a friendly hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Edition

ICEP’s – International Colloquium on Eucalyptus PulpArticles and Speeches from the First Colloquium – I ICEP – Vicosa / MG / Brazil

Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases - Articles written by Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede

Online Technical References: Articles on Eucalyptus written by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Junior

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - The Wood of Eucalyptus Used for the Construction of Bridges – by Ester Foelkel

Technical Article by Celso Foelkel
The Environmental Labelling and the Ecoefficiency as Vital Managerial Tools for the Construction of Sustainability in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Production Chain

ICEP’s – International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp

Articles and Speeches from the First Colloquium – I ICEP – Vicosa/MG – Brazil

About the ICEP’s or International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp

The ICEP - International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp has been acclaimed as one of the best technical events about science and technology on production of pulp for papermaking. There are good reasons for this fact, but the top three for sure are the following:

Eucalyptus is the pulp fiber of the moment, the fastest growing trees and where the best available technologies are being applied to such type of industry;
• The groups of speakers and guests, who apply to present their technical papers at IECP’s, are of the highest quality and international reputation;
• There is a highly qualified scientific management committee for each event to ensure that all quality specifications, both technical, scientific and logistics are reached.

This event was actually designed from an informal chat that happened in Portugal, among a group of researchers who were attending the 28th Congress of EUCEPA, which took place at Lisbon in April 2003. The lead was soon taken over by UFV - Federal University of Vicosa, one of the most renowned global centers for studies and researches on the pulping of Eucalyptus. Dr. Jorge Luiz Colodette has polished and provided the right shape to the idea, with the supporting received from his friend, Dr. Jose Livio Gomide.

At that time, there were huge question-marks about the pulping and the bleaching of Eucalyptus kraft pulp. Just a few years before, the hexenuronic acids had been discovered; changes were rapidly occurring in the technologies for cooking and bleaching; as well as the water circuits were being closed. Thus, there were new problems to be solved. One was the brightness reversion of pulp, which was the main driver for the first colloquium to be immediately held. The original idea was not really for a big event, but only for a technical meeting involving some renowned world researchers. The event was assigned to happen in the city of Vicosa, far from airports and hard to be reached by road. The original idea was not to be an event for a large number of people. It was assumed that in addition to the invited speakers, the number of other technical participants was not to be very large. It was a surprise to note that for an event created so quickly, that almost 150 participants and about 30 excellent research papers were easily obtained. Surely, this was greatly due to the full involvement of professors Dr. Jorge Luiz Colodette and Dr. Jose Livio Gomide, two of the most knowledgeable and world great experts on the pulps of Eucalyptus. In addition, the organization achieved important support for the dissemination, organization and technological issues. SIF - Society of Forest Investigations, ABTCP – The Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association and the web-portal CeluloseOnline have acted as supporters since the first event, and in the second, it was also added ATCP Chile – The Chilean Pulp and Paper Technical Association. On top of this, it should be highlighted the excellent support offered by UFV - Federal University of Vicosa to all events in Brazil, an educational organization, that since the 70's, is engaged in an intense scientific and technological development in the Eucalyptus pulp and paper segment.

The first colloquium took advantage of the need for an opening ceremony for the new education and research units of the LCP/UFV - Laboratory of Pulp and Paper ( So, both events happened simultaneously in September 2003. A double meaning, a double bet on the future - both successfully achieved thanks to motivated and qualified people.

In the opening page for introducing the 5th ICEP - that happened in 2011 in Porto Seguro / Brazil - the event page ( had some important considerations that I’m taking the chance to bring them for your reading, with some minor updates from my side:

"The Eucalyptus is becoming the most important source of fiber for papermaking in the world. It is predicted that by 2015 the production capacity of market pulp will reach around 65 million tonnes, with approximately 33 million from hardwoods, and 60% of these being originated from Eucalyptus. The great interest in Eucalyptus wood and fibers comes from the low cost of production in certain regions, primarily due to higher forest productivity and high pulp yield. In addition, more recently, the amazing quality of Eucalyptus fibers has been valued by the market. The use of Eucalyptus fibers to manufacture several grades of papers previously made only with long fibers is growing sharply. The technical and scientific advances achieved in the production of Eucalyptus fibers from the forests to the end-products have improved the understanding of their applications in different types of papers, making these fibers the preferred ones in worldwide basis. Unlike pulp fibers derived from a mixture of species, the use of a single species may provide specific benefits and well-defined attributes to papermakers. In this regard, Eucalyptus market pulps produced from clonal plantations have emerged as the most desirable fibers in the markets, not only for the production of printing and writing papers, but also for the manufacture of many other new products.

South America is currently the world's largest producer of Eucalyptus bleached kraft market pulp (14 million tons in 2010). In addition, most new mill projects designed to manufacture Eucalyptus pulps are expected to be installed in South America. Our continent is becoming the world's hub of production and distribution of the Eucalyptus pulp. Therefore, South America should seek initiatives in researching, development and innovation in production and use of Eucalyptus pulp.

An important initiative in this direction was the creation of the International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp (ICEP), in 2003, which soon has become an important scientific forum for discussions on the production and use the Eucalyptus pulps. The first ICEP was held in Vicosa, Brazil, in 2003, to discuss the production of Eucalyptus pulp with emphasis on its bleachability and brightness stability. The second ICEP took place in Concepcion, Chile, in 2005, and focused on the quality of the wood and application of biotechnology. The third ICEP took place in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2007, with the main topics being the quality of Eucalyptus fibers and their products. The fourth ICEP took again place in Concepcion, Chile, and had as its main themes the advances in productivity and quality of Eucalyptus forests and fibers. The fifth ICEP was held in Porto Seguro, Brazil, focusing on biorefinery processes, integrated with the Eucalyptus pulp industry, with the complementary production of liquid and solid fuels, chemicals and other materials".

All the huge bank of knowledge generated from these events could in no way be restricted to just few technicians. In the 2011 edition of ICEP, I had the privilege and the full support, as well as the authorization from Dr. Jorge Luiz Colodette, to offer to the scientific and technical eucalyptic community, through our Eucalyptus Newsletter, the presentations and technical articles from all colloquiums so far held. We are beginning this issue with the articles/speeches from the first of them, exactly the one that opened the doors for researchers and technicians in the Eucalyptus pulp and paper sector, to have a regular forum to discuss about technology of plantation forests, wood, pulp, papermaking fibers and the fundamental role of the Eucalyptus: the ICEP's.

All of us, who love the Eucalyptus as a fiber source for papermaking, we are sincerely grateful to our distinguished teachers and friends Jorge Colodette and Jose Livio Gomide for their leadership in this process and for the generous acceptance for having this knowledge shared with the world Eucalyptus community. Our most sincere thanks to both, on behalf of the thousands of Eucalyptus Newsletter readers. We would also like to thank the other organizers and supporters of these events.

Stay tuned, in upcoming editions of Eucalyptus Newsletter, we will bring the materials from the other colloquiums.

Enjoy your reading.

Articles and Speeches of the First International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp

Eucalyptus: Algumas questoes em aberto. (Eucalyptus: some open questions). C. Foelkel. PowerPoint presentation: 40 slides. (In Portuguese)

Hexenuronic acid, Klason lignin and viscosity of pulp predicted by NIR spectroscopy. A.F. Caldeira; S.L. Santos; V. Sacon. 08 pp. (In Portuguese)

Importancia da densidade e do teor de carboidratos totais da madeira de eucalipto no desempenho da linha de fibra. (Importance of wood density and total carbohydrate content of Eucalyptus wood on the performance of the fiberline). A. Mokfienski; J.L. Gomide; J.L. Colodette; R.C. Oliveira. 14 pp. (In Portuguese)

Tratabilidade comparativa de filtrados de branqueamento ECF e TCF de polpa kraft de eucalipto. (Comparative treatability of ECF and TCF filtrates from Eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching). A. H. Mounteer. 11 pp. (In Portuguese)

Utilizacao de antraquinona na polpacao kraft: uma experiencia em escala piloto e industrial. (Use of anthraquinone in kraft pulping: an experience in pilot and industrial scale). A.F. Milanez. 23 pp. (In Portuguese)

Influence of wood pulping conditions and unbleached pulp composition and structure on the ECF bleachability of hardwood kraft pulps.
C. Pascoal Neto; D.V. Evtuguin; A.I.D. Daniel; A.J.D. Silvestre; F.P. Furtado; P. M. Sousa. 12 pp. (In English)

ECF bleaching of softwood and Eucalyptus pulps - A comparative study.
L. Meuller; C. Blom; L. Holtinger; N. Fujiwara. 14 pp. (In English)

Criterios de selecao de clones para maximizar rendimento e qualidade da celulose. (Selection of criteria in Eucalyptus clones to maximize pulp yield and quality). C. Ferreira; M. Fantini Junior; R.C. Oliveira; J.L. Colodette; J.L. Gomide. 14 pp. (In Portuguese)

Branqueamento com ozonio em pH neutro - Um novo conceito. (Ozone bleaching at neutral pH – A new concept). F. Carvalho; D. Asbahr; A.A.R. Godoy. 18 pp. (In Portuguese)

Utilizacao de sulfato de magnesio na linha de branqueamento da Bahia Sul. (Utilization of magnesium sulfate in the bleaching line of Bahia Sul Celulose). E. Salvador; V. Manfredi; P.G. Caldas; F.A. Silva. 08 pp. (In Portuguese)

Controle de pitch em fabrica de celulose kraft de eucalipto - Um novo conceito. (Pitch control in an Eucalyptus kraft pulp mill – A new concept). S. Kramarski; A.A. Marques; V.M. Gabrielli; R.C. Oliveira. 12 pp. (In Portuguese)

Recent hypotheses for brightness reversion of hardwood pulps. G. Gellerstedt; O. Dahlman. 10 pp. (In English)

Impacto da conversao do branqueamento Standard/ECF nas propriedades do papel e no andamento das maquinas da Ripasa S.A. (Impacts of the conversion of the standard bleaching line to ECF in the paper properties and in the paper-machine runnability at Ripasa S.A.). F. Scucuglia; F. Barbosa; I.M.B. Gomes; I.G. Trovo; K.G. Salomao; R.A. Lima. 11 pp. (In Portuguese)

Influence of process parameters on brightness reversion - A multivariate analysis approach. J. P. Ferreira; C. VanZeller; V. Lucas; G. Söderstam. 10 pp. (In English)

Tecnica para estabelecimento da qualidade tecnologica de madeira de eucalipto visando a producao de celulose kraft. (A technique to the evaluation of Eucalyptus wood technological quality oriented to the production of kraft pulp). J. L. Gomide; H. Fantuzzi Neto; H.G. Leite. 13 pp. (In Portuguese)

Causas principais da instabilidade de alvura de polpas kraft de eucalipto. (Main causes for the brightness instability in bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulps). K.M.M. Eiras; J.L. Colodette; M.M. Lima; G.T. Araujo; O.L.M. Keuller. 13 pp.
(In Portuguese)

Branqueamento de polpa kraft de eucalipto – O papel do peroxido de hidrogenio. (Bleaching Eucalyptus kraft pulps – The role of hydrogen peroxide). J.L.D. Siqueira; L.L. Silva Filho; R. Seccombe. 18 pp. (In Portuguese)

Efeito do fator kappa na estabilidade de alvura de polpas kraft branqueadas de Eucalyptus spp. (Effect of kappa factor on the brightness stability of Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulps). M.M. Costa; M.J. Oliveira; C.A. Santos; C. Leporini Filho. 10 pp. (In Portuguese)

Impact of cooking conditions on pulp yield and other parameters. N.H. Shin; B. Stromberg. 11 pp. (In English)

Effects of hardwood xylan dissolution on fibre charge and pulp yield. O. Dahlman. 10 pp. (In English)

Fiberlines for bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulps – Impact on bleachability and pulp properties. L.-A. Lindström P.-E. Larsson. 09 pp. (In English)

Possibilities for improving the pulping process. P. Axegard. 06 pp. (In English)

Aplicacao de ultrafiltracao na reciclagem de agua na industria de celulose e papel. (Utilization of ultrafiltration in the recycling of water in the pulp and paper industry). C.R. Oliveira; C.M. Silva; M.D. Rabelo; A.F. Tiesehausen; H. Rossoni; A.F. Milanez. 01 pp. (Summary in Portuguese and in English)

Estudo termodinamico das interacoes entre corantes naturais e os carboidratos da polpa celulosica. (Thermodynamic study of the interactions between natural dyes and pulp carbohydrates). E. Frinhani; R.C. Oliveira; L.H. Silva. 01 pp. (Summary in Portuguese and in English)

Efeito do conteudo de lignina lixiviavel e de acidos hexenuronicos da polpa na performance da deslignificacao com oxigenio. (Effect of leachable lignin content and hexenuronic acids in the performance of the oxygen stage delignification). K.M. Eiras; A.H. Mounteer; G. Venturim; J.L. Colodette; J.L. Gomide. 01 pp. (Summary in Portuguese and in English)

Biodelignification with WDF in Eucalyptus globulus. J. Gonzalez Molina; R. Mendez. 01 pp. (Summary in Portuguese and in English)

Utilizacao de surfactantes para melhoria da polpacao kraft de eucalipto. (Utilization of surfactants to the improvement of the Eucalyptus kraft pulping). J.L. Gomide; D.J. Silva. 01 pp. (Summary in Portuguese and in English)

Aspectos tecnicos e economicos do uso de antraquinona em polpacao alcalina. (Technical and economic aspects of anthraquinone use in alkaline pulping). J.M. Almeida; D.J. Silva. 01 pp. (Summary in Portuguese and in English)

Alternativas para ajuste do pH e controle de oxidantes residuais de polpa kraft branqueada. (Alternatives for pH control and residual oxidant abatement on bleached kraft pulps). Y.A. Minchola Robles; J.L. Colodette; M.A.A. Teixeiras. 01 pp

Great Authors on Eucalyptus Pests and Diseases

Articles written by Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede

Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede is currently one of the outstanding researchers in the group of renowned Brazilian entomologists, who have great knowledge and publications in relation to pests in forest plantations for both pine species as well as Eucalyptus. Biologist from UFPR - Federal University of Parana, Dr. Iede discovered his passion for insects when, as a graduate student, began as a trainee in the area of entomology at that university. This happened in 1975. Since then, he has been dedicated to agricultural and forestry entomology. Shortly after completion of his graduation studies (1977), he began his master’s program in the same UFPR - Federal University of Parana, where he studied the borer of the soybean plant tops as a subject of his master dissertation, successfully completing the master's degree in 1980. In 1979, he was hired by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) to work on an international project involving the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization - CSIRO, acting in the interest of collecting insects for bio-controlling weeds. Dr. Iede also has expertise in programs of biological control of insects by the University of California (1982). In 2003, he received his Ph.D. in Biological Sciences (Entomology) at the Federal University of Parana.

Edson Tadeu Iede was integrated as a researcher at Embrapa Florestas - Colombo / Parana in 1982, where he remains until today, for nearly thirty years working with forest pests. His scientific, educational and administrative productions are relevant; as well it is his great ability to interact with Brazilian forestry society by means of lectures and papers in partnership with the outstanding team from Embrapa Florestas and from other research institutes.

To all those, who are interested to know more about his career and other relevant publications Dr. Iede has on forest pests, please, visit his curriculum at the Lattes Platform. There, you may discover his main research lines and topics, as well as the articles he has published with the corresponding sources of quotations: (Dr. Iede’s Lattes Platform Curriculum) (E.T. Iede, researcher data)

In issue number 26 of our digital publication PinusLetter, Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede was honored for his scientific contributions to the forest species of Pinus ( Although much of his scientific production on forest pests has up to now occurred to conifers, Dr. Iede has several valuable publications on pests of Eucalyptus and on exotic quarantine pests to Brazil. Now, about one year after having released his biography and scientific production in PinusLetter, we are pleased to bring to you his publications on pests of Eucalyptus in this current edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter.

A selection of eucalyptic articles written by Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede and his research team

Pragas na silvicultura. (Insect pests in silviculture). An interview with Dr. Edson Tadeu Iede. Painel Florestal TV. Accessed on 29.06.2011: (In Portuguese)

A influencia de fatores bioticos e abioticos na ocorrencia de pragas em plantacoes florestais. (The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the occurrence of pests in forest plantations). E.T. Iede. Tocantins Florestal. PowerPoint presentation: 41 slides. (2010) (In Portuguese)

Insetos florestais de importancia quarentenaria para o Brasil: guia para seu reconhecimento. (Forest insects of quarentine importance to Brazil: a guide to their identification and recognition). R. Penteado; E.T. Iede; W. Reis Filho; L.R. Barbosa; P. Strapasson; A.M. Linzmeier; C.F. Castro. Embrapa Florestas. 82 pp. (2010) (In Portuguese)

Reconhecimento e identificacao das principais familias de insetos de importancia quarentenaria associados a materiais de propagacao e/ou madeira. (Recognition and identification of major families of insects of quarantine importance associated with propagating material and/or wood). S.R. Penteado; L.R. Barbosa; E.T. Iede; W. Reis Filho; P. Strapasson; A.M. Linzmeier; M.J. Thomazini. Embrapa Florestas. Documentos nº 193. 40 pp. (2009) (In Portuguese)

Biologia, caracterizacao de danos e ocorrencia de grilos em plantios de eucaliptos. (Biology, characterization of damage and occurrence of crickets in Eucalyptus plantations). L.R. Barbosa; E.T. Iede; F. Santos. Embrapa Florestas. Documentos nº 189. 27 pp. (2009) (In Portuguese)

Caracterizacao de danos de Gryllus sp. em plantas de eucalipto, em laboratorio. (Characterization of damage from Gryllus sp. in an Eucalyptus plants, in the laboratory). L.R. Barbosa; E.T. Iede; F. Santos. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira 59: 63-68. (2009) (In Portuguese) (PowerPoint presentation at PROTEF 16 by L.R. Barbosa - 2010/IPEF) (In Portuguese)

As florestas plantadas e suas principais pragas no Brasil. (Planted forests and the main pests in Brazil). E.T. Iede. Agrolink. (2009) (In Portuguese)

Especies florestais invasoras do Brasil. (Forest invasive species in Brazil). E.T. Iede; S. Ziller; U. Ribas Junior; I. Bognola. Red de Paises del Cono Sur sobre Especies Forestales Invasoras. PowerPoint presentation: 16 slides. (2008) (In Portuguese)

Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) especie potencialmente quarentenaria para o Brasil. [Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) - potentially quarantine forest species to Brazil]. E.T. Iede; W. Reis Filho; S.R. Chiarello. Embrapa Florestas. Comunicado Tecnico nº 194. 07 pp. (2007) (In Portuguese)

Importancia das pragas quarentenarias florestais no comercio internacional - Estrategias e alternativas para o Brasil. (Importance of quarentine forest pests in the international trade – Strategies and alternatives to Brazil). E.T. Iede. Embrapa Florestas. Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento nº 22. 35 pp. (2005) (In Portuguese)

Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em eucaliptos no Brasil. [Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus in Brazil]. D.L.Q. Santana; E.T. lede; S.R.C. Penteado; D. Burckhardt. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal nº 39: 139-144. (1999) (In Portuguese)

Psyllid pests (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) in South American eucalypt plantations. D. Burckhardt; D.L.Q. Santana; A.L. Terra; F.M. de Andrade; S.R.C. Penteado; E.T. Iede; C.S. Morey. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft. 72: 1-10. (1999)
(In English)

Seca de ponteiros do eucalipto em Arapoti-PR. (Dry pointers in Eucalyptus at Arapoti-PR). L.M.A. Maschio; F.M. Andrade; M.S.P. Leite; A.F.J. Bellote; C.A. Ferreira; E.T. Iede; A.M.B. Nardelli; C.G. Auer; A. Grigoletti Junior; M. Wiechetek. IUFRO Conference on Silviculture and Improvement of Eucalypt. pp. 353-359. (1997)
(In Portuguese)

Guide to implementation of phytosanitary standards in forestry. FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization. PowerPoint presentation: 21 slides. (Undated) (In English)

Online Technical References

Articles on Eucalyptus written by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Junior

Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Junior is a forest engineer, a 1990 graduate of UnB - University of Brasilia, with a Master Degree in wood technology by USP - University of Sao Paulo (1994) and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering by UNICAMP – State University of Campinas (1997). He is currently an Associate Professor at the College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" – at the University of Sao Paulo. There, he is responsible for courses and researches in science and technology of pulp, paper, and chemistry & quality of the wood; also working on the new sciences related to the biorefineries. To all these issues, he performs at the levels of graduation and postgraduate studies in forestry. His academic production is very important, both about the use of wood of Eucalyptus, as well as Pinus and other forest genera of importance to the Brazilian forest-based sector.

We recently launched in our digital publication PinusLetter number 32 ( a biography on Dr. Francides’ professional career, as well as some of his publications with coniferous species, especially about the Pinus. Now, at this Eucalyptus Newsletter, we are offering you to read Dr. Francides’ academic publications written together his team about the Eucalyptus and some other relevant species to the forestry sector.

For a better knowledge of the research projects, areas of academic and administrative activities, participation in national and international events, guidance and participation as member in stalls for theses and dissertations defenses, professional associations, and generation of patents, please, observe Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Junior’s Lattes platform curriculum or the curriculum available at ESALQ website: (Dr. Francides’ Lattes Curriculum - CNPq) (ESALQ/LCF - Dr. Francides’ Curriculum)

Enjoy this selection of references taken from the online literature and learn with the knowledge offered by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Junior and his team.

A selection of eucalyptic articles written by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Junior and his research team

Quantificacao do metanol celulosico obtido a partir do licor negro de processo kraft de polpacao. (Quantification of the cellulosic methanol obtained from the black liquor originated at kraft pulping process). L.P.S.P. Vasconcellos; F.G. Silva Jr.; O. Bahia Filho. XXI TECNICELPA/VI CIADICYP Meeting. 08 pp. (2010). A courtesy by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Jr.
(In Portuguese)

Qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla e genotipagem a partir de marcadores moleculares TRAP e microssatelites para estudos de associacao. (Wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla and genotyping from TRAP and microsatellite molecular markers for association studies). F.T.P. Guedes. Adviser: F.G. Silva Junior. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 61 pp. (2010)
(In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Avaliacao da qualidade da madeira das especies Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus globulus e Populus tremuloides. (Quality evaluation of the woods from the species Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus globulus and Populus tremuloides). F.S. Antunes. Adviser: F.G. Silva Junior. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 83 pp. (2009)
(In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Pulping. (Polpacao). F.G.Silva Jr.; J.O. Brito. In: Panorama de la Industria de Celulosa y Papel en Iberoamerica 2008. Chapter II. 42 pp. (2008) (In Portuguese)

Summary: Bio-polpacao: pre-tratamento de cavacos com xilanase e seus impactos no cozimento. (Biopulping: pre-treatment of wood chips with xilanase and impacts on pulping). T. Simunskas; F.G. Silva Junior; A. Bassa; V.M. Sacon; V.A. Valdevite. XVI International Symposium of Scientific Initiation - USP – University of Sao Paulo. (2008)
(In Portuguese)

Mixed Brazilian Eucalyptus and Pinus species - Bleaching evaluation. A.G.M.C. Bassa; M.R. Silva; A. Bassa; V.M. Sacon; F. Schmidt; F.G. Silva Jr. TAPPI Engineering, Pulping and Environmental Conference. 36 pp. (2008). A courtesy by TAPPI.
(In English)

Kraft pulping of Eucalyptus with anthraquinone, polysulfide and surfactant. F.G. Silva Junior. Tappi Engineering, Pulping and Environmental Conference. 45 pp. (2007). A courtesy by TAPPI. (In English)
(In English)

Avaliacao da madeira de Betula pendula, Eucalyptus globulus e de hibrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla destinadas a producao de polpa celulosica kraft. (Evaluation of the wood of Betula pendula, Eucalyptus globulus and of hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla as raw-materials for kraft pulp production). F. A. S. Duarte. Adviser: F. G. Silva Junior. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 108 pp. (2007)
(In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Mixtures of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla and Pinus taeda woodchips for production of kraft pulping using the Lo-Solids process. A.G.M.C. Bassa; F.G. Silva Jr.; V.M. Sacon; E. Patelli. TAPPI Engineering, Pulping and Environmental Conference. 50 pp. (2007). A courtesy by TAPPI. (In English)

From forest to product: new solutions for rapid, comprehensive wood and fibre analyses. G.E. Sherson; K.L. Woo; H.F. Jang; S. Huntley; J. Drummond; V. Lawrence; F.G. Silva Jr. III ICEP - International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. 12 pp. (2007). A courtesy by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Jr.
(In English)

The effect of alkali charge on Eucalyptus spp. kraft pulping. A.G.M.C. Bassa; F.A.S. Duarte; F.G. Silva Jr. TAPPI Engineering, Pulping and Environmental Conference. 10 pp. (2006). A courtesy by TAPPI.
(In English)

Summary: Avaliacao do efeito dos extrativos da madeira na polpacao kraft de folhosas e coniferas. (Evaluation of the effect of wood extractives in kraft pulping of hardwoods and softwoods). T.E.S. Segura; F.G. Silva Jr. XIV International Symposium of Scientific Initiation - USP – University of Sao Paulo. 01 pp. (2006) (In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Qualidade da madeira para polpa celulosica kraft de Eucalyptus globulus plantados no Uruguai. (Wood quality for kraft pulping for Eucalyptus globulus planted in Uruguay). F. Resquin; L.E.G. Barrichelo; F.G. Silva Junior, J.O. Brito; C.A. Sansigolo. Scientia Forestalis 72(7): 57-66. (2006) (In Portuguese)

Misturas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus globulus e Pinus taeda para producao de celulose kraft atraves do Processo Lo-Solids®. (Mixtures of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus taeda wood chips for the production of kraft pulps using the Lo-Solid® pulping process). A.G.M.C. Bassa. Adviser: F.G. Silva Junior. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 170 pp. (2006)
(In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Influence of alkali charge on hexenuronic acid formation and pulping efficiency for Lo-Solids cooking of Eucalyptus. F.S. Almeida; F.G. Silva Jr. TAPPI Engineering, Pulping, and Environmental Conference. 13 pp. (2004). A courtesy by TAPPI.
(In English)

Influencia da carga alcalina no processo de polpacao Lo Solids para madeira de eucalipto. (Influence of alkali charge in the Lo-Solids pulping process for the wood of Eucalyptus). F.S. Almeida; F.G. Silva Jr. 37th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. 23 pp. (2004). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Influencia da carga alcalina no processo de polpacao Lo Solids para madeira de eucalipto. (Influence of alkali charge in the Lo-Solids pulping process for the wood of Eucalyptus). F.S. Almeida; F.G. Silva Jr. 37th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. PowerPoint presentation: 48 slides. (2004). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Influencia da carga alcalina no processo de polpacao Lo-Solids® para madeiras de eucalipto. (Influence of alkali charge in the Lo-Solids® pulping process for the wood of Eucalyptus). F.S. Almeida. Adviser: F.G. Silva Junior. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 131 pp. (2003) (In Portuguese) (In Portuguese)

Influencia de comprimentos de cavacos de hibrido de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla na densidade aparente e qualidade de fibras para obtencao de polpa celulosica. (Influence of the wood chip length for the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla in the bulk density and in the fiber quality for pulp production). R.T. Medeiros; L.E.G. Barrichelo; F.G. Silva Jr.; A.A. Castro Neto. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. PowerPoint presentation: 35 slides. (2003). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Polpacao kraft convencional e modificada para madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e hibrido (E. grandis x E. urophylla). [Conventional and modified kraft pulping for the woods of Eucalyptus grandis and hybrid (E. grandis x E. urophylla)]. A. Bassa; F.G. Silva Jr.; L.E.G. Barrichelo; V.M. Sacon. 35th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. 23 pp. (2002). A courtesy by ABTCP. (In Portuguese)

Polpacao Lo Solids de eucalipto: efeito do ritmo de producao. (Lo-solids pulping of Eucalyptus: effect of the production rate). F.G. Silva Jr.; T.J. McDonough. O Papel (January):69-81. (2002). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Summary: Otimizacao do estagio de dioxidacao no branqueamento de polpas de eucalipto. (Optimization of the chlorine dioxide stage in Eucalyptus pulp bleaching). F.G. Silva Junior; F.A.S. Duarte; O. Mambrim Filho. X International Symposium of Scientific Initiation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. (2002)
(In Portuguese)

Superbatch pulping of Eucalyptus: the effect of the production rate. F.G. Silva Jr.; T.J. McDonough; J. Li. VII Symposium on the Chemistry of Lignins and other Wood Products. p. 191-195. (2001). A courtesy by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Jr.
(In English)

Qualidade da madeira de hibrido de Eucalyptus grandis x E.urophylla e selecao precoce. (Wood quality of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E.urophylla and early selection). G.S.B. Alencar; L.E.G. Barrichelo; F.G. Silva Jr. 34th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. 06 pp. (2001). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Antraquinona como auxiliar de polpacao kraft. Desmistificando conceitos e tecnicas de aplicacao. (Anthraquinone as an aid to kraft pulping. Demystifying concepts and application techniques). D. Morais; F.G. Silva Jr. Seminar about Pulping Processes for Wood. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides. (2000). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Avaliacao do efeito da antraquinona e surfactante sobre a polpacao kraft de Eucalyptus sp. (Evaluation of the effect of anthraquinone and surfactant on the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus wood). F.G. Silva Jr.; N. Duran; L.I. Mei. O Papel (May): 60-65. (1998). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Polpacao kraft e polpacao kraft-AQ: deslignificacao e espectroscopia de fotoeletrons. (Kraft pulping and kraft-AQ pulping: delignification and photoelectron spectroscopy). F.G. Silva Jr.; N.E.D. Caballero; L.H.I. Mei. 31st Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. p. 601-613. (1998). A courtesy by ABTCP.
f (In Portuguese)

Polpacao kraft do eucalipto com adicao de antraquinona, polisulfetos e surfactante. (Kraft pulping of Eucalyptus with the addition of anthraquinone, polysulfides and surfactant). F.G. Silva Jr. Adviser: Dra. L.H.I. Mei. Ph.D. Thesis. UNICAMP – State University of Campinas. 184 pp. (1997). (In Portuguese)

Potencialidades da selecao precoce de Eucalyptus urophylla em funcao da qualidade da madeira destinada a producao de celulose. (Potential of early selection of Eucalyptus urophylla as a function of the quality of the wood for pulp production). F.G. Silva Jr.; E.P. Braga. 30th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. p. 281-292. (1997). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Experiencias industriais da Votorantim Celulose e Papel na polpacao kraft com uso de antraquinona e surfactante. (Industrial experiences at Votorantim Celulose e Papel about the addition of anthraquinone and surfactant as aids in kraft pulping). F.G. Silva Jr.; A. Resende; E. Tonelli; J.T. Santos; A. Zolio. 30th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. p. 191-204. (1997). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Otimizacao do estagio Eop no branqueamento de polpa de eucalipto. (Optimization of the Eop bleaching stage for Eucalyptus pulp). F.G. Silva Jr.; A. Resende. O Papel (October): 68-72. (1997). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Qualidade da madeira de eucalipto para producao de celulose. (Eucalyptus wood quality for pulp production). F.G. Silva Jr. ABTCP/ESALQ. PowerPoint presentation: 25 slides. (1997). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

ECF bleaching sequences for Eucalyptus. J.C.G. Muner; F.G. Silva Jr.; L.N. Santos; A. Resende; E. Tonelli. TAPPI International Pulp Bleaching Conference. 02 pp. (1996). A courtesy by TAPPI.
(In English)

Conversion of the kraft process in soda-DDA (di-sodium salt of 1,4 - dihydro - 9,10-dihydroxy anthracene) for Eucalyptus. F.G. Silva Jr.; L.E.G. Barrichelo. TAPPI Pulping Conference. 08 pp. (1995). A courtesy by TAPPI.
(In English)

Conversao do processo kraft em soda-DDA (sal disodico de 1,4 dihidro - 9,10 dihidroxi antraceno) para madeira de eucalipto. [Conversion of the kraft process in soda-DDA (di-sodium salt of 1,4 - dihydro - 9,10-dihydroxy anthracene) for Eucalyptus wood]. F.G. Silva Jr.; L.E.G. Barrichelo. 28th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. p. 211-225. (1995). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Programa de qualidade da madeira da Votorantim Celulose e Papel - VCP. (The program for wood quality at Votorantim Celulose e Papel – VCP). F.G. Silva Jr.; J.C.G. Muner; C.F. Valle. 28th Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. p. 515-529. (1995). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Influencia dos cavacos de Eucalyptus dunnii sobre o processo de producao de celulose kraft de Eucalyptus grandis. (Influence of the Eucalyptus dunnii wood chips on the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus grandis). F.G. Silva Jr. O Papel (June): 19-21. (1994). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Conversao do processo kraft em soda-dda (sal di-sodico de 1,4-dihidro-9,10-dihidroxi antraceno) para madeira de eucalipto. [Conversion of the kraft process in soda-DDA (di-sodium salt of 1,4 - dihydro - 9,10-dihydroxy anthracene) for Eucalyptus wood]. F.G. Silva Junior. Adviser: L. E. G. Barrichelo. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 194 pp. (1994),fg-m.pdf (In Portuguese)

Avaliacao da qualidade da madeira de hibridos de Eucalyptus grandis x E. camaldulensis visando a producao de celulose. (Evaluation of the wood quality for hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis x E. camaldulensis oriented to the production of pulp). F.G. Silva Jr.; I.M.B. Gomes; L.E.G. Barrichelo; S. Oda. 7th Brazilian Forestry Congress. 05 pp. (1993). A courtesy by SBS – Brazilian Silviculture Society.
(In Portuguese)

Selection of Dr. Francides’s and his research team about other forest and agricultural raw materials for pulp production

Variacao radial das caracteristicas anatomicas, densidade aparente, teores de extrativos, lignina e holocelulose na madeira de Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) Macbr. [Radial variation of anatomical features, density, content of extractives, holocellulose and lignin in the wood of Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) Macbr]. E.L. Longui; I.L. Lima; F.G. Silva Junior; A. Bufolo; I.M.S. Suckow; S.M.B. Florsheim. Scientia Forestalis 38: 341-353. (2010) (In Portuguese)

Potencial da madeira de acacia para producao de polpa celulosica kraft. (Potential of the Acacia wood for the production of kraft pulp). T.E.S. Segura; M. Zanao; F.G. Silva Jr. XXI TECNICELPA/VI CIADICYP Meeting. 08 pp. (2010). A courtesy by Dr. Francides Gomes da Silva Jr.
(In Portuguese)

Qualidade da madeira de especies do genero Acacia plantadas no Brasil. (Quality of the woods from species of the Acacia genus planted in Brazil). G.S.B. Alencar. Adviser: F.G. Silva Junior. Ph.D. Thesis. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 132 pp. (2009)
(In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Perspectivas da biorefinaria na industria de celulose e papel. (Perspectives of biorefineries to the pulp and paper industry). F.G. Silva Jr. Madeira 2010. PowerPoint presentation: 35 slides. (2010). A courtesy by BESC Institute.
(In Portuguese)

Conceitos e tecnologias de cozimentos batch e continuos. (Concepts and technologies for batch and continuous cooking). F.G. Silva Jr. Seminar on Pulping Technologies. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. PowerPoint presentation: 51 slides. (2007). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Summary: Producao de polpa celulosica a partir de linter de algodao. (Production of cellulosic pulp from cotton linter). F.G. Silva Junior; M.G. Silva. XIV International Symposium on Scientific Initiation. University of Sao Paulo – SIICUSP. (2006)
(In Portuguese)

Producao de polpa celulosica a partir de engaco de bananeira. (Pulp production from banana stem). M.L.P. Soffner. Adviser: F.G. Silva Junior. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 70 pp. (2001)
(In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Quelantes polifuncionais como inibidores de corrosao de aco inoxidavel 304 nos filtros das etapas de branqueamento com peroxido de hidrogenio. (Polyfunctional chelating agents as inhibitors of corrosion on 304 stainless steel filters in the stages of bleaching with hydrogen peroxide). H. Vilca-Melendez; I.V. Aoki; O. Moraes; J.M. Almeida; F.G. Silva Jr. 33rd Annual Congress. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. 09 pp. (2000). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

The production of hemicellulases by aerobic fungi on medium containing residues of banana plant as substrate. R.G. Medeiros; M.L.P. Soffner; J.A. Thome; A.O.G. Cacais; R.S. Estelles; B.C. Salles; H.M. Ferreira; S.A. Lucena Neto; F.G. Silva Junior; E.X. Ferreira Filho. Biotechnology Progress 16(3): 522-524. (2000)
(In English)

Caracterizacao anatomica de madeiras nativas de matas ciliares do centro-oeste brasileiro. (Anatomical characterization of native woods from riparian forests located at center-western Brazil). J.E. Paula; F.G. Silva Junior; A.P.P. Silva. Scientia Forestalis 58: 73-89. (2000) (In Portuguese)

Avaliacao do beneficiamento do engaco de bananeira Musa sp. para producao de polpa celulosica. (Evaluation of processing the stalk/stem of banana tree - Musa sp. - for production of pulp). M.C.A.P. Soffner; F.G. Silva Jr.; J.O. Brito; L.L. Pereira. Seminar on Non-Conventional Pulping Processes. ABTCP/ESALQ. 07 pp. (1999). A courtesy by ABTCP.
(In Portuguese)

Purification and characterization of a low-molecular-weight xylanase produced by Acrophialophora nainiana. F. Ximenes; M.V. Souza; J. Puls; F.G. Silva Junior; E.X. Ferreira Filho. Current Microbiology 38(1):18-21. (1999) (In English)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus by Ester Foelkel

The Wood of Eucalyptus Used for the Construction of Bridges


The wood is part of mankind daily-life since the beginning of human development (Calil Jr. et al., 2006). The arrival of the latest technologies and the relevant environmental concerns have caused to occur a new search for more environmentally friendly alternative materials for using in homes, buildings, road networks, bridges, electricity networks, among other civil engineering works (Giuliano, 2009; Fonte, 2004; Gesualdo, 2003). Therefore, the use of the wood from fast-grown plantation forests, such as the environmentally certified Eucalyptus forests, is increasing considerably. In addition, most secondary roads in Brazil do not have asphalt coverage, and their bridges also present little or no concrete structures. These bridges, which typically have small or medium size, are mostly built on wood. Many of them were made by carpenters without preparing a prior required project or even by professionals without the proper qualifications in engineering construction on wood. In many cases, it was also utilized native forest timber with inefficient or absent preservative treatments. This made the life span of many bridges to be short, causing the population to have the erroneous idea that these wooden raw materials would not be too resistant or durable for larger buildings (Gesualdo, 2003; Abdalla, 2002). However, studies have demonstrated the potential of wood of some species of Eucalyptus: they are being applied to bridge construction and are considered a full reality. This has led to greater confidence and a gradual growth of opportunities for the Eucalyptus timber for this purpose (Giuliano, 2009).

According to Dias (2007) and Barboza (undated) a bridge is defined as a civil work which is intended to cross a barrier (usually water bodies) giving continuation to a transportation route, or better, joining one point to another. Fonte and Calil Jr. (2007) showed that there is a huge deficit and there is a great need for repairing many bridges of small and medium size in Brazil, most of them built with woods. The country depends almost exclusively on highways for driving its production and to supply the huge population. So, the knowledge of wood properties and the use of new technologies are essential to guarantee comfort and safety to the Brazilian economy in addition to the logistics processes.

Consequently, the goals of this technical article are to present the main advantages and disadvantages of using Eucalyptus wood in the construction of bridges, and the available types commonly found in Brazil, as well as the species of the genus that are mostly used for this function. The text also aims to provide knowledge about research findings that are related the use of Eucalyptus woods for bridges, as well as what could be done to solve the structural and conservative problems existing and accumulated over the years of continuous bridges utilization.

Advantages and disadvantages of the Eucalyptus timber bridges

Giuliano (2009) reported that the use of Eucalyptus wood to build bridges has many advantages. One of the most significant is that the environmental investment in net energy for obtaining the raw material is almost negligible when compared to concrete. This generates great energy savings and reduced fossil carbon emissions when using wood. In addition to be less expensive, the bridges of treated good quality timber, if properly designed and maintained, are to have good behavior and performance. They are definitively a great alternative to brickwork and concrete.

The Eucalyptus wood also makes its contribution for preserving the environment, since it can be planted and produced in sustainable ways. This is because timber of planted forests may be environmentally certified as renewable resources, managed properly and with minimum environmental impact. After the harvesting of the Eucalyptus forests, the area may be replanted or managed to ensure the supply of the raw material for future generations (Calil Jr. et al., 2006). Eucalyptus is currently one of the most planted trees in Brazil, fitting perfectly well to the environmental conditions of the country, which leads to rapid growth of the forests. Eucalyptus wood is available in essentially all regions of the country, ensuring appropriate acquisition costs. The stable supply of this wood on the markets also brings environmental benefits by reducing the use of wood from native forests, which are increasingly scarce and safeguarded by law. Another benefit is the easy workability and lower basic density of Eucalyptus wood, making it increasingly employed in bridge structures and other civil industry works.

The wood, even after the preservation chemical treatment, is not considered a contaminant to the environment (Mullin e Pedoja, 2003). Treatments for preservation are essential, especially in terms of extended longevity. Soriano and Mascia (1999) found that the main problems of the Brazilian wooden bridges are a lack of care and of maintenance repairs. Many of the bridges checked by the authors presented some kind of structural problems, such as rotting wood of the elements on their structures.

Fiorelli and Dias (2005) have assessed the conditions of the structural system of wooden bridges made with untreated Eucalyptus wood in the western Sao Paulo state region. Properties such as spans, dimensions, degradation and moisture levels were tested. Much of the unevenness of the bridges has been associated to the fact they had lack on conservation and absence of cup holders. Other identified non-conformities were found at headwaters, foundation (piles) and the stringers (beams).

Another major constraint in the use of wood bridges is the lack of knowledge, both about the Eucalyptus wood itself, as well as on expertise by technicians to the preparation of structural engineering projects in wood. This causes many of the bridges to be poorly sized, granting excessive load on them (Souza, 2004; Gesualdo, 2003). The wood, if well preserved, is even stronger than some materials, even to fire, and can bring economic benefits in the long term (Calil Jr. et al., 2006). However, wood, even after proper preservation, needs repairing and painting works. If this is regularly done, this material can have a life expectancy greater than 50 years (Calil Jr. et al., 2006).

Moreover, there is a real need to implement technological advances for promoting conservation measures and restoration of existing wooden bridges on secondary roads (Minnesota, 2011; Ribeiro and Goes, 2009; Calil Jr. et al., 2006). Another way to solve the problems of timber bridges is the creation of specialized training courses and other ways to transfer knowledge from recent research findings about the conservation of wooden bridges to engineers, architects, carpenters and the population in general, those who are bridge users as well (Minnesota , 2011).

Eucalyptus wood in bridges – properties and factors to deserve attention

Abdalla (2002) reported that the species of the eucalypt Corymbia (Eucalyptus) maculata, Eucalyptus paniculata, Eucalyptus punctata, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Corymbia (Eucalyptus) citriodora, when tested in the state of Sao Paulo, have presented ideal characteristics to be used in any type of structural construction work in civil engineering. In the case of Corymbia citriodora, some authors have also tested different harvesting ages for the forest. The average values of physical and mechanical properties of wood were different with respect to the harvesting age of trees (Sales apud Abdalla, 2002). Therefore, the use of Eucalyptus wood for use in structures can better be performed when there is a an adequate scientific study of physical and mechanical properties for each species, verifying the conditions for growth as well as the ideal age for harvesting and processing the wood (Oliveira apud Abdalla, 2002). The same author studied some mechanical properties of green wood at the breast height diameter (BHD) of Eucalyptus species. The results indicated excellent potential mainly for E. paniculata, E. tereticornis and C. citriodora to the function.

C. citriodora (lemon eucalypt) has been the species mostly studied and used for the construction of various types of timber bridges. Many studies have been performed around the world in search of the ideal conditions of Eucalyptus wood for building bridges. This has helped building confidence and awareness in the engineering teams which are responsible for timber bridges in many countries.

Mina and Dias (2008) performed a study about wooden stakes from C. citriodora to the structuring of short vain bridges. The mechanical properties were evaluated, such as compression and bending strengths of the wood samples without the presence of defects. Tests were also made about the performance of stakes when immersed in the soil. Both experiments demonstrated the potential of Eucalyptus wood as foundations for bridges.

Despite the many advantages of wood, we must remember that wood is a hygroscopic material, adapting to the existing moisture content in the environment, even after the preservative treatment. Thus, natural drying or re-wetting may come to happen, generating non-conformities in the wooden pieces. When there are high levels of moisture in the soil (a common situation on the banks of water courses), there is swelling of the wood (with later drying in dry season), corresponding to variation in its dimensions. This property can affect the potential of cargo load in the bridge. To solve this problem, usually they are added beams (steel) in the beginning of the bridge structures. Such a measure helps to retain the swelling or shrinkage of the structural part made in wood (Soriano and Mascia, 1999).

Moreover, when the Eucalyptus wood comes into contact with the ground, it becomes more sensitive to xylophagous fungi and insects attacks. Therefore, treatment of the wood becomes essential, with a number of allowed chemicals registered through MAPA (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply). Another very effective measure to protect the wood is by concreting the treated stake, the part that is stuck into the ground, leaving it protected against the action of detracting organisms (Dias, 2007).

Different environmental factors can also favor the non-treated Eucalyptus wood degradation, such as exposure to high temperatures, the sun and the presence of oxygen (Soriano and Mascia, 1999).

The durability of wood is not only determined by the preservative treatment but also the utilization of the bridge in accordance to its cargo capacity. Its proper use is also related to life durability. In addition, frequent maintenance should be performed to avoid future problems (Abdalla, 2002).

Types of wooden bridges

There are several structural systems that can be used on wooden bridges. According to Calil Jr. and Goes (2002) the most common systems are: beam bridges, plate or deck bridges, porched bridges, arched bridges, suspended bridges and cable-stayed bridges. The first two are the most used in Brazil. There are other forms of classification for wooden bridges. One is according to the type of the main raw material such as sawn-timber bridges, round-wood bridges, laminated wooden bridges and wood-concrete composite bridges (Abdalla, 2002).

The other category for classifying bridges is related to the technological age of the structural elements. This classification was created by Abdalla apud Almeida (2002) exclusively to the Brazilian wooden bridges. The first generation of bridges is the one that presents primitive and structural arrangements that leads to low durability because it has structural support columns in direct contact with moisture and water; and this type of manufacture undermine their links. The second generations has been built with greater concerns about the structure, but still retain some pathogenicity’s that jeopardize the durability. The third generation corresponds to the most modern bridges; they have all the structural requirements necessary for long life, safety and stability. They have constant use of new technologies and the study of wood properties, especially C. citriodora for the development of the bridge projects. Such measures make possible to have suitable structures with longer durability and higher quality levels.

By following the definitions given by Calil Jr. and Goes (2002), the main features of the bridges of Eucalyptus wood most used in Brazil are described in the following items: Bridges in beams; Bridges in plates/decks.

- Bridges in beams

This type of bridge presents as major element the beams, which are also known as stringers. They are responsible for the structure of the bridge, holding planks of lumber in its cross-section direction. The beams can be either round-wood or glue-laminated wooden beams, or even lumber, lattices, panels, among others. The bridges using round-wood are considered more rustic and cheaper because they use the format of the tree trunk itself to the formation of the beams. This ensures increased speed of construction and better utilization of the wood, which can be reused after the substitution the beams. Thus, the natural round-wood reduces transportation costs, manpower and industrialization, which brings economic and technical advantages for wooden bridges, making them more competitive in the markets. The round-wood needs to be free from defects and biotic attacks, and the most straight as possible in its longitudinal axis to form the beams. The Eucalyptus wood should be treated through preservative process with vacuum / pressure. The round-wood is placed in the same direction as the traffic of the vehicle wheels, supported at the ends, which guarantees the support and distribution of loads. Saw-timber pieces are nailed with self-screwing screws on the wooden beams to help the traffic of users. The beams can also be arranged in the form of wood trusses ("interlaced") with screwed connections or not. The trusses can increase stiffness, and allow easy modulation of bridges with prefab parts. The maximum span that bridges with round-wood beams may have is been reported as 12 meters. However, when we have beams with trusses, this may increase according to the used and engineered structure. These bridges are usually made for only one lane of vehicle traffic.

According to Soriano and Mascia (1999), a great percentage of the rural footbridges (pedestrian walkways) and secondary road bridges have stringers made of wood, often untreated. The direct exposure to moisture in the soil and rain water makes the environment propitious for the infection by fungi to detract the longevity of wood. Many bridges used for landscaping in gardens also show beams and have walkway shapes. They usually have only timber as raw material (Dias, 2007). For all these reasons, monitoring of these bridges of untreated wood should be done with frequency.

- Bridges in plates/decks

This type of bridges can use multiple structural systems. Of these, the wood- concrete decks are the most common, but are also frequent: pre-stressed boards and simple multicellular pre-stressed decks.

The following is a description of the main features of each, according to Calil Jr. and Goes (2002):

  • Bridges on mixed wood-concrete plates:
    In these bridges there are slabs of concrete which are attached to the structure of the wooden bridge. The concrete slab receives effort loads, making the bridge more rigid and resistant, while protecting the structural elements (beams, stakes, etc.) against abrasion, fire and from moisture and deterioration. The concrete slab is also able to absorb the vibrations of transport and acts as an acoustic insulation. Bridges in mixed wood-concrete slabs can support twice the cargo load and are three times more rigid than one made just from wood. The bridge board may have a mixed wooden beam shaped like a "T" to support the concrete slab or the latter can be coupled to an entire surface of layers of lumber. Round-wood logs, packed next to each other, can also support the concrete slab. The wood-concrete system is of two types: rigid or flexible. In the first, a glue or resin binds the two different materials altogether, avoiding even small movements. In the second type (flexible), there are connectors such as nails and screws to couple the two materials, ensuring more economy in this system.

    The wood beams receive metal shear connectors to support the bending developed by the concrete during the transit of cargo loads (Astori et al. 2006; Soriano and Mascia, 1999). These connectors prevent the vertical separation between wood and concrete, ensuring a safe traffic on the bridge. A layer of asphalt is used above the concrete, allowing better surface for the traffic of cars, avoiding cracks and, at the same time, generating an extra protection to the wooden structures of the bridge. Generally, bridges are built with mixture of these two basic materials: wood and concrete. However, the steel may also benefit the transfer of efforts, both in vertical and in horizontal direction.

    In Brazil, Souza (2004) recommended the utilization of concrete as an urgent measure to increase the load capacity of simple beam timber bridges. The wooden board can be replaced by reinforced concrete, giving increased rigidity to the bridges. To increase the sustaining potential of wooden bridges, steel beams have been interconnected with the wooden beams. This bridge had increased ability to support the traffic of heavy load vehicles (Wenceslau, 2009).

    Despite the fact that the expenses with concrete and steel are higher than the construction of a bridge entirely with wood, the benefits they offer can extend the life of the bridge in up to 3 times. However, everything needs proper conservation steps to be carried out periodically in the structures. This type of bridge is widely used in countries like Canada, USA, Australia and Switzerland (Soriano and Mascia, 1999).
  • Bridges on simple pre-stressed plates:
    Pre-stressing can be defined as the artifice of introducing in a civil structure, a previous state of tensions in order to improve its strength or its performance under the influence of the effort requests such a structure will suffer. The pre-stressed bridges emerged in 1976 in Canada when there was a need for adjustments of old nailed laminated wooden deck bridges. The wood was still in good condition, unlikely the nails, leading to replacement of nails by bars of high strength steel, which were responsible for the pre-stressing (Abdalla, 2002).
    In this system, the board has laminated wood disposed in axial direction, being the pre-stressing made through commercial lumber disposed in cross-sectional direction. The docking between the steel plates and the lumber is made through a set of anchor plates fixed to nuts and to other metal distribution plates. The pre-stressing is applied to steel and to the board thanks to hydraulic cylinders and the most common system used is "Dywidag" (

    The pre-stressed wooden bridges ( only started to be studied with more details in Brazil in the beginning of the 90’s (Fonte and Calil Jr, 2007). Laminated wood of Corymbia citriodora was used to build the first transversally pre-stressed bridge in South America. Fonte (2004) tracked the behavior of the bridge and through load tests, analysis of rigidity of the board, among other tests, concluded that the eucalypt wood was able to be used for the purpose.

    Another study conducted with tensioned laminated wooden board was published in 2007 by Lelles. The wood was originated from Eucalyptus sp. and the pre-stressing was done with steel bars. The author evaluated the potential of Eucalyptus wood in a system of pre-stressed bridges for highway and road utilization. Final tests were made to record the deflection on the longitudinal and transverse direction in relation to the traffic run. The results indicated a reliable pre-stressing, good enough to guarantee rigidity and stability of wooden board and bridge.

  • Bridges on multicellular pre-stressed plates or decks:
    These bridges are considered the wooden bridges that have the most advanced building technologies up to this time (Goes, 2005). They were developed in order to increase the vain of pre-stressed bridges, since the simple pre-stressed plates could reach a maximum of 9 meters span. In this way, a system of upper and lower blades connected to a central beam was created, being this central beam referred as the soul or vein. It may increase the stiffness of the board, allowing reaching up to 25 meters span. The center beam is usually made from reconstituted wood or high strength plywood both able to absorb high shear stresses. The main utilized panels are Glued Laminated Wood, Laminated Veneer Lumber and Parallel Strand Lumber. The plywood should be well glued in order to acquire the required dimensions of height and width.
    Goes (2005) commented that wooden sawn blades are laid one next to the other and subsequently compressed in the transverse direction by pre-stressing bars with high strength. This gives high strength and elasticity to the system. Despite the higher initial costs, the stability and the capacity to cover larger openings make this type of bridge a good selection by engineers in North America and in many other places (Goes, 2005).

Final remarks

The majority of the studies in technological development and academic research have proven the potential of wood of some species of Eucalyptus to the use in structural civil works, including the construction of bridges subjected to intense traffic of vehicles (Calil Jr. and Goes, 2002). However, the future use of this raw material for these functions depends on the transfer and acquisition of more knowledge by engineers, architects, designers, workmen and carpenters, especially regarding the performance of wood and the most appropriate structural designs for it.

The incentive for new research aimed at improvements in technology for development of new systems for timber bridges within the standards in force in each region should also be enhanced (Minnesota, 2011; Abdalla, 2002). To do so, cooperation between government, forest companies, research institutes, regulatory organizations and construction industry should be promoted and strengthened, in search of the dissemination in information, so that the bridges of Eucalyptus wood may be implemented in all parts of the world fulfilling their environmental, economic and social advantages.

The population must also be better informed about the benefits of Eucalyptus wood bridges, helping in its conservation and avoiding the overload of them by the inappropriate use in some specific situations.

References from literature and suggestions for reading

Following, please find some technical texts, reports, presentations and some scientific research results that address the use of Eucalyptus wood for making bridges. Some of these materials have been used as references for writing the present technical article.

Seminar "Stretch Wood Bridges". University of Concepcion. Chile. Presentations. Accessed on 31.05.2011:
(In Spanish)

USFS timber bridge manual.
Minnesota Department of Transportation. Accessed on 31.05.2011:
(Chapters of the manual made available in pdf format) (In English) (“Bridge home”, a webpage with several documents) (In English)

Verificacao de adequacao do projeto estrutural de pontes de madeira da regiao de Campo Mourao. (Finding the adequacy of the structural design of timber bridges in the region of Campo Mourao). W.F. Ribeiro; J.L.N. Goes. XIV SICITE - UTFPR. 04 pp. (2009)
(In Portuguese)

Pesquisa estuda a utilizacao de vigas de madeira como reforco para pontes. (Research studies the use of wooden beams as reinforcement for bridges). A.C. Contato; C. Venceslau; B. Assumpcao. Conexao Ciencia 6(68). (2009)
(In Portuguese)

Timber bridge deterioration issues and performance measures. J.P. Wacker. ASCE/SEI Enhancing Bridge Performance Workshop. USDA Forest Service. PowerPoint presentation: 22 Slides. (2008)
(In English)

Structural reliability of stress-laminated timber bridges. A.B. Cheung; M. Lindquist; C. Calil Junior. EWPA – Engineered Wood Products Association. 08 pp. (2008) (In English)

Brazilian handbook for the design and construction of timber bridges. C. Calil Junior. EWPA – Engineered Wood Products Association. 08 pp. (2008) (In English)

Estacas de madeira para fundacoes de pontes de madeira. (Wooden stakes for foundations of wooden bridges). J.S. Mina; A. A. Dias. Cadernos de Engenharia de Estruturas 10(44): 129-155. (2008) (In Portuguese)

Utilizacao de madeira de eucalipto de pequenas dimensoes na fabricacao de uma ponte protendida com madeira laminada colada. (Use of Eucalyptus wood of small dimensions in the manufacturing of pre-stressed bridge with a glued laminated wood). J.G. Lelles. Ph.D. Thesis. UFV – Federal University of Vicosa. 94 pp. (2007)
(In Portuguese) (In Portuguese)
(Summary) (In Portuguese)

2ª Competicao de pontes de madeira - Eucalipto. (2nd Competition on wooden bridges – Eucalyptus). UEPG – State University of Ponta Grossa. Youtube. Channel carolbm7. (2008)ídeo (Eucalyptus) (In Portuguese) (Pinus) (In Portuguese)

Modelo de ponte em arco usando LVL. (Model arch bridge using LVL). UFSM – Federal University of Santa Maria. Youtube. Channel gbflorestal. (2008) (In Portuguese)

Pontes para jardim. (Garden bridges). A. Dias. Blog Estruturas de Madeira. (2007) (In Portuguese)

Pontes protendidas de madeira: alternativa tecnico-economica para vias rurais. (Pre-stressed timber bridges: technical and economic choice for rural roads). T.F. Da Fonte; C. Calil Junior. Engenharia Agricola 27(2): 552-559. (2007) (In Portuguese)

Criterios de diseno para puentes con sistema de arcos de madera laminada y tablero tensado. (Design criteria for bridges with arches system made with laminated wood and tensioned panel). J. Marcus. CTT Madera – Center of Technology Transfer for Wood. 17 pp. (2007) (In Spanish) (CTT Madera website) (In Spanish)

Timber bridges. Technical guide. The Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety. France. 176 pp. 55 pp. (2006) (In English)

Manual de projeto e construcao de pontes de madeira. (Project manual to the construction of timber bridges). C. Calil Junior et al. LaMEM – Laboratory of Wood and Timber Structures. EESC – USP. 237 pp. (2006)
(In Portuguese) (In Portuguese)

Desempenho estrutural de ponte protendida transversalmente de eucalipto citriodora. (Structural performance of cross pre-stressed bridge manufactured with lemon Eucalyptus). T.F. Fonte; C. Calil Junior. Cadernos de Engenharia de Estruturas 8(33): 149-178. (2006) (In Portuguese)

Puente carretero de estructura mixta de hormigon-madera. (Highway bridge of mixed concrete-wood structure media). R.E. Astori; R.S. Barrios D’Ambra; L.E.F. Kostesty. Comunicaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas. Universidad Nacional del Nordeste. Argentina. 04 pp. (2006)
(In Spanish)

Experimental behavior of multicellular pre-stressed timber deck. J.L.N. Goes; A.A. Dias. EWPA – Engineered Wood Products Association. 04 pp. (2006) (In English)

Metodo para avaliacao da degradacao de elementos construtivos de pontes de madeira – estudo de caso na regiao oeste paulista. (A method for assessing the degradation of building elements of timber bridges - case study in western Sao Paulo state). J. Fiorelli; A.A. Dias. Revista Madeira Arquitetura e Engenharia 17(6): 1806-6097. (2005)
(In Portuguese)

Estudo de pontes de madeira com tabuleiro multicelular protendido. (Study of wooden bridges with pre-stressed multicellular deck). J.L.N. Goes. Ph.D. Thesis. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 184 pp. (2005)
(In Portuguese)

Estudo de estacas de madeira para fundacoes de pontes de madeira. (Study of wooden stakes for foundations of wooden bridges). A.J.S. Mina. Ph.D. Thesis. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 177 pp. (2005)
(In Portuguese)

Pontes protendidas de eucalipto citriodora. (Pre-stressed timber bridges made from citriodora lemon eucalypt). T.F. Fonte. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 145 pp. (2004)
(In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Pedestrian bridges and walkways. Design and construction guide. Southern Pine by Design. Southern Pine Council. 12 pp. (2004) (In English)

Estudos e aplicacoes de barras de aco coladas, como conectores em placas mistas de madeira e concreto para tabuleiros de pontes. (Studies and applications of glued-in steel rods on shear connectors in mixed wood-concrete deck bridges). J.C. Pigozzo. Ph.D. Thesis. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 384 pp. (2004)
(In Portuguese)

Bonitas, seguras e baratas. Novas tecnicas de construcao e tratamento quimico adequado tornam as pontes de madeira uma boa opcao ao concreto. (Beautiful, safe and inexpensive. New construction techniques and proper chemical treatment of wood bridges make a sound option to the concrete). S. Antenor. Fapesp Pesquisa Online. Edition 98. (2004)
(In Portuguese)

Utilizacao de estruturas mistas na recuperacao da capacidade de carga das pontes de madeira do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. (Utilization of composite structures in the recovery of the carrying capacity of timber bridges in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul). C.R. Souza. Master Dissertation. UNESP – Sao Paulo State University. 150 pp. (2004)
(In Portuguese)

Programa de investigacion de puentes de madera. (Research program in timber bridges). S. Mullin; E. Pedoja. XIV Congreso Nacional de Ingenieria Civil. 11 pp. (2003) (In Spanish)

Estruturas de madeira. (Wooden structures). F.A.R. Gesualdo. Class-room hand-outs. Federal University of Uberlandia. 98 pp. (2003) (In Portuguese)

Load testing of timber hardwood bridge beams. J. Laskewitz; C. Thomas. Low Volume Roads Conference. 14 pp. (2003) (In English)

Inspection of timber bridges. Final Report. R. Seavey; T. Larson. University of Minnesota. 55 pp. (2002) (In English)

Programa emergencial das pontes de madeira para o estado de Sao Paulo. (Emergency program for the timber bridges in the state of Sao Paulo). C. Calil Jr.; J.L.N. Goes. Minerva 2(1): 33-40. (2002) (In Portuguese)

Metodo de ensaio de ligacoes de estruturas de madeira por chapas com dentes estampados. (Method of testing of timber structures connections using plates with embossed teeth). L.T. Baraldi; C. Calil Jr. Estruturas de Madeira 18. 142 pp. (2002) (In Portuguese)

Analise de pontes de madeira protendidas transversalmente formadas por vigas-T. (Analysis of transversely pre-stressed wooden bridges composed by T-beams). N.M.P. Alves. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 157 pp. (2002) (In Portuguese)

Utilizacao de madeira de Eucalyptus em estruturas de pontes. (Utilization of Eucalyptus wood in bridges structure). A.C.P.B. Abdalla. Master Dissertation. USP – University of Sao Paulo. 135 pp. (2002)
(In Portuguese)

Puentes de madera con tableros tensados. (Timber bridges with tensioned panels). M. Giuliano; P. Dechent; L. Valenzuela; M. Salgado. 6th International Congress ProVial. Chile. 16 pp. (2002)
(In Spanish)

Pontes protendidas de madeira. (Pre-stressed timber bridges). F.S. Okimoto; C. Calil Junior. Cadernos de Engenharia de Estruturas 18: 25-48. (2001) (In Portuguese)

Estruturas mistas em concreto e madeira em pontes. (Mixed structures in concrete-wood for bridges). J. Soriano; N.T. Mascia. E-Civilnet. Revista Techne. (1999) (In Portuguese)

Utilizacao da madeira em construcoes rurais. (Using wood in rural constructions). C. Calil Junior; A.A. Dias. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental 1(1): 71-77. (1997) (In Portuguese)

Pontes protendidas de madeira: parametros de projeto. (Pre-stressed timber bridges: design parameters). F.S. Okimoto. Master Dissertation. UFSCar – Federal University of Sao Carlos. 196 pp. (1997)
(In Portuguese)

Pontes. (Bridges). A.S.R. Barboza. Course Structures in Concrete. Federal University of Alagoas. 06 pp. (Undated)
(In Portuguese)

Timber bridges in South America. C. Calil Junior. National Center for Wood Transportation Structures. 13 pp. (Undated) (In English)

La madera y tecnologia para la construccion de puentes en madera. (The wood and technology to build timber bridges). P. Castro. Construccion. Revista MM 48. 08 pp. (Undated) (In Spanish)

Pontes protendidas de madeira. (Pre-stressed timber bridges). F.S. Okimoto; F.A.R. Lahr. Revista Techne 51. (Undated) (In Portuguese)

Images about timber bridges (the websites of manufacturers and for sales of goods should be considered only for technical preview of technologies and products but not as commercial references):
(Wooden Eucalyptus bridges)
(Timber bridges)
("Ponte de Eucalyptus")
(“Ponte de eucalipto”)
& aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=6485l8813l0l2l2l0l0l0l0l297l593l2-2
("Ponte de madeira" + eucalipto)
(“Puente de madera” + Eucalipto) (Products. Arte eucalipto) (Lumara Timber)

Technical Article by Celso Foelkel

The Environmental Labelling and the Ecoefficiency as Vital Managerial Tools for the Construction of Sustainability in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Production Chain

Sustainability seems to be the word of the moment to be pronounced with emphasis and pride by entrepreneurs, managers, bankers, government officials and also by technical people of our mills in the pulp and paper industry. Due to the enormous visibility and opening about the subject that emerged during the past decade, many people in our plants began to believe that they are practicing sustainability and are located in peaceful and comfortable position on the sustainability roads as related to their businesses, industries and even at their homes. Also, a lot is being spoken and written about sustainability, whether in forums, events, television programs, books, magazine articles, etc. Also, much exaggeration exists about this, so much that the term "greenwashing" has emerged to indicate that there is also very inappropriate and improper green marketing, with false statements and actions about sustainability. This is so real that a recent survey by the consulting firm Kantar Worldpanel pointed out that most of the Brazilian population does not trust the sustainability actions announced by companies in this specific country. To 74% of interviewed people, the green campaigns, as displayed by the companies, lack on clear evidences of being true; while 35% of those surveyed find it difficult to believe in the corporate statements. Only 26% of those interviewed people trusted and valued the messages provided by the companies. The survey also showed that the major factor in causing distrust is the fact that Brazilians do not see the outcomes from the reported actions announced as sustainable. One has to believe or not, without having clear and objective evidences that the company really practices sustainability. Maybe the problem is not just communication, but real proofs and evidences that the actions for sustainability are indeed adopted and practiced by companies.

On the other hand, I have seen, with a certain apprehension, some industry leaders claiming that their companies are already very sustainable and have certifications to prove this fact, requiring no further efforts than they have done in recent times. They are usually referring to the certifications such as: forest certification (FSC or CERFLOR/PEFC), environmental management system (ISO 14001), corporate social responsibility (ISO 26000 and others), and occupational health and worker safety (OHSAS 18000). I am very happy and proud that many of our industry leading companies have already made this huge effort to get appropriate levels of sustainability in such a short period of time. The discipline and organization that certifications inject into an organization in terms of procedures, strategic targets and audits bring important gains in environmental and social performances, as well as in productivity and operating results. They can also help to demonstrate to the society that the company is striving to have policies and practices in search of sustainability.

However, dear friends, it turns out that sustainability is an endless process. We will never be 100% sustainable because the world and the society are continuously changing as a function of advances in science, knowledge, technology and population growth. This process is always being submitted to significant changes with alterations of criteria and performance indicators. So, even though we may stay nowadays in a prominent position in relation to indicators of sustainability, we will always have to keep focused on the road to sustainability, because we saw that this route never ends and the criteria amendments are common, frequent and necessary.

In this brief article, I would like to raise some few reflections to this important process of continuously seeking sustainability as an endless process with inexhaustible motivation to those involved. There are many thoughts and reflections that could be touched, but since I do not want to be too long, I will just focus on some of them: continuous improvement, ecoefficiency and voluntary certifications/environmental labelling.

The first of my thoughts is dedicated to our industry leaders and their commitments to sustainability. If they stay in an accommodate position and start to believe that what the company has made is good enough, they are to transmit this accommodation to their employees. This will reduce the positive pressure that everyone steadily needs in the company for better performances (continuous improvement), whether in terms of economic, social and/or environmental issues. The accommodation position will lead to worse and less sustainable performances, no doubt about this. We must always have a dissatisfaction with the today for working to conquer a better tomorrow – this has to be constantly, but without undervaluing what was so hardly gained as a result of the team work along the history of the company.

The second is of my recommendations is to adopt the practice of ecoefficiency in all operations, from the simplest to the most complex ones. Ecoefficiency is a simple and magic word to indicate that we can produce more and better, with lower consumption of raw materials, which are all natural resources. Being more ecoefficient, we are reducing impacts on the environment in all of the resources (physical/chemical, biological, anthropogenic, etc.). We are also to reduce wastes and pollution, and thus, the operating costs. I strongly believe in ecoefficiency - I have written much about this topic. In a next moment, as soon as I finish writing all the chapters on ecoefficiency (they should be 16 in total), I am to release through the Eucalyptus Online Book, I’ll offer to you a summary of my ideas about ecoefficiency in the pulp and paper sector with an article in a future Eucalyptus Newsletter. For now, if you give me the privilege of seeing what has been published till now on this topic, please, access the link: and

I also understand that it should be crucial to the managers not to become happy and fully satisfied with the achieved certifications. My suggestion is to always search for others, with additional levels of challenges. Certainly, provided these labels are granted through organizations with credibility, quality, value and public recognition. Environmental certifications and labels are important driving forces for motivating the entire company to reach them. For example, green stamps (eco-labels) are now available to be conquered by our industry. This is very valid to some types of papers, but unfortunately not available yet for all paper grades and even for market pulp. The great advantage is that the eco-labels constitute guarantees of improved environmental performance over the entire manufacturing process, covering the life cycle of the product. They are also promoting sustainable consumption to ordinary citizens, therefore, my enthusiasm for them. The pulp and paper sector needs to wake up more for voluntary environmental labelling - fortunately a few companies have already realized this.

Thanks to a unique, effective and determined initiative involving more than 3.5 years of hard-work from some motivated and tireless partners, Brazil is entering from the year 2011 onwards in the eco-labelling age to the papers manufactured in the country. Initially, the labels may be achieved by the copy and graphic papers and by some grades of tissue papers for hygienic purposes. We have international standards and criteria for these types of papers. ABNT - Brazilian Association of Technical Standards is bringing these criteria to local conditions. This is to provide the opportunity for local companies to strive achieving more sustainable performance and to demonstrate this to their customers through the conquest of the "ABNT hummingbird eco-label" to their products. Those companies exporting these types of papers are suggested to run for the achievement of eco-labels in countries or regions where they export to. Those who export papers to Europe are recommended to work for the "Flower eco-label" granted by the European Union. In the near future, the ABNT Brazilian eco-label will be internationally recognized through a process of mutual recognition (so is the case of the forest label CERFLOR - Brazilian Forest Certification System).

An eco-label for an end product, such as paper, is not just an environmental label for the wood or cellulosic fibers. It is also a guarantee that these paper products are manufactured according to criteria in much broader scope and analyzed throughout all manufacturing cycle, performing well in criteria as:

• the use of fibers sourced from forests that are certified or from recycled paper;
• the production of pulp and paper follows the best existing industrial practices;
• the attainment of the lower levels of industry water and air pollution loads, and the minimum generation and best management of solid wastes;
• the adoption of lower levels of energy consumption (thermal and electricity) in the manufacturing sector of the specific paper being labelled;
• the guarantee that the production has minimal generation of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide derived from fossil fuels;
• the commitment to ensure that hazardous chemicals to human health and ecosystems are not used in the manufacturing process (and that could thereby remain as residuals in the manufactured paper or effluents).

Furthermore, the granting of the eco-label is not for all of the manufacturers, just for the ones with the best environmental performance - this is definitely the difference - only the good ones in all items of the criteria will be able to receive and to market the conquered environmental label. This selection is achieved by continuous evaluation, updating and modernization of the criteria which applicants must be in compliance with. No doubt, something that several of our Brazilian companies producing paper can achieve, but not all, as already mentioned. Most likely, all applicants are to make some modifications and improvements in processes, methods and equipment’s, chemicals and fuels, etc. But, don’t you agree that the search for sustainability and the evidences that the operations are more sustainable will reward this effort?

In addition to the already mentioned factors, there are newcomers in the environmental scene, such as the ecological footprints, as the carbon footprint, water footprint, etc. New certifications, labels and indicators will emerge, for the better environment - the timing is clearly favorable to them. We have several other points to demand improvements such as energy efficiency, closed water cycles, waste recycling, minimizing generation of pollutants, etc. The volunteer labels and the third party certifications are strong drivers to the process of sustainability and for internal and external motivation in business. Likewise, it is the determination of our business leaders in keeping alive and active the process for the search of sustainability.

Speaking about determination, I would like to share with you my enthusiasm for having been participating as representative of ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, in the same way as our dear friend Mr. Afonso Moura, in the process for development of environmental labelling for paper products in Brazil. The same shall be reinforced about our motivated friends Mr. Antonio Jose Juliani (with his fundamental leadership in this well-managed process through SECEX - Secretariat for Foreign Trade - MDIC - Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade) and Mr. Guy Ladvocat (ABNT – Brazilian Association of Technical Standards). All the tasks, challenges and well-planned works were included within a project on environmental labelling that UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme created to encourage environmental labelling in developing countries. Along these few years, we had some difficult routes to be travelled, but that resulted in the success of the recently launched Brazilian eco-label for the copy and graphic papers, the green procurement of papers by the Brazilian government, and the conquest of the EU Flower label by Brazilian paper company. Furthermore, we had extensive involvement and participation in the project from a paper manufacturer company - International Paper do Brasil. This company and its top managers were able to glimpse, since the early beginning of this project, the chance of pioneering achievements in terms of eco-labels for the paper products they export to Europe.

All technical materials that were developed during this period are made available in this section as literature references. In this case, the new entrants in the process of environmental labelling may have an abbreviation to their way and thus have greater access to the knowledge about the Brazilian and European eco-labels.

Before placing my final point on these few reflections, I would like to reinforce the concept that the sustainability process never ends. We may be temporarily in good and appropriate conditions in terms of sustainability, but "we will not be sustainable" for very long if this quest is discontinued. This is perhaps the greatest virtue of this alive and permanent process - the demand for continuous improvement in search of a better future for everyone living in the planet. Let’s also remember that the future is always tomorrow, and yesterday, the past. And yet, that today is exactly the present moment, when we should do what must be done for not regretting tomorrow.

References in the literature and suggested readings on the topic environmental labelling for the pulp and paper industry

Rotulagem Ambiental - Projeto SECEX/Uniao Europeia/PNUMA. (Environmental labelling – Project SECEX/European Union/UNEP). MDIC/SECEX – Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
(In Portuguese)

Palestras sobre Rotulagem Ambiental / Speeches about Eco-Labelling. C. Foelkel; A.J. Juliani; G. Ladvocat; A. Moura. Website Grau Celsius. Accessed on 29.06.2011: (An event held on 2010) (In Portuguese)

I Oficina Regional de Rotulagem Ambiental para Paises da America do Sul / Mercosul. (I Regional Workshop on Environmental Labelling for Countries of South America / Mercosul). MDIC/SECEX – Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade. UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
(An event held on 2010) (In Portuguese) (An event held on 2010) (In Portuguese)

Curso de Capacitacao em Rotulagem Ambiental. (Training Course on Environmental Labelling). MDIC/SECEX – Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade. Brasilia. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
(An event held on 2010) (In Portuguese) (An event held on 2010) (In Portuguese)

Workshop Internacional sobre Rotulagem Ambiental. (International Workshop on Environmental Labelling). MDIC/SECEX – Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade. Accessed on 29.06.2011: (An event held on 2010) (In Portuguese)

Rotulo Verde Colibri da ABNT - Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas. (Hummingbird green label - ABNT – Brazilian Association of Technical Standards). Accessed on 29.06.2011: (Website environmental quality from ABNT) (In Portuguese) (Criteria documents under evaluation) (In Portuguese) (Considerations and text about life cycle thinking) (In Portuguese) (The seven sins on environmental labelling – “greenwashing”) (In Portuguese)
(ABNT eco-label for copy and graphic papers) (In Portuguese)

Eco-labelling printing & writing paper in Brazil. UNEP Eco-labelling project partners. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
& page_id=11EBFD61-6D1A-40A5-8A6B-309092CB0564
(Training modules – speeches and educational material) (In English)
(Project flyer) (In English)
(Speeches of the workshop which was held on June 2008 in Sao Paulo) (In English and Portuguese)

UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme. Eco-labelling. Accessed on 29.06.2011: (In English) (Project “Enabling Developing Countries to Seize Eco-labelling Opportunities”) (In English) (UNEP Project “Enabling Developing Countries to Seize Eco-labelling Opportunities”) (In English)
(Project library with several documents) (In English)

European Eco-label. European Commission. Green label "Flower". Accessed on 29.06.2011: (Website describing the EU Flower eco-label) (In English) (About eco-labelling copy and graphic papers) (In English)
(User manual for candidates to eco-labelling copy and graphic papers. Version 2011) (In English)
(About eco-labelling tissue papers) (In English)
(User manual for candidates to eco-labelling tissue papers. Version 2011) (In English)

Green Shop for the European Eco-label. Accessed on 29.06.2011: (Eco-labelled products catalogue) (In English)

Forum Internacional de Cooperacao Brasil-Uniao Europeia para Superacao de Barreiras Tecnicas. (International Forum of Cooperation between Brazil and the European Union for Overcoming Technical Barriers). Support Project for the international Insertion of Brazilian Small and Medium Enterprises – PAIIPME. Accessed on 29.06.2011: (Presentations of the event which was held in 2010) (In Portuguese) (Presentation Antonio Juliani) (In Portuguese) (Presentation Carlos Santos Amorim Junior) (In Portuguese) (Presentation Celso Foelkel) (In Portuguese) (Presentation Rodrigo Davoli) (In Portuguese)

Mitos sobre sustentabilidade nas empresas. (Myths about sustainability in business enterprises). HSM Web Portal. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
(In Portuguese)

Brasileiro nao acredita em acoes de sustentabilidade. (Brazilians do not trust on related actions about sustainability). Painel Florestal. Accessed on 29.06.2011:
(In Portuguese)

Sustainability and environmental issues in the kraft pulp industry. C. Foelkel. V ICEP – International Colloquium on Eucalyptus Pulp. PowerPoint presentation: 52 slides. (2011)
(In English)

Ten ways to green your paper. P. Riebel. Pulp & Paper International (January): 31-33. (2011) (In English) (In English) (Also available at Blog do Papeleiro) (In English)

O processo de certificacao do papel tissue, com base nas normas brasileiras. (The process of tissue paper certification under the scope of the Brazilian standards). A.C. Barros. I Latin American Symposium on Tissue Paper. ABTCP – Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. PowerPoint presentation: 25 slides. (2010)
(In Portuguese)

Brasil. Oportunidades para a rotulagem ambiental. Setor de celulose e papel. (Brazil. Opportunities for environmental labelling. Pulp and paper sector). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius Website. PowerPoint presentation: 48 slides. (2010)
(In Portuguese)
(In Portuguese)

Market information and eco-labelling roadmap package. Printing and writing papers from Brazil. D. Scheer; D. Speda. 54 pp. (2009)
(In English)

Projeto de cooperacao SECEX/UE/PNUMA-ECOLABEL. (Cooperation project SECEX/EU/PNUMA-ECOLABEL). A. Juliani. II Symposium on Qualifying and Certifying Information Technologies. PowerPoint presentation: 11 slides. (2009)
(In Portuguese)

Eco-labels. Challenges and opportunities. D. Scheer. Workshop Eco-labelling. UNEP/MDIC. Sao Paulo. PowerPoint presentation: 16 slides. (2008)
(In English)

Os eucaliptos e os selos verdes. (The Eucalyptus and the eco-labels). C. Foelkel. Eucalyptus Newsletter nº 13. (2008) (In Portuguese) (In English)

Brasil - Sustentabilidade na rede de valor do eucalipto. Floresta plantada a papel. (Brazil - Sustainability in the value network of the Eucalyptus. Planted forests to end-product papers). C. Foelkel. Workshop Ecolabelling. UNEP/MDIC. Sao Paulo. PowerPoint presentation: 59 slides. (2008)
(In Portuguese)

Brazil and eco-labelling: a new opportunity to the pulp and paper industry. C. Foelkel. Workshop UNEP/INWENT. Bonn/Germany. PowerPoint presentation: 42 slides. (2007) (In English)

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