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Good morning to all of you, my dear Eucalyptus friends,

Here we are again, with the 23rd issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. In this edition, as it is being usual, we are bringing a lot of information and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. We hope that this information may be useful to you and to the Eucalyptus. Remember that most of this knowledge we are sharing is being brought to our World Society for a better understanding about the Eucalyptus. The aim is to offer knowledge in a way that everyone may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this reason, we are forcing you, in some extent, to browse through the web to grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books and interesting events. I hope you may also, like me, admire these trees and the products they offer to the Human Society. Our goal is clear: to help our stakeholders to better understand the benefits that Eucalyptus offer to humans, as far as they are planted in proper conditions of Sustainability (and with personal and corporate responsibility). For this to happen in ever increased intensity, we always provide many suggestions, information and knowledge. The purpose is to raise the level of understanding and knowledge about the Eucalyptus, something absolutely necessary for the importance they play to humans.

This one is definitely a special newsletter edition, prepared with love, care and much respect and admiration. In it, we are rescuing with the help of friends and organizations, the origins of the Eucalyptus plantations for commercial use in Brazil. We will also be honoring distinguished and renowned persons, who have given the first steps for the Brazilian Eucalyptus plantation growth, particularly in the state of Sao Paulo. We will also be delivering for public access, and through this issue, several historical books of Edmundo Navarro de Andrade and his colleagues, also great personalities on plantation forestry: Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi. This offer to the World Society an absolutely historic opportunity, that has been made possible through the partnership between ABTCP; IPEF and Celsius Degree, and the support of several people, including the agronomist Alfredo Navarro de Andrade, as you will soon know along this edition.

Therefore, in the "The World of the Eucalyptus" section, we are telling about the state of Sao Paulo and how it became the cradle for the powerful development of the Eucalyptus plantation forestry in Brazil and all associated knowledge, allowing the amazing growth on forestry and utilization of these trees and woods, as well as spreading and irradiating that pioneering know-how "for the rest of Brazil". In particular, we have always to pay a tribute to the important historical and renowned Horto Florestal de Rio Claro ("Rio Claro Forest Farm"), today known as FEENA - "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest, a historic landmark in forestry, environment and anthropology that Brazil has on the own lands.

In addition to this and exactly for that reason, the Ester Foelkel's section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" tells us this time about "railway sleepers produced from Eucalyptus wood". This was one of the first aimed uses for the introduction of commercial tree plantations in Brazil. The former and also historical railway company known as Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro ( de_Estradas_de_Ferro), early in the 1900's, became the first and most important force to leverage the use of wood from plantations in the country. Paulista Railways Co. has supported the ideas and researches of the technical group headed by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade. The purposes for the plantations were to obtain wood to supply fuel to the locomotives and raw materials for wooden poles, fence posts and railway sleepers. These purposes were fully met by the Eucalyptus genus, with several species of trees planted by the Navarro de Andrade's forest team. Again, the Eucalyptus helping to reach results and achieve benefits to our society. And this is already happening in Brazil for more than a century.

Because of the enormous addition of technological knowledge made in Brazil and elsewhere in the world, Eucalyptus trees have fast become one of the main sources of wooden raw materials for industrial processes and for many in-home purposes. With their woods, fibers, essential oils and other substances extracted from them and from their forests, Eucalyptus plantations provide raw materials for power generation, papermaking, wood panels, furniture, pharmaceuticals, detergents, etc. These facts happen in many regions of our planet. Therefore, and again, our esteemed friend of the Eucalyptus, Gustavo Iglesias Trabado updated his "Eucalyptus World Map", placing it in the web and making it freely available to all stakeholders. You may find now the most updated version of the statistics of Eucalyptus plantations on Earth. This edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter again promotes this initiative coming from our dear friend Gus, who is always working towards improving the knowledge about the Eucalyptus.

Our mini-article in this issue could not tell you anything else than a short biography about "the pioneers of Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil: Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi". With a simple text, but with many references listed and offered for further reading, we're paying our tribute and due recognition to these outstanding persons in the world of the Eucalyptus forestry. These three gentlemen have been of utmost importance for helping developing the Eucalyptus plantations for providing benefits to the World Society. With their determination, motivation, skills and strong wish to overcome the difficulties and challenges, they have offered to us a cultural and environmental legacy, so that we could nowadays continue their work. Much of these achievements can be enjoyed on a visit to the "Eucalyptus Museum", which is located in the lands of FEENA - "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest, in Rio Claro, SP.

Also, there is much value to you browse within our traditional sections such as: Online Technical References, Euca-Links and Online Digital Magazines. At this newsletter edition, these three sections have been oriented to a strong link to Sao Paulo state and to the Eucalyptus pioneers.

I hope you may enjoy and like this edition selected themes.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal and INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing in favor of the Eucalyptus. Know more about all of our today’s partners and meet them at the URL address:

Thank you all for the support to our work. We have already exceeded our target of registered readers, when about 11,500 people are getting monthly these online publications about the Eucalyptus. Now, our goal for this year is to always keep that number above 10,000 readers actually receiving, opening and reading our publications. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, Botnia, International Paper do Brasil, KSH-CRA Engenharia, Suzano, Fibria and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Edition

FEENA - "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest

Eucalyptus Museum

The World of the Eucalyptus - Sao Paulo State - Brazil

Online Technical References - Historical Books about the Eucalyptus written by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus: Railway Sleepers made from Eucalyptus Woods - (by Ester Foelkel)


Online Digital Magazines

Eucalyptus World Map

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
About Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi

FEENA - "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest

When I set myself out to write something about the unforgettable Horto de Rio Claro (Rio Claro Forest Farm), today known as "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest, an area of environmental conservation and natural preservation in the state of Sao Paulo, I was divided between bringing something technical about the forest or to tell you about the emotions that this area adds to anybody, because of rich biodiversity and landscaping. The inhabitants of Rio Claro very well know this fact. After all, there are hundreds of people in the region, who every day visit the forest to interact with the natural environment, managing to practice sports, hiking, biking, running for fresh air and to relax the mind. In my case, the Horto Florestal de Rio Claro, as I first met in late 1966 or early 1967 - I do not remember the exact timing - meant the choice of my professional career. At that time, I was starting the undergraduate course in agronomy at ESALQ - College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz", in Piracicaba, only a few kilometers from Rio Claro. Since I was used to travel in the region to discover new landscapes, one day I decided to go to the Horto Florestal in Rio Claro for a visit. I was starting the second year of agronomy, without knowing exactly what would be my area of concentration: I was in doubts about swine farming, biochemistry, plant physiology, soil mineralogy - in short, they were all sciences that I was attracted for. However, a simple visit to the Rio Claro Forest Farm was enough to speed up my heart-beating and to allow me to elect forestry as my choice of expertise in agronomy. Definitely, a choice that I am proud to have made - a privilege this career. In addition to that early selection, at ESALQ, in its freshman year, we had lessons with one of the most renowned experts in forestry in Brazil, Dr. Helladio do Amaral Mello. This was enough to strengthen my vocation. The pieces of the puzzle finally fell into places for the composition of my professional career until today.

Just a couple of weeks ago, I was re-visiting the Rio Claro forest farm, together with my great teacher and friend Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo, partner in this project to rescue in digital format the historical books of Edmundo Navarro de Andrade and his team/friends. The emotions are huge in a visit like this, not just for someone like me who got a career born from that forest, as earlier mentioned. It's definitely a privilege to visit this forest area, see the thriving biodiversity in the ecosystems; the rich and diverse understorey growing alongside majestic Eucalyptus trees. All in perfect harmony and intriguing eco-environmental partnership. It's hard to imagine why some people still oppose so strongly trees as magnificent as the Eucalyptus ones. The FEENA is a living example that they are absolutely vital and dynamic part of Brazilian Nature. Moreover, the colonial farm that has housed these plantations, reveals a fascinating history of the period of Italian immigration, the colonial plantations of coffee, etc. There is still much historical value associated to the former owner - Paulista Railways, especially in the objects placed for visitors admiration at the Eucalyptus Museum and at the Solar (Edmundo's house - where he lived with his wife for 25 years). Surely, the emotional aspects are outweighed on top of the technical ones, very easily in an ecosystem like this.

In this past and recent visit, Mrs. Denise Zanchetta (director of FEENA) had the role to be our host, doing this with enormous affinity and motivation. The enthusiasm to talk about the forest and about Navarro de Andrade easily rose to the point that our initial goal in this project, which was to have 4 books in digital format, has grown to 10 - that is, all we had available at our libraries. There is much to be seen in that forest, such as magnificent trees and a lot of biodiversity in flora and fauna. Only the Eucalyptus species planted as forest stands are over 60, in stands ranging from 2 to 100 years of age. There are some species that are more abundant, more intensively planted, such as: Eucalyptus grandis, E.saligna, E.microcorys, E.paniculata, E.tereticornis, Corymbia citriodora and C.maculata. C. citriodora (29.9%) and E.tereticornis (11.9%) are today the species with larger planted areas. Two amazing things to be seen in FEENA are the so called "Collection of Eucalyptus Species" and also the "Arboretum". They are areas where Edmundo Navarro de Andrade planted side by side different species of Eucalyptus trees to evaluate their behavior in the region, as well as species of Brazilian native flora (at the Arboretum). Also, there is a "Collection of Pinus species". In fact, Edmundo had the target to maintain a living collection of genetic material to allow visitation, research and demonstration. On my first visit to the forest, about 40 years ago, I made a small collection of Eucalyptus fruits, grabbed from these collections, by picking sneakly up some stuff that was on the ground. I have these fruits till now, so they are with me for over 40 years. Another majestic view is the fantastic scenery which gives us an avenue of Corymbia citriodora old-trees, with its ancient trees with stout and twisted branches. An unforgettable sight. However, not only Eucalyptus trees exist there: they can also be found stands of Araucaria angustifolia, Pinus and some Brazilian native species. Naturally grown trees, shrubs and native grasses are abundant and diverse, living harmoniously with the Eucalyptus trees - a living demonstration of biodiversity that can coexist in these plantation forests.

The Rio Claro Forest Farm was acquired in various parts by the once important Paulista Railways. In 1909, exactly 100 years ago, Paulista acquired the first piece of land plus existing facilities, which consisted of some colonial designed houses and some historical buildings that correspond to the homes of the Italian immigrant farm-workers. The farming crop prevalent at that time was the coffee. As soon the farm in Rio Claro was acquired, it became the headquarters of the Paulista Railways Forest Service. There, the company built a small town for railway workers, brick kilns, deposits, and other required facilities for the success of socio-economic development at the time and place. Gradually, other tracts have been bought up to more than 3,100 hectares. However, over the years, some areas have been expropriated or sold, up to now to have the 2,230 hectares that make up the current FEENA. The actual collection of Eucalyptus species has greatly been reduced, as a result of the various philosophies and administrative changes, and other reasons (forest fires, etc.). Today, we have just over 60 species in plantations as stands, when originally, there is the mention that 144 were introduced.

A major benefit that the conversion of this forest farm into a Sao Paulo State Forest offers to the Brazilian people is that now this area is a conservation area protected by this state. The basic condition for an area to be converted into State Forest in Sao Paulo is that the area of environmental preservation must exceed 50% of the total. In this specific case, FEENA has 44% of the area being managed for purposes of commercial use and 56% being preserved by historical, cultural, environmental and biodiversity reasons.

The FEENA is now under the ownership of the Sao Paulo Institute of Forestry (; however, the administration and management are in charge of the Foundation for the Conservation and Forest Production of the State of Sao Paulo - Forestry Foundation, taken both as some of the most important environmental institution's in Brazil. Furthermore, there is an agreement with the municipality of Rio Claro, for it to take part as co-manager of the State Forest, aiming to increase tourist activities, leisure, cultural, environmental and historical aspects in the city of Rio Claro and region ( It is also important to highlight that part of the forest is also inserted in Santa Gertrudes municipality, which is also associated with these socio-environmental benefits. Since the Paulista Railways had many forest farms in the state of Sao Paulo to produce wood for their own use along the beds of the railroads, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade had roots that vigorously covered the entire state of Sao Paulo. For this reason, the city of Sao Carlos, near Rio Claro, has also a City Forest Farm open to the public - also called City Forest "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade"

As a special courtesy offered by Mrs. Denise Zanchetta, we got her permission to make public the Master Plan of Forestry Management, developed for FEENA, which was published in 2005 and is now being implemented in the forest management, as a guide. We have also searched the web to offer you more euca-links about FEENA. Thereby, we may all learn more about this precious gem that exists in Brazil. It is up to us Brazilians to ensure that this great heritage be saved and preserved - more than this, to result in continuous benefits to our Society and to the environment. Whether or not in some past times in the history of our country, this forest farm has been overlooked by some business, political and public people and by citizens, now we cannot let that it happen again. Neither the forest-based sector can stay away from this process of conservation of this heritage, neither the ordinary citizens. This is a unique richness about the Eucalyptus and the environment that we have in our lands. It's time to move, and fast. The Eucalyptus and the environment demand it. The people of Rio Claro, too.

Know more about the "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest, that in this specific year of 2009 completes its first century since it was created in Rio Claro
(, visiting the following references:

Plano de manejo da FEENA - Floresta Estadual "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade". (FEENA - Master plan of forest management). IE - Instituto Florestal de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo Forestry Institute) and Forestry Foundation - Foundation for the Conservation and Forest Production of the Sao Paulo State. Relevant excerpts. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Floresta Estadual "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" - Unidade de conservacao e de uso sustentavel.
(FEENA - Conservation unit and sustainable use). IE/FEENA technical staff. PowerPoint and PDF presentation: 27 slides. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Conhecendo a floresta. 100 anos de existencia. Centenario do Horto Florestal de Rio Claro.
(Knowing the forest. 100 years of existence. First centennial anniversary of FEENA). C.S. Daher; D. Zanchetta; F.H. Sampaio. J.O. Noale; L.C. Moura; R.J. Camarinho; S.R. Christofoletti. Forestry Foundation/Institute of Forestry. 65 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Horto Florestal Edmundo Navarro de Andrade. (Rio Claro Forest Farm). Wikipedia Digital Encyclopedia. Accessed on 24.09.2009 (in Portuguese) (in Spanish)

A introducao do eucalipto no Brasil completa 100 anos.
(The introduction of Eucalyptus in Brazil celebrates 100 years). Augusto Jeronimo Martini. Canal Rio Claro. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

A trajetoria do eucalipto. (The trajectory of Eucalyptus). Augusto Jeronimo Martini. Canal Rio Claro. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Um pouco mais sobre meio ambiente, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade e a Floresta Estadual.
(A little more about the environment, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade and the State Forest). Augusto Jeronimo Martini. Canal Rio Claro. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese) (Part 1) (Part 2)

Sinopse historica da Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro. (Historical synopsis of Paulista Railways Company). Joao Baptista Soares de Faria Lago. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade. (Navarro de Andrade Forest Farm in Rio Claro). Marco Aurelio Alvares da Silva. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Floresta Estadual Edmundo Navarro de Andrade - Rio Claro. ("Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" State Forest - Rio Claro). Sao Paulo State Forestry Institute. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Um pouco da historia... (A short history...). Visite Rio Claro. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Pontos historico-culturais da Floresta. (Historical and cultural points of the State Forest). Jornal da Cidade. Rio Claro. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Amigos do Horto - Rio Claro. (Friends of the Forest Farm - Rio Claro). Associacao Amigos do Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade. Friends of the Horto. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

A Floresta Estadual Edmundo Navarro de Andrade como um espaco de contradicoes : entre a memoria e o esquecimento. (The "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" State Forest as a room for contradictions: between memory and negligence). L.A. Joinhas. PhD Thesis. UNICAMP - State University of Campinas. 224 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Images of the "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" Sao Paulo State Forest:

Google images:

Flickr images:

Friends of the Horto - NGO images:

Pictures by Celso Foelkel, Luiz Ernesto Barrichelo and FEENA staff: (FEENA - Administrative areas) (FEENA - Forest ecosystems)

Eucalyptus Museum

The Eucalyptus Museum is one of the treasures found in the areas of "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" State Forest. This is a large colonial-style pavilion that was gradually increased and converted into a museum since 26/03/1916. Its purpose has been to house examples of practical applications, local biodiversity, documents, various types of printed materials and numerous and diverse products that were made from Eucalyptus woods and trees. The idealization of this museum project arose from the need noted by Navarro de Andrade and his forestry staff (and also by Paulista Railways executives) to present the Eucalyptus to the Brazilian people. It was very large the number of questions, doubts and visits from local people wondering to know more about these trees, which according to Navarro de Andrade were intended for any purpose. As there were still some criticism about these plantations (which competed with agricultural and grazing cattle lands) and since users were also misinformed about the potential of these woods, Paulista Railways supported once again the Edmundo's creativity in the construction of the museum. In fact, the museum was, at that time, more a kind of demonstration field for the products and applications of Eucalyptus, than a real museum for the storage of historical things from the past. That's why it could be defined as a living and interactive museum, which had constantly new additions as new uses of the Eucalyptus woods were being developed. In addition, the museum had also the mission to introduce the Paulista Railways to visitors, its history and achievements. The whole museum building is heavily filled with products made from wood of several species of Eucalyptus and Corymbia: floors, windows, ceilings, doors, poles, railway sleepers, furniture, handmade ornaments, shelves, etc. There are also industrial and commercial products manufactured from Eucalyptus, both used by the former Paulista Railways, and other industrial products, including paper. Visitors were encouraged to touch and handle the pieces of wood to feel their textures, their densities, resistances, etc. The Paulista, as the company was called, had in the Eucalyptus wood the required raw material to power the ond-fashioned steam locomotives ( and also for using in railway sleepers, fence posts, poles, buildings and houses, etc. In addition, the museum presents several practical aspects of forest plantations, forest harvesting, pests and ants control, and a section on seedling production (including an old-designed machine for manufacturing "torrao paulista", a type of prehistoric container to plant seeds to grow seedlings). You also may find several references and examples of regional flora and fauna of Brazil. A kind of interactive class attendance to the many students who every day visit these facilities.

Navarro de Andrade and his staff have always been very demanding on diversification of uses, testing the full potential of many species of Eucalyptus. The "Collection of Eucalyptus Species" (1919) and the "Arboretum" (1937 - with over 200 plant species) were implanted for comparison and demonstration purposes. These collections still exist as living museums of Eucalyptus in Brazil. In this forest farm, 144 species of Eucalyptus and Corymbia were tested - some were unable to adapt, but most still show their majesty to the curious visitors. Navarro de Andrade was always enchanted with the differences of colors, designs, resistances, densities and other characteristics of these woods. He always had the aim for the best potential use, whether it would be as firewood, charcoal, paper, furniture, ceilings, construction material, etc. There is a historical paper reel in the museum, corresponding to some of the first papers produced from Rio Claro Eucalyptus wood. You may find also copies of the newspaper "O Diario de Sao Paulo - Sao Paulo Daily" - edition of 19/05/1934 - made from a paper containing Eucalyptus fibers in the pulp composition.

All of these amazing collections deserve to be seen, admired and preserved because they are cultural and historical legacies to the Brazilian forest-based sector. With this in mind, the current administration of the museum created a "time capsule", containing relevant historical documents from FEENA and the city of Rio Claro. This capsule was buried in September 2009, only to be opened 100 years ahead. That is, at the time FEENA will complete its second centennial anniversary. This capsule will rest for 100 years next to Edmundo's statue, in front of the museum building. It's up to us, people of this vast Brazilian country, to help conserve all this heritage in order to perpetuate the whole story for many centuries more.

Next to the building that houses the museum, there is also another historic building, which could very well be said that it would be an important annex of the museum. It is known as Solar, or the "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade's Home", where he lived for 25 years with his wife Angelita Navarro de Andrade. This house, in colonial style, was the main building of Fazenda Santo Antonio. It was used to house the former owners of the farm, people of noble origin and belonging to the Sao Paulo coffee planters elite. Today, the Solar houses an important collection of furniture, books and photographs. In Solar, everything that is taking some space has something to do with the Eucalyptus - furniture, books, shelves, ornaments, pictures, telephones - an enormous richness and diversity of products derived from the Eucalyptus.

Other precious gems that FEENA has, but that are not part of the Museum (but that might well be) are the "Herbaria of Eucalyptus Species", with hundreds of unique preserved specimens. One of these herbaria (with 95 species) was a gift from famous New South Wales Eucalyptus-researcher, Dr. Joseph Henry Maiden ( Dr. Maiden received Edmundo in Australia in 1913 for a type of training and he became fascinated with Edmundo's knowledge and enthusiasm to the mission he was playing in Brazil. In the remaining of these herbaria, hundreds of specimens were produced from material collected from the various Eucalyptus forest farms in Sao Paulo state and in other regions of Brazil by the technical personnel of the Paulista Railways Forest Service. There are also other species in the herbaria, such as native species from Brazil, Pinus, etc. Some of the best herbaria in the country. As a suggestion to the FEENA management, I recommend to have these herbaria placed online through the web. Something to help the Brazilians and the Eucalyptus world.

A clear conclusion from all those visiting FEENA as a whole is that Edmundo was not just a renowned agronomist, who successfully developed the silviculture of Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil oriented to many industrial uses. He did all this, but with great passion and vigorous enthusiasm, with great love and competence. He tried, in every way he had at the time, to communicate to the Brazilian society the benefits that could be obtained from these wonderful trees. In case we could have Edmundo living today with us, with the available facilities of the media, he certainly would teach us a lot with his passionate way to do things and to promote his truths. Much more than a pioneer, I see in Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, one of the most talented and determined innovators I've heard in our industry. A great pity that I cannot meet him in person.

Know more about the Eucalyptus Museum and the Solar through these selected reference and image collections:

Museu do eucalipto: as mil e uma utilidades do eucalipto mostradas em um museu de Sao Paulo. (Eucalyptus museum: the one thousand and one uses of the Eucalyptus are proved in a museum in Sao Paulo state). Joao Teixeira. O Papel (August, 2002). (in Portuguese)

Museu do Eucalipto. (Eucalyptus Museum). Marco Aurelio Alvares da Silva. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Images of the Eucalyptus Museum and the Solar where Edmundo Navarro de Andrade lived in FEENA, Rio Claro / SP - Brazil:

Google images:
(Eucalyptus Museum)
(Edmundo's house or Solar)
(Edmundo's house or Solar)

Flickr images:

Pictures by Celso Foelkel, Luiz Ernesto Barrichelo and FEENA staff: (Eucalyptus Museum) (Solar or Edmundo Navarro de Andrade's home)

The World of the Eucalyptus

Sao Paulo State - Brazil

The state of Sao Paulo is the main economic powerhouse in Brazil. This is due to the dynamic and modern industry and competitive agro-business;; to the impressive networking of services; to the hard-working people it houses; to the universities and qualified research institution's; to the special infrastructure (ports, airports and mainly roads), and so on. For these reasons, virtually all large Brazilian companies choose to have headquarters or commercial offices in Sao Paulo. Also, Sao Paulo houses hundreds of technical and business associations, unions, consulting and engineering firms, etc. Sao Paulo is definitely the nervous center of Brazil, either economic, educational and intellectual.

In an area of 248,3 square kilometers lives a population of around 40 million inhabitants. In the metropolitan area of the state capital, the "Great Sao Paulo city", there is an estimate of between 16 and 18 million people living and working. One could say that Sao Paulo has economic dimensions and the population of many countries of our planet.

Sao Paulo industry is thriving in almost all sectors, as well as is the forest-based industry. This last stands out in particular with the production of pulp and paper, furniture, wood panels and fiberboard, wood products with higher added value (frames, floors, ceilings, windows, etc.), essential oils, rubber, etc. Equally strong is the agro-business, which has sugar cane, orange, soybean, fruits and vegetables, coffee and livestock as some of the most impressive numbers. Plantations of Eucalyptus, Pinus and Hevea brasiliensis also are outstanding. Sao Paulo has now a total forest cover of 4.6 million hectares, which equals to 18.5% of its land area. From this total, about 1.2 million hectares are planted forests - Eucalyptus (935,000 hectares), Pinus (298,000 ha) and rubber-tree (77,000 ha). That is, the total area of plantation forests is equivalent to 4.8% of the state territorial area. We must add on top of this, the significant preservation area of natural forests owned by the forest-based sector, which is without any doubt one of the greatest preserved areas of natural resources in the state.

Sao Paulo is now the second largest producer of planted forests in Brazil, only behind the state of Minas Gerais, which has 1.43 million hectares (Eucalyptus in MG = 1,28 milion ha and Pinus = 145.000 ha). About 26 million cubic meters of logs are harvested each year from the plantation forests to supply wood to the industry, to biomass power-boilers, as well as smaller businesses that depend on firewood (restaurants, potteries, bakeries, etc.). The largest consumer is the pulp and paper industry, which consumes 65% of the grand total. Besides the industrial use, it is significant the consumption of wood for power generation in biomass boilers. It is estimated that this represents about 11 million cubic meters of firewood. It also deserves to be emphasized the production of Eucalyptus leaves (13,200 tonnes) for the production of essential oils. For this use, the main species is Corymbia citriodora, which yields between 10 to 18 kg of essential oil per ton of distilled leaves. In this oil extract, the content of citronellal corresponds to 65 to 88% (

The state of Sao Paulo ranks also as the largest Brazilian producer of natural rubber from rubber-tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis). There are huge expectations for rapid growth of rubber-tree forest plantations in the northern state of Sao Paulo

The main destination of Eucalyptus plantations in Sao Paulo is for the production of pulp and paper. Sao Paulo is the largest Brazilian producer of white paper for printing and writing purposes (1.97 million tonnes in 2008, ie - 69% of the country production). It also produces several types of specialty papers, packaging papers, cardboard, tissue papers, etc. Thus, the state share in the production of all types of paper in Brazil is 43%. In bleached hardwood pulp, it corresponds to 34%. Numbers that are definitely significant.

It is perfectly possible to say that thanks to the plantation forests, the state of Sao Paulo meets its domestic demand for timber, wooden-based manufacturing products, and local demands for various other forest products. It also generates surplus to export to other Brazilian states and foreign countries. This results in the creation of jobs, income, wealth and happiness to people. As a consequencet, the planted forests are fundamental issue for the economy and welfare of the population.

All this forestry activity began just over a century ago, when the first Eucalyptus plantations were successfully tested by Paulista Railways Co. in Jundiai, and soon after, in 1909, at the the Rio Claro Forest Farm, known today as "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" State Forest.

Paulista Railways Co. had a huge consumption of wood for fueling steam locomotives, and to produce sleepers and fence posts. The estimates for that time were that about 600,000 m³ of roundwood/year were needed as firewood and 1,000,000 sleepers required per year. Besides Paulista Railways, there were other railways with the same high wood consumption rates in the state: Mogiana, Sorocaba, Noroeste, Bragantina, Central do Brasil and Santos-Jundiai. To meet all this demand for wood, an annual harvest of 35,000 hectares of native forests were needed. Moreover, the native forests were becoming more distant from the consumers. The wood supply model had to be changed, and fast.

With this tremendous threat and huge forest products demand, a new forest process was born in Brazil, having the state of Sao Paulo as the birthplace. Thus motivated, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade embraced the cause of planting forests in Sao Paulo. First, through Paulista Railways Co., and soon after, for the entire state of Sao Paulo. This because, in 1911, the State Government decided to streamline the State Forest Service, a body linked to the Secretariat of Agriculture at the time. Navarro de Andrade was named superintendent for that body. This enabled Edmundo to work his project to plant Eucalyptus trees in both Paulista Railways and together rural farmers in the state.

Edmundo Navarro de Andrade strongly emphasized the economic aspects of forestry during his time as State Forest Service superintendent, offending with this policy some more scientific researchers, as Alberto Loefgren, which had important role in scientific research at the Botanical Institute of Sao Paulo. This has not intimidated Edmundo, who was always very determined. He was also in accordance with the dominant state political forces to accomplish his mission, in which he had a strong belief of the value. It is reported that Navarro de Andrade was responsible for planting nearly 24 million Eucalyptus trees in the state of Sao Paulo, which has given to him the label of "the father of Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil". Sao Paulo plantations served as an example to other Brazilian states, such as Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. Soon, there were Eucalyptus planted throughout Brazil. The initial well-succeed species were: E.saligna, E.grandis, E.botryoides, E.viminalis, E.tereticornis, E.robusta, E.urophylla (E.alba "Rio Claro"), E.paniculata, Corymbia citriodora, Corymbia maculata, E.camaldulensis, E.pilularis, E.propinqua, E.microcorys, E.triantha, E.punctata, among others. At that time, there was also the knowledge about hybridization. The hybrid "Eucalyptus paulistana" was developed, which was referred as a natural hybrid of Eucalyptus globulus and E.robusta.

By knowing this brief history, we can conclude that the cultivation of Eucalyptus was introduced precisely to meet the demand for wood that was missing in the state of Sao Paulo. With the reforestation program, the natural resources, already so degraded by the cycles of coffee and sugar cane, could be preserved and conserved as a natural heritage. The way to sustainable development has early been discovered in Sao Paulo.

Till early 1960s, the estimates provide inaccurate numbers that are not very definitive in the areas of planted Eucalyptus in Brazil. There was the belief that by that time 80% of the Brazilian Eucalyptus plantations were located in the state of Sao Paulo. It is estimated that in Sao Paulo state there were something between 400 to 600 thousand hectares of Eucalyptus plantations at that time. Paulista Railways had 18 forest farms with total area of 24,387 hectares and about 42.6 million Eucalyptus trees (data from 1957). The difference is exactly the proof of success for the promotion and motivation for others also to plant Eucalyptus trees in the state. From its own Eucalyptus plantations, the Paulista Railways Forest Service had supplied, until December 1957, a total of approximately 6.65 million cubic meters of firewood. Also they have placed on the market nearly 36 thousand kilograms of selected and improved Eucalyptus seeds to leverage the plantations in Brazil.

Due to the great demand for wood to feed future industrial projects, the Brazilian Federal Government promoted, from 1966 till mid-80's, a program of fiscal incentives for reforestation to increase the area of plantations and to raise the offer of wood. From that time until now, Brazil has increased its planted area to about 3.8 million hectares of Eucalyptus forests. These millions of trees that currently exist in all states of the country are offering their fibers, leaves, woods and barks for the people of the Brazilian nation for household, industrial and energetic consumption.

The main and most outstanding success was the Eucalyptus bleached pulp and paper manufacturing industry. This "Brazilian invention" started with tests at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, with material carried by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade in 1924, and completed studies by 1925. Several companies started to use the Eucalyptus fibers from 1930 onwards, such as: Gordinho Braune, Cicero Prado, Melhoramentos, Suzano, Simao, etc. Cia Suzano de Papel e Celulose is one of the pioneers in the world to produce bleached kraft pulp, and soon after, white printing paper containing 100% of Eucalyptus bleached fibers as fibrous raw material. This historic fact happened from the mid 1950's to early 1960's

All these historical facts were coming together magnificently, allowing the construction of a successful and sustainable forest-based industry, which has been converted into a paradigm of success and achievements in Brazil. This path of success began with planted forests for firewood and railway sleepers, evolved to produce pulp and paper, fiberboard, wood panels, etc. Today, the result of this road is that almost all the country's wood products contains some Eucalyptus. Just as dreamed and preached by Dr. Edmundo Navarro de Andrade.

In addition to the below mentioned literature references, practically all references and euca-links provided in this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter are related to the state of Sao Paulo and the history of Eucalyptus in its early years as plantations in Brazil. One newsletter issue that aims to help to perpetuate this wonderful story. It consists also in a way to disclose to Brazilian Society about our history, achievements and developments. And also, about our aspirations to continually seek the sustainable development road, something that has also been pursued by Edmundo and his team, even without knowing the meaning of the word Sustainability.

References of literature and suggestions for reading:

Relatorio estatistico BRACELPA 2008/2009.
(2008/2009 BRACELPA Statistics Report). BRACELPA - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Association. 58 pp. Accessed on 02.10.2009. (in Portuguese)

Eucaliptocultura. (Eucalyptus planting). Cia Suzano de Papel e Celulose. Accessed on 25.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

O eucalipto no Brasil.
(The Eucalyptus in Brazil). Minas Gerais State House of Representatives. Accessed on 25.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Papel com celulose de eucalipto.
(Paper and pulp from Eucalyptus). Inventa Brasil. A Gallery of Brazilian Inventors. Accessed em 25.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Valor da producao florestal do estado de Sao Paulo em 2008. (The value of the 2008 forest production in Sao Paulo state). E.P. Castanho Filho; P.J. Coelho; J.A. Angelo; L.F.C.A. Feijo. Informacoes Economicas 39(6): 89 - 93. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Anuario estatistico da ABRAF: ano base 2008. (2009 ABRAF Forest Statistics Yearbook: base year - 2008). ABRAF - Brazilian Association of Planted Forest Producers. 129 pp. (2009) (in Portuguese and English) (in Portuguese) (in English)

Producao da extracao vegetal e da silvicultura 2007. (2007 Report - Production of the plant extraction and silviculture). IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 45 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Estudo setorial ABIMCI: ano base 2007.
(ABIMCI Sectorial Study - Base year 2007). ABIMCI - Associacao Brasileira da Industria de Madeira Processada Mecanicamente - Brazilian Association of the Mechanically Processed Wood Industry. 56 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Fatos e numeros do Brasil florestal. (Facts and numbers of the Brazilian forestry). SBS - Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura - Brazilian Society of Silviculture. 110 pp. (2007) (in Portuguese)

O eucalipto - Um seculo no Brasil
. The eucalypt - a century in Brazil. L.R.S. Queiroz; L.E.G. Barrichelo. Duratex/Ministerio da Cultura. 132 pp. (2007) (in Portuguese and English)

Os eucaliptos no Brasil.
(The Eucalyptus in Brazil). C. Foelkel. Eucalyptus Newsletter # 05. (2006) (in Portuguese and English) (in Portuguese) (in English)

Melhoramento genetico dos eucaliptos. (Eucalyptus forest tree breeding). M. Ferreira. Revista Opinioes. March/May. (2006) (in Portuguese)

A genese da agricultura e da silvicultura moderna no Estado de Sao Paulo
. (The genesis of the modern agriculture and silviculture in the state of Sao Paulo). M.R. Ferraro. Master Dissertation. ESALQ/USP - University of Sao Paulo. 120 pp. (2005) (in Portuguese)

A contribuicao do setor de sementes do LCF/IPEF para a silvicultura intensiva brasileira. (The contribution of the LCF/IPEF seed supply section to the highly intensive silviculture in Brazil). M. Ferreira. IPEF 46: 08 - 31. (1993) (in Portuguese)

Ligeiras notas historicas e estatisticas. (Historical and statistical short brief notes). Forest Service. Paulista Railways Co. 11 pp. (1958) (in Portuguese) (You may find a copy to borrow from)

Online Technical References

Historical Books about the Eucalyptus written by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi

The agronomist Edmundo Navarro de Andrade (1881-1941) was definitively a great Brazilian, author of one of the greatest achievements for the economy, science, technology and to the Brazilian Society. By studying with determination, technical skills and great passion the Eucalyptus for planting and managing them in fast-growing forests in the country, he was able to develop a creative and pioneering forest plantation activity in Brazil. This started as early researches in Jundiai/SP, in 1904, and then in Rio Claro/SP, 1909. He placed in fertile ground the seeds for the success of the current Brazilian silviculture forestry. Now-a-days, the Eucalyptus plantations produced and managed in Brazil are the most productive in the world, thanks not only to genetics and adaptation of these trees to regional conditions, but also a lot depending on people, who have diligently dedicated themselves to study, research, optimize , innovate and develop technologies for achieving such high productivity and sustainability.

However, Navarro de Andrade has not placed emphasis on just achieving a great success in his professional career as a well-succeeded agronomist. He had also to prove that his ideas were feasible and with good level of sustainability (at that time, with other names and words). In addition, he had also to promote and encourage new partners for production of wood to supply the Paulista Railway Co. (, heavily demanding for wooden raw materials and wood/biomass energy. Therefore, besides creating an Eucalyptus Museum, in Rio Claro, to promote the planting and the uses of Eucalyptus woods, he looked to all the advantages of the Eucalyptus to convert these magic trees into benefits to Society. All these tasks he did very well through numerous publications, including books, magazine articles, interviews, brochures, posters, guidebooks, etc. For these achievements, he also had the enthusiasm and skills of his team and friends, from whom Armando Sampaio Navarro and Octavio Vecchi have proved to be outstanding.

This vast and rich masterpiece work could not, in any way, be lost with the history continuation. We could not, as Brazilians, to allow the lights go out or decrease in intensity with the passing of years. For this reason, the partnership between ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper, Celsius Degree and IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies, with enthusiastic support from several partners and collaborators, such as Alfredo Navarro de Andrade; Denise Zanchetta and Rafael Jose Camarinho (FEENA - "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" State Forest); Francisco Jose do Nascimento Kronka (Forestry Institute of the Sao Paulo State); Jeronimo Augusto Martini (historian); Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo, Marialice Metzker Poggiani and Paulo Sergio Beraldo (IPEF); Alberto Mori, Afonso Moura, Denise Araujo, Patricia Capo and Patricia Fera (ABTCP), among others, who have enabled this achievement and historical conquest. The facilities that the web offers to the availability of some historical books in digital format finally enabled us to bring this literature to the world public. Certainly, it would be something that Edmundo, Armando and Octavio would enjoy a lot. After all, those who write books do it for others to read them; and more readers we have, better it is, right?

A very special thanks to Alfredo Navarro de Andrade, Edmundo's direct descendent, (Edmundo was his uncle-grandfather). He opened all the doors to this project, offering to Brazilians and to the citizens of our forestry world the opportunity to learn more about the achievements of his ancestors. In fact, Alfredo has family ties also with Armando Navarro Sampaio (second cousins) and Octavio Vecchi (who was also his uncle-grandfather).

To all of you, who have helped me in this mission, I thank very much from all my Brazilian and eucalyptic heart for the cooperation, motivation and enthusiasm.

We are making available to the World Society, an important part of the history of the Eucalyptus in Brazil, through 10 books written by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi. These books are unique treasures that can now be accessed anytime by any internet user or citizen located at any place in the world. Of course, the quality of the scanning works may lack on quality in some cases; after all, the book materials are old and, in some cases, in not very good conservation conditions. Nevertheless, this is exactly the beauty of this mission - the ability to preserve this knowledge just when it should be done. Check how wonderful are the images you will find in these old books. They delight our minds and souls. In addition, the texts, telling us all unimaginable achievements of these pioneers: their studies, observations, conclusions and recommendations. Many of them seem to have been written today, as updated they are.

We are extremely happy and proud to have achieved this objective in favor of the Eucalyptus. We believe that these books will allow current and future generations of Brazilians to better understand the Eucalyptus and the value of them to our Society.

All I ask from you is patience to download of the files, because they have become relatively heavy since the scans were done preserving the book colors. To prevent you about this waiting timing, we have indicated the file size in MB next to each book title. The files are zipped (WinZip) and in PDF format (Adobe Acrobat). The best way to open and save them would be by using the right button of your mouse and selecting the tool "Save target as ...". Through it, you can monitor the digital download of the file and its downloaded size in MB.

To you readers, who will use these books, we wish a nice reading. If you like them, please inform your friends to take also advantage of this wonderful database about the history of Eucalyptus in Brazil.

Digital books for downloading:

A cultura dos Eucalyptus. (The Eucalyptus cultivation in Brazil). E.N. Andrade. Typographia Brazil de Rothschild & Comp. 154 pp. 36.1 MB. (1909) (in Portuguese)

A cultura dos eucalyptos nos Estados Unidos. (The Eucalyptus cultivation in United States of America). E.N. Andrade. Typographia Brazil de Rothschild & Comp. 107 pp. 35.9 MB. (1910) (in Portuguese)

Manual do plantador de eucaliptos.
(Eucalyptus planter guide). E.N. Andrade. Typographia Brazil de Rothschild & Comp. 339 pp. 36.8 MB. (1911) (in Portuguese)

Utilidade das florestas. (The role and utilities of the forests). E.N. Andrade. Secretaria da Agricultura, Commercio e Obras Publicas do Estado de Sao Paulo. Typographia Alongi. 103 pp. 41.4 MB. (1912) (in Portuguese)

Les bois indigenes de Sao Paulo. Contribution a l'etude de la flore forestiere de l'etat de S.Paulo. E.N. Andrade; O. Vecchi. Cia. Paulista de Estradas de Ferro. Typographia Alongi & Miglino. 376 pp. 74.8 MB. (1916) (in French)

Also available at: (16.2 MB) (Online reading)

Os eucalyptos - sua cultura e exploracao. (The Eucalyptus - Cultivation and harvesting). E.N. Andrade; O. Vecchi. Typographia Brazil de Rothschild & Comp. 238 pp. 62.0 MB. (1918) (in Portuguese)

O problema florestal no Brasil. (The forestry problem in Brazil). E.N. Andrade. O Estado de Sao Paulo. 104 pp. 32.5 MB. (1922/1923) (in Portuguese)

Instruccoes para a cultura do eucalypto. (Instructions to the Eucalyptus planting). E.N. Andrade. Cia. Paulista de Estradas de Ferro. 58 pp. 20.6 MB. (1936) (in Portuguese)

O eucalipto. (The Eucalyptus). E.N. Andrade. 1st Edition (Historic edition). Chacaras e Quintais. 118 pp. 64.0 MB. (1939) (in Portuguese)

O eucalipto.
(The Eucalyptus). E.N. Andrade. 2nd Edition (revised by Armando Navarro Sampaio and Paulista Railways' forest team). Paulista Railways. This book was presented in parts to allow easier downloading. (1961) (in Portuguese)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus
by Ester Foelkel

In this edition: Railway Sleepers made from Eucalyptus Woods

The railway sleepers are fundamental structures for the rail network in any part of the world, specially because of their main mission: transmission and attenuation of the work loads to the ballast that supports the entire structure. The sleepers are used as cradle to support the rails, guaranteeing the right balance between machinery and rails during trains locomotion (Marzola, 2004, Alves and Sinay, undated).

Sleepers can be made of various materials such as steel, plastic, composites, concrete and stone (as they were manufactured in the early development of railroads). However, wood has been one of the most accepted raw materials for the sleeper-making due to the characteristics that gives to them. In the past, the wood from native forests were abundant along the railroad tracks, and harvested and used as sleepers without any chemical treatment. With this practice, the sleeper life was relatively short in this function. The scarcity of the wood, the consequent rise on prices (noble hardwoods) and all environmental concerns have encouraged the search for other raw materials, more economical and environmentally sound for this function. Thus, the Eucalyptus woods coming from forest plantations have now largely replaced the wood sleepers made from native natural forests. They have life spans equal to or greater than 20 years, reaching up to 30 years, even without any conservation treatment, depending very much of the species being used. However, wood sleepers without preservation chemical treatment are not recommended because the wood is always sensitivity to pathogens (Alves and Sinay, undated).

woods have density, strength and other qualities very much appropriate for such use, ensuring the ideal support to resist the efforts of the rails and trains. An additional environmental benefit of Eucalyptus wood is the carbon uptake during forest growth, followed by carbon storage during the long period of the sleepers utilization. At the replacement of decayed sleepers after their use in railroads, there are companies to promote used sleepers recycling, generating new products such as fence poles, old-fashioned furniture and even many kinds of handicrafts. The plantations of Eucalyptus may be located close to the railroad tracks allowing savings in logistics, forest harvesting costs and the quicker production of sleepers. Currently, there are large areas planted with Eucalyptus trees in Brazil. A substantial percentage of these plantations are implemented on lands that have been previously intensively used by agriculture. Thus, the plantation of Eucalyptus forests helps to the recovery of depleted soils and also helps to reduce deforestation of the remaining native forests. The Eucalyptus woods meet the demand for many purposes, including the manufacture of railway sleepers, as well.

One of the main negative points of wooden sleepers is the deterioration, caused by biotic agents that decompose organic matter and by other decaying causes (abrasion, wear, etc.). Therefore, treatments to extend the service life of sleepers, increasing the economy of the process as well, are essential. These preservation treatments are based on chemicals that may cause serious harm to the environment and to people, if proper care is not taken. This is the reason for the continuous search for new technologies and greener chemicals for preserving wood and to offer environmentally friendly products. Thus, this mini-article aims to provide some environmental and technical considerations on Eucalyptus wooden sleepers, and show what is being done to make this activity as minimum impact as possible.

Since the implementation of the first Eucalyptus plantation forests in Brazil, at the beginning of past century, many studies have been presented evaluating their capabilities to become source of raw material for wooden sleepers (Andrade, 1961). That's because the initial commercial Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil were implemented by a railway company, Paulista Railways Company. Navarro de Andrade (1961) pointed out in his initial studies with 17 year-old Eucalyptus globulus stands that a life service time of 9 years could be obtained for the wooden sleepers without any wood treatment.

The first Eucalyptus sleepers were used in Brazil in the year 1907, in the construction of Madeira-Mamore Railway. They were imported from Australia and were made from species of particular use for this purpose, such as Eucalyptus marginata and Eucalyptus diversicolor (REMADE, 2003). According to astudy by Andrade (1961), the Eucalyptus trees more suitable to the manufacture of sleepers would be as follows: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. botryoides, E. paniculata, Corymbia maculata and C. citriodora. The genetic tree breeding also enabled other species of Eucalyptus trees to be grown and offer woods with ideal properties for using on railroads. They are as follows: E. cloeziana, E. marginata and E. diversicolor (Alves and Sinay, undated). Other species cited as good raw materials for wooden sleepers are: E. crebra, E. camaldulensis, E. microcorys, E. paniculata, E. propinqua and E. tereticornis, mainly due to high wood density and strengths they have (Boland apud Shimizu and Carvalho, 2000).

According to Faria (2006); Marzola (2004) and REMADE (2003), the main wood properties for the Eucalyptus to fulfil the needs and for using as railway sleepers are:

Specific gravity or density: The Eucalyptus species more suitable for the manufacture of sleepers should be those with high density woods. This allows the wood to resist mechanical wear and mainly to support the weight of the load applied by the trains (REMADE, 2003).
Hardness: The ideal Janka hardness to the woods used for sleepers should be between 645 and 1,108 kg/cm². According to REMADE (2003), these values must be high precisely because there is a direct contact of wood with the hard rails. Furthermore, the author also points out that the Eucalyptus woods used as sleepers have higher hardness than the majority of woods from Brazilian native forests used for the same purpose.
Resistance in relation to the nails: The wood used as sleepers needs to support the stresses exerted by the load and to resist the pull-off and/or loosening of nails or screws, which could cause enlargement of the rails, requiring more frequent maintenance. In an experiment performed by the IPT, REMADE (2003) mentioned that comparing the resistance of several species, the woods from E. paniculata, E. siderophloia and C. citriodora had higher values for this property than most of the traditional tested native species.
Static bending strength and modulus of elasticity: The sleepers of wood must be rigid and prevent deformation by the action of loads, but this rigidity must ensure the fixing of the rails, enabling them to move slightly in the passage of locomotives. Both to the static bending strength and modulus of elasticity, the wooden sleepers made of E. paniculata, E. siderophloia, C. maculata, C. citriodora proved to be better than the majority of those manufactured with woods from native Brazilian woods (REMADE, 2003).
Dynamic bending strength: The wood of the Eucalyptus should be resistant to mechanical shocks mainly due to the fact of having to resist to loads of varying intensity on their use. Therefore, the Eucalyptus sleepers must be compatible to resist the lateral and longitudinal loads that this utilization require. Also on this property, the tested Eucalyptus sleepers were better in performance than those of native woods (REMADE, 2003).
Resistance to cracking: According to Andrade (1961), the cracks are one of the properties that depreciates some species of Eucalyptus for being used to railway sleepers manufacture. This feature is considered one of the most important for the proper performance of the sleepers in their functions. The eucalypts wood species more resistant to the appearance of radial cracks were proved to be: C. citriodora, C. maculata, E. siderophloia and E. paniculata. The highly planted E. grandis and E. saligna showed high susceptibility; and E. tereticornis, E. rostrata and E. botryoides were classified as moderately resistant to cracking. The latter ones (moderately resistant) requires anti-cracks connectors or straps to avoid this extra depreciation, when used as sleepers (REMADE, 2003). Andrade (1961) observed high losses of Eucalyptus sleepers due to top cracking. The woods of these cracked sleepers were sourced mainly from young trees. The author comments that the larger the diameter and the tree age, the lower are the chances of cracking in the manufactured sleepers.

According to Marzola (2004), a major problem with the use of wood for railway sleepers is the lack of quality, reducing the durability of them. To avoid quality and dimensional problems, the Brazilian government encouraged the creation of the NBR 7511 and NBR 6966 standards, which sets out the levels of tolerance allowed for the use of wood as sleepers. There are two types of rail gauges that wooden sleepers should perform, according to the following dimensions of length, width and height: 1.60 m rail gauge - 2.80 x 0.24 x 0.17 m; 1.00 m rail gauge - 2.00 x 0.22 x 0.16 m

The Brazilian technical standards governing wood sleepers qualifies them in three classes:

Class 1 – Sleepers coming from high quality treated hardwoods. Among the highest quality woods in this class: aroeira, mulberry, Brazilian rosewood, angico, ipe, among others.
Class 2 – In this class are the best quality Eucalyptus woods, and the jatoba, macaranduba, peroba, Brazilianwood, angelim, among other woods.
Class 3 – Timber species belonging to both classes 1 and 2, however, containing some tolerable defects. The standards are flexible, but they have specifications to the level of defect presence, such as cracks, knots, bends, crevices, holes of insects and height differences (REMADE, 2003; Dexheimer, undated). With regard to top cracking , one of the main problems of Eucalyptus woods, the tolerance goes up to 25 cm long cracks when corrective measures, such as anti-cracks clips and straps are used. For the presence of knots, they should never be in the area of fixing rails, the most sensitive region. Knots must not exceed dimensions of 2 cm in diameter and 8 cm deep. Regarding the sleepers height, the differences between two points of the same face must not exceed 1.5 cm (Dexheimer, undated).

The main disadvantage for the use of wooden sleepers compared to some other raw materials is the potentially short durability. The wood, although it is a renewable raw material, is a product subject to weather effects and the action of fungi and other decaying organisms, not to mention even the wear and abrasion. Therefore, chemical treatments to extend product life are essential (Marzola, 2004).

In general, according to Marzola (2004) and Alves and Sinay (undated), the treatment of sleepers to increase their quality and durability are achieved in Sleepers Treatment Stations (STS), which exist in wood preservation mills. The following steps should be followed to improve the performance of sleepers:

Drying of the sleepers. First outdoor wood drying followed by autoclaving to remove the remaining moisture under vacuum.
Wood processing. Stage where wood is perforated, adjusted in dimensions and in surface specifications.
Impregnation with preserving chemicals. Processed in an autoclave under pressure, where there is the application of preservation chemicals such as creosote (with some restrictions of use in Brazil), CCA (chromium-copper-arsenic) or CCB (chromium-copper-boron).
Recovery of chemical products. The remaining and excessive chemicals used as preservatives are removed from autoclave and later used to preserve other sleepers.

The wood preservation chemicals are considered toxic and they require special cares to minimize their potential damage to Nature and to living beings, including the people in the working-places. Therefore, the process for planning, controlling, monitoring, and the use of closed-loop to liquid and gaseous components recycling are essential.

The concerns for environment protection has stimulated researches in search of chemicals with lower toxicity for using in wood preservation, with higher selectivity and short life spans in the environment. The studies seeking to increase the wood durability along its use in the function are also being conducted, reducing the need for sleepers replacement to a minimum.

Ferreira (2002) studied the optimal sizing of prismatic sleepers made from Corymbia citriodora wood, in search of timber economyfor optimizing the use. Thus, testing the mechanical performance through laboratory static and dynamic tests, the author concluded that reducing the basic dimensions of the sleepers would be possible without changes in their performance and lifecycle.

Replacing of wooden sleepers by other raw materials, such as waste plastics, resins and sawdust composites are also alternatives under study. Ribeiro and Matthiesen (2006) studied the efficiency and performance of sleepers produced with a composite made with C. citriodora and Pinus taeda sawdust's and polyurethane derived from castor oil (mamona oil). Their tests were performed according to standard NBR 7190/97, showing that the proportion that proved to offer best results on elastic modulus and bulk density was 30% polyurethane. The same composite was tested for stringent weather conditions for two months, and the results were considered satisfactory. The authors concluded that the composite could yield railway sleepers that would be classified as Class 2 of timber sleepers.

The increasing demand for wood, as well as increased concerns about environmental issues, should encourage the more conscious and rational use of wood, with minimal losses. For achieving these goals the following measures are recommended: search for ideal quality woods, compliance with specifications, monitoring performances in use, preventive works to reduce wood losses, etc. Compliance with sleepers quality standards should also be stricter and more effective

Further studies aimed at increasing the durability of Eucalyptus railway sleepers, the use of less aggressive preservationchemical compounds, the correct management of operations, the use of waste raw materials as wood sawdust and plastic are suggested to be encouraged, thus increasing the sustainability at the railroad business.

Following and listed are some articles, technical documents, pictures and stories that address to the topic we tried to cover to you. The suggested literature highlights the characteristics, classification, major defects, properties, manufacturers, etc. of wooden railway sleepers. There are also references commenting the advantages and disadvantages of the Eucalyptus woods as raw materials for railway sleepers. Check them by browsing the references.

Dormentes de eucalipto tratado. ECOTRAT. Accessed on 09.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Um sonho...uma realidade! Reciclando e garantindo o futuro. RGF project. Accessed on 09.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Dormentes de madeira. Dormentes Biz. Accessed on 09.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

O que fazer com dormentes e cruzetas. Que Barato. Accessed on 29.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Vale desenvolve tecnologia para preservar florestas. Vale do Rio Doce. (2008) (in Portuguese)

ALL (America Latina Logistica) vai produzir dormentes e economiza 12 milhoes. MS News. Celulose Online. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Dormente de madeira. EMVP/CBTU. 31 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Dormentes. In: O eucalipto. 2nd Edition. E.N. Andrade. Paulista Railways Co. 19 pp. (1961) (in Portuguese)

Super-estrutura ferroviaria: dormentes.
L. Dexheimer. Escola de Engenharia. UFRGS. PowerPoint presentation: 38 slides. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Scientific articles, monographs and academic theses about railway sleepers:

Utilizacao de dureza Brinell na avaliacao da resistencia mecanica de madeiras.
R.A. Colenci; A.W. Ballarin. Revista Energia na Agricultura 23(1): 89 - 99. (2008)

Utilizacao de materiais reciclados na fabricacao de dormentes ferroviarios. B. S. Faria. Instituto Militar de Engenharia. 19 pp. (2006)

Implantacao de dormentes ambientalmente corretos: responsabilidade social e ambiental. R.K. David; E.G. David; L.I. Bonenente. II Monograph Contest CBTU "A Cidade nos Trilhos". 22 pp. (2006)

Estudo de um composito de serragem e poliuretano para confeccao de dormentes ferroviarios. A. C. Ribeiro; J. A. Matthiesen. Proceedings of the 10th EBRAMEM - Encontro Brasileiro em Madeiras e em Estruturas de Madeira.12 pp. (2006)

Desenvolvimento de equipamento para avaliacao em campo da dureza de madeiras para dormente ferroviario. R.A. Colenci. Ph.D. Thesis. UNESP/FCA - Botucatu. 112 pp. (2006)

Alternativas viaveis para substituicao da madeira como dormente ferroviario. G Marzola. Universidade Anhembi Morumbi. 68 pp. (2004)

A madeira de eucalipto para dormentes.
REMADE - Revista da Madeira 75. (2003) madeira de eucalipto para dormentes

Analise do comportamento mecanico de dormentes prismaticos de eucalipto citriodora submetidos a solicitacoes dinamicas.
R.D. Ferreira. Master Dissertation. UNICAMP. 123 pp. (2002)

Primeira aproximacao na indicacao de eucaliptos para producao de madeira na regiao de Quarai, RS. J. Y. Shimizu; P. E. R. Carvalho. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal 40: 101-110. (2000)

Os dormentes ferroviarios, seu tratamento e o meio ambiente. G. K. A. Alves; M. C. F. Sinay. 8 pp. (Undated)

Visit some selected websites describing commercial brands of Eucalyptus railway sleepers (not to be regarded as commercial recommendations, but just as technical references) (Brazil) (Brazil) (Brazil) (Brazil) (Brazil) (Brazil) (Brazil)

Art and decoration based on used wooden railway sleepers (the suggested websites should not be considered as commercial indication, but as technical references) (Artistic pictures of railway sleepers) (
Google images - decoration art with railway sleepers) (
Used railway sleepers) (
Selling used railway sleepers) (
Furniture made with demolition wood including railway sleepers) (
Furniture made with demolition wood including railway sleepers) (
Furniture made with demolition wood including railway sleepers)


In this section, we are, as always we do, offering some relevant Euca-Links to important websites available in the virtual web. Just click on the addresses of the corresponding URLs to open them or save as favorites on your computer.

In this special issue about the state of Sao Paulo and Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, the euca-links are all related to manufacturing companies, organizations, universities, etc. located in this state and oriented to the study, education, research, business, use and manufacture of products from Eucalyptus. Moreover, as Sao Paulo is the great driving force of the Brazilian economy, the number of Euca-Links is actually too great for a single issue of our newsletter. If any organization or company has been forgotten in this issue, please contact us and provide your URL address, which we will add to this list on some of our upcoming Eucalyptus Newsletter editions.

Manufacturing companies in Sao Paulo state using Eucalyptus as raw material
(The order of presentation is merely alphabetic, no preferences and no ranking is aimed):

Conpacel - Consorcio Paulista de Papel e Celulose.
Graphic and copy papers; FSC certified plantation forests of Eucalyptus. (in Portuguese) (Forest management at Conpacel) (About Ripasa and Conpacel)

Duratex. Wood panels, fiberboard, wooden floors. FSC certified Eucalyptus and Pinus forest plantations. (in Portuguese and English) (Durafloor - Laminated floors) (Fiberboard and wood panels)

Wood panels, fiberboard. FSC certified Eucalyptus forest plantations. (in Portuguese, Spanish and English)

Fibria. Eucalyptus bleached kraft market pulp company resulted from the merger of Aracruz Celulose and Votorantim Celulose e Papel. (in Portuguese and English)

International Paper do Brasil.
Graphic and copy paper for printing and writing purposes. Eucalyptus plantations certified in compliance to the CERFLOR scheme. (in Portuguese, Spanish and English)

Lwarcel Celulose
. Eucalyptus bleached kraft market pulp and FSC certified plantation forests. (in Portuguese and English) (Market pulp) (Eucalyptus plantation forests)

Melhoramentos. High yield pulp, printing papers, printing house and book manufacturing. (in Portuguese, Spanish and English)

Nobrecel. Printing, writing and tissue papers. Eucalyptus plantation forests. (in Portuguese)

PREMA - Tecnologia e Comercio. Eucalyptus wood preservation and wooden products. The preservation plant is also related to the historical FEENA, since it is located annexed to FEENA from 1936 onwards. (in Portuguese)

Suzano Papel e Celulose.
Printing and writing papers and bleached kraft market pulp. FSC certified Eucalyptus plantations. (in Portuguese, Spanish and English)

VCP - Votorantim Celulose e Papel. Market pulp and specialty papers. FSC certified Eucalyptus plantations. (in Portuguese and English)

Universities located in Sao Paulo state and with careers related to the forest-based industry:

ESALQ/USP - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - Universidade de Sao Paulo. (College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" - University of Sao Paulo) (in Portuguese and English)
ESALQ is one of the most traditional and comprehensive colleges in agronomy and forestry in Brazil. The career in forestry is responsibility of the Department of Forest Sciences. I have the privilege and the happiness of having been a professor of this department where I still continue to maintain dozens of friends. Visit the websites of the many laboratories that are part of the forestry department and all related to forest sciences. Also visit the two experimental stations that ESALQ keeps for education, research and production of improved seeds purposes. (ESALQ general website) (Department of Forest Sciences) (Anhembi Forest Station) (Itatinga Forest Station)

Escola Politecnica. Universidade de Sao Paulo. (Polytechnics College - University of Sao Paulo) (in Portuguese and English)
One of the most prestigious engineering colleges in Brazil, highlighting to our industry the chemical, mechanical, electric and electronic engineering careers. Our dear friend Dr. Song Won Park is who is fully dedicated to teaching and researching activities in pulp and paper at Poli. (Polytechnics College general website) (Chemical Engineering Department)

FAEF - Faculdade de Agronomia e Engenharia Florestal de Garca. (College of Agronomy and Forest Engineering at Garca) (in Portuguese)

FAENQUIL ou EEL - Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. USP - Universidade de Sao Paulo. (Engineering College of Lorena - University of Sao Paulo) (in Portuguese)
The EEL - Engineering College of Lorena, also known as FAENQUIL (College of Chemical Engineering of Lorena) has undergraduate and graduate courses in chemical engineering. At this educational and research organization the highlights are the studies on chemical components of wood, pulp, lignin, biopulping, etc. (General website) (General website)

FAIT - Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais e Agrarias de Itapeva.
(College of Social and Agricultural Sciences at Itapeva) (in Portuguese)
FAIT has just started the forest engineering career among the courses offered in Itapeva.

FEQ - Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica. UNICAMP - Universidade Estadual de Campinas. (College of Chemical Engineering - State University of Campinas) (in Portuguese) (FEQ UNICAMP general website) (Digital theses and dissertations)

Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos. USP - Universidade de Sao Paulo. (Institute of Chemistry of Sao Carlos - University of Sao Paulo) (in Portuguese)
The IQSC offers graduate and undergraduate courses in chemistry, with different majors and expertise's. Our dear friend professor Dr. Antonio Aprigio da Silva Curvelo highlights as a Brazilian authority in the studies of the chemistry of lignin and wood carbohydrates.

UFSCAR - Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. Sorocaba Campus.
(Federal University of Sao Carlos at Sorocaba) (in Portuguese)
UFSCAR houses a forest engineering career at Sorocaba. (UFSCAR Sorocaba) (Forest engineering)

UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista. Botucatu and Itapeva Campi. (Paulista State University at Botucatu and Itapeva) (in Portuguese)
UNESP - "Julio de Mesquita Filho" Paulista State University houses a renowned course on forestry at the FCA - College of Agricultural Sciences, in Botucatu. This university also makes available the Industrial Wood Engineering course at the Itapeva campus. (FCA - College of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP Botucatu - Forest engineering) (Forest Engineering career) (Graduate studies in forestry at FCA) (Industrial Wood Engineering) (Tutorial program of education - PET Engenharia Florestal UNESP, in which the main adviser is our esteemed friend professor Dr. Mrs. Magali Ribeiro da Silva) (Digital theses and dissertations) (Folha Viva Blog - An online publication from PET Engenharia Florestal - UNESP)

Institutes and research laboratories directly related to the forestry industry in the state of Sao Paulo:

CEVEMAD - Centro Virtual de Pesquisas em Madeira.
(Wood Research Virtual Center) (in Portuguese)
CEVEMAD is a virtual center developed by UNESP wood researchers, interested on promoting the technological utilization of the wood through qualified research, education and information. It also consists in a forum to interlink professors, students and other stakeholders interested on wood science and technology.

Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo.
(Sao Paulo Botanical Institute) (in Portuguese)
IBOT has as aim to work in scientific research, natural resources monitoring, conservation of species, environmental education and high level education in the field of Botany. It is an entity of the Department of the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo.
(Sao Paulo Botanical Garden)
(Digital theses and dissertations)

IPT - Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo. (Sao Paulo State Institute of Technological Researches) (in Portuguese)
IPT is the most traditional technological research institute of the state of Sao Paulo, with well-equipped laboratories for testing the quality of wood, pulp and paper, among so many other qualified labs. We have several friends and relevant researchers in these wood and pulp/paper researches and developing technologies at this technical institute, especially our dear friends Geraldo Zenid, Marcio Nahuz, Maria Luiza Otero D'Almeida, Jose Mangolini Neves and Marisa Eiko Koga. (IPT general website)
(IPT Technological Center for Forest Resources)

IPEF - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais. (Institute of Forest Researches and Studies) (in Portuguese and English)
IPEF has one of the most visited websites in Brazil about the forestry sciences. This is due to the enormous availability of data and scientific/technical material it offers to visitors (visit the excellent publications section of the website). IPEF consists in a research consortium involving universities and forestry companies, and has as executive director Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo. The IPEF is a partner in this project to make available the pioneering Navarro de Andrade's books to the World Society. IPEF has also an important role as a non financial supporter of the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter and the other Celsius Degree project - PinusLetter. (IPEF general website)
(Digital publications)

LaMEM - Laboratorio de Madeiras e de Estruturas de Madeira. (Wood and Wood Structures Laboratory) (in Portuguese and English)
LaMEM is a research laboratory on wood and structural utilization of the woods, associated with the College of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo. Visit the section of digital theses to find numerous studies on the use of woods, including the Eucalyptus ones. (LaMEM general website)
(Digital theses and dissertations)

LQCE - Laboratorio de Quimica, Celulose e Energia. Departamento de Ciencias Florestais - ESALQ/USP. (Laboratory of Forest Chemistry, Pulp and Biomass Energy - ESALQ/USP) (in Portuguese)
LQCE is an excellent forest products laboratory that performs research and academic research projects for the pulp and paper and biomass power generation facilities. Special highlights for our dear friends professors Francides Gomes da Silva Junior and Jose Otavio Brito. To the recently-added and well-equipped laboratory facilities, the name of our dear friend Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo was given to it, in recognition to the outstanding services Dr. Barrichelo has provided (and still is doing such) to the Brazilian science and technology in this specific sector. (LQCE website)

Business and technical associations related to the forest-based industry and located in the state of Sao Paulo:

ABIMOVEL - Associacao Brasileira das Industrias do Mobiliario.
(Brazilian Association of the Furniture Industry) (in Portuguese) (General website)

ABIPA - Associacao Brasileira da Industria de Paineis de Madeira. (Brazilian Association of the Wood Panel Industry) (in Portuguese and English)
ABIPA has as major members the wood panel Brazilian manufacturing companies. (General website)

ABPM - Associacao Brasileira de Preservadores de Madeira. (Brazilian Association of Wood Preservers) (in Portuguese, Spanish and English)
ABPM brings together in its membership the wood preservation mills, producers of wood conservation chemicals and companies that sell treated wood. (ABPM general website)

ABTCP - Associacao Brasileira Tecnica de Celulose e Papel. (Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper) (in Portuguese and English)
ABTCP has proved to be vital to the technological development and technical qualification of professionals in the Brazilian pulp and paper segment. It is the main sponsor of the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter and also PinusLetter. ABTCP was also one of the partners in this project to make digital and available to world public the ten digital books written by Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi. ABTCP executive managers are Mr. Afonso Moura (technical management) and Mr. Francisco Bosco de Souza (institutional management). (ABTCP rich website)

ANAVE - Associacao Nacional dos Profissionais de Venda em Celulose, Papel e Derivados. (National Association of Sales Professionals in the Sectors of Pulp, Paper and Associated Products) (in Portuguese)
ANAVE houses people from the areas of marketing, commercial, management and strategic planning from the pulp and paper sector. ANAVE executive director is our dear friend Jahir de Castro. (ANAVE general website)

BRACELPA - Associacao Brasileira de Celulose e Papel.
(Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper) (in Portuguese and English)
BRACELPA is the association of pulp and paper manufacturers based in Brazil. It has important political and institutional role; and provides reliable statistical data about the segment. The chairperson of BRACELPA is our dear friend Mrs. Elizabeth de Carvalhaes. (BRACELPA general website)

SBS - Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura. (Brazilian Society of Silviculture) (in Portuguese)
SBS is the leading representative society in forestry in Brazil, present in many national and international forums representing the country. SBS has as executive director our friend and forest engineer Rubens Garlipp. Visit the sections of speeches and statistics, to find excellent materials freely available to all stakeholders. (SBS general website)
(Statistical data about the Brazilian Forestry)
(Speeches for downloading)

Other organizations (public or private) related to the forest-based sector in the state of Sao Paulo:

CBRN - Coordenadoria da Biodiversidade e Recursos Naturais.
(Coordination of Biodiversity and Natural Resources) (in Portuguese)
Public organization in the state of Sao Paulo with the mission to plan, coordinate, implement and monitor programs, projects and actions related to surveillance, protection and recovery of natural resources and sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity.

Celulose Online. Information and business web portal oriented to the pulp and paper sector. (in Portuguese) (General website) (Publications about forestry, woods, pulp and paper) (Brazilian pulp and paper mills)

CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo.
(Sao Paulo State Environmental Agency) (in Portuguese)
State organization that cares about environmental licensing, surveillance, monitoring and promotion of pollution prevention and control in the state of Sao Paulo. (CETESB general website) (Publications) (Cleaner production documents)

FLORESTAR Sao Paulo - Fundo de Desenvolvimento Florestal. (Forest Development Fund) (in Portuguese)
Florestar Sao Paulo is a civil institution for public benefits maintained by a group of companies with operations in the forest sector in the State of Sao Paulo. It brings together organizations from the private and public segments to work together in the development of forestry and environmental preservation. It also performs and promotes studies, researches, statistics, cooperates in development of forest policies, etc. (General website)
(Articles and studies) (Sao Paulo state statistics of forest cover areas)

Fundacao Florestal - Fundacao para a Conservacao e a Producao Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo. (Forestry Foundation - Foundation for the Conservation and Forest Production of the State of Sao Paulo ) (in Portuguese)
Forestry Foundation is a public organization linked to the Department of Environment of the State of Sao Paulo, which aims to contribute to the conservation, management and expansion of forest protection and production in the State of Sao Paulo. To obtain these objectives the Forestry Foundation supports, promotes and implements integrated actions aimed at environmental conservation, protection of biodiversity, sustainable development, land rehabilitation and reforestation of environmentally vulnerable sites, making partnerships with government agencies and civil society institution's. It is also responsible for marketing and sales of the products extracted from forests planted in areas belonging to or owned by the state of Sao Paulo.
(General website)

IEA - Instituto de Economia Agricola. (Institute of Agriculture Economics) (in Portuguese)
The IEA - Institute of Agriculture Economics is an agency of the Secretariat of Agriculture and Food Supply of Sao Paulo. Since 1942, the IEA researches, analyzes, produces and disseminates economic data and information to meet the needs of state agriculture, forestry and society. ( IEA General website)

IF - Instituto Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo
. (Forestry Institute of Sao Paulo State) (in Portuguese)
IF is an organization of the Department of the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo. It objectives to be the guardian entity of biodiversity and forest preservation reserves of the state. The institutional mission is founded on research, conservation and production, supporting public policies aimed at socio-economic development, promoting and implementing actions for protecting natural and cultural heritage. The final target is sustainable development. Its general director is our dear friend Francisco Jose do Nascimento Kronka. (General website)

Portal LUPA da CATI - Coordenadoria de Assistencia Tecnica Integral. (LUPA Portal) (in Portuguese)
LUPA Portal is an informative portal that provides statistics, maps and data on agriculture and forestry production in the state of Sao Paulo. (General website)
(Eucalyptus plantations map for the state of Sao Paulo, base 2007/2008)
(Pinus plantations map for the state of Sao Paulo, base 2005)
(Hevea brasiliensis plantations map for the state of Sao Paulo, base 2007/2008)

Online Digital Magazines

In this section, we are bringing to you our recommendation for visiting some online magazines specialized on forests, wood and pulp and paper. These magazines are all from the state of Sao Paulo, being edited by academic institution's, technical associations, business information portals and also some typically commercial magazines. There, you can find articles about the Eucalyptus and download them for reading or save. Check it out.

Boletim Informativo Celulose Online. (Celulose Online Information Bulletin) (in Portuguese)
Celulose Online Portal, headquartered in Ribeirao Preto/SP, makes available to registered people a very updated information bulletin about the pulp/paper and forestry sectors.

Bragantia Online - IAC - Instituto Agronomico de Campinas.
(Bragantia Online) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
Bragantia is a magazine covering agronomic sciences, published by IAC - Agronomic Institute of Campinas/SP. It has strong emphasis in issues as: plant physiology, plant nutrition, soils sciences, biotechnology, etc. All the collection from this prestigious magazine, since the number 01 (1941) is available for downloading.

Florestar Estatistico. (Florestar Statistics) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
In 1992, thanks to a partnership between Florestar Sao Paulo and the Forestry Foundation of the state of Sao Paulo, the magazine Florestar Statistics was created. Its mission is to be one of the best Brazilian publications on forestry statistics.

Informacoes Economicas do IEA - Instituto de Economia Agricola. (Institute of Agriculture Economics Information) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
This is a monthly newsletter, very rich in statistical and economic data, including prices of agricultural products, inputs/outputs, relationships between supply/demand, historical data and articles on the agriculture and forestry in Sao Paulo state.
(Articles from 1972 onwards)

Informativos em Economia Florestal - CEPEA - Centro de Estudos Avancados em Economia Aplicada - ESALQ/USP. (Center of Advanced Studies on Applied Economics - CEPEA - Newsletter on Forest Economics) (in Portuguese)
The CEPEA Newsletter - Forest Economics is a monthly electronic publication that analyzes the behavior of the prices for forest products traded in the Sao Paulo state, as well as external transactions between Brazil and other countries, forest products markets, forest sector performances and policy developments in Brazilian forestry. A special thanks to my dear friend Dr. Carlos Jose Caetano Bacha, who has developed such amazing information service to the Brazilian forest society.

IPEF Noticias - Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais. (Institute of Forest Researches and Studies - IPEF News) (in Portuguese)
IPEF News is a quarterly newsletter with information about the technical activities of the IPEF institute and its members.

Revista Cientifica Eletronica de Agronomia
. (Online Scientific Magazine on Agronomy) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
Electronic journal published twice a year by the College of Agronomy and Forest Engineering at Garca/SP.

Revista Cientifica Eletronica de Ciencias Agrarias - FAIT Itapeva.
(FAIT Itapeva Online Scientific Magazine on Agricultural Sciences) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
A magazine being published since 2006 by FAIT - College of Social and Agricultural Sciences at Itapeva, containing technical and scientific articles in forest science and agronomic issues.

Revista Cientifica Eletronica de Engenharia Florestal. (Online Scientific Magazine on Forest Engineering) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
Electronic journal published twice a year by the College of Agronomy and Forest Engineering at Garca/SP.

Revista de Economia Agricola - IEA - Instituto de Economia Agricola. (IEA Magazine on Agriculture Economics) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
Traditional IEA - Institute of Agriculture Economics magazine about agricultural economics in the state of Sao Paulo. The magazine has been fully scanned since its first issue published in 1951. It has excellent studies on the various products of agriculture and forestry from Sao Paulo state. I'd like to highlight the excellent work of our dear friend and classmate at ESALQ, agronomist Eduardo Pires Castanho Filho, who has numerous technical studies of the Eucalyptus, rubber-trees and other forest plantations in the state of Sao Paulo. Eduardo has also many articles about economics of forest plantations in the Florestar Estatistico magazine.
(articles by Eduardo Pires Castanho Filho and co-workers)

Revista do Instituto Florestal de Sao Paulo. (Magazine of the Forestry Institute) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
A magazine published twice a year with technical, scientific and applied sciences and data, mostly originated from studies performed by the own Forestry Institute staff (or in partnership).

Revista Energia na Agricultura. (Energy in Agriculture Magazine) (in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
A magazine created to convey scientific information on energy generation and utilization by agriculture and forestry, including issues about biomass energy. The magazine is a creation of the graduate course in Agronomy from FCA - College of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP (Botucatu).

Revista Nosso Papel. (Our Paper Magazine) (in Portuguese)
The magazine Nosso Papel (Our Paper) is a communication vehicle to inform society and the general staff working in the Brazilian pulp and paper sector. Therefore, it has a less technical writing and a more colloquial one, just to be able to achieve this kind of targeted audience. The creation and free-of-charge diffusion of Nosso Papel is from ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper.,145

Revista O Papel Online. (O Papel Online Magazine) (in Portuguese with technical articles and cover stories also in English)
O Papel magazine is the main vehicle of information and technical communication in the Brazilian pulp and paper segment. It is a monthly magazine published by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper, one of the oldest trade journals in Latin America, being in its LXX year of regular publications. This year, O Papel started with digital publications and online services, with the creation of a special website to house the online magazine. In it, you can download both recent and complete editions of the magazine, as well as to browse, search and read selected topics, etc. As a former president of ABTCP, a great enthusistic to have this magazine in digital format, I was pleasantly surprised by how interactively my dear friend Mrs. Patricia Capo and staff assembled it on the website that hosts the journal. Congratulations ABTCP.
(Recent and complete editions)
(Articles containing the word Eucalyptus)

Revista Opinioes.
(Opinions Magazine) (in Portuguese)
Digital magazine (and also printed on paper) that has been creatively developed by my dear friend Mr. William Domingues de Souza, based on articles written by renowned personalities in the form of viewpoints on topics selected by the editor of the magazine. The magazine alternates relevant areas of the Brazilian economy, one of them being pulp, paper and forestry.
(Most recent issue on pulp, paper, forestry)

Scientia Forestalis.
(in Portuguese and abstracts in English)
Scientia Forestalis is one of the most prestigious and renowned scientific world journals on forest sciences. It is the vehicle of scientific communication for IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies, a research consortium involving companies, research institutes and universities. I feel pleased to dedicate my most sincere recognition and applause to the staff of this magazine, since I know what they have done to forest sciences since the first magazine issue, in 1970, with the name of IPEF. To Mrs. Marialice Metzker Poggiani and her excellent team, our congratulations for the magnificent collection of excellent peer-reviewed articles that the magazine holds, since its creation nearly 40 years ago.
(About Scientia Forestalis)

Eucalyptus World Map

In 2008, GIT-Forestry, a forestry consulting company owned by our dear friend Mr. Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, released through the blog Eucalyptologics a detailed forest map showing countries where there are commercial plantations of Eucalyptus and the total area planted in each one. This unique work is the result of Gus' commitment to grow the information resources about Eucalyptus in the world. In order to obtain greater reliability and accuracy to the data, a number of world experts, representing the main countries where there are Eucalyptus plantations growing, have cooperated with Gus. However, it turns out that statistical data may always be improved and the forest plantations are not static, there are always new areas being planted and other being consumed. For this reason, Gus' work will be endless, with continuing needs of updates. In 2009, a new map is presented to public, as a kind of homage to the World Forestry Congress which takes place in October 2009, in Argentina. Congratulations to Gus and his staff for the magnificent ongoing services in favor of the Eucalyptus.

Know more about the Eucalyptus World Map and the 2009 updated version: (in English) (in English)

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel

About Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi

As a rule, our technical mini-articles have focus on some technological issue, or they have my personal views on some matter related to our forest-based sector. However, this edition of our Eucalyptus Newsletter is a special edition. In it, we are honoring the great pioneers of the Eucalyptus plantation forestry in Brazil, through the launch of several of their books in digital format to the World Society. We are also giving the right recognition to the Sao Paulo State Forest named after with the full name of "the father of Eucalyptus forestry in Brazil" - Dr. Edmundo Navarro de Andrade. Therefore, we are writing short biographies about each of these renowned personalities, who were able to practice their professional careers with expertise, enthusiasm and passion. They helped to anchor the modern silviculture in Brazilian lands. In fact, thanks to his dynamism and strategic positions he held in his career, Edmundo became very well-known; however, we must provide our acknowledgments also to Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi, two other great foresters, scientists and promoters of the Eucalyptus in our country.

So this time, we will bring to you a simple biography for each one of these distinguished foresters, along with our most sincere admiration for their achievements. Surely, they can also be called "Friends of the Eucalyptus", like many others we have honored in some of the Eucalyptus Newsletter past editions.

About Edmundo Navarro de Andrade

Edmundo Navarro de Andrade was born in the city of Sao Paulo, on January 02, 1881. He has always been a person of differentiated intelligence and dynamism, what was enough to give him the opportunity to study in Portugal, at the National College of Agriculture in Coimbra, where he got a graduation as agronomist, in 1903. Edmundo's studies in Portugal have been funded by his godfather Eduardo Prado and wife Veridiana. Soon after returning to Brazil, and taking into consideration his academic performances, attitudes and innovative researching abilities, Edmundo received a challenge from Paulista Railways Co., through its president at the time, Councilor Antonio Prado. This railways company had a strong dependence on firewood and wood for sleepers, poles and fence posts. The wood was becoming scarce. It was obtained from native forests harvested due to the occupation of land by the Sao Paulo coffee crops. The sources of native wood was increasingly becoming more distant from consumption places. The company acquired, in 1903, an area in Sao Paulo State/Brazil, next to its headquarters, for the research of the just hired young agronomist. There, in 1904, Edmundo tested about 95 tree species in competition, most native (cabreuva, araucaria, rosewood, jequitiba, etc.), and some dozens of other exotic (Lebanon cedar, Portuguese oak, casuarina, grevillea and some species of Eucalyptus, which existed in Brazil at the time and some originated from seeds brought by Edmundo from Portugal). Due to this study, Edmundo has chosen the Eucalyptus trees, which were unbeatable in the comparative tests of productivity and wood quality. Because of that, he started travelling studies to France, Spain, United States, Australia, Portugal, India, Java, Sumatra to understand more about these trees and their woods, to obtain genetic material such as seeds, and also to learn about the mechanisms of management on the forest services in those countries. He soon started to show his writing vein, publishing several books from 1909 to 1912. In 1909, he receives a much larger area in the municipality of Rio Claro/SP, to continue his investigations and to plant forest stands in commercial scale. The statistics mentions that Navarro Andrade was responsible for planting 24 million trees of Eucalyptus along his life, placing a great percentage of them in Paulista Railways forest farms, located at the edges of the bed rails.

However, it should be clear to everyone reading this story, that Edmundo Navarro de Andrade was not the introducer of the Eucalyptus in Brazil. These trees were already in our lands since the mid-nineteenth century, serving mainly in urban ornamentation, protection as wind barriers and providing shadow on cattle ranches. There are even reports that the IAC - Agronomic Institute of Campinas had, around the first decade of the 1900's, a nursery to produce seedlings for distribution to rural farmers. The great merit of Edmundo was to develop technologies to convert the plantations into commercial production with economic performances and quality of products suited to the demands of the main consumer - Paulista Railways Co. With these technologies and knowledge becoming available, the company started buying other farms to produce more wood in different regions of the state of Sao Paulo: Bauru, Sao Carlos, Jaboticabal, Bebedouro, Sumare, Mogi Mirim, etc.

Edmundo always converted into new books all the knowledge he was learning from studies and researches. His easy writing and the great empathy for teaching through literature writing were outstanding features on his personality. His speed and quality of writing were such that he wrote more than a dozen books, not only about the Eucalyptus, but also about coffee, citrus, botany, entomology, travel narratives, stories, viewpoints, etc. This was more than enough to be awarded with a seat in the Paulista Academy of Letters. Quickly, he became a very important personality in Sao Paulo, accumulating administrative positions, such as chairman of the Sao Paulo State Forest Service, and managerial position at the Secretariat of Agricultural Affairs, Industry and Commerce in Sao Paulo State.

With the expansion of the Eucalyptus forest plantations, soon started to occur complaints from rural farmers, who saw a threat in these plantations, as a competitor for land use. There were also patriotic claims against Navarro de Andrade and his Australian immigrants. Edmundo, patient and persistently sought to clarify the society with demonstrations of the potential of these forests and the environmental quality of them. His many papers and activities were oriented to strengthen the focus on forest benefits, both native and those planted by man. In addition, he helped the creation of an Eucalyptus Museum, as we have seen, much more a panel of interactive demonstrations of the Eucalyptus benefits than a museum for the storage of historical things.

What was definitively amazing about Edmundo Navarro de Andrade and the team he had leadership was the sense of natural conservation they had. Today, this would be understood as a pro-active attitude towards Sustainability. The idea they have strongly promoted was to just use the wood from plantations and to reduce consumption of the wood from native forests. This has been the mission of Eucalyptus plantations since the beginning of their production in Brazil. They have always aimed to provide wood to meet the demands of the population and to supply industrial processes, thus helping to preserve the native forests of the country. Thus, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, at the time, was considered a good example of natural conservation success in the business sector in Brazil. On top of this, he was able to have success in this philosophy for having liberal ideas that were in line with the Sao Paulo decision power leading circles.

Navarro de Andrade has tested the use of Eucalyptus trees for almost all products derived from the use of wood as raw materials: furniture, structures and houses, paper and pulp, charcoal, biomass energy, etc. He also studied the non-timber benefits of the Eucalyptus forests: beekeeping, essential oils, tannins, etc. As a consequence, he not only developed forestry technologies, but also products derived from forests.

In December 1941, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade died, leaving a legacy absolutely astonishing of knowledge, research, innovation and several million Eucalyptus trees planted in Brazilian territory. However, his greatest legacy was the driving force that he introduced to the Brazilian forest sector, stimulating and optimizing the activity of forest plantations. For this purpose, he relied heavily on his team and friends, such the renowned engineers Armando Navarro Sampaio and Octavio Vecchi. The fantastic key issue of this whole story is that it was continued. Today, millions of Brazilians are studying, researching, planting and using the forests and the products of Eucalyptus planted forests. Just imagine my friends, if we still had to rely on natural native forests to supply wood to the needs of the huge Brazilian population. Not just by luck, but by competence, vision and tenacity, we planted forests in Brazil to fulfill these roles and to bring happiness and comfort to the users of their products.

About Armando Navarro Sampaio

Armando Navarro Sampaio was born in the city of Rio Claro/Sao Paulo state. He was Edmundo's nephew and had an enourmous admiration and respect to his uncle. He also had graduation as agronomist, at ESALQ - College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" ", in 1925. Soon, he allied himself to Edmundo in the study and implementation of Eucalyptus planted forests. When Edmundo died in 1941, Armando got his position as head of the Paulista Railways Forest Service. Armando was a renowned manager, researcher and forester, working for the Second World Eucalyptus Conference to become a success in Sao Paulo, in 1961. One of his great merits was to carefully review the book "O Eucalipto", published in first edition by Edmundo in 1939. With a group of engineers and technicians associated to Paulista Railways Co., they reviewed and increased the book to launch it in a second edition in parallel with the FAO Conference of Eucalyptus - Food and Agriculture Organization, which took place in Sao Paulo. He has published several technical articles on the forest benefits and on the cares and procedures should be taken with plantation forests. He has also written about forest management, and on wooden railway sleepers and other demands of wood by railways. One of his most notable article was "Eucalyptus in Brazil," which came out initially as a Bulletin of Paulista Railways Forest Service, in 1957. According to several citations in the literature, the great master of silviculture wrote the following statement in that article: "I need hardly to say that we are the first, as an experienced forester, to discourage any use of natural forests in places where Nature has wisely placed them to provide their real environmental benefits; and to replace them by planted forests, whatever would be the selected species. There are, however, the weak and poor soils, where the reforestation may successfully be placed. The choice of species to plant should always be preceeded by a brief performance test of genera and species of trees from similar ecological situations". Once again, Armando reinforced with his wisdom, what today we preach as a commandment of Sustainability.

Armando's friends at Paulista Railways Forest Service report that he was a remarkable human being, modest, talented, owning a rare and privileged intelligence, very determined, an excellent manager and a friend who always tried to value all his co-workers, even if that meant reducing his own importance in some professional achievements. Moreover, he was a vibrant patriot, defending and loving his country.

Armando Navarro Sampaio was active in the design of Aracruz Celulose forest plantation model, when this company decided to implement a plantation program to supply wood to a greenfield kraft pulp mill in Espirito Santo, late 1960's and early 1970's. He acted as Aracruz forest superintendent. Together with his son Edmundo Moreira Sampaio, they founded UNIFLORA, a forestry company that worked on forest services and reforestation projects to Aracruz Celulose Company.

Armando died in Sao Paulo, after having completed a brilliant track record in the Brazilian forestry sector.

About Octavio Vecchi

Octavio Felix Rabello de Andrade Vecchi was born in Portugal on November 22, 1878, and was also a graduated agronomist from the University of Coimbra, just like Edmundo Navarro de Andrade. They were brothers-in-law, because he married Edmundo's sister. He was director of the Loreto Forest Farm (near Araras/SP), owned by Paulista Railways Co. There and in other places he worked, he was able to show his qualities as manager and researcher in the forestry business. In 1927, he became director of the Sao Paulo State Forest Service, encouraging forest plantations and urban tree planting all over the state.

He was a distinguished drawing artist and a passionate collector of insects, among them butterflies. He also had pleasure collecting species of plants and different wood specimens. Doing this, he encouraged the Sao Paulo Forest Service to keep a remarkable collection of woods in the form of an exceptional xylotheque, which now bears his name. The Wood Collection "Octavio Vecchi" now belongs to the Sao Paulo Forestry Institute, under the management of the Wood and Forest Products Section. The collection comprises about 4,000 tree specimens. It has samples of native woods of the State of Sao Paulo, mainly representing the Conservation Units of the Forestry Institute, and exotic species, all enriched with a anatomical slide collection corresponding to each timber. He had also organized a collection of trees in Sao Paulo forest park. At "Octavio Vecchi" Museum, located in the Forest Park "Alberto Loefgren" in the city of Sao Paulo, the visitors can enjoy each tree species with corresponding taxonomic classification, watching the plant from the seed to the already worked wood. This Forest Museum also received his name and is regarded as one of the most renowned museums in botanical forest in the world, especially because it contains the aforementioned xylotheque. The "Octavio Vecchi" Museum was opened to public in 1931, yet during his tenure in front of the Sao Paulo Forest Service. Many of the pieces of wood are carved in a way that have reproduced the leaves and fruits of the species from which have been extracted. Vecchi's purposes with this museum was not speaking only of woods and plants, but also about the diversity of the forests with their animals, seeds, plants, benefits, etc. There, the visitors may enjoy seeing several samples of seeds and their uses in the cosmetic industry, as well as the essences that can be extracted from them. Some of the artistic designs that are in the walls of the museum were drafted by Octavio and then painted by other artists.

He has authored several books, two of them in co-authorship with Edmundo. These two books have been made available for public downloading through this Eucalyptus Newsletter, "Les bois indigenes de Sao Paulo" (1916) and "Os eucaliptos - sua cultura e exploracao" (1918). He also published the book "The dynamite in agriculture", in 1912.

Octavio Vecchi died at age 53 on 09 January 1932.

References of literature and suggestions for reading:

Edmundo Navarro de Andrade - O plantador de eucaliptos e a questao da preservacao florestal no Brasil.
Augusto Jeronimo Martini. Editora Humanitas. 380 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Eucalyptus paulistana - The Brazilian giant: Navarro de Andrade, the man who planted 24 million of Eucalyptus trees... or more. Gustavo Iglesias Trabado. GIT-Forestry - Eucalyptologics. Acessed on 24.09.2009. (in English)

Edmundo Navarro de Andrade - um pouco de sua vida e do seu trabalho. A.N. Sampaio. In: O eucalipto. 2nd Edition. E.N. Andrade. Paulista Railways Co. 21 pp. (1961). Accessed on 02.10.2009. (in Portuguese)

Homenagem a Armando Navarro Sampaio. In: O eucalipto. 2nd Edition. E.N. Andrade. Paulista Railways Co. 07 pp. (1961). Accessed on 02.10.2009. (in Portuguese)

Meio ambiente, Edmundo Navarro de Andrade e Floresta Estadual Navarro de Andrade.
Augusto Jeronimo Martini. Canal Rio Claro. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Navarro de Andrade. Marco Aurelio Alvares da Silva. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Octavio Vecchi.
Wikipedia. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)ávio_Vecchi

Museu Florestal "Octavio Vecchi". Horto Florestal de Sao Paulo (Parque Alberto Loefgren). Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Cia. Paulista de Estradas de Ferro.
Marco Aurelio Alvares da Silva. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

Pioneiros dos eucaliptos.
Sergio Mascarenhas. 01 p. Accessed on 24.09.2009. (in Portuguese)

O plantador de eucaliptos: a questao da preservacao florestal no Brasil e o resgate documental do legado de Edmundo Navarro de Andrade. Augusto Jeronimo Martini. Master Dissertation. USP - University of Sao Paulo. 332 pp. (2004) (in Portuguese),aj.pdf

Dossier Historia Atlantica: preocupacoes com a protecao a natureza e com o uso dos recursos naturais na Primeira Republica brasileira. J.L.A. Franco; J.A. Drummond. Textos de Historia 12(1/2): 143 - 163. (2004) (in Portuguese)

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