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Good morning to all of you, my dear Eucalyptus friends

Here we are back, with the 17th issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. In this edition, as it is being usual, we are again bringing a lot of information and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. Remember that most of this information is brought to you for your better understanding about the Eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer knowledge in a way that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this, we are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books and interesting events. I hope you also may, like me, admire these trees and the products they offer to Society.

In this edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter we are introducing to you two more chapters of our Eucalyptus Online Book: one in Portuguese and another in English. Both have the focus on eco-efficacy, eco-effectiveness, eco-efficiency and cleaner production, as it is being my purpose in the recent chapters I have been writing.

In the section "The World of the Eucalyptus" we are introducing to you all the competence, the knowledge and the quality developed by the Uruguayans to the Eucalyptus. For this very reason, the Eucalyptus are becoming strong foundations to the successes in the farming, agriculture, industry and related businesses in "Uruguay". Due to the fact that this Eucalyptus Newsletter issue is almost completely devoted to honor Uruguay and the Eucalyptus growing there, all our references on courses, events, magazines, journals, euca-links and technical literature will be related to them. No doubts about, there are many things to learn with our friends from Uruguay, have a look to confirm what they have to offer to us and to the knowledge about the Eucalyptus.

My technical mini-article this time navigates in a different subject; the title is "Communicating to Society the Realities of the Forest-Based Sector", taking advantage of the World-Wide-Web. Please, read it and help us to improve our performance with regard to the institutional communication and information. We definitively need to improve it in order to achieve a more reliable and fair image with our society.

In the Ester Foelkel's section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" she is telling us about the advantages of the Eucalyptus flowers for the production of honey. Ester brought to you not a short and simple article, but a wide literature review on this issue. We hope that all those, who may have the interest on this fantastic utilization of the Eucalyptus, may use this article as a source of inspiration for optimizations and better results.

We are also introducing to you a great and hard-working map which has been drawn by our dear friend Mr. Gustavo Iglesias Trabado. With the help of his Eucalypti friends all over the world, Gustavo was able to bring into a single map all the production areas of the magnificent Eucalyptus trees in a world basis. Know the "Eucalyptus Global Map 2008", a precious work made by and to people who admire the Eucalyptus.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics and Forestal Web. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing in favor of the Eucalyptus. Know more about all of our today’s partners at the URL address:

Thanks again for the support to our work. We have just now reached the 8,500 registered people receiving these online publications about the Eucalyptus. Even so, I beg your help to inform about and to promote our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, Botnia, Aracruz, International Paper do Brasil, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, Suzano, VCP and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this edition

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 09 (in English)

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 12 (in Portuguese)

Eucalyptus Global Map 2008

The World of the Eucalyptus - Uruguay

Online Technical References

References on Events and Courses


Online Technical Journals & Magazines

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - The Eucalyptus used for the Production of Honey - A top quality apiculture (by Ester Foelkel)

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Communicating to Society the Realities of the Forest-Based Sector

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 09 (in English)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 1.9 MB) just click the name of the chapter. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit and find the instructions how to get it.
Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"Eco-efficiency and Cleaner Production for the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Industry"

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 12 (in Portuguese)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 12.4 MB) just click the name of the chapter. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit and find the instructions how to get it.
Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"Mil e Uma Maneiras de Fazer sua Fabrica de Celulose e/ou de Papel e sua Floresta Plantada mais Ecoeficazes e mais Ecoeficientes"

Eucalyptus Global Map 2008

Recently, GIT-Forestry, the consulting company owned by our dear friend "Gus" - Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, has launched, through the blog Eucalyptologics, a detailed world forest map showing the Eucalyptus planted areas in selected countries. This service provided to the world society is the result of the Gus's dedication and enthusiasm favoring the growth in the availabilty of good information about the Eucalyptus, this amazing natural resource offering goods to mankind. To improve the quality and reliability of the data, selected experts from different eucalyptic countries have also participated in providing good statistics to Gustavo. To know the "Eucalyptus Global Map 2008", just visit the link below:

The World of the Eucalyptus


The Eastern Republic of Uruguay, or simply Uruguay, is the second smallest country in territorial area in South America, being larger only in relation to Suriname. Uruguay is about 176.000 km², and its population reaches only 3.4 million inhabitants. Although small, it is beautiful, economically healthy and the population has some of the best social and life quality standards in South America. Here, the expression "small is beautiful" makes a real sense. Illiteracy is small (less than 4% of the whole population) and life time expectancy is superior to 74 years of age, as a minimum. Although these favorable points, the job offers are also reduced and this helps to cause talented people migration to other more advanced economies (Brazil, Argentina, Chile, USA, Spain) searching for job positions or new and diversified opportunities. The weather is mild, and landscaping is made up of plain pastures and light hills. The highest altitude in the country is at Cerro Catedral, with just 514 meters high. The country is divided politicaly in 19 departments (Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres). Over 40% of the country's population lives in the capital Montevideo or surroundings.

Although even smaller than the northern neighbor, the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul (282.000 km² and 12 million inhabitants), when Uruguay is compared to some other European countries it is possible to notice that it is not that small - Spain (506.000 km²), Portugal (92.000 km²) and Netherlands (41.500 km²). Uruguayan major advantages are: financial and political stability, people's life quality, safety, shorter distances among social classes, all in relation to other Latin American countries. Natural resources are renowned and very much appreciated by tourists from all over the world, some are not to miss: Punta del Este, Colonia del Sacramento, Cabo Polonio, Jose Inacio, La Paloma, etc. Typical foods and dishes are also very much known: churrasco (barbecue), puchero, empanadas, alfajores, jams, honey, milk sweet, etc. As an additional advantage, , Uruguay has recently been elected by Reader's Digest, in a worldwide survey, as one of the 10 best green countries to live in, the best ranked on South America

Uruguay has a very young forestry history, just a couple of decades. Even being considered as one of the gates to the introduction of the Eucalyptus in South America, the plantation forestry and the forest industry are recent in the country. In the early stages of these silvicultural activities, the Eucalyptus and Pinus plantations were oriented to supply firewood and raw materials to the local industry (Fanapel, small sawmills, etc.). This situation started to change when outside investors noticed that the low-cost lands are very much appropriated for planting forests. Most of the country lands are flat and totally mechanized, a desired situation to agriculture and forestry. Thanks to the successive oil crises in the world, one of the major oil companies, Shell, decided to diversify its energetic matrix by planting trees for biomass generation. Uruguay was one of the selected areas. Other foreign companies, huge in the forest-based segment, decided to do the same in Uruguay: ENCE and Weyerhaeuser. The wood coming from the new-born plantations had the international markets as targets. At the beginning of the 90's there were no more than 70 to 80 thousands hectares of forest plantations in the country, the major percentage on the hands of foreign investors. In 1985, prior to the arrival of the foreigners, the plantation forest area was little, insignificant: roughly 15.000 hectares of Eucalyptus, 10.000 of Pinus, and 3.000 of other forest species (Poplar and Salix).

The great opportunity to the Uruguayan forest sector expansion has happened along Mr. Julio Maria Sanguinetti presidential term. We are sure that this fact is in great extent due to the efforts and the wisdom coming from our dear friend Ricardo Zerbino Cavajani ( Dr. Zerbino was, at that time, in charge of the Ministry of Economy and Finances. He had also the presidency of the special Committee for Commercial Negotiations during Mr. Sanguinetti government. To enhance the forest sector in the country, in December 1987, the Federal Law known as "Ley Forestal" with number 15.939 ( was released. It was responsible to give the right starting and fast speed to the Uruguayan forest segment growth. In accordance to this law, those willing to invest in forest plantations could have fiscal and taxation deductions, a similar example as it had taken place in Brazil for 20 years, from 1967 till 1986. The statistics published by DGF - Direccion General Forestal (General Forest Division), an entity from MGAP - Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca, reveal growing forest plantations areas in the country from 1989 onwards, reaching the historic level of 85.000 hectares planted in a single year (1998). The preferred and chosen areas selected by the investors were located in the following departments: Paissandu, Tacuarembo, Rivera, Rio Negro, Durazno, Maldonado, Rocha, Lavalleja, Florida, Soriano and Colonia. Even considering the small country area, there are large differences on these regions, what enables or favors one or another rural activity. Important factors are: weather, soil, altitude, distance from the export harbor, logistics and infrastructure. For example, in the Atlantic ocean coastal area the weather frosts are less frequent and the infrastructure is better. On the other hand, in the central regions, or close to the border to Argentina aside the Uruguay river, the weather is colder, the frosts are usual. These conditions demand for special clones or species, adapted to them. All Uruguay is located south to the Tropic of Capricorn, about 1,500 km below it in latitude. This location makes the country to have cooler weather. This explains why the well-succeeded silviculture used in Southeastern Brazil does not fully apply to Uruguay. However, close and similar conditions are found in relation to many areas in Rio Grande do Sul ( the south-most state in Brazil. Today, Rio Grande do Sul is gaining tremendous importance as the new forest golden area in Brazil, showing a dynamic forestry. This similarity has favored an integration and a profitable interchange between the actors located in Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul. The main forest species being planted in Uruguay are: Eucalyptus globulus, E.grandis, E.dunnii, E.maidenii, E.viminalis, E.saligna, Pinus taeda, P.elliottii, Populus deltoides e Salix alba). In 2008, the official DGF statistics disclose the following numbers for plantations in the country: 675,000 hectares with Eucalyptus; 275,000 hectares with Pinus; 1,700 hectares with Salicaceae and 6,000 hectares with Populus.

Today, the largest forested areas are owned by few companies (COFOSA, EUFORES, Weyerhaeuser, etc.) however, there is a good number of small rural farmers who have also planted forests, taking the advantage offered by the forest law 15.939. Some of these small forest owners have grouped themselves into cooperative-alike companies to facilitate the wood harvest, logistics and exports.

The moment is dynamic and there is a lot of excitement in the air. The arrival of the modern market bleached kraft pulp mills are bringing addition of value to the forest productive chain in the country. From the exports of raw wood (wood chips and logs), the country is now exporting saw-timber, panels, and other added-value wood products. And finally now, the market pulp to the world. The Spanish company ENCE started operations in Uruguay in 1989, initially growing forests to produce wood to supply its pulp & paper mills in Spain. Early 2000's, the Finnish company Botnia acquired the Shell forest plantations in Uruguay to allow the construction of the modern Botnia mill in the Fray Bentos municipality. In addition to the on-going ENCE project for a new bleached kraft pulp mill in Punta Pereira, other international companies are disclosing the aim to build pulp mill facilities in Uruguay: Stora Enso and Portucel. In no more than one decade from now, the forest industry scenario in Uruguay will be sharply modified. One attractive is the potential area for forestry. According to DGF-MGAP, there are about 3.3 million hectares of soils with potential for forest plantations, as proved by a recent agro-forestry zoning. As a consequence, the forest sector is expected to continue to grow, independently of the government financial support or incentives. The country is definitively attractive, no doubts about. In the same way as it has happened in Brazil, the forest incentives provided by the "Ley Forestal" were able to open the gates and to become drivers to this sector development. The games is going on, the players are in the field, and the forest potential is the real driver to keep the business active and healthy.

At the same time the plantation forests are growing in area, occupying areas previously designated to cattle growing ("praderas" or pastures), the native and natural vegetation and forests are also growing in extension. Natural forests represent now a total land area of 750,000 hectares, at the same level of the forest plantations. There are a lot of efforts to make this growth possible, coming from local NGO's, but a lot of the results are due to the forest-based companies acting to preserve and to rehabilitate native vegetation areas. The native or "indigenous" forests (as called in the country) are considered vital to guarantee the hydrologic equilibrium, to minimize the green house effect, to cooperate in the production of foods through sustainable management (fruits, honey, etc.) and other products for medicinal, cosmetic and other essential oil utilization's. Rural tourism, eco-tourism, and forestry entertainment are also growing activities due to the appropriate management of the native forests. The following list of native plants are well-known and admired by the local society and also by the botanists: quebracho, umbu, guava, pitangueira, timbo, coronilla, algarrobo, amarillo, araza, etc. INIA - The National Institute for Agricultural Researches has a special program for the technological development and improvement of the natural forests. As a result of these combined efforts, the area with natural forests was able to grow 130,000 hectares in the past 20 years.

The fast growth rate of the silviculture and wood production and industrialization in Uruguay has also caused the generation of some important conflicts, in addition to the already mentioned benefits on wealth and jobs creation. Some strong emotions have been awakened and sharp conflicts have appeared with NGO's and with the large neighbor on South and West, Argentina. A highly political and emotional dispute started and it is still alive as a function that Argentina did not accept the construction of the market pulp mills located at the Uruguayans banks of the rivers Uruguay and de la Plata. Since both rivers are international waters, dividing both countries, Argentina demands that Uruguay should not allow construction of these new facilities without its permission. The focuses in this dispute soon were converged to the new Botnia and ENCE mills. The pressures from the Argentinean government, media and NGO's led to daily disputes and conflicts. Strong demands have arisen to the Uruguayan forestry and forest-based industry. This conflict had as one of the worst consequences the blockage by Argentinean citizens of several bridges connecting both countries. Although the issue is still a burning one, the pressures are expected to be naturally reduced, since Botnia and ENCE mills are state-of-the-art, having the best available technology to prevent, mitigate and control environmental impacts. All these question marks had a positive advantage: Uruguay was forced to develop capability on pulp science and technology in a very fast speed. However, during the crisis summit, the available intelligence on these issues in the country had to be strengthened by importing foreign experts to help clarifying the environmental issues, both those related to forestry and wood products technologies. Uruguayan viewpoints and interests had to be defended inclusively in international courthouses. Today, to sustain all the required knowledge on this field, the local institutions are still few and with deficiencies on people and facilities. There are very few R&D and educational organizations in the country. They may be counted on your fingers: UdelaR - Universidad de la Republica, LATU - Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay and INIA - Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria are the outstanding institutions. This means that there is still a long-way road to be traveled for the consolidation of Uruguay as a "strong technological forest player". Today, the country has a fantastic forest vocation, but still needs the support of imported know-how, human resources, and technologies. One advantage is that the forest-based industry, that is strongly betting in the country, is placing moves to the local qualification of human resources. Graduate and undergraduate courses are being created, oriented to forestry and wood products technologies. The master and Ph.D. theses are to improve the level of scientific papers generation in the country, favoring the innovation process to guarantee technical solutions to important challenges of the segment. This technological development is a lot more than the level of desirable - it is vital. The forest technology needs adjustments and adaptations, from the tree breeding technologies to the silvicultural practices and industrial productive processes and best practices. The today's results for the Eucalyptus plantation forests productivity express the real world the country lives: we may say we have "practically anything you may want to see". Eucalyptus forests productivity varies from 10 to 32 m³/ha.year. Even considering that cloning techniques are being used by some forest companies, to multiply single species genetic material as E.globulus, E.dunnii and E.grandis, the hybridization techniques followed by cloning are still in the embryo stage. There are excellent opportunities with the hybrids E.grandisxglobulus, E.salignaxglobulus, etc. Even the E.urograndis hybrid, very used in Rio Grande do Sul, in the vicinities of Rivera, is seldom propagated in Uruguay. The better quality Eucalyptus clonal forests are showing productivity's or growth rates in the range 25 to 32 m³/ha.year, still a long distance to the usual average results of 40 to 50 reached in Brazil. Well, the potential for improving growth rates exists, with the advantage that genes of E.globulus and the sub-species E.globulus maidenii, E.globulus pseudoglobulus, E.globulus bicostata can be introduced in the forest breeding programs.

With regard to the country development, the forest-based industry is expected to keep the role of growth promoter on life quality and economic results. Gradually, the country is leaving the position of raw wood seller to export high-added value products, with different levels of industrialization (paper - Fanapel; market pulp - Botnia; wood panels- Los Piques, Urupanel; timber and manufactured wood products - Arazati, FYMNSA, Caja Bancaria, etc.).

During many years, the trade balance as regard to the forest products was kept in the negative side (minus 15 to 18 million dollars per year). In 2006, the forest sector exported 250 million dollars, and now, with the Botnia mill starting up, the gross value of forest products exports is to be multiplied by 3 or 4. With this in mind, the country is aware of the forest sector importance. This activity will soon be consolidated as one of the most important to the country economy.

Furthermore, forestry is a great generator of job positions, perhaps 3 to 4 times more than cattle growing. Differently from other rural activities, forestry also hires female labor (nurseries, laboratories, etc.). This fact has deserved appreciation by the Uruguayan rural society.

Another positive point is that the development road is reaching several country regions. Montevideo is no longer the talented people dreamed place for getting a job and to live in the capital. The development of this industry and activity in so many departments is improving the share of the economic growth, and the attraction of talented people from the capital to the interior lands. The retention of local human resources, the reduction on migrations from the interior regions to the capital - all these points are also being considered very positive. As a summary, the wealth generated by the forest activity is being better divided, helping to give strength to several regions of the country.

In this section, I would also like to honor and to make reference on some business men, researchers, academic professors, and forest engineers who have or are still having important participation on building this history of sucess with the Eucalyptus silviculture and forest-based industry in Uruguay. A mention and my admiration to the following people: R. Zerbino, L. Soria, C. Faroppa. Z. Bennadji, C. Robello, Raul de Castro, W. Isabella, F. Resquin, G. Barrios, A. Rodriguez Yañes, C. Mantero, O. Arca, D. Sztern, N. F. Casella, J. Balseiro, A. Kurucs, Ana Cazzadori, Daniel Martino, Jose Krall, R. Tuset, J. Lafitte, J.P. Posse, F. Duran, C. Brussa and Atilio Lombardo (, etc. Certainly many other names would deserve to be nominated for recognizing what they are doing for the technological forest and industrial development in the country. Unfortunately, my knowledge and my network are not so great in Uruguay to cover all those who have been involved to pave this prosperous road.

For all these points, we may assure that Uruguay is one of the emerging countries with higher potential to become a world landmark on Eucalyptus forestry and in the industrial utilization of this amazing raw material. We also understand that due to the small population and country dimensions, some technological gaps must be identified and surpassed. This will be a continuous challenge to those working in the Uruguayan forest sector. However, the opportunities and the potential are so significant that the talented people will be always available to help building a great forestry future, even brighter and more victorious.

We place here our acknowledgement and admiration to the Uruguayan universities and research institutes, public organizations and private companies and to all the technical people for the creeds and believes that the country economic, social and sustainable growth could in part depend on the forestry and forest industry. Although all the controversial issues with the Argentinean neighbors due to the installation in Uruguay of a modern and state-of-the-art pulp industry, this fact may be considered as a driver to give earlier maturity to the industry, to the forestry and to the Uruguayans. Silviculture, forestry and the Eucalyptus-based industry have been embraced by the Uruguayans as key-competitive advantage factors to the country development. Also, it is good to learn with the difficulties.

As a special thanks, I would like to send my best regards and to express my appreciation to the help received from several friends. Thanks to them, it was possible to have this wide forestry review of our brother country Uruguay. They helped me suggesting websites addresses, documents, and informing the names of the most important organizations involved with forestry and forest industry at the country. My friendly and fraternal thanks to Daniel Sztern, Jorge Balseiro, Oscar Caputi, Oscar Arca, Jairo Luis dos Anjos Silva, Juan Pedro Posse, Teotonio Francisco de Assis, Francisco Ferreira and Corina Piaggio.

Know more about Uruguay and Uruguayan forestry sector through the selection of recommended references just ahead:

Know more about Uruguay: (Travelling through Uruguay) (Countries of the world: Uruguay) (Eastern Republic of Uruguay as seen by Guia Geografico) (Uruguay - a country report) (Social and economic profile - Uruguay in 2006) (FAO - Uruguay country profile) (A guide and directory about Uruguay)

Know more about the Uruguayan forests and natural resources:

Natural resources in Uruguay: (National forestry inventory - Uruguayan forest resources monitoring)
(Uruguayan natural forests) (Uruguayan native and natural forests) (Native plants from Uruguay)
(GeoUruguay 2008 - Uruguay Geography and Environment Report)
(Uruguayan Environmental Report to the World Summit 2002 - Johannesburg) (Environmental assessment and social-demography of the Uruguayan rio de la Plata coastal region - 991 pages)
(Environmental characterization of Uruguay)

Eucalyptus and Pinus plantation forests in Uruguay: (Rural Uruguay in numbers - IICA) (Statistics on forestry - MGAP/ 2005) (Planted forests cartography - 2004) (Forest plantations in Uruguay) (Forest areas in Uruguay as a result of satellite mapping and inventory) (Planted forest areas in Uruguay - All species) (DGF - Registered forest plantations) (Uruguay Forestal - Uruguayan Forestry - Forestal Web) (Forestry statistics in Uruguay - Forestal Web)
(Forest plantations in Uruguay) (Uruguayan forestry in numbers - Rosario Pou & Associates) (FAO report about the Uruguayan forest sector) (Challenges to the Uruguayan forest segment) (The enormous forest and wood potential in Uruguay) (Why to invest in plantation forests in Uruguay?)

Please, also visit the sections Online Technical References, Euca-Links, References on Events and Courses and Online Technical Journals & Magazines.

In all of them you are to find valuable information about the Eucalyptus in Uruguay. I hope you like, taking the chance to learn a lot with all the fantastic achievements of the Uruguayans with the Eucalyptus forestry and industrial utilization of this amazing wood to supply products to human society.

Online Technical References

In this section, we are offering some very good euca-links with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they are very much connected with the Eucalyptus. In this section, we are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that are helping to build the foundations and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas related to these magic trees.

As already mentioned, this time all selected technical references are related to the Eucalyptus in Uruguay.

Uruguai da as boas vindas a celulose. M. Faleiros; L. Perecin. O Papel magazine (September): 37 - 45. (2008) (In Portuguese)

Inversiones y empresas forestales en Uruguay. Forestal Web. Specialized website. Available on 30.09.2008 (in Spanish)

Uruguay - Alternativas para la transformacion industrial del recurso forestal. OEA. Organizacion de los Estados Americanos. Available on 30.09.2008 (in Spanish)

Los desiertos que vos haceis... La forestacion de Eucalyptus en Uruguay.
L. Anastasia. Fundacion Argentina de Ecologia Cientifica. Available on 30.09.2008 (in Spanish)

Forestacion. Una vision del sureste uruguayo. G. Barrios. PowerPoint presentation: 12 slides. (2008) (in Spanish)

Pasado, presente y futuro de las fabricas de pasta de celulosa. O.N. Ventura. PowerPoint presentation: 15 slides. (2007) (in Spanish)

Mejoramiento genetico y manejo de especies de Eucalyptus. INIA Documentos Forestales. 29 pp. (2007) (in Spanish)

Non destructive wood quality estimation from standing tree in relation to end product characteristics of fast growth plantation Eucalyptus in Uruguay. S. Ohta; H. O'Neill; F. Tarigo; S. Quagliotti. IUFRO Division 05 Meeting. PowerPoint presentation: 33 slides. (2007) (in English)

The economic impact of the forest sector in Uruguay: Survey results. V. Morales. IUFRO Plantations Meeting. PowerPoint presentation: 14 slides. (2006) (in English)

Discovering Uruguay. G. Rodden. Pulp & Paper magazine. RISI. (June 2006) (in English)

Manual de campo. Plagas y enfermedades de eucaliptos y pinos en el Uruguay. FAO/MGAP. 173 pp. (2006) (in Spanish)

Las normas UNIT de gestion forestal sostenible. N. Marius. UNIT - Uruguayan Institute of Standardization. PowerPoint presentation: 35 slides. (2006) (in Spanish)ón%20con%20logos%20final%20670%20UNIT.pdf

Avances en propagacion vegetativa para el genero Eucalyptus. INIA. 23 pp. (2005) (in Spanish)

Biomassa forestal para produccion de energia en Uruguay. W. Oyhantcabal. PowerPoint presentation: 32 slides. (2005) (in Spanish)

Codigo nacional de buenas practicas forestales. Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca. 80 pp. (2004) (in Spanish)

Aportes a la produccion de celulosa a partir de Eucalyptus. L. Soria; F. Resquin; J.C. Mello; I. Farina; C. Faroppa. INIA. 47 pp. (2004) (in Spanish)

Tendencias y perspectivas del sector forestal en America Latina: Informe nacional Uruguay. A. Fossati. FAO/MGAP. 174 pp. (2004) (in Spanish)

Avances en investigacion y transferencia de tecnologia forestal. National Forest Program - INIA. 36 pp. (2003) (in Spanish)

La actividad forestal atraves del censo agropecuario. Censo Agropecuario. DIEA/MGAP. 17 pp. (2003) (in Spanish)

Estudio de mercado del sector forestal y foresto-industrial de Uruguay. G. Braier. ProChile. 118 pp. (2002) (in Spanish)

Estado de la informacion forestal en Uruguay. FAO Working Paper nº 16. (2002) (in Spanish)

Codigo de cosecha forestal uruguayo. G. Daniluk. 90 pp. (2002) (in Spanish)

El proceso de desarrollo forestal y agroforestal en la Republica Oriental del Uruguay. M. Polla. I IUFRO Latin America Congress. 11 pp. (1998) (in Spanish)

Principais aspectos del sector forestal en el Uruguay. C. Faroppa. 5 pp. (1998) (in Spanish)

Aptitud de uso de la madera de los eucaliptos colorados para carpinteria de obra. C. Mantero. 31 pp. (Undated) (in Spanish)

References on Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events. The advantage provided to the readers is that the event organizers made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties.

As already mentioned, this time all selected and suggested events and courses have recently happened in Uruguay. They are offering to us valuable knowledge generated and disseminated in that country.

Jornada Forestal INIA "Silvicultura para Madera Solida en Eucaliptos y Pinos". (in Spanish)
An event organized by INIA in the year 2007. The forest journey proceedings are available for downloading at the below referenced URL address.

UNESCO Seminar "Energias Renovables - una Alternativa Posible". (in Spanish)
This event happened at Montevideo in the year 2006. Among the discussed technical issues, they were presented several energy sources alternatives to the country, such as firewood, biomass, and biofuels. Please, visit: (Program and speeches)

Journey "Conocimiento y Cadenas Productivas". (in Spanish)
An event by UdelaR - Universidad de la Republica, in 2005, with emphasis in disclosing the wood & forest productive chain.

II Seminario IberoAmericano de Energia. (in Spanish)
An event by LATU - Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay - in Montevideo, 2005. The main issue was the potential utilization of several energy sources, as forest biomasses, for instance.

Seminar "Estrategias para el MDL Forestal en America Latina. (in Spanish)
An event by MGAP/UPCT in Montevideo, 2004, discussing the application of the CDM - Clean Development Mechanism. (Program) (Presentations)

International Seminar "Produccion y Comercializacion de Productos Forestales de Especies de Rapido Crecimiento". (in Spanish)
An event organized by LATU - Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay, in Montevideo, 2003.

INIA Forest Seminar about Eucalyptus globulus. (in Spanish)
Taking the fact the great importance the Eucalyptus globulus has in Uruguay as a forest species for plantations, INIA - Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria - has sponsored and promoted an important event to discuss and to debate the technological advances about this Eucalyptus species in Uruguay. The event technical document was launched by INIA in the year 2002. Please, know it:

Internacional Exhibit - "Procesamiento e Industrializacion de la Madera. (in Spanish)
This important exhibition takes place in Montevideo once and a while to introduce new technologies and equipments to the local markets.


Here, we are bringing to you a series of links with several very good websites that have strong connection with the Eucalyptus. I hope you may visit them, taking advantage of the good technical material they offer at a no cost basis.

As already mentioned, this time all selected and suggested Euca-Links are from Uruguay. We have prepared a great selection to you, ranging from universities, R&D centers, industry, associations, etc. Everything you may need to improve your skills not only about Uruguay and South America, but about the wonderful world of the Eucalyptus. Please, enjoy them.

Uruguayan government organizations related to the forestry segment:

Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca. (in Spanish)
The Uruguayan forest segment is under the responsibility and guidelines coming from this Ministry. Every year, taking advantage of the information collected and generated by several of the ministry divisions, an Agro-Business Statistical Yearbook is edited by MGAP.
(Agro-Business Statistical YearBook - Uruguay - 2008) (MGAP Division responsible for agro statistics)
(Forests projects in Uruguay under the umbrella of the CDM - Clean Development Mechanism) (Links with several agricultural, zootechnical and forest entities in the country)

DGF - Direccion General Forestal del Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca. (in Spanish)
DGF is the General Division of Forestry, the forestry branch of MGAP - Ministerio de Ganaderia, Agricultura y Pesca in the Uruguayan Federal Government. It has the aim to present and to develop legislation, guidelines, statistics, maps, publications, and forest inventories to the society. Among the various publications, there is a traditional magazine printed in paper format: Uruguay Forestal. (Webpage) (Technical articles) (E-publications) (Uruguay Forestal magazine)

DINAMA - Direccion Nacional de Medio Ambiente. (in Spanish)
DINAMA is the government institution to control, monitor, legislate and to license forest and industrial activities in the country. It has gained an enormous importance in recent days, due to the environmental dispute with Argentina, as a consequence of the construction of modern market pulp mills in Uruguay.
(Publication - Uruguay river water quality)

Web portals and directories:

Click Forestal. (in Spanish)
A web portal oriented to provide forest news about Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Equator and Paraguay.

Forestal Net. (in Spanish)
A web portal oriented to provide forestry information , somewhat not updated at the moment, but even so, with rich information and many interesting links.

Forestal Web. (in Spanish)
Forestal Web is a very good website to all those willing to collect good technical, business and commercial information and knowledge about the Uruguayan forest sector. The portal is a creation by Mr. Javier Barbosa, who lives in Rivera, a city in the up North region of the country, at the borders of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul state). The aim Javier has with the website is to disseminate positive and valuable information about forestry in Uruguay, such as statistics, events, news, articles, etc. ForestalWeb has also a nice weekly newsletter, reaching some thousands of loyal readers. (Website) (Link for free subscription - Informativo Forestal Web)

Guia Forestal. (in Spanish)
Guia Forestal is a portal with links to the most relevant forest-based companies and organizations in Uruguay. It is a typical directory, very valuable to all those who need information about: companies, associations, rural farmers, sub-contracters, forest service providers, nurseries, events, exhibitions, etc. You may find at the website links for downloading many publications and reports.

VECINET - Community Information Portal. (in Spanish)
Have a look at the special edition on forestry in Uruguay.

Forest-based business and institutional associations:

ADIMAU - Asociacion de Industriales de la Madera y Afines del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
This association represents the wood industrial sector in Uruguay. It was founded in 1943.
(National statistics about the wood industry)

AIAU - Asociacion de Ingenieros Agronomos del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
It is the association of the agronomists in the country, many of them working in silviculture and forestry. Because the lack of forest engineering courses in the country, the agronomists may take care of these field of the agriculture science. Because the quick growth of the Uruguayan forest plantation activity in the past decade, the specialized human resources are seldom, and sometimes, unavailable.
(Business plan for forestry entrepreneurship)

SPF - Sociedad de Productores Forestales del Uruguay
. (in Spanish)
It is a business and undertakers association correlated to the forest segment in Uruguay. It has been founded in 1959 to promote the forest development in a sustainable way - economic, environmental and social.

Universities in Uruguay related to the forest-based sector:

UdelaR - Universidad de la Republica. (in Spanish)
One of the most renowned Uruguayan universities. UdelaR has several undergraduate and graduate courses in chemical engineering and agronomy (diversification in forestry) This university has had an important role in the qualification and formation of human resources to support the growth of the segment. It has also important participation in the country's innovative process, thanks to good quality R&D. The College of Agronomy has several departments connected to the production of planted forests and wood technology, some of them with links just below. Recently, the UdelaR College of Engineering has created a Professional Master Course in pulp and paper science and technology. This program consists in a joint venture among several partners: UdelaR Department of Forest Products Engineering, Polytechnical University of Helsinki (Finland), LATU (Technological Laboratory of Uruguay) and forest-based companies and suppliers to this industrial segment. Know more about this important master course at:
(Website) (Agronomy - undergraduate course) (Agronomy - graduate course) (Engineering) (Chemistry) (UdelaR - College of Engineering) (Institute of Chemical Engineering) (Courses on pulp and paper technology) (UdelaR - College of Agronomy, with forestry career) (Departament of Forest Production and Wood Technology) (Courses on forestry) (Program and hand-outs about forest products technologies) (UdelaR - Master course in environmental sciences)

Universidad ORT del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
ORT has several careers, both techical and managerial.

Universidad Catolica del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
The university has several careers, technical and managerial.

Universidad del Trabajo del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
This community-college-alike university has several regional schools, with the aim to develop technical careers, inclusive technical courses in forestry and agronomy.

Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias. (in Spanish)
This college has graduate and undergraduate courses in agro-sciences.

Research & Development centers and institutes related to the forest sector:

ICI - Instituto de Ciencia e Investigacion. (in Spanish)
ICI has an organizational website created thanks to the idea of our dear friend Jorge Balseiro Savio. ICI is dedicated to develop and to scatter information about economy, finances, and marketing in the forest business. It works to develop new businesses through the utilization of softwares, hardwares and new talented entrepreneurs. The institute has two interesting digital publications: Bosques & Desarrollo and Forestando en Domingo. (Website) (Monthly Newsletter - Bosques & Desarrollo) (Weekly Newsletter - Forestando en Domingo)

IICA Uruguay - Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura. (in Spanish)
IICA is a traditional Latin-American organization oriented to develop capacitation and qualification to the agriculture sector, with important role also in forestry and agro-forestry. IICA has some online and digital newsletters, publications and a very good online library to be accessed by the community.

INIA - Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria. (in Spanish)
INIA is the most important organization developing technological and scientific R&D to the many agro-business sectors in Uruguay, including the forest one. INIA has several experimental stations, a great number of technical publications, many investigations on forestry, and a good back-ground to transfer to the interested parties. It is used to organize events, has an excellent sectorial library. Also, it is amazing the photo gallery made available in the INIA website. (Webpage) (Photo gallery)
(Images on forestry)
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(INIA online forestry publications)

Institut Pasteur de Montevideo. (in Spanish)
IPM is a very good scientific institute dedicated to the research of molecular chemistry and biotechnology.

LATU - Laboratorio Tecnologico del Uruguay. (in Spanish)
LATU is the main technological laboratory in Uruguay. The focuses are: R&D, capacitation of human resources, metrology, technological innovation. The headquarters are located in Montevideo, with impressive facilities. LATU has partnerships with universities, public institutions, and private industry. The main areas of concern are: meat, milk, food processing, fish, wine, leather, wood and forestry. The LATU has also an advanced laboratoty in the city of Fray Bentos, dedicated to the forestry, wood and pulp/paper technological R&D. (Website)
(Presentations in events)
(LATU forestry and wood technology publications) (Wood services and related businesses) (Forest department at Fray Bentos)

Uruguayan forest-based industrial, manufacturing & consulting companies:
In this sub-section, we are to introduce to you a selection of companies performing in the Uruguayan forest sector: most of them are manufacturing and wood processing mills, but we are also mentionning consulting and forest services companies. The objective is to bring to your knowledge some of the most representative forest companies from Uruguay.

Agroempresa Forestal S.A. (Forest services)
It is a company that provides a diversified portfolio of services and consulting projects.

Botnia. (Bleached kraft market pulp)
Botnia is a Finnish-origin company, very traditional in the pulp and paper business. The Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mill is located in the municipality of Fray Bentos. The company is one of the sponsor organizations for the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter.,1490 (Global Botnia website with a section to the Uruguayan mill),210 (Publications about and from Botnia, with several of them dealing to the mill in Uruguay) (Socio-environmental study about the Botnia mill in Uruguay) (Presentation 01 - Botnia in Uruguay) (Presentation 02 - Botnia in Uruguay)
(RISI article - Botnia - More than just a pulp mill) (Orion pulp mill by IFC - International Finance Corporation)
(Productive processes of the Fray Bentos Botnia mill)
(Summary of the Botnia Environmental Impact Assessment Study - DINAMA)
(Report about the environmental Botnia Fray Bentos mill performance as presented by Canadian Ecometrix consulting company)
(Article written by the Botnia team after one year of mill operation in Fray Bentos)

Carbosur. (CDM consulting services - Clean Development Mechanism and forest carbon sinking)

Chipper S.A. (Eucalyptus wood chips for exports)

COFOSA ou FOSA- Compania Forestal Oriental. (Forest plantations)
Botnia forest company created to guarantee the wood supply to the market pulp mill located in Fray Bentos. The company has FSC- Forest Stewardship Council forest certification. (Forest images gallery) management plan)
(About FOSA as viewed by La Republica)

COFUSA - Compania Forestal Uruguaya. (Forest plantations)
Oriented to the production of certified Eucalyptus planted forests.
(Public summary of the forest management plan, as required by FSC) (Photo gallery, several sections to be navigated)

DURAFOR . (Eucalyptus plantation forests and certified wood exports)
(Forest management plan)

ENCE. (Market pulp)
Future bleached kraft pulp mill of the Spanish ENCE group, being built in Punta Pereira - Colonia)
(Documents about the ENCE project in Uruguay)
(ENCE Punta Pereira mill - Environmental Impact Assessment study, as presented by Enviro, a consulting company owned by my dear friend Daniel Sztern - Summary of the ENCE new mill project)

Enviro. (Environmental impact assessment studies)

EUFORES. (Forest plantations)
Eufores is the forest company responsible to plant the Eucalyptus forests for the certified wood supply to the Punta Pereira ENCE mill.
(About the eucalypts)
(Forest management plan) (Environmental management plan)

FANAPEL - Fabrica Nacional de Papel. (Printing & writing papers)
FANAPEL is one of the most traditional Eucalyptus-fiber-based paper companies in Uruguay and in Latin America. The company was founded in 1898, experiencing today a remarkable move toward technological modernization and optimization in the Juan Lacaze mill facilities. Due to the fact that the company is one of the oldest still running in Latin america, the available photo gallery in the company's website cannot be missed, visit it to become enchanted. Located at the banks of the Rio de la Plata, close to Colonia del Sacramento, the mill has its own beaty associated to fantastic natural landscaping. I have several nice and good friends working there, to whom I'm dedicating my friendship and admiration for what they do in favor to the Eucalyptus: Norberto Francisco Casella, Oscar Arca, Carlos Giaudrone, Horacio Faeda, Gustavo Gorni, and several others. To my dear friend Ricardo Zerbino, the recognition for his work to FANAPEL and on benefit of the Latin American pulp and paper industry. Juan Lacaze mill is a fully-integrated high quality Eucalyptus printing paper mill. The company grows the own Eucalyptus forests, it has a continuous digester kraft pulping system, a TCF bleaching line, and manufacture several brands of paper, including coated paper. Today, Fanapel belongs to the Tapebicua group, a business entrepreneurial group that also owns Celulosa Argentina, in Argentina (Website) (Photo gallery and FANAPEL history) (Interactive website, with news, technical information, and the possibility to practice online business and trade)

FORESUR. (Wood exports)
Foresur is a cooperative of forest and wood producers who have decided for an integrated work to facilitate the exports of wood in the form of logs or wood chips.

Forestal Caja Bancaria. (Sawtimber, treated and certified wood of Pinus and Eucalyptus)
(Forest management plan)

FYMNSA - Forestadora y Maderera del Norte S/A. (Pinus taeda forest plantations and high-valued wood products - FSC certified)

Los Piques. (Laminated wood panels)

Indústrias Forestales Arazati. (Pinus and Eucalyptus certified sawtimber)

IPUSA - Industria Papelera Uruguaya. (Tissue papers)
Uruguayan tissue papers and diapers manufacturing mill, owned by the Chilean CMPC group. The mill has its tissue papers production on the basis of recycled secondary fibers.
(Recycling by IPUSA video)

Maserlit - Maderas Aserradas del Litoral - ENCE Group. (Sawmill)
(Certified preserved and treated wood and poles)

(Certified preserved and treated wood and poles)

NEVOPARK. (Eucalyptus wood chips for exports)

PAMER. (Recycled papers and paperboards)

Pike Consultora. (Consulting on forestry and inventories)

Rosario Pou & Asociados. (Consulting on forestry and forest services)

Stora Enso. (Eucalyptus plantation forests) (Forest plantations and certification)
(Stora Enso forest plantations in Uruguay)

TRAMMEL. (Wood pallets)

URUFOR. (Eucalyptus and Pinus certified high value added wood products)

URUPANEL. (Laminated and glued wood panels and MDF manufactured from Pinus and Eucalyptus woods)

Weyerhaeuser Uruguay. (Forest plantations, wood panels and veneer)
North-American group with impressive participation in the Uruguayan forest-based industry through the companies Colonvade and Los Piques.
(Environmental Impact Assessment study for the wood papel manufacturing plant)

NGOs in Uruguay showing a contrary position concerning plantation forestry:

Eco Portal. (in Spanish)
NGO with a wide range of activities, but also with a contrary position with regard to forest plantations and to the wood utilization of the produced woods to manufacture pulp and other wood products.

Grupo Guayubira. (in Spanish)
One of the most active Uruguayan NGOs strongly opposing the plantation forests and the market pulp manufacturing. The NGO website is rich on technical information and promotional/campaigning materials.
(Several online publications for download - most related to forest plantations and pulp manufacturing) (Forest plantations and water cycle / hydrology) (Forest plantations for pulp and paper: a growing problem)

Redes - Amigos de la Tierra Uruguay. (in Spanish)

Red Uruguaya de ONGs Ambientalistas. (in Spanish) (Statement against forest plantations)

WRM - World Rainforest Movement. (in Spanish)
A traditional NGO opposing to forest plantations in several Latin American countries. The organization has declared the date September 21st as the International Day against Forest Monocultures. (Several and diversified e-publications for downloading)

Online Technical Journals & Magazines

Here, we are bringing to you a selection of excellent online journals and magazines with connection to the Eucalyptus. In these journals, you may freely download articles or read the news, without the need of memberships, passwords or payments. The maximum you may need to do is to register yourself. They are journals or article collections at our hands (or eyes), available to all those wondering to read and to learn more about forestry, environment, pulp, paper, woods, and Eucalyptus, surely. Please, go to the search tool in each journal, and type "Eucalyptus". Then, have a look in the result. In this way, many times you may find valuable technical material. To the editors of these journals, our most sincere appreciation and thanks. We hope many other journals may join forces to this scientific and technical knowledge chain.

In this present Eucalyptus Newsletter issue, the referenced online journals and magazines are from Uruguay. Learn more about the Eucalyptus navigating on them.

Agrociencia. (in Spanish)
Scientific journal edited by the College of Agronomy - UdelaR - Universidad de la Republica.

El Pais - Suplemento Agropecuario. (in Spanish)
This is the agricultural section of El Pais, an Uruguayan daily newspaper.

Revista Inia. (in Spanish)
Technical magazine edited by INIA - Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria.

Uruguay Forestal. (in Spanish)
A web blog with news and fresh adds about the the forestry segment in Uruguay.

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus by
Ester Foelkel

In this edition: The Eucalyptus used for the Production of Honey - A top quality apiculture

The Eucalyptus forests honey production potential is already very well-known and much appreciated by beekeepers and forest owners. It allows diversification in the rural production and an extra income to farmers. Eucalyptus flowers are very much attractive to honey bees (Apis mellifera) due to the amount and quality of the pollen and nectar they have. Some species such as Eucalyptus robusta, E. melliodora, E. urophylla and many others are able to have rich blossoming periods, increasing its importance to the apiculture. The Eucalyptus nectar is collected by bees and stored in honeycombs inside the beehives, serving as food source to the bees colonies. However, since the beginning of mankind civilization, the humans started to eat and to enjoy eating honey, rearing and taming bees for better honey production and other products they can make and offer to us.

Honey, this viscous liquid is not only consumed by humans because its sweetness and amazing flavor, but also because it has relevant nutritional and medicinal properties. Some apiculture experts even confirm that the Eucalyptus is, from all exotic plants established in Brazil, the most capable and apt for honey production: it has ideal nectar and pollen characteristics for beehives and colonies developments (Marchini, 2003). The same author states that pollen and nectar exploiting by bees occurs in function of their nutritional needs, especially because they are considered the major sources of carbohydrates and proteins to the bees. The Eucalyptus flowers can represent up to 28.6% of those visited by bees in relation to other plants (Amaral apud Marchini, 2003).

Other important Eucalyptus characteristic that shows up its apiculture potential is the precocious flowering age. In general, a pulp and paper oriented Eucalyptus forest plantation starts flowering on the second or third year of age, in a seven-year rotation. In case the forests are managed especially for honey production or in some clonal populations, this blossoming age can even be reduced. In planted forests oriented for flower production, soil fertilizing is required to optimize blooming.

The planting spacing is another important aspect: it has to be larger than those used for fast yield wood production. The most recommended are 5X5 m to 6X6 m. Other alternative that also yields valuable wood production is the plantation on 3X3 m (1.111 trees/ha), reducing by thinning to half of original population after some years.

Eucalyptus urophylla and its hybrids, in adequate management conditions, can produce flowers before the second year after planting. Eucalyptus management for apiculture includes the plantation of several different species or clones, allowing blossoming during all over the year and reducing to zero the shortage of food to bees. The remarkable Eucalyptus expert Mr. Edmundo Navarro de Andrade on his book "The eucalypt", second edition on 1961, showed one good example of this management. At that time, the author suggested a mosaic of plantations with different species, in order to guarantee all year blooming on Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The suggested apiculture management was: E. robusta flowers on February to April; E. tereticornis, from May to September; and E. resinifera, from October to December.

In the past, on some regions of the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; the death of bees during Autumn was common, mainly due to the absence of native vegetation flower production. Some farmers observed that when E. robusta was present in the area, the problem wasn’t noticed. This was understood and explained by this Eucalyptus species blossoming on this season of the year (March to June), providing good nutrition to those bees (Azambuja, 2007). Flower production also varies according to the environment the tree species interacts. As an example, E. saligna can flower from April to September on Sao Paulo state, but on the southern state of Santa Catarina – Brazil, the same species blossoming occurs later, from August to September.

The weather conditions can promote or disfavor Eucalyptus blooming. There are some species such E.dunnii that are known to produce few flowers and seeds on Brazil. This situation may bring negative relationships between farmers and forest owners. Most of the beekeepers expect E.dunnii to behave as well as the other Eucalyptus species, so they should be previously alerted to avoid disappointments with the reduced honey production near this species areas.

The Eucalyptus honey production can occur associated with other forest plantation purposes, promoting aggregated earnings in the forest and wood productive chain. One possible and welcome alternative is agro-forestry, combining the production of different types of foods and woods.

The Eucalyptus flower attractiveness to bees stops right after its fecundation, which occurs on 5 to 8 days, depending on the species (INTA, 2005). On the other hand, the Eucalyptus have very wide blossoming periods and this fact favors and enables flower synchronization for pollination and fecundation. There are Eucalyptus breeding programs objecting the production of even better flowering and to increase the already high honey ability. One Brazilian university (ESALQ/USP) has a program named TUME - Multiple Use Testing of Eucalyptus. They aim to develop multiple uses for the Eucalyptus plantations. TUME has also the objective to better orient the Eucalyptus users, including those wondering to make honey from their flowers.

Different Eucalyptus species produce different honey properties and colors (Navarro de Andrade, 1961). E. corymbosa, E. scabra, E. paniculata and E. tereticornis give dark color honey and very good flavor. On the other hand, E. triantha, Corymbia maculata, E. microcorys, E. pilularis, E. melliodora and E.viminalis can produce light color and flavored honey, and as good as well. Corymbia citriodora and E. camaldulensis honey differ on color and taste. The honey color may vary from the almost white to the red amber and the sugar concentration can reach 50% (REMADE, 2001). Although, honeys originated from E. robusta and E. saligna flowers are very tasty, they have fast crystallization. Some consumers like this characteristic, but most of them prefer the fluid ones.

The bees are also vital to help on pollination between different trees on Eucalyptus clonal orchards. As a major consequence, bees help increasing the number of seeds/capsules on Eucalyptus seed production areas. Apis mellifera can transport pollen from E. saligna providing pollination on other trees up to 300 meters far; even the commonest distance of pollination be related as 100 meters as most usual (Pacheco et al. 1986).

The vigorous and healthy beehives can be positioned on clean and well-ventilated places close to or at the Eucalyptus plantations, obeying a certain distance and ratio, depending on the trees and flowers exuberance. Harvesting of honey begins when 75-80% of the honeycombs are closed (operculated). During Winter time, make sure that the beehives near the Eucalyptus plantations have a good amount of food and flowers in the surroundings to guarantee the health of the colonies (INTA, 2005).

The mono-flowers honeys (mono-specific ones), originated from the Brazilian Eucalyptus flowers, have great acceptance on national and international markets. They are already exported to Japan and European countries (Azambuja, 2007) and can provide good economic results on the trade. According to Azambuja (2007), it’s possible to install 4 beehives/hectare in an Eucalyptus forest plantation. If well-managed, they can produce 50-60 kg/beehive/year. The same author relates that Brazilian average honey production is 20-kg honey/beehive/year.

Besides honey, there are some other bees products that can become very profitable for beekeepers. The pollen is something already very commercialized due to its high protein content. In beehives properly managed, it’s possible to collect 2-3 kg of Eucalyptus pollen/beehive/flowering period. The Eucalyptus pollen color can vary from light green up to white greenish, depending on the species (INTA, 2005).

The wax, propolis and the real jam are other bee products that have great demand on markets, especially because of their medicinal properties. The wax is excreted by glands located on bees ventral surface of the abdomen and serves for beehive construction and honey storage. So, on apiculture, the wax is extracted with the honey from honeycombs, equivalent to 2 % of their weights. Wax is a valuable by-product, improving the earnings to the beekeepers. The wax is fully utilized by the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and furniture industries. It also has an important utilization on the apiculture to help bees to reconstruct the honeycombs (Azambuja, 2007).

Propolis is a resinous substance produced by bees to help protection against humidity and to prevent the attack of harmful microorganisms to beehives. The propolis is dark green colored and its major medicinal properties are: antibiotic, anti-infection, anesthetics and it can be used on many disease cures (REMADE, 2001).

The Eucalyptus flower honeys are well-known for the proved antiseptical characteristics they have. They are indicated as complementary therapy on some breathing diseases. This kind of honey can also help on digestive and urinary infection problems.

The main Eucalyptus honey constituents are: reducing sugars - from 67.7 to 77.1% (w/w); total reducing sugars - from 67.8 to 88.3%; sacarose, from 0.1 to 15.2%; and proteins, from zero to 1.0 mg/mL (Komatsu, 2002). The Eucalyptus honey also have flavoring agents as aldeids and alcohol; water (around 17%); acids - varying up to 0.5 % solids; mineral salts (0.02 - 1 %); vitamins B and C and amino acids. Enzymes, pollen, nectar, microorganisms, yeast, and other elements can be also present on Eucalyptus honeys (REMADE, 2001).

The association between Eucalyptus wood production and apiculture can provide great advantages to mankind and such honey is considered, nowadays, one of the major non-wood forest products obtained from Eucalyptus plantations. The apiculture development in one region can benefit all of the involved workers. It can help other associated industry development and the creation of new jobs and incomes. Besides that, the proper Eucalyptus wood may be used as raw-material to beehives construction. Definitively, a forest cluster can be developed (Azambuja, 2007).

With all these positive key-points, several forest industries and governments are investing on educating, communicating and promoting apiculture and new technologies of honey production from Eucalyptus. That’s why many beekeepers, private and public institutions, and research centers partnerships have been created. Their prime objective is to improve community life quality with important social programs. The apiculture based on Eucalyptus plantations can offer huge advantages to our society, mainly in developing countries.

Other very relevant point that can’t be forgotten in this context is that most forest activities use small amounts and few agro-chemical products during all plantation cycle (Vasques et al. 2007). Such procedure can provide ideal conditions to bee’s development. These insects are very sensitive to many insecticides and other toxic compounds. So, the beehives installed on Eucalyptus plantations are free from pollutants and they originate honeys that have good purity, quality and quantity.

The relationship between Eucalyptus forests and apiculture is being presented to all interested people in many literature references just below. There is a great number of scientific articles, websites, speeches and other kind of relevant publications about the benefits the association Eucalyptus/bees offers. You can read also about nutritional and medicinal advantages that Eucalyptus honey offers to human health and you can find other bees products information as well.

Recommended articles and selected websites about the production of honey from Eucalyptus:

*Photo:Rido Moreira

Apicultura wiki: Eucalyptus. Available on 10/09/2008 (in Spanish) (in Spanish)

Apicultura imediata e reflorestamento apicola. R. R. Dosouto. Pasto Apicola. Available on 10/09/2008 (in Portuguese)

Informacoes sobre pasto apicola, melioponicola e reflorestamento. Melioponario Dende. Available on 10/09/2008 (in Portuguese)

Cultura apicola. Specialized website. Available on 10/09/2008 (in Spanish)

Sociedad Apicola Uruguaya. Specialized website. Available on 10/09/2008 (in Spanish)

Honey bee (Apis mellifera). Available on 10/09/2008 (in English)

Eucalyptus melliodora. Digital Enciclopedia Wikipedia. Available on 09/09/2008 (in English) (in Spanish)

Colmeias, colmenas & beehives. Digital Enciclopedia Wikipedia. Available on 09/09/2008 (in English) (in Portuguese) (in Spanish)

Apicultura e plantas fornecedoras de polen. E.O. Magalhaes. Available on 10/09/2008 (in Portuguese)

O eucalipto e a apicultura. TUME ESALQ/USP. Specialized website. Available on 09/09/2008 (in Portuguese)

As abelhas e o mel. C. Pereira. Available on 02/09/2008 (in Portuguese)

Honey production. Available on 02/09/2008 (in English)

Exploring honey varieties. Available on 02/09/2008 (in English)

Mel. Associacao Apicola de Minas Gerais. Available on 02/09/2008 (in Portuguese)

Aptitud melifera - Manual para productores de eucaliptos de la Mesopotamia Argentina. Available on 02/09/2008 (in Spanish)

Aptitud melifera del eucalipto. AGROBIT. Available on 02/09/2008 (in Spanish)

A importancia do eucalipto na apicultura. R. R. Dosoto. Available on 02/09/2008: (in Portuguese)

Goldfields Apiaries. A selected Australian producer of Eucalyptus honeys (Stringybark Eucalyptus). Available on 02/09/2008: (in English)
(in English)

Eucalipto e mel. V. E. R. Azambuja. Ageflor Articles. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Mel: o doce sabor do eucalipto. Painel Florestal. Forest News Ageflor. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Aptitud melifera del eucalipto. INTA Argentina. (2005) (in Spanish)

Producao de mel em eucaliptais da Veracel chega a 12 toneladas. Veracel News. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Myrtaceae: pollen grain morphology. O. Davis. (2002) (in English)

Scientific articles, papers and speeches related to honey production and Eucalyptus:

Approaches, methods and processes for innovative apiculture development: Experiences from Ada’a-Liben Woreda, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. M. Girma; S. Ballo; A. Tegegne; N. Alemayehu; L. Belayhun. Working Paper 8. 38 pp. (2008) (in English)

Producao de mel de Eucalyptus. D.A. Anacleto. III Simposio TUME -GELQ/ESALQ. PowerPoint presentation: 24 slides. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Recursos troficos de Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) na regiao de Morro Azul do Tingua, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. C.F.P. da Luz; M. L. Thome; O. M. Barth. Revista Brasileira de Botanica 30(1): 29-36. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Uma sintese da contribuicao do genero Pinus para o desenvolvimento sustentavel no sul do Brasil. A. G. Vasques; A. S. Nogueira; F. F. Kirchner; R. Berger. Floresta 37(3): 445-450. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Analysis of volatile compounds of Eucalyptus honey by solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. L. C. Vazquez; M. C. Diaz-Maroto; E. Guchu; M. S. Perez-Coello. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 224: 27–31. (2006) (in English)

Las propiedades medicinales de las plantas y su relacion con las mieles monoflorales nativas o endemicas. D. Potocnjak; C. Rios; R. Pizarro; G. Montenegro. Fundacion para la Inovacion Agraria Chile. 8 pp. (2006)
(in Spanish)

Fat bees, skinny bees – A manual on honey bee nutrition for beekeepers. D. Somerville. RIRDC - Australian Government. 150 pp. (2005) (in English)

Manejo intensivo para la produccion de material vivo, miel en primavera y otono en los montes de Eucalyptus grandis. D. Hernandez. 1er. Congreso de Apicultura del Mercosur. 17 pp. (2005) (in Spanish)

Analise de agrupamento, com base na composicao fisico quimica, de amostras de meis produzidos por Apis mellifera L. no estado de Sao Paulo. L. C. Marchini; A. C. C. C. Moreti; I. P. Otsuk. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos 25(1): 8-17. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Calidad y origen botanico de mieles del noreste de Uruguay. E. Corbella; L.Tejera; F. Cernuschi. Revista INIA nº 3: 6 - 7. (2005) (in Spanish)

Long-term flowering synchrony of box-ironbark eucalypts. M. R. Keatley; A.D. I. L. Hudson; T. D. Fletcher. Australian Journal of Botany 52: 47–54. (2004) (in English)

Study of the botanical origin of honeys commercialised as protected geographical indication "Mel de Galicia". M. C. Seijo; F. J. Rodriguez-Rajo; J. Mendez; J. M. Chouza. First European Conference of Apidology. p. 137. (2004) (in English)

Markets for non-wood forest products. P. Collier; I. Short; J. Dorgan. COFORD. 84 pp. (2004) (in English)

Comportamento de coleta de alimento por Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) em cinco especies de Eucalyptus. L. C. Marchini; A. C. Moreti. Arch. Latinoam. Prod. Anim. 11(2): 75-79. (2003) (in Portuguese)

ABSTRACT: Characterization of Eucalyptus and Citrus monofloral honey in Sao Paulo State by thermoanalysis. M.L. Felsner. Revista Instituto Adolfo Lutz 62(1): 64. (2003) (in English)

ABSTRACT: Characterization of Eucalyptus and Citrus monofloral honey in Sao Paulo State by pollen and physical-chemical analysis. C. B. Cano. Revista Instituto Adolfo Lutz 62(1): 63. (2003) (in English)

Caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de amostras de mel e desenvolvimento de enxames de Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera. Apidae), em cinco especies de eucaliptos. L. C. Marchini; A. C. C. C. Moreti; S. Silveira Neto. Boletim Centro de Pesquisa de Processamento de Alimentos 21(1): 193-206. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Honey & pollen flora suitable for planting in south-eastern NSW. D. Somerville. NSW Agriculture. 4 pp. (2002)
(in English)

Analises fisico-quimicas de amostras de meis de flores silvestres, de eucalipto e de laranjeira, produzidos Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) no estado de Sao Paulo. S. S. Komatsu; L. C. Marchini; A. C. C. C. Moreti. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos 22(2): 143-146. (2002) (in Portuguese)

ABSTRACT: Fatty acids in honeybee-collected pollens from six endemic Western Australian eucalypts and the possible significance to the Western Australian beekeeping industry. R. Manning; M. Harvey. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 42(2):217–223. (2002) (in English)

Pollen analysis of eucalypts in Western Australia. R. Manning. RIRDC Publication 01/53. 63 pp. (2001)
(in English)

O eucalipto e a apicultura. REMADE 59 Year 11. (2001) (in Portuguese)

Competition for world honey markets: an Alberta perspective. Competitive Intelligence Unit. Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development. 134 pp. (2001)
(in English)

Espectro polinico de amostras de mel de Apis mellifera L., coletadas na Bahia. A. C. C. C. Moreti; C. A. L. Carvalho; L. C. Marchini; P. C. F. Oliveira. Bragantia 59(1):1-6. (2000) (in Portuguese)

Estudo da dispersao de polen de Eucalyptus saligna Smith por abelhas Apis mellifera L. utilizando-se o radiofosforo 32 P. I. A. Pacheco. IPEF 34:47-52. (1986) (in Portuguese)

Efeito de colmeias de Apis mellifera L. em pomar de sementes de Eucalyptus saligna Smith. I.A. Pacheco; P. Y. Kageyama; E. Berti Filho; F. M. Wield. IPEF 29:11-17. (1985) (in Portuguese)

O eucalipto. E. N. Andrade. 2nd Edition. Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro. 653 pp. (1961) (in Portuguese)

Sustentabilidade como estrategia do negocio. Votorantim Celulose e Papel. PowerPoint presentation: 26 slides. (Undated)
(in Portuguese)

Usos alternativos dos plantios de eucalipto. Apicultura solidaria. E. B. Loureiro. Aracruz Celulose. PowerPoint presentation: 25 slides. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

*We thanks very much our dear friend, the forest engineer Rildo Moreira, from IPEF, for the help by providing to us the interesting picture showing a beehive hung in an Eucalyptus tree.

Technical mini-article by Celso Foelkel

Communicating to Society the Realities of the Forest-Based Sector

For several very good reasons, I guess, accumulated along this sector history, in general with mills located far from big cities, the pulp and paper industry has learned to have a "low profile" behavior in the communications to the society. In short, this means the following: to stay distant from the media, far from the communication vehicles, to invest little in image marketing, and to leave the conflicting problems with society to be solved by the time, as they run to accommodate by themselves. The lack of dialogue was one of the major consequences. Having a look on this industry historical development, it is easy to understand this behavior. The pulp and paper segment has always aimed for locating the forests and the mills far from the large urban areas. These places are more appropriate to grow the forests, because the cost of the land is less expensive. On the other hand, due to environmental impact of the kraft process, a lot more pronounced in the mills with old and today obsolete technologies, these companies had many times conflicting situations with the local communities, due to the odor, solid residues disposal, water pollution, contamination's, forest monocultures, etc. A mission not very simple and not pleasant they had. However, the situation now-a-days is completely different. Our pulp and paper mills have minimum environmental impact, and the plantation forests are established and managed with excellence, eco-efficiency and sustainability. Mills and forests are certified in accordance to renowned and recognized systems of very good international reliability. Furthermore, the better information and communication are becoming essential to the business sustainability too, for the acceptance of the company and its activities by the society. For all these reasons, it is difficult to understand the why we are still failing in the communication process. In the global scenario, several very good and modern new pulp and paper mills undertakings have been rejected by the local communities in the places they would like to be born and to prosper. The fantastic eco-mosaics in the sustainable forest plantation management are seen by the society as plantations of monocultures or green deserts. Our advances in environmental protection and pollution prevention are unknown or ignored. Unfortunately, our executives and technical representatives have difficulties to well-express to public, in a language people could understand and trust. As far as most of the time our human resources are used to talk to other technicians, bankers, economists, politicians, and related positions, they have a way to express that sometimes is understood as prepotency by normal citizens, although this is not the purpose. On the other hand, the community associations and the NGOs are today living a historical moment due to the Third Sector boom and to the dynamism provided by the Internet. Since our activities are considered of major impact by some of them (socially and environmentally speaking) and combined with our lack of ability to dialogue and to explain our points, the damage is being enormous. There exists only a single way to us to face successfully this problem: it is to better inform about our achievements, our technologies, our daily life at the forests and mills, and about the benefits originated from our existence. The truth is that as a technician, we do not feel confortable in participating in debates where the involved opposing people speak a different idiom in relation to ours, and who are also criticizing our way of working and our behavior. Our arguments are in general very academic and technical, our abilities to handle and to manage emotions are little, close to nil. This needs a great change, and immediately. Good communication and reliability are now new exigencies in the curriculum vitae of any new engineer or technician who may wonder to work in the business. An important step at the companies is the development of a very wide process for inside-the-fences people education and sectorial awareness. Everybody linked to the company should be invited to learn more about: employees, sub-contracted people, suppliers, etc. After all, everybody has the right, the opportunity and the obligation to be one of the company's voices (or spoke-persons) in the daily-life. It is important to explain our realities with good knowledge, and in a franc, candid, honest and convincing manner. To be persuasive demands knowledge and trust. We need to join efforts to develop the right answers, to learn how to present them in appropriate language, decodified to the ordinary citizens. Society needs better explanations to better understand us. The institutional associations may help on this task. When information targets and positions become ready and in the right format, the next step would be to scatter them. Nothing better than the utilization of paper, people and internet to disseminate our realities to the interested parties. Even in the case they are not so much interested. We are still shy, perhaps incompetent in this regard. However, this is the right timing for changes, we cannot keep waiting more. Without a good communication process we will be threatened by not aggregating the communities support to our growth plans for a successful business. The support and the positive image with the local authorities are also vital. Thus, my friends, let's join efforts and to be ready for hard-working. This needs fast speed. It is no longer good to be "low profile" or "no profile at all". This must be considered as past.

Some forest and wood based companies and also associations representing these sectors have been very well-succeeded in using the web to inform about the sector. Others, unfortunately not. Dear friends, please have in mind that today, all companies and associations have their own websites. It is a must in the modern days. However, pay attention to what they offer to the society - close to 100% of the companies offer a heavy annual report file or the charming Sustainability Report for downloading. They are very heavy files, taking long time for downloading, and they are more written to explain about the company to investors, bankers, or decision-makers, than really to tell society about our sector or our daily activities. They may be useful to some hundreds of persons, when we have millions to be touched at hearts with a simpler language and more didactic texts. Within these millions of people we have: students, judges, prosecutors, researchers, professors, investors, curious, children, farmers, etc. Our ability to explain about our processes, products, markets, forests, etc. is still poor, we need to tell better about our benefits and strengths.

Some companies are used to disclose their productive process flowsheets in the website, sometimes with some interesting animation (movies, cartoons, etc.). See (;
Sometimes this information is difficult to be captured by citizens, they need a didactic explanation, not a technical one. This means that a good existing procedure can be improved even further. This is real life, always we may improve anything we are doing. Don't you agree?

Due to these enormous difficulties that our sector has to perform well by communicating its realities to society, I decided to bring some good examples already available in our segment. Some are very clever, interesting, educational and didactic ones. We have very good websites, books, magazines and even videos, some of them with fantastic quality, good examples to be multiplied. I strongly suggest to our companies, manufacturers, and sectorial associations to have a reflection and a proactive thinking in how to multiply these examples to many more. It would be amazing to be navigating in the web and finding good quality information about the role of our forest based products in our daily life. Also, it would be great to see available in Internet the respect and awareness of our companies regarding the environmental and social issues. There are so many wonderful and interesting things to be disclosed: the paper origin, how wood is formed in nature and its main anatomical and chemical constituents, how pulp and paper are manufactured, what are fibers, how to pack articles with wooden materials, how matches are made, and furniture, and wooden houses, etc., etc. Everything could be explained in a simple, candid and didactic manner. On the sections a more technical or business languages would be needed, then, a change in the idiom and in the style. So simple this. Furthermore, we could have sections to each group of interested people: high-school or college students, kids, rural farmers, customers of wood and paper products, legislators, economists, etc., etc.

Some organizations go even further to the utilization of Internet. TAPPI / USA - The Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, during a time length of six years, promoted and maintained at Disneyworld/Orlando Epcot Center a permanent exhibition named "Forests for our Future". It was visited by millions of people, unbelievable. Visitors could learn about paper-making, sustainable forest management, the process to liberate fibers from wood to make pulp, how fibers are seen in the microscope, etc., etc. Everything in an interactive and funny way. There is still something available in the web about this great and well-succeed TAPPI/Disney project:, or in a Forest Products Journal article ( ). It has been a great pity that the North-American pulp and paper industry is facing a long competitiveness crisis and this fabulous process for sectorial communication has been abandoned. Anyhow, TAPPI still has another successful and celebrated educational website called "TAPPI Paper University - PaperU". At this webpage students and teachers may learn a lot about the world of pulp and paper. It is precious, have a visit, joy and enjoy with the available knowledge ( Something so simple and easy to be constructed and maintained. By far, helpful to thousands of users. TAPPI has this website for several years, but it may be seen that it needs some updates.

Another educational online resource presented by one organization is the Paperonline, a creation by CEPI - Confederation of Paper Industries ( Although the information is a good quality one, the website could have better images, more figures and illustration. Many many times, the images tell better than a whole written page of explanation. Some other Paperonline and CEPI e-publications are very useful to society. Make a visit.

In a similar model, the CPI / UK - Confederation of the Paper Industries - has a fabulous "Teacher Information Pack", oriented to provide reliable and good explanations about papermaking to high-school teachers (
. And there is a lot more there - CPI website has a "Kids Korna" section to inform children about paper manufacture, uses, advantages, etc. Please, have a look at: It pays the time.

I have a great admiration to the educational website developed by CMPC, a Chilean pulp and paper company. It is simple, efficient, with good communication, good images, well-illustrated, very clear to students, nice, good-looking and pleasant. Have a visit to PapelNet at the address There, you may learn about wood, pulp and paper, forest management, environment, etc. At the same time the page may be read, in case you like it, there is the possibility to download pdf files to keep the information in your computer. See how efficient, simple and efficacious this website is.

In Brazil, we also have some interesting educational initiatives, some are in an optimization process, and others have unfortunately disappeared. There is something that for me is outstanding, but it seems that most of the sector personnel don't know, or they have even forgotten. It is the small Pedro Bandeira's booklet titled "O misterio da fabrica de livros - The mystery of the book factory" or also called in other editions "The fantastic book factory". Bandeira tells in a very didactic manner, and specially to children, how pulp and paper are manufactured from the planted forests wood. His book is able to educate and to bring joy to kids, helping the formation and education of the future Brazilian citizens. Today, his book is only found in few used-book shops, for an insignificant price. I have the privilege to own both, the book and the video CD, an animation of the book. A pearl, a precious work. Please, visit to know more about:

Another amazing little booklet to kids is "The story of paper", in Brazil presented with the title "A aventura do papel - The paper adventure". They are also exhausted in the libraries, only places you may find are used-book stores or in my personal library. The book author is Odile Limousin and the illustrations from Beat Brusch. Know more at:

Since the idea is to bring good examples, it is also fair to know the blog "Campaigning for the Tree of the Life". The blog aims to bring associations among the sustainable processes in the production, utilization for the Eucalyptus planted trees ( Another marvelous example is the educational magazine "Nosso Papel - Our Paper" created by ABTCP - The Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper (,145). Both initiatives are also available in digital format to cross the country's borders. They show imagination and creativeness. ABTCP magazine "Nosso Papel" has now around 20 issues, being also distributed in paper format to over 70,000 people.

When good information resources are unavailable, it is always possible to check the digital encyclopedias, freely available in the web. The most renowned is Wikipedia, a free encyclopedia that the readers may help to be improved or constructed.
Have a look in what may be found about pulp, paper, Eucalyptus, Pinus, MDF panels, OSB wood panels, etc., etc.:
• About pulp:
• About paper:
• About paper recycling:
• About Eucalyptus:
• About Pinus:
• About MDF wood panels ("Medium Density Fiberboard"):
• About OSB wood panels ("Oriented Strand Board"):

In the way these wiki-type encyclopedias are built, we may even contribute to text writing, and also to place links to direct the readers to valuable websites. We, for example, have inserted links with Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter and PinusLetter in the pages Wikipedia describes the Eucalyptus and the Pinus.

What we definitively have in abundance in the web are texts, images and websites telling the history of paper, the utilization of several paper grades and the ways and advantages for paper recycling. Some of these explanations are provided by school/colleges websites or by NGOs. In many of them it is possible to identify a lack of knowledge or misinformation. For these reasons, good arguments should be provided by the forest based industry to help the construction of these third parties websites, they need better arguments to improve what they want to tell to society. Visit some interesting pages in the web about these topics, but I'm sorry to say that most of them are in Portuguese:

Origin and history of paper:

How to make paper:

How to recycle paper:

For many other positive examples of good communication through the web, please, visit the selection of websites and institution's just below. You are to find companies, associations, and NGO's websites with valuable communication tools.

ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. (Brazil)
In the section "Linha do Tempo - Time-line" ABTCP introduces to society the most relevant facts along the history of pulp and papermaking in Brazil, such as different stages and industry phases, historical pictures, interviews, etc. Visit at:

AF&PA - American Forest & Paper Association. (USA)
AF&PA has documents to clarify many of the society doubts with regard to the American paper industry and forestry. Social and environmental issues have clear explanations, as well as processes, products, raw materials, etc.

AFUBRA - Brazilian Association of Tobacco Planters. (Brazil)
AFUBRA displays in the association website a large number of very good books, guidelines, and reviews about forests. All these material is made available to society, the example is worth. (Ecological guides)
(Books of the Ecology Series)

Aracruz Celulose - Kids website. (Brazil)
Aracruz website has an excellent section to kids education, very interactive, didactic, and plenty of videos, images, games, text writing contests, drawings, etc. Go to visit and to know the nice aunt Iara Cruz.

BRACELPA - Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper. (Brazil)
BRACELPA has an educational section in the website called "Saiba Mais - Know more". It is oriented to clarify society about the pulp and paper and forest plantation segments. Visit, please: (Social-environmental reports)

CELPA - Portuguese Association of the Paper Industry. (Portugal)
The Portuguese association CELPA is giving a great example of good quality information. Visit this interesting and educational website ( Also navigate at:
CELPA editions -
The Eucalyptus:

Pulp and paper - how to manufacture them:
Wood and paper products sink green house gases :

Click Arvore - Click Tree. (Brazil)
It consists in an afforestation program through the web to promote planting native trees at Atlantic Forest exhausted areas. In the moment of this edition, around 17 million trees had been planted.

Forestry SA. (Australia)
ForestrySA is a company created to manage Australian government forests. It has very good technical material available at the website, such as guidebooks, folders, educational guidelines, images, etc.

FPAC - Forest Products Association of Canada. (Canada)
This Canadian association has a website section named "Briefing Notes", to publish position papers and clarification news about issues demanded by society. It consists in an innovative way to present what the sector has as official positions in relation to question-marks arisen from the society.

Irving Forest Discovery Network. (Canada)
J.D. Irving Ltd. website is a very educative one, presenting the natural resources in the New Brunswick region, Canada. The webpage contains videos, games, information to teachers, to kids, etc.

Sao Paulo Olympic Games on Chemistry - ABQ - Brazilian Chemistry Association. (Brazil)
A very creative way to incentive the education and the knowledge about chemistry and paper manufacturing. In 2006, the main purpose of the games was the competition on texts about the issue "From trees to notebooks: the paper chemistry". (2006 Chemistry Olympic Games website) (Classified to the final texts)

Paper Discovery Center. (USA)
Paper Industry International Hall of Fame educational website, a more than interactive museum about paper, in Appleton, WI, USA. ( "Learn more" section) (Exhibit "A child's view of papermaking")

Paper in Wisconsin - Wisconsin Paper Council. (USA)
WPC is a commercial association to represent the pulp, paper and associated products in the state of Wisconsin. The website is very informative and well-illustrated. Please, visit: (A section to teachers, educators and children)

PIRSA - Primary Industries and Resources of South Australia. (Australia)
Excellent guidebooks, handouts and educational material about forests, forest management and forest products utilization.

USDA Forest Service - Northeastern Area. (USA)
Know the creative section "How to", with several guidebooklets to all those having interest to know more about the sustainable management of forests in USA.

I would like to complete this mini-article saying the following: there is a great number of simple and effective things to be done, most are low-cost and have high power to leverage results. I have introduced to you some of them along this mini-article. Internet is here to help us. The NGOs that are against us are taking all advantage on this fact. They know how to use the web to disseminate their concepts. We have all or even better conditions to do the same, generating and scattering reliable and good quality information to different target publics and in different languages. We need to be always attemptive and helpful to well serve the society, the same society we are part of. Let's uncross the arms. We have no time, we cannot stay waiting we don't know what. We are not to stay sleeping in a splendid cradle. Time and society have changed. We need to change too, and fast, immediately. Is it all right to you? In case yes, let's work hard, and together...

Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus. It depends only on registering yourself to receive them.
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2007-2010

This knowledge oriented service was made possible through sponsoring support provided by ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper and by Botnia, Aracruz, International Paper do Brasil, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, Suzano and VCP. The opinions expressed in the texts are those of the authors or coming from the referenced technical literature. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

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