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Good morning to all of you, my dear Eucalyptus friends,

Here we are again, with the 20th issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. In this edition, as it is being usual, we are bringing a lot of information and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. Remember that most of this information is brought to you for your better understanding about the Eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer knowledge in a way that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this reason, we are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books and interesting events. I hope you may also, like me, admire these trees and the products they offer to Society. Our purpose is to offer our help to the interested parties of the Society for a better knowledge and understanding about the Eucalyptus.

In this edition, we are bringing, as usual, some new insights. One is the return of the section "The World of the Eucalyptus". In it, I'm disclosing to you all the fast and amazing development of the plantation forest sector and corresponding forest products industrialization and markets in two Brazilian states: Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, at the Mid Western of Brazil. The other surprise is a new section that I have named "Eco-Efficiency and Sustainability Corner". In this section, my purpose is always to introduce to you good examples and positive things that can be done at our forest based segment in benefit of people, environment and economical growth, in tight links, as recommended by the sustainability concepts. I hope you may enjoy, in the same manner I feel motivated and delighted when I come across good sustainability practices.

In the section "The Friends of the Eucalyptus" I'm introducing to you a great friend of mine, someone with enormous expertise on the Eucalyptus plantation forest management. I have a great admiration for his technical and educational skills and for his dedication to teaching, researching and diffusion of the forestry knowledge. I'm talking about "Professor Paulo Renato Schneider", one of the favorite friends of the Eucalyptus, but also friend of the Acacia mearnsii, Araucaria angustifolia and many of trees, as we are to see ahead.

This edition mini-article deals with "Eucalyptus plantation forestry in Brazil, utilization of the land and production of food". I made an effort to associate the production of food in Brazil to the plantation of forests to generate wood to society. The ways to optimize these two mankind needs are emphasized to benefit both society and environment.

In the Ester Foelkel's section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus", she is telling us about the "association of the Eucalyptus to allergies in human beings". Something very interesting to be evaluated under two perspectives: in some cases, we have persons who are very sensitive to the Eucalyptus pollen or to some substances present in these plants; in other cases, some compounds that are part of the Eucalyptus essential oils are used to mitigate people allergies, mainly those related to the respiratory system.

I hope you may enjoy and like this edition selected themes.

Just to remind you, we are also introducing in this present edition two chapters of our Eucalyptus Online Book:

one of them, in Portuguese (Propriedades Papeleiras das Arvores, Madeiras e Fibras Celulosicas dos Eucaliptos);

and the other, in English (The Production of Eucalyptus Plantation Forests from the Perspective of Eco-Effectiveness, Eco-Efficiency, and Cleaner Production).

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web and Painel Florestal. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing in favor of the Eucalyptus. Know more about all of our today’s partners at the URL address:

Thanks again for the support to our work. We have left behind our initial target for registered people: over 11,000 readers are receiving monthly these online publications about the Eucalyptus. Even so, I beg your help to inform about and to promote our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, Botnia, International Paper do Brasil, KSH-CRA Engenharia, Suzano, VCP and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Edition

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 14 (in Portuguese)

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 11 (in English)

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Professor Paulo Renato Schneider

The World of the Eucalyptus: Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil

Online Technical References

References about Events and Courses

New Section: Eco-Efficiency and Sustainability Corner

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus: The Association of the Eucalyptus to Human Allergies - (by Ester Foelkel)

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
The Eucalyptus Planted Forests, Land Use and the Production of Food in Brazil

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 14 (in Portuguese)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 4.6 MB) just click below over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps even easier, is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer directories. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit and find the instructions how to get it.

Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"Propriedades Papeleiras das Arvores, Madeiras e Fibras Celulosicas dos Eucaliptos"

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 11 (in English)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 17.6 MB) just click below over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps even easier, is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer directories. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit and find the instructions how to get it.

Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"The Production of Eucalyptus Plantation Forests from the Perspective of Eco-Effectiveness, Eco-Efficiency, and Cleaner Production"

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Professor Paulo Renato Schneider

In this edition of our Eucalyptus Newsletter, I am extremely pleased to introduce to you another one of my closest friends and a remarkable researcher and educator, Professor Paulo Renato Schneider. Our Eucalyptus friend is also a friend of many other trees, as Pinus, Acacia mearnsii, Tectona grandis (teak), Grevilea robusta, Ilex paraguaiensis (mate), Araucaria angustifolia (Brazilian pine), besides a good number more of other forest species - all trees that have participated in his academic researches and scientific studies. His dedicated professional career is clearly proven by his remarkable technical and scientific production, consisting of over 150 scientific and technical articles published in magazines and presented at congresses; over 40 doctorate and master’s degree guidance's; and about 15 books as main author, co-author, or editor. Definitely, Professor Schneider is one of the great names of the forest management and Brazilian silviculture.

Professor Schneider, as he is known in Santa Maria, is a forest engineer graduated in the first group of professionals in this career from the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM). He is very proud to have been the first student in the State of Rio Grande do Sul to enroll for that course at that specific University. So great is his vocation for this career, that upon graduating he joined at once the teaching staff of that University. His technical qualification was initially cultivated in the academic stages by the dedication of Professor Franz Heinrich Andrae, who fulfilled the functions of professor in the newly created course at UFSM. Professor Andrae is Austrian and in 1975, upon his return to Austria after having accomplished his mission at UFSM, his professorship was occupied by Professor Schneider, who since 1975 is professor of the Department of Forestry Sciences (DCFL - at UFSM. At present, Schneider holds the full-time job of full professor at UFSM. He has already been head of this department, and also, for several times, responsible for coordinating the postgraduate course in forest engineering at UFSM. He has also been postgraduate and research dean for the whole Federal University of Santa Maria.

Schneider has a master’s degree in forest engineering from the Federal University of Parana (1978) and a Ph.D. (1984) in forestry from Albert-Ludwigs Universität of Freiburg, Germany (

His didactic and scientific investigation activities have put strong emphasis on forest management and planning, the economic evaluations of forest productivity, and the use of statistical tools for improving the quality of decision-making in the forest area. For this very reason, his lines of research are dedicated to planning, structure, growth, production, and forest economics.

As the academic and research activities in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) encompass a diversified number of forest species planted in several environmental situations, his researches comprise many tree species. To all of them, he dedicates his attention and devotion. His numerous researches on Eucalyptus and Pinus were undertaken to offer alternatives to the production of saw-timber, as well as wood for industrial purposes (pulp, paper, biomass fuel, boards, panels, furniture), in order to replace woods coming from native forests of the State. His studies, initially devoted to the evaluation of the growth of these species in RS, allowed an important development of the forest management science. As a result of his findings, UFSM is at present a reference at international level in this forestry sector. His team comprises researchers of enormous relevance, such as our dedicated friend, Professor Cesar Augusto Guimaraes Finger, another great expert on Brazilian forest management.

Among his many published books, some are cited in the web address ahead, and they can be obtained through CEPEF – Center of Forest Researches (, a cooperative R&D association that Schneider helped creation and growing. Some of his books are the following:

• Analysis of regression applied to Forest Engineering (2009);
• Introduction to forest management (2008);
• Forest investment profitability (2006);
• Sustainable management of natural forests (2000);
• Subsidies for black wattle - Acacia mearnsii – management (2000);
• Analysis of regression applied to Forest Engineering (1998).

His motivation to write books has always been leveraged by the need to offer such good quality technical contents to the academics and professionals of the sector, as to allow them a better professional performance. As his main occupation in the current days is focused on this particular, please, wait for new titles to come, without any doubt. Furthermore, he has now a staunch ally for this writing in the person of his son Paulo Sergio, a forest engineer himself. Schneider is aware of his role as author and is now reflecting on how he might help demystify the creeds existing in society with regard to Eucalyptus plantation forestry. A very welcome and appropriate point, Professor Schneider, thanks for your valuable help to come in this issue.

During the course of his career, Schneider believes that his major conquests have been to have received the acknowledgement of the academic formation of so many professionals during this period of over 30 years of teaching and researching. In partnership with these numerous human resources he helped graduate and with his colleagues from DCFL/UFSM (, he succeeded in becoming an acknowledged and admired researcher in the planted forest management area. He stresses that this could only materialize thanks to his wonderful family: his wife Sirlei das Gracas, his son Paulo Sergio, and his daughters Clarissa and Patricia.

As a public acknowledgement of his scientific work, a special homage was paid to him in 1988 as Forest Prominence in Teaching and Researching, a title awarded to him by the VI Forest State Congress of Nova Prata (RS). In addition, homage is constantly paid to him by his pupils at academic graduations. Now, we feel honored to dedicate this simple award and title to Professor Schneider, as a "Friend of the Eucalyptus", for all his relevant contributions to the these trees and to the Brazilian forestry segment.

Know more about Professor Schneider's scientific and educational career , his long and valuable curriculum and his Master and Ph.D. theses:

Curriculum vitae CNPq - Lattes Brazilian System - Prof. Dr. Paulo Renato Schneider

Modelos de equacao e tabelas para avaliar o peso de casca de acacia negra, Acacia mearnsii de Wild. P.R. Schneider. Master Dissertation. UFPR - Federal University of Parana. 165 pp. (1978)

Betriebswirtschaftliche und ertragskundliche grundlagen der forsteinrichtung in SudBrasilien am beispiel von Pinus elliottii. P.R. Schneider. Ph.D. Thesis. Universität zu Freiburg. 199 pp. (1984)

Become further acquainted with Professor Paulo Renato Schneider’s scientific and technological production by accessing some of his works about Eucalyptus:

An appreciable number of other articles by Paulo Renato Schneider and coworkers cover other forest species, especially those belonging to Pinus genus, as well as Acacia mearnsii, Araucaria angustifolia, the mate (Ilex paraguaiensis), the teak (Tectona grandis) and other native species from the Brazilian forests. Definitely, it is very difficult to cover our friend Schneider’s whole technical and scientific production in only a single Eucalyptus Newsletter edition.

In this edition, we are presenting to you and providing the due links for some publications to be able to be accessed and read. However, we have just selected some of Professor Schneider’s and his coworkers' papers related to the Eucalyptus species and available online. Most of his articles are published in the magazine "Ciencia Florestal" ("Forestry Science"), from CEPEF/UFSM, the creation of which was also leveraged by his determination and vision that a world-class magazine was required for the forest engineering career in UFSM.

Learn from the teachings of this great friend of Brazilian planted forests:

Fator de cubicacao para toretes de Eucalyptus grandis e sua variacao com o tempo de exposicao ao ambiente. M.V. Barros; C.A.G. Finger; P.R. Schneider; E.J. Santini. Ciencia Florestal 18(1): 109 - 119. (2008)

Efeito da intensidade de desbaste nas caracteristicas dendrometricas e tecnologicas da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. R. Trevisan; C.R. Haselein; E.J. Santini; P.R. Schneider; L.F. Menezes. Ciencia Florestal 17(4):377 - 387. (2007)

Analise bioeconomica do sequestro de carbono e da divida ecologica: uma aplicacao ao caso do Rio Grande do Sul. V. Giacomelli Sobrinho. Ph.D. Thesis. UFSM. 456 pp. (2007)
TDE-2008-03-27T135855Z-1402/Publico/VALNY SOBRINHO.pdf

Desenvolvimento e estresse hidrico em mudas de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. F.B. Martins. Master Dissertation. UFSM. 73 pp. (2007)

Ajuste e selecao de modelos tradicionais para serie temporal de dados de altura de arvores. E.P. Floriano; I. Muller; C.A.G. Finger; P.R. Schneider. Ciencia Florestal 16(2): 177 - 199. (2006)

Curvas de indice de sitio para povoamentos clonais de Eucalyptus saligna para a depressao central e serra do sudeste, Rio Grande do Sul. H. Tonini; P.R. Schneider; C.A.G. Finger. Ciencia Florestal 16(1): 27 - 43. (2006)

Forma de tronco e sortimentos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis na regiao sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul. I. Muller; C.A.G. Finger; P.R. Schneider. Ciencia Florestal 15(3): 293 - 305. (2005)

Crescimento e producao de povoamentos monoclonais de Eucalyptus saligna manejados com desbaste na regiao sudeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. L.W. Scheeren; P.R. Schneider; C.A.G. Finger. Ciencia Florestal 14(2): 111 - 122. (2004)

Crescimento de clones de Eucalyptus saligna na depressao central e serra do sudeste, Rio Grande do Sul. H. Tonini; P.R. Schneider; C.A.G. Finger. Ciencia Florestal 14(2): 61 - 77. (2004)

ABSTRACT: Influencia do sistema viario no rendimento do transporte de madeira rolica de Eucalyptus spp. em Guaiba, Rio Grande do Sul. E.H. Ressel Filho. Master Dissertation. UFSM. 2 pp. (2003)

Qualidade de chapas de particulas de madeira aglomerada fabricadas com residuos de uma industria de celulose. C. Pedrazzi; C.R. Haselein; E.J. Santini; P.R. Schneider. Ciencia Florestal 12(2): 201 - 212. (2002)

Efeito do espacamento e da adubacao no crescimento de um clone de Eucalyptus saligna. R. Berger; P.R. Schneider; C.A.G. Finger; C.R. Haselein. Ciencia Florestal 12(2): 75 - 87. (2002)

Influencia da intensidade de desrama sobre o crescimento e a producao de Eucalyptus saligna. C.A.G. Finger; P.R. Schneider; J.L. Bazzo; J.E.M. Klein. Cerne 7(2): 53 - 64. (2001)

Crescimento e qualidade da madeira de um clone de Eucalyptus saligna sob o efeito do espacamento e da fertilizacao. R. Berger. Master Dissertation. UFSM. 126 pp. (2000),r.pdf

Produtividade e custos do processador trabalhando em povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis. B.C. Tarnowski; P.R. Schneider; C.C. Machado. Ciencia Florestal 9(2): 103 - 115. (1999)

Determinacao do peso do desbaste para florestas de Eucalyptus grandis com base no indice de espacamento relativo. C.A.G. Finger; P.R. Schneider. Ciencia Florestal 9(1): 79 - 87. (1999)

Producao de Eucalyptus grandis em diferentes intensidades de desbaste. P.R. Schneider; C.A.G. Finger; J.M. Hoppe; R. Descher; L.W. Scheeren; G. Mainardi; F.D. Fleig. Ciencia Florestal 8(1): 129 - 140. (1998)

Equacoes de volume para Eucalyptus dunnii determinadas para a depressao central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. P.R. Schneider; M.C.B. Coelho; M.L. Zanon; C.A.G. Finger; J.E.M. Klein. Ciencia Rural 27(3): 425 - 428. (1997)

Influencia da camada de impedimento no solo sobre o crescimento de Eucalyptus grandis. C.A.G. Finger; M.V. Schumacher; P.R. Schneider; J.M. Hoppe. Ciencia Florestal 6(1): 137 - 145. (1996)

Forma de tronco e sortimentos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul. P.R. Schneider; C.A.G. Finger; J.E.M. Klein; J.A. Totti; J.L. Bazzo. Ciencia Florestal 6(1): 79 - 88. (1996)

Funcoes para descrever a relacao altura diametro de Eucalyptus dunnii. M.C.B. Zanon; C.A.G. Finger; P.R. Schneider; J.E.M. Klein; M.C.B. Coelho. Ciencia Rural 26(1): 87 - 90. (1996)

Crescimento inicial do Eucalyptus dunnii consorciado com Zea mays na regiao de Santa Maria, RS. P.R. Schneider; L. Storck; C.A.G. Finger; J.M. Hoppe; F.D. Fleig; M.V. Schneider; M.T. Fleig; A. Gatto. Ciencia Florestal 5(1): 171 - 182. (1995)

Producao de florestas de Eucalyptus grandis em segunda rotacao conduzidas com um broto por touca e submetidas a interplantio. C.A.G. Finger; P.R. Schneider; J.E.M. Klein. Ciencia Florestal 3(1): 185 - 201. (1993)

Influencia do pisoteio de bovinos em areas florestais. P.R. Schneider; F. Galvao; S.J. Longhi. Revista Floresta 9(1). 5 pp. (1978)

Metodologia para verificacao dos condicionantes da analise de regressao. D. A. Brena; J.N.M. Silva;. P.R. Schneider. Revista Floresta: 25 - 45. (1978)

Thank you, my esteemed friend Paulo Renato Schneider, for what you have done and will go on doing for the Eucalyptus, Pinus, Acacia mearnsii and Brazilian planted forests, no matter which genus is being planted, but certainly with the maximum quality generated by your knowledge and researches. I, our esteemed friend and your great colleague from the academy, Professor Cesar Augusto Guimaraes Finger, and your numerous admirers and readers of this present Eucalyptus Newsletter edition, thank you for your deep and never-ending dedication to the Brazilian forestry.

The World of the Eucalyptus

Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil

The growth of the Brazilian silviculture has proved to be very dynamic and with enormous success in regions that were even not considered potential in recent past. This fact is due in part to the better infrastructure and logistic facilities and to the telecommunication advances. Thus, the states of Mato Grosso (MT) and Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), at the mid-Western region of Brazil, far from the sea ports and from the major Brazilian economic metropolis are now awakening the motivation for new plantations oriented to commercial and economic purposes. The just initiated rebuilding and modernization of the 163 high-way, that joins by land the cities of Cuiaba (MT) and Santarem (Para), is to offer better conditions to the flow of grains, meat, and forest products to the harbors in the up-North areas of Brazil, facilitating the exports of products from these regions.

There are several forest species being planted, with prominence the ones of the geni Eucalyptus, Pinus, Tectona and Hevea. The purpose of these plantations is to become raw material for saw-timber, wooden panels, pulp and paper, charcoal, resin extraction, biomass fuel, etc. Now, there is also a huge anticipation to the development of the technology to manufacture ethanol from cellulose. In this case, the wood would become one of the major raw material to the production of bio-fuels.

Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul are strategic regions to Brazil, under different points of view: to the society, economy and environment. These two states are still slightly populated and they comprise important Brazilian natural resources. Distinct endangered biomes are included in these states areas: Cerrado, Amazon Rain Forest, and the Pantanal (the matogrossense swampy low-lands). For all these reasons, the forest-based companies performing businesses in these regions must be aware of their socio-environmental responsibility. Yes, they should be able to produce wood and other forest goods to supply the society, but with the commitment to sustainable practices and appropriate behavior. We have a lot of knowledge that has been developed to help planting forests and respecting the soil, the biodiversity and the hydrologic resources. However, the role of the local R&D institutes and universities will be to make them appropriate to the specific conditions of these biomes. On the other hand, the Brazilian plantation forest sector is used to plant forests in regions that have been already over-utilized by agriculture and cattle raising. In general, these lands are partially or well-degraded. But they fits well to the low-requirement forest plantations. In parallel to these economically oriented planting areas, the forest sector preserves extensive areas of natural resources in places named as: permanent preservation areas and legal reserves. We hope that, thanks to these natural preservation responsibilities and also by the force of legislation, that some endangered areas of these biomes may be rehabilitated. It is very important to associate economic production with sustainable practices, isn't true? In case we fail to do this, we'll be losing and wasting an excellent opportunity to demonstrate eco-efficiency and sustainability commitments. Instead of gaining the respect and the admiration of the interested parties in those regions, we'll be seen as the opposite. I'm quite sure that the forest companies are not to disappoint us, neither frustrating the local population.

Before going further on demonstrating to you this astonishing world of the Eucalyptus and other types of planted forests, I'd like to express my thanks to my dear friends, the forest engineers Rubens Garlipp and Eduardo Nogueira Campinhos, who helped me providing data and suggestions of websites to obtain regional statistics.

Statistics of MT and MS

Both states have similar population (MT = 2.85 million inhabitants in 2007 and MS = 2.26 million), but a large difference in territorial areas (MT = 903.4 thousand km² and MS = 357.1 thousand km²). The state capitals are Cuiaba and Campo Grande, respectively to Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Both are dynamic, modern and active cities, plenty of economic, cultural and social developments.

In terms of natural resources, the predominant ecosystems are forests, cerrados and natural pastures (prairies). Both states are similar in their agricultural and agribusinesses. Agricultural crops and cattle growing are very important, the states are considered Brazilian barns for the production of meat (beef, pork, chicken, lamb, etc), and grains (soybean, corn, sorghum, wheat, sun-flower, rice). On the other hand, the silviculture is oriented till now, to the generation of wood to low level of industrialization products: charcoal, round-wood, saw-timber, firewood, resins, rubber-tree latex and pulp and paper (recent activity at MS) and wood panel manufactures. The state of Mato Grosso do Sul is ranked as the third more productive region of Pinus resin in Brazil, besides other types of essential oils obtained from Eucalyptus leaves and from some native forest species. The state of Mato Grosso is worldwide renowned because the high-quality wood and productive teak trees (Tectona grandis) and for the latex obtained from plantations of rubber-trees (Hevea brasiliensis). The municipalities that are deeply involved in the forestry productive chains are: Caceres, Alta Floresta, Tangara da Serra, Santa Cruz do Xingu, Cuiaba, Varzea Grande, Itiquira, Agua Boa, Querencia and Canarana (MT); and Dourados, Tres Lagoas, Brasilandia, Campo Grande, Agua Clara, Ribas do Rio Pardo, Anastacio and Dois Irmaos do Buriti (MS). Aquidauana and Corumba (MS), located at the Pantanal biome have outstanding environmental, cultural, educational resources.

Know more about statistic data, agribusinesses and the production of the silviculture in these two regions through the links provided ahead. The main source of reliable data for these states is IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics): (Mato Grosso state profile) (
The production of the silviculture in MT) (
MT agribusiness census) (
Mato Grosso do Sul state profile) (The production of the silviculture in MS) (
MS agribusiness census)

Mato Grosso shows an interesting economic forestry diversity, with about 50 thousand hectares of teak plantations (Tectona grandis), 45 thousand hectares of rubber-tree planted forests (Hevea brasiliensis), 50 thousand hectares of Eucalyptus and 7 thousand of Pinus.

Mato Grosso do Sul has today over 250 thousand hectares planted with Eucalyptus and Pinus (over 90% are Eucalyptus). This number may soon reach 500 thousand or even 1 million hectares. The great emphasis on plantations and the incentive attractions are the main reasons: this is happening at the forest companies side (leveraged by the pulp and paper manufacturing), but also the motivation is high among rural farmers (who are seeing another alternative to diversify the business). It is being so high the anticipation level for golden days in forest plantations and forest products generation that MS state government has recently launched an important study titled Forest Plan to the State of Mato Grosso do Sul (;; This study received the support from SEBRAE and it was performed by STCP consulting company. In addition to this plan, MS state has just approved a new legislation to establish regulatory standards to the harvesting and extraction of forestry products. The aim is to bring discipline to these activities, both in plantation and natural forests. (

Both states are well-advanced in developing the studies for the establishment of what is being called in Brazil as Ecological-Economic Zoning. Further information on this issue may be seen at: (MS)
and (MT).

All the statistics for these two states show a certain level of imprecision - for this reason, they may vary a little according to the referred source. However, they may be described as the best available, and the data could be considered appropriate regarding some reliable sources as AREFLORESTA (MT), REFLORE (MS), SBS (Sociedade Brasileira de Silvicultura - Brazilian Society of Silviculture -, STCP (forest consulting company - and ABRAF (Brazilian Association of Planted Forests Producers -

With the purpose to offer to this Eucalyptus Newsletter readers the opportunity to better know the main actors involved in the forestry activity in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states, we are bringing euca-links to the most relevant companies, universities, business associations and govenment organizations.

We are also dedicating the sections Online Technical References and References about Events and Courses to honor these two regions of Brazil. They are providing a great amount of knowledge from these two states. For this reason, the usual Euca-Links section will not be part of this newsletter, since the euca-links are scattered within other sections.

Forest-based companies with businesses in these two Brazilian states (names in alphabetical order):

Berneck. Wood panels and forest plantations of Pinus (Parana state) and teak. (MT) (Website in Portuguese, English and Spanish)

Caceres Florestal. Forest plantations and production of certified teak wood. (MT) (Website in Portuguese and English) (Forest management plan - FSC certified wood) (Forest management plan)

Emaflor Agroflorestal. Eucalyptus forest plantations. (MT) (Website in Portuguese, English and Italian)

Energo Agro-Industrial. Forest plantations, production of wood logs, round-wood and energetic biomass. (MS)

Fazenda Jardim. Eucalyptus forest plantations. (MT)

Floresteca. Teak: forest plantations, saw-timber, edge-glued wooden panels, energetic biomass and wood blocks. (MT) (Website in Portuguese, English and Dutch) (About the company - in Portuguese and English) (Forest management plan - forest certification - in Portuguese) (Forest management plan - forest certification - in English) (A speech with teak images) (Floresteca Foundation - Corporative Social Responsibility

Guavira Industria de Madeiras. Production of planted forests and saw-timber from Eucalyptus and teak. (MT) (in Portuguese) (in English)

International Paper do Brasil. Eucalyptus bleached printing and writing paper. (MS) (in Portuguese) (in English) (A speech about the Tres Lagoas project and the IP Brasil business strategic policies)

MMX Mineracao e Metalicos. Eucalyptus forest plantations to supply wood to the manufacture of charcoal for metallurgic purposes. (MS) (in Portuguese) (in English) (Company's presentation) (Speech about the forest plantations)

Mutum Group. Eucalyptus forest plantations, agroforestry and charcoal production. (MS)

Teak and Eucalyptus forest investments. (MT and SP) (in Portuguese and English)

Painel Florestal. Information and communication webportal oriented to promote the Mato Grosso do Sul state forest resources. (MS) (in Portuguese)

PrimeTimber. Wood products, panels, structural wood, etc. (MS) (in Portuguese)

Ramires Reflorestamentos. Plantation forests and pinewood production. (MS) (Website providing information about the Eucalyptus and Pinus wood production - in Portuguese) (Company data & information)

Soroteca. TeakBrazil. Teak forest plantations and production of edge-glued wooden panels. (MT) (Website in several languages) (Forest management plan)

Teca do Brasil. Teak plantation forests and production of round-wood and saw-timber. (MT) (in Portuguese)

Tectona Agroflorestal. Forest plantations and production of FSC certified teak wood. (MT)
(Forest management plan) (Evaluation of the company's forest assets)

UNIPAN Florestal. Production of seedlings: Eucalyptus, teak and native species. (MT) (in Portuguese)

VCP - Votorantim Celulose e Papel. Eucalyptus plantation forests and production of bleached kraft market pulp. (MS) (Corporate website - in Portuguese) (Corportate website in English) (Forestry area) (Market pulp) (Forest management plan to the MS planted forests) (Horizonte project - VCP market pulp mill at MS) (Simulated virtual tour to the Tres Lagoas - MS pulp mill) (Independently produced video about the construction of the market pulp mill at Tres Lagoas - MS)

Vetorial Siderurgia. Production of plantation forests oriented to the ironworks manufacturing processes. (MS) (in Portuguese)

MT & MS universities with forestry career or with outstanding expertise in silviculture:

UEMS - Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul. (MS)
The State University of Mato Grosso do Sul has a forest engineering course at Aquidauana. (in Portuguese)

UFGD - Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados. (MS)
Grande Dourados Federal University does not yet have a graduation in forestry, but it has amazing courses about silviculture inserted in the agronomy career. The worthwhile didatic and scientific material made available by professor Dr. Omar Daniel are definitively recommended to be visited. (School of Agro Sciences - UFGD - in Portuguese) (Professor Omar Daniel's website - in Portuguese)

UFMT - Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso. (MT)
The Federal University of Mato Grosso has a forestry career and graduate courses, being these courses available both at Sinop and Cuiaba campi. (in Portuguese) (Sinop campus) (Graduate studies in Forest Sciences) (PET - Tutorial Educational Program in Forest Engineering)

UNEMAT - Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso. (MT)
The course on forestry of the State University of Mato Grosso is offered in the Alta Floresta campus. (in Portuguese)

Business and technical associations related to the forest-based sector in MT & MS:

AREFLORESTA - Associacao de Reflorestadores do Estado do Mato Grosso. (MT)
AREFLORESTA is the association of the plantation forest producers in the state of Mato Grosso. Its main mission is mentioned to be the forest economic, social and environmental developemnt in the state, representing also the interests of the association members. (in Portuguese)

REFLORE - Associacao Sul-Mato-Grossense de Produtores e Consumidores de Florestas Plantadas. (MS)
REFLORE is the MS association for the planted forests producers and consumers. It houses the most relevant actors performing in these issues in this specific state. REFLORE is being referred as a very efficient communication vehicle to provide sectorial information from MS to the rest of Brazil. Please, know and visit some of the most prominent pages at REFLORE website: (Opening webpage - in Portuguese) (Articles) (Forestry statistics) (REFLORE members)

SIMENORTE - Sindicato dos Madeireiros do Extremo Norte de Mato Grosso. (MT)
SIMENORTE is the union of the wood producers having their businesses at the up-North region of Mato Grosso. This organization has a considerable and representative number of members investing and manufacturing wood products to be traded in Brazil or abroad. (in Portuguese) (SIMENORTE members - in Portuguese)

Goverment / State organizations related to the forest sector:

IMASUL - Instituto do Meio Ambiente do Mato Grosso do Sul. (MS)
IMASUL is the Environment Institute of MS. It has the aim to take care and to make the public management on the environmental issues in the state: legislation, licensing, auditing, controlling, hearings, etc. It has a joint action with other regulatory and fiscalization entities in the state. (IMASUL - in Portuguese) (SEMA - Superintendency of Environment and Hydrologic Resources - in Portuguese)

SEMA - Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente - (MT)
The MT State Secretary of Environment has the objective "to guarantee the state natural resources conservation and preservation, organizing their utilization to promote social and economic benefits and environmental quality". (in Portuguese)

SEMAC - Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente - (MS)
SEMAC is the MS State Secretary of Environment. (in Portuguese)

Teak (Tectona grandis) plantation forests in Mato Grosso state:
Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tree originated from Asian natural forests located in India, Myanmar, Thailand and Laos. Teak was introduced as exotic in Indonesia about 400 years ago, and today, it is largely utilized in plantations in the South-eastern countries of Asia, but also in tropical regions of America, Africa and Pacific countries. Teak is a very flexible plant species in its demands for water and climate; however, it has preference for regions with total rainfall of 1,200 to 2,500 mm per year, and with a well-defined dry season during at least 3 to 5 months. The best temperatures for its growth are those found in the tropics, while the maximum recommended altitude is 700 meters. Teak is also very sensitive to frost and cold temperatures. The adult teak tree may have a large size (diameter and height). When managed with selective thinnings along its rotation, the remaining and final trees are very valuable. Nevertheless, the young thinned trees also provide good quality wood for several purposes. The tree trunk is normally straight, with a thick bark protecting the xylem. During the dry season, when the region has a typical one, the trees commonly lose the leaves. The buds and sprouts of new ones come just after the first rains in the next season.

The main commercial utilization's of teak wood are: civil construction (doors, floors, windows, structure wood, etc); high quality furniture; boats and ships; artcrafts; etc. The Brazilian exports of teak wood has been leveraged by the offer of FSC certified wood, both to the forest management and chain-of-custody.

In the Online Technical References section, please find some illustrative and valuable publications to learn more about the teak (Tectona grandis) plantations in Mato Grosso. Furthermore, you may also visit the already presented rich websites developed by the companies are investing in such business in this state.

The rubber-tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation forests in Mato Grosso state:
Rubber-tree is a plant typically Brazilian, occurring naturally in Brazil, but also in man-made plantations. The plantations are destined to obtain important products such latex for rubber manufacturing, wood and energy (firewood). The plant belongs to the genus Hevea, which comprises about 10 species. The most well-known Hevea is the Hevea brasiliensis, with outstanding high quality latex production. The rubber-trees reach large dimensions when adults, and they start to become productive for bleeding latex at the ages 6 to 7 years. The genus Hevea is originated from Amazon, but its species are been planted commercially in other Brazilian states (Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso) and in several Asian countries (Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia). Those people who love to tell stories say that the British Mr. Henry Wickham, very appropriately known as "the king of the bio-pirates", took with him in 1876 many seeds of the rubber-tree to England. Several years later, the British start cultivation of rubber-tree plantations in Malaysia, reaching an enormous success. For this reason, Mr. Wickham received the honor to become Sir, for his magnificent services to the Crown. Brazil was the sole and the larger exporter of rubber for years. Now-a-days, Brazil is not self-sufficient in rubber, depending on importing this product from Asian countries. The natural rubber manufactured from the Hevea latex is one of the most valuable natural-origin products to the human society, dependent on this material for innumerous uses.

The state of Mato Grosso has today about 50 thousand hectares planted with Hevea, being recently ranked as the number 2 or 3 in the Brazilian ranking of producers of coagulated latex. However, there is a huge effort coordinated by EMPAER - Mato Grosso Agency for Research, Technical Assistance and Rural Extension, ( and by the State Transitory Secretary of Strategic Projects to raise the Hevea plantation areas to about 250,000 hectares. These new plantations would be obtained through a partnership between Government and rural farmers, giving more value to the local agribusiness. A wide effort to increase the production of higher quality seedlings (clones and from improved seeds) is being placed to run. There are several municipalities involved to the achievement of this target: Itiquira, Agua Boa, Querencia and Canarana. EMPAER technical engineers are also working for improvements on the forest plantation technologies as another of the targets of the Program for Stimulating the Rubber-Tree Plantations in Mato Grosso State. As a conclusion, there is a huge potential, support from state government and room for further and substantial growth of this activity in MT. We wish good luck to those working on this task.

Know a little more about the commercial plantations of rubber-trees in Brazil and Mato Grosso visiting the links provided just ahead (all in Portuguese):

In the Online Technical References section, please find some illustrative and valuable publications to learn more about the Brazilian rubber-tree plantations in Mato Grosso.

Online Technical References

In this section, we are as usual offering some very good euca-links with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they are very much connected with the Eucalyptus. In this section, we are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that are helping to build the foundations and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas related to these magic trees.

In this edition, we are emphasizing some recent publications about forestry and forest products with strong connection to Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul.

Efeito da desfolha artificial no crescimento de plantas de Eucalyptus spp. em uma area de reflorestamento, municipio de Campo Verde, estado de Mato Grosso. V.G. Bertulio. Master Dissertation. Federal University of Mato Grosso. 40 pp. (2008)

Diagnostico dos recursos hidricos de Mato Grosso do Sul. IMASUL. Electronic files in 9 parts. (2008)
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Carbono organico nas fracoes granulometricas e humicas em solos de diferentes texturas sob floresta da regiao noroeste mato-grossense. G.C. Castro. Master Dissertation. Federal University of Mato Grosso. 46 pp. (2008)

Classificacao de areas de reflorestamentos mistos usando analise multivariada em Cotriguacu - MT. L.M. Silva. Master Dissertation. Federal University of Mato Grosso. 88 pp. (2008)

Analise do sistema de producao de teca (Tectona grandis) no Brasil. L.G.M. Delgado; J.E. Gomes; H.B. Araujo. Revista Cientifica Eletronica de Engenharia Florestal Nº 11. 6 pp. (2008)

Teca e a nova opcao na industria mundial. L.C. Oliveira; A. Angeli; J.L. Stape. Revista da Madeira Nº 106. (2007)
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A industria madeireira em Mato Grosso: um processo em formacao. J.M. Marta. SOBER XLV Congress. 10 pp. (2007)

Desempenho silvicultural de Tectona grandis, em diferentes espacamentos, no municipio de Caceres, MT. R.P.R.P.E. Oliveira. Course Conclusion Monograph. UFRRJ. 29 pp. (2008)

Laudo para madeira TECA.
CETEC/MG. IBICT SBRT. 3 pp. (2006)

Crescimento e producao de Tectona grandis em povoamentos jovens de duas regioes do estado de Mato Grosso - Brasil. R. Drescher. Ph.D. Thesis. Federal University of Santa Maria. 133 pp. (2004)

Pontes de madeira do Mato Grosso do Sul - Estudo de caso. M. Martins. Master Dissertation. UNESP. 137 pp. (2004)

Avaliacao do crescimento da teca (Tectona grandis) pela analise de tronco. E.O. Figueiredo. Technical Instruction Nº 35. Embrapa Acre. 04 pp. (2001)

Sistemas sivipastoris em Mato Grosso do Sul. Por que adota-los? V.P. da Silva. Embrapa Florestas. 13 pp. (Undated)

Programa estadual de desenvolvimento florestal de Mato Grosso do Sul. L.C. Ramires Jr. 8 pp. (Undated)

VIDEOS: Forest management - Teak and Eucalyptus. Nemus. (in English) (Part 01) (Part 02) (Part 03)

VIDEO: Tres Lagoas- The city of waters. (in Portuguese)

VIDEO: Cadeia da seringueira no Mato Grosso. (in Portuguese)

VIDEO: Plano florestal de Mato Grosso do Sul. Painel Florestal. (in Portuguese)

VIDEO: O potencial do Mato Grosso do Sul. Painel Florestal. (in Portuguese)

References about Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events (congresses, seminars, conferences, workshops, courses). The advantage provided to the readers is that the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties.

In this edition, we are emphasizing some recent events about forestry and forest products with strong connection to Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul.

Seminar Energy and Environment to the State of Mato Grosso. (MT) (in Portuguese)
An event that happened in Cuiaba, in November 2007, with emphasis in hydroelectricity.

Seminar Plantation Forestry at Mato Grosso do Sul 2007.
(MS) (in Portuguese)
An event organized by REFLORE - Associacao Sul-Mato-Grossense de Produtores e Consumidores de Florestas Plantadas (Association of MS Producers and Consumers of Planted Forests). With the objective to allow you to better know the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, I'm introducing to you one of the event selected speeches: (All speeches) (Forest sector perspectives to the state of MS - by Luiz Calvo Ramires Junior)

Seminar Myths and Truths about the Environmental Impacts caused by the Eucalyptus. (MT) (in Portuguese)
An event that took place in 2007, organized by PET-Engenharia Florestal (Tutorial Educational Program in Forestry) - Federal University of Mato Grosso. (Event summary)

I Meeting on Forestry & Environmental Updates. (MT) (in Portuguese)
An event that took place in 2008, organized by PET-Engenharia Florestal (Tutorial Educational Program in Forestry) - Federal University of Mato Grosso. We are highlighting one of the speeches about the forest sector in Mato Grosso, in a comparison to Brazil and to the world. (Summary of the event) (Speeches) (Plantation forestry: an overview about MT, Brazil and world - by Luiz Trevisan, in Portuguese)

I Mato Grosso do Sul Forestry Congress - MS Florestal 2008. (MS) (in Portuguese)
This excellent event took place in 2008 in the city of Campo Grande. It was supported by the most representative MS state forestry and agriculture organizations. Several speeches have been presented covering the following issues: forest products markets, environmental themes and discussions about the impacts of the forest plantations. Famous and renowned speakers brought great quality to the event. Again, with the aim to offer more information about the MS forest segment, I'm opening the program and suggesting you to read or pay attention to some of the selected speeches. (All speeches for downloading) (Planted forests in MS: an strategy for state growth and development - by the governor Andre Puccinelli, in Portuguese) (Environmental policies to the state of MS - by Roberto Goncalves, in Portuguese) (Eucalyptus: environmental, social and economical issues - by Luiz Calvo Ramires Junior, in Portuguese)

I Workshop about the Eucalyptus Plantation Forestry Management Systems and the Consolidation of a Forestry Cluster in MT. (MT) (in Portuguese)
This event ocurred in 2009, in the town of Tangara da Serra - MT. It was sponsored by several MT state governmental and entrepreneurial organizations. Unfortunately, we are being able to show to you only an executive summary of the workshop, as written and made public in a journalistic matter by the Arvore Portal. (Workshop summary)

New Section: Eco-Efficiency and Sustainability Corner

This new section has the mission to guide you to the most recent and relevant information on issues such as eco-efficiency, eco-efficacy, eco-effectiveness, cleaner production and sustainability. The purpose is to keep our pulp and paper and forestry people always updated and motivated for better performances on the businesses and operations, aiming to develop even more environmentally sound technologies, procedures and concepts. Our purpose is to show mechanisms and ideas for improved generation and manufacturing of goods to supply society, and to minimize the environmental and social impacts of the productive chains we are inserted. This section aims to bring articles, theses, reports, websites, pictures - everything we may consider interesting to you under these views of sustainability updates and upgrades.

We are starting this section introducing to you three excellent websites, the digital houses of fantastic organizations of persons, who are making a great job in favor of world forestry sustainability to this planet: "The Forest Dialogue", "The Forest Dialogue to the Atlantic Forest (Dialogo Florestal da Mata Atlantica)" and "FBDS - Brazilian Foundation for the Sustainable Development".

TFD - The Forest Dialogue. (Yale University - USA) - (in English)
TFD consists in groups of people from different countries/regions, with distinct backgrounds and knowledge, but committed to dialogue and to work for finding solutions to the wood production and forest utilization in sustainable manners. It is a fantastic example of integration and interaction in the world forest network. These people from several and sometimes very different interested parties have as common ground the need for innovative solutions to improve the sustainability levels in forestry. These groups are been formed to debate in several countries (USA, Indonesia, China, Brazil, Switzerland, etc.), as a result of the dominant interests and needs, case-by-case. For this reason, there are several main topics being debated and discussed in regional or global forums:

• Forestry and Nature conservation;
• Forestry and poverty reduction;
• Small-sized forest land-owners and sustainable practices;
• Illegal logging and deforestation;
• Forest certification;
• Intensively managed planted forests.

Brazilian representatives are deeply involved in this last mentioned theme. Several meetings for this group have already happened in China, Indonesia and Brazil. Each dialogue opens room for the participation of many interested actors, with presentations of case studies, speeches, debates and conclusions. The rich meeting materials are made available to the interested parties of society at the Yale University website. Something very precious to be accessed, please, take your time for a while, and have a look: (TFD general website) (Group - Intensively managed planted forests) (Material of the Vitoria meeting, Brazil, 2008)
(Executive summary of the 2008 Brazilian meeting) (2008 Brazilian meeting - Presentations) (Publications) (Back-ground paper about "intensively managed planted forests") (Electronic bulletin of the ArborVitae NGO titled: Forest plantations - the good, the bad and the ugly)

DFMA - Dialogo Florestal da Mata Atlantica. (Brazil) - (in Portuguese)
The Forest Dialogue to the Atlantic Forest is a group formed in Brazil, following the example of the TFD, after the first TFD meeting that took place in Brazil, in 2003, at Bahia state (Santa Cruz de Cabralia). The DFMA received the TFD approval, support and guidelines to be born and to grow. On October 2005 happened the first meeting of this just born group. The guidance and the services provided by the NGO BioAtlantica Institute have been decisive in the first steps of this group formation. This NGO has the target to search sustainable solutions to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome. From the first initial meeting, the participants were defined, the targets were settled, the rules for the dialogue were agreed, and the main issues to the debates were selected. A working agenda with several steps has also been clearly established by the participants. The following types of organizations are participating with representatives: Brazilian leading forest-based companies, business associations, universities, social and environmental NGOs. Taking into account the continental dimensions of Brazil, some regional forums have also been created, to dialogue and debate more specific and particular issues, concerned to each region. Keeping the TDF example, all presented materials, reports and executive meeting summaries are placed in selected websites to be downloaded by the interested parties of the society. Know more about this Brazilian group of forest dialogue at: (Introductory remarks and material for downloading) (News and updates about this forum of debates) (BioAtlantica Institute) (Atlantic Forest insights) (Downloadable material about the Forest Dialogue to the Atlantic Forest)

FBDS - Fundacao Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento Sustentavel. (Brazil) - (in Portuguese and English)
FBDS - the Brazilian Foundation for the Sustainable Development consists in a business-oriented NGO created in 1992 to help the implementation of the environmental policies developed as a consequence of Rio Environmental World Summit. FBDS has a strong position and participation in several Brazilian and global forums. It also performs studies and projects to their supporting partners. The main thematic areas where FBDS is developing actions are: climate changes and carbon sinking, conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources, corporate sustainability, and territorial management. I'd like to mention the positive and tight involvement of our esteemed friends Dr. Israel Klabin and Professor Eneas Salati, both having strong environmental concepts at their own hearts, but also working hard for attaining their objectives. Among the several NGO supporters we are able to find: public and private companies, universities, R&D institutes, either Brazilian or international. There is a considerable amount of good quality material available at the FBDS website. They deserve a careful visit: (General website) (Presentations and speeches) (Articles) (Documents) (Carbon sinking credit projects related to Brazilian forest companies)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus
by Ester Foelkel

In this edition: The Association of the Eucalyptus to Human Allergies

Allergies are abnormal human body reactions against unknown substances considered toxins by them. These external agents are also called allergen, creating on each person different kind of reactions, symptoms and disturbances. For most of people, the unfamiliar substance doesn’t bring reactions; however, we are not alike to each other. So, there are some people that have high sensitivity to some products, becoming allergic to them. Generally, there is an immunologic protection response to neutralize or to fight the strange substance to the organism (Sinogas, 2002). A sensitive organism, after allergenic contact, can express different allergy forms: sneezing, itching, skin spots, etc. It’s difficult to identify allergy causes and why do some people develop a hypersensitivity to certain substances, while others don’t. There are common allergen products, such as: animal fur, organic volatile compounds, dust and pollen. Therefore, flowers, pollen or some Eucalyptus volatile substances liberated by leaves, barks and other parts of this plant can start allergic reaction on some people. On the other hand, leaf compounds extracted from Eucalyptus can also help relieving other types of allergies, specially the ones related to the respiratory systems, considered the most harmful allergies.

This specific technical text explains the two perspectives of the association Eucalyptus and allergies: one that harms sensitive people health with the pollen and/or volatile compounds reactions; and the other one, that helps on curing breathing problems through infusions, inhalation, creams, teas, sprays, tablets and other developed alternatives.

Some Eucalyptus allergy symptoms are already known and described since old Greek times. On top of this, the Australian aborigines were used to some Eucalyptus medical benefits from their leaves for lung problems. After that, these compounds were extracted and researches proved their real efficiency and potential on curing allergies that cause asthma, bronchitis, throat irritation and sneezing. Some compounds present on the essential oil of some Eucalyptus species like E. globulus, E. radiata e Corymbia (Eucalyptus) citriodora are the most used for these purposes. Their active principles have antiseptic properties, are system stimulant, expectorant, and also have some antibiotic functions. They are utilized on many pharmaceutical formulations that help reducing the discomfort of aches and coughs. They may also be found on tablets format, assisting on saliva production and reducing coughing inconvenience. The Eucalyptus are considered from many allergic people the best natural medicine capable to relieve and fight their allergic problems.

The cineole, also known as eucalyptol, is one of the prime compounds responsible for the Eucalyptus medical properties. This compound controls the excessive mucus secretion on the respiratory system because of cytokine anti-inflammatory action. Cineole also enhances the immunologic system responsible to fight against allergies and other diseases (Wikipedia, 2009). The positive eucalyptol (cineole) effects on sinusitis and other nasal infections with allergic background have been already and extensively proved. Kehrl et al., mentioned by Wikipedia (2009), evaluated two patient groups with the same disease through the placebo test - better described as a test applied to targeted people without the knowledge of the components. One of the groups was treated with 100 mg cineole capsule tree times a day, while the other received capsules with absence of any active principles to ingest. There were noticed significant reductions on the symptoms after 4-7 days for the cineole group people. The patients claimed to feel reduced headaches, with relief on nose running and other common symptoms of the allergy. Although the collateral effects of this research were minimum, the Eucalyptus oil is not indicated for day-a-day ingestion. It must have moderated use, on reduced doses and amounts. It’s not indicated for pregnant and giving-milk women, neither for under six-year-old children. They are also not recommended for Eucalyptus allergic people with gastric problems or with hypoglycemia. People who fit on these descriptions should look for a doctor before using the Eucalyptus essential oils. It must me used rationally, with therapeutic amounts of the essence for expectorants, never over 0,1 ml (0,6-0,1 ml). Problems with super doses and hypersensitivity are common and this may bring detrimental effects on health. The eucalyptol may become highly toxic to the organism if ingested or used in high concentrations or doses. It can cause dermatitis, heart pumping irregularities, breathing problem and even to more serious heath problems. Essential oil tolerance tests are recommended before inhalation. It should be simply done breathing the aroma for 15 seconds waiting other 30 minutes to observe adverse symptoms, and them continuing or not.

A very common Eucalyptus allergy is the one caused by the plant pollen. It can cause lung and throat irritation, asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, during the main flowering seasons. Although the Eucalyptus pollen is considered an allergen, it’s not common to cause allergic problems to humans and it could be considered as a low severity one (PollenLibrary, 2009). There are many academic studies performed on many world cities for years, observing the variability on types of atmospheric pollen along the seasons. These researches evaluate the annual pollen dynamics, its atmospheric scattering and its clinical importance to allergies. The results help on developing different strategies to plant pollen allergy prevention, to the utilization of specific anti-allergic substances and other natural medication doctor-prescribed, prior to the specific flowering seasons.

Boral et al. (2006) observed two annual seasonal Eucalyptus pollen peaks in Occidental Bengal - India: the first was during September and October and the second between January and April. The authors claimed that the climatic conditions like temperature, relative humidity of the air and rain are involved on pollen liberation and dispersion. Skin sensibility tests were conducted with allergenic extracts obtained from the collected pollen and the most positive reactions were found to the Eucalyptus, responsible for 34 % of the found allergies in the studies.

During five years, the pollen concentration was daily measured on Vigo-Spain atmosphere by Rodrigues-Rajo and coworkers (2001). Annual atmospheric pollen concentration oscillation was related, following low quantitative pollen years. Eucalyptus pollen was found on Vigo atmosphere all over the year, however, in higher concentrations on March and April. From the total pollen collected, the ones from Eucalyptus species varied from 1-3%. The highest amount was obtained on 1997 with peak concentrations from 5 to 6 p.m. Pollen liberation and dispersion received strong influence from wind and air relative humidity.

On another research study performed on the same place (Vigo-Spain), Belmonte et al. (1998) related the main types of pollen responsible for human allergies. Pollen from Poaceae family plants was ranked in first place, representing 78 % of the total people's allergies. Pinus and Eucalyptus pollens ranked on the 5th place, corresponding each one of them to 3% of the allergies from the total of 2,750 patients with respiratory problems.

Trujillo et al. (Undated) related a dermatitis occupational case, caused by Eucalyptus cinerea. It can occur on workers of flower-cultivation or flower-shops, who are hipersensitive to these Eucalyptus leaf compounds or were highly exposed to them.

As a conclusion, the Eucalypti can assist on allergies control or mitigation, but in some cases, they may become the main cause for the allergy, too. So, the Eucalyptus therapeutic utilization should be rational and cautious, as a way to guarantee safety on people health and to promote better life quality to the Eucalyptus products consumers.

See below some recommended websites about this subject. There, you can find out more about the advantages that Eucalypti can have on allergies combat and effects mitigation, and also find the caution required on the use of its essential oils. Read also some scientific articles that explain the Eucalyptus oil sensitivity or hypersensitivity and the associated symptoms. Observe the dynamics of the pollen on world selected regions and also some sensitivity tests that are made in relation to pollens. Finally, check out some Eucalypti products available on daily markets that are referred to bring relief on allergies symptoms.

Eucalyptol . Wikipedia. Available on 22.03.2009: (in English) (in Spanish)

Alergias e doencas de hipersensibilidade. Available on 15.03.2009: (in Portuguese)

Eucalyptus side effects, interactions and warnings. Personal Health Zone. (2006). Available on 07.03.2009: (in English)

I'm allergic to Eucalyptus. I need a medication please!? Yahoo Answers. Available on 07.03.2009: (in English)

Eucalipto: aplicaciones terapeuticas.
Available on 07.03.2009: (in Spanish)

Aceite de eucalipto
. Panel de Control del Dr. Risco. Available on 06.03.2009: (in Spanish)

Eucalipto. Ventana Salud. Available on 06.03.2009: Spanish)

30 consejos para combatir las alergias. Puleva Salud. Available on 06.03.2009:
(in Spanish)

trees. Pollen. Health24 Available on 06.03.2009:,20235.asp (in English)

Eucalyptus allergies?
Yahoo Answers. Available on 06.03.2009: (in English)

Conventional medications not your cup of tea? Try natural anti-allergic remedies instead! Available on 06.03.2009: (in English)

Genus level details: Gum (Eucalyptus). Avaialble on 06.03.2009:
(in English)

Caramelos Halls eucalipto mentolado. Ciao Shopping Intelligence. Available on 06.03.2009: (in Spanish)

Tree pollen calendar. Allergy and Asthma Clinic. Available on 06.03.2009: (in English)

Eucalyptus cinerea: risk assessment results. Available on 06.03.2009: (in English)

How Eucalyptus oil could help alleviate allergies like sinusitis.
HSI-Health Science Institute. (2007)
(in English)

Tratamientos alternativos contra las alergias. Megustacuidarme. (2007) (in Spanish)

C. Sinogas. Departamentof Biology. University of Evora. (2002) (in Portuguese)

Technical and scientific articles related to allergies and Eucalyptus:

ABSTRACT: Aerobiology, allergenicity and biochemistry of three pollen types in Berhampore town of West Bengal, India. D. Boral; K. Bhattacharya. Aerobiologia 16 (3-4): 417-422. (2006)

Abordagem etnobotanica de plantas medicinais utilizadas em dermatologia na cidade de Joao Pessoa-Paraiba, Brasil. C. O. Pereira; E. O. Lima; R. A. G. Oliveira; M. S. Toledo, A. K. A. Azevedo, M. F. Guerra R. C.Pereira. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais 7(3): 9-17. (2005)

Therapy for acute nonpurulent rhinosinusitis with cineole: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. W. Kehrl; U. Sonnemann; U. Dethlefsen. Laryngoscope 114(4):738-42. (2004)

Exacerbation of asthma related to Eucalyptus pollens and to herb infusion containing Eucalyptus. E. Galdi; L. Perfetti; G. Calcagno; M. C. Marcotulli; G. Moscato. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 59(3): 220-221. (2003)

ABSTRACT: El polen de Eucalyptus y su incidencia en la atmosfera de Vigo (N.O. Espana). J. F. Rodrigues – Rajo; M. V. Jato; M. C. Seijo. Acta Botanica Malacitana 26: 99-110. (2001)

ABSTRACT: Aerobiology of Vigo, North-Western Spain: atmospheric pollen spectrum and annual dynamics of the most important taxa, and their clinical importance for allergy. J. Belmonte; J. M. Roure; X. March. Aerobiologm 14: 155-163. (1998)

O uso de oleos essenciais na terapeutica. M. G. F. Cruz. UFMT. 22 pp. (Undated)

Alergia de origen ocupacional en Eucalyptus cinerea. M.J. Trujillo; E. Gonzales-Macebo; B. Bartolome Savala; S. Santos Magadan; M. Gandolfo Cano; D. Gonzales. Unidad de Alergia de Madrid, Departamiento Medico de Bial Aristegui. (Undated)

Commercial products manufactured with Eucalyptus to prevent, mitigate or combat allergies (they are only presented as literature references and not as purchasing recommendations): (in English)
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Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel

The Eucalyptus Planted Forests, Land Use and the Production of Food in Brazil

Brazil is a country of continental dimensions, with a relatively large population, amounting to approximately 185 million inhabitants in a total area of 8.51 million square kilometers (851 million hectares). From this total area, about 460 million hectares are still natural and protected biomes, corresponding to half the territorial area of the country. The following biomes stand out: Amazon Rain Forest, Cerrado biome, Caatinga biome (a brushwood covered system), Atlantic Forest, Pantanal biome (the swampy lowlands of Mato Grosso), Araucaria Forest (Brazilian pine forests), Coconut Palm Forest, Coastal Zone, and Pampas biome. Technically, approximately 390 million hectares would remain for the occupation of people, agriculture, cattle growing, afforestation, etc. According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), the agricultural land cultivation occupied 77 million hectares in 2006, the pastures 175, and the woods and forests 100 million hectares (PPAs and LRAs - permanent preservation areas and legal reserve areas; plus the planted forest areas).

The Brazilian authorities argue that the country still has about 90 to 140 million hectares available for the expansion of agriculture, cattle growing and silviculture, without jeopardizing the protected natural areas, which is contested by the environmentalists, as they believe that important areas of natural ecosystems in regeneration (especially of the Cerrado biome and Atlantic Forest) are included in these figures. Anyway, the areas available for expansion are still immense. Suitable planning and ecological/economic zoning per state and municipalities may help Brazil very much to reach an adequate level of socio-environmental sustainability and economic production. Thus, in the optimum situation, the biomes would be protected and the economy growing and generating benefits and happiness to the increasing population. Well, just to dream is not enough; things must be caused or helped to happen. The forest-based sector can and must participate in this process in search of this integrated sustainability at country level, instead of just in terms of individual companies or as a sector. Also, it cannot be forgotten that the country’s agricultural and forest productivity rates are experiencing a pronounced growth. Exceptional productivity rates have been attained with regard to soybean, sugar cane, Eucalyptus, corn, Pinus, etc.

Much effort is being made on the part of the Federal Government’s environmental area, in order that agriculture and cattle raising also begin to respect more the environmental legislation in terms of PPAs and LRAs, in the same way as silviculture does at present. The rural farmers have reacted sharply, counterarguing that areas for agricultural planting and pastures will become short; and that this measure will result in a reduction in areas for agricultural, cattle raising, and food production. Among the cultivated areas and cultures, the most significant ones in terms of use of land are as follows: soybean = 22 million hectares; corn = 9.5; sugar cane = 6; cultivated pastures = 100; planted forests = 6. The natural, very impoverished pastures, occupy about 80 million hectares. Then, it should be observed that the technologically more qualified and advanced crops have an ample potential for growth from areas already degraded by intensive and low-technology agriculture and cattle raising.

In fact, what must be striven for and achieved is an integrated, non-conflicting management for the different uses of land. As a result of it, the productive chains are optimized, as well as the interrelations between them. Competitiveness will be enhanced and what should be preserved will be actually preserved. The continued researches for increases in productivity and productive capacity of land should be also privileged.

In general, the planted forest sector uses areas of low agricultural aptitude, with low food production capacity, areas of land that have been intensely used by pastures and annual agriculture and have impoverished or degraded, as a result of it. Such areas are less expensive, more easily worked for forest planting, and compatible with the requirements of the forest species being used in the country. The forest sector makes also use of highly-sloped land, unsuitable for the modern highly mechanized agriculture. By doing so, it also contributes to conserve such lands with sharp declivity, by occupying them with the longer-cycle silviculture.

The planted forest area corresponds to 0.7% of the country’s territorial area; to 1.65% of the technically tillable area; to 6% of the areas defined by IBGE as Woods and Forests within the Brazilian area that is being occupied by the population with productive purposes. (

The Eucalyptus areas correspond to 65% of the planted forests in Brazil, so that it is easy to calculate their percentage participation in the use of land. It should be also added that the planted forest sector, by maintaining and enriching the permanent preservation and legal reserve areas, is a great preserver of natural woods and forests. This factor increases considerably its participation in the segment classified by IBGE as Woods and Forests.

Due to the fact that degraded land is used by the planted forest sector, its impact on food production in the country is small, but even so it exists and this occurs for two reasons:

• when planting forests in degraded agricultural or pasture soils, even if they had a low capacity to sustain these types of production, these areas will fail to produce some food;
• when protecting permanent preservation (flooded low flat lands alongside watercourses, banks of rivers and lakes, etc.) and legal reserve areas, which were not being protected by agriculture or cattle raising, the plantation forest sector is converting food production areas into environmental conservation areas. This is excellent for the environment, for sustainability, but has an impact on the production of meat, rice, corn, etc. Did you follow the point?

In the regions where forests for industrial and biomass fuel utilization's are planted, the municipality areas are occupied by about 5 to 30% by the company forest farms. As far as states which are important planted forest producers (Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Bahia, Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, etc.) are concerned, the occupation of the territorial area of the state with planted forests ranges from 2 to 6%. With regard to the tillable areas of those states, the percentage ranges from 5 to 20%. Since poor quality soils are frequently used for the planted forests, a sufficient area of better pieces of land is still left for agriculture. However, it should be clear that poor soils are preferential soils, but not exclusive for the planted forest sector. There is a reasonable amount of forests planted in soils of better quality in terms of fertility, topography, etc.

To avoid potential conflicts over the use of the land and to improve the understanding of society with regard to the theme related to planted forests and food production, it is important for the sector to go on striving for its technical improvement and its further integration into the rural and agricultural activities in its areas of influence. By doing so, it will be favoring its forest production, but at the same time, contributing to food production. It is very common to hear ecologists or NGOs stating that society "does not eat Eucalyptus", for which reason they condemn the Eucalyptus plantation forestry. They forget that not only food is necessary for human societies to become happy and to survive. However, there are no doubts that it is a powerful argument.

The first step to improve this situation is the planted forest sector to have more effective participation in the studies and debates on agroforestry zoning and use of land, as this has occurred in states like Rio Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso do Sul. This will contribute to delimit better the different components of the Brazilian landscapes, such as: agriculture, cattle growing, planted forests, native forests and natural ecosystems, archaeological and historical sites, cities and towns, industrial areas, etc. The forest sector has supported this type of zoning, having even participated in the studies and public dialogs / hearings.

At present, the integrated food production in the planted forest areas is still scarce. The following might be cited: honey production from Eucalyptus flowers; meat production by cattle pasturing in the forest understorey; use of some area of agricultural aptitude for food production (rice, fruit orchards, etc.) by some kind of partnership with rural farmers. It is worthwhile reminding that in Chile and Portugal, countries of reduced tillable areas, the problem is much more serious. There, some forest-based companies are even involved in some sort of agriculture for food production. It is the case of Portucel/Soporcel, in Portugal (with planting of grapes for making wine -; ) and Arauco Nueva Aldea (vineyards, wine, and olive oil -

Although they are very much researched at Brazilian universities and at the forest companies themselves, the agroforestry and the silvipasture systems are considered by the executives of those companies as activities to be performed by farmers/third parties, rather than by themselves. The whole research dedicated to those sciences has been oriented to help improving the rural producer’s forest and agricultural production, by means of forest promotion and partnership programs. Just a very few companies of the forest-based sector aim to become complex agroforestry businesses.

Based on the agroforestry knowledge, the rural producer can go on using his areas with agricultural or cattle raising vocation, while planting trees in the land of worse quality, whether associated or not with cattle pasturing, or some interplanted agriculture crop. There are numerous models in use in Brazil, but the overwhelming majority of them in the rural farmers' lands.

The great truth is that there are dozens of opportunities at one’s disposal, for the planted forest sector to be able to produce its woods and contribute to the growth of food production in the country. The first and easiest one would be the cooperation in the technological know-how transfer to agriculture – more precisely, to the medium and small rural owners. In general, forest-based companies use state-of-the-art technology (precision silviculture, mechanization, hydroponic nurseries, soil conservation, plant fertilization and nutrition, pests and diseases biological control, biotechnology, etc.). Through a stronger involvement at cooperation level, a great deal of this knowledge might be transferred and shared with regional farmers, leveraging in this way the local agriculture productivity. This might be done by means of courses, seminars, demonstration plots, training, case studies, etc. This involvement and integration would help the rural community in terms of diversification and improvement of its activities, as well as increase in agricultural yields, cost reduction, and preservation of the natural, historical and archaeological patrimony.

Other fantastic alternatives exist and I will enumerate some of them by way of example. Many others might be cited and found, it is enough to further reflect on the whole of it, not only on the own forest area. Have a look how we may increase food production and sustainability in the regions where forest sector operates, by means of:

• development of integrated codes of good agricultural and forest practices;
• production of food (fruits, edible seeds, mushrooms, etc.) and phyto-therapeutical goods (medicinal herbs) from the permanent preservation and legal reserve areas (to be developed with environmental institution's and NGOs);
• production diversification in the appropriate areas, by using the lands with stronger agricultural aptitude for food production (either on one’s own or in partnership with third parties). An alternative would be to make use of the concepts developed by the agroforestry and silvipasture systems on appropriate lands as well, but to really produce food, not just as demonstrative fields.
• seedling production to also support regional agricultural crops in the sector’s latest- generation nurseries;
• management of the plantation forest areas with rotation with annual agricultural crops - especially leguminosae (beans, soybeans, lupine beans, etc.) or forage leguminosae (pigeon pea, leucaena, perennial soybean) – or larger-sized shrubby plants (longer-cycle fruit orchards to reduce anthropic interventions in the "forestry resting area" – for example: papaya, etc.);
• strong support for the soil protection and conservation programs at regional level;
• the same for the local hydrology protection programs, with monitoring micro-watersheds installation not only in own plantation forest areas, but involving the adjacent rural areas;
• establishment of partnerships with public organizations for extension and research of the agricultural and cattle raising sector;
• strong support for knowledge transfer about environmental and solid waste management (composting, agricultural use of waste, etc.);
• making available own land areas to be used by qualified third parties for activities such as pasturing, apiculture, pisciculture, fruit orchards, etc.;
• cooperation with local farmers for getting agricultural product certifications, such as those existing for forest certification;
• etc. etc.

The stronger and deeper forest sector’s involvement in the establishment and implementation of regional rural policies and strategies will certainly favor the growth and competitiveness of these regions. All of us know that for a company to be competitive it must be located in a competitive region. There is no longer a way of guaranteeing competitiveness if the region where we are situated is poor, miserable and has low people qualifications. The more qualified our neighbors, the better and more competitive we are to become.

For all these reasons, my friends, let’s reflect a little more on how to speed up these and other opportunities. With them, we will be giving a higher multi-functionality level to plantation forestry and better exercising citizenship at our company. We will be contributing for the planted forest production network to be more and more a value network for both ourselves and the Brazilian Society.

Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus. It depends only on registering yourself to receive them.
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2007-2010

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