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Dear friends,

Good morning, my dear Eucalyptus friends. Here we are again, with the 13th issue of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. In this edition, we are again bringing a lot of information and knowledge about these wonderful trees and their utilization. I hope you enjoy them.

In the section "The Friends of the Eucalyptus", we are telling to you the professional life, scientific production, and career of one of the major icons of the Silviculture and Pulp and Paper Science in Brazil, our dear friend Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo. I know professor Barrichelo since my times of agronomy student at ESALQ/USP, when I worked under his advising and tutorship. As a consequence, to tell you about professor Barrichelo and his achievements is a source of happiness to me. I know him very well, and I have a great admiration for his talent, dedication and faith in what he believes. I'm very proud and happy to have had the chance to introduce him to you in this issue of the Eucalyptus Newsletter.

In this issue of our newsletter, we are bringing something new. Thanks to my dear friends from Appita, the Technical Association of the Australia and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry, it was made possible to create this section. In it, we are to receive fresh news about the Eucalyptus, straight from their homelands. That is the reason the section has been named "News from the Eucalyptus Homelands". Our most sincere thanks to Appita, helping in the diffusion of the knowledge about the Eucalyptus.

In this issue, we are also bringing to you the seventh chapter of our Eucalyptus Online Book. The title of this chapter, in its English version, is: "ECO-EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF WOODY FOREST RESIDUES FROM THE EUCALYPTUS PLANTATION FORESTRY".

In the Ester Foelkel's section about "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus" she is telling us about the wonder of the Eucalyptus trees and forests inspiring many artists to create art masterpieces based on the emotions of interacting with them.

The mini-article in this edition deals with "The Eucalyptus and the Eco-labels". This is a source of enormous opportunities to the forest products using the Eucalyptus, no matter if pulp, paper, essential oils, furniture, etc. The Brazilian forest sector is already very active in the FSC and CERFLOR forest certification schemes. These certifications help to guarantee that the forest operations are based on environmentally and socially sound techniques and cares. They may also guarantee the chain of custody of the forest products (traceability of the wood source as being produced in certified forests). However, there are also other opportunities, as the type I green labels, to bring extra strengths to the image and performance of the industrial segment based on the Eucalyptus.

As we are used to do, in this newsletter issue, we are bringing a lot of interesting subjects about the Eucalyptus. The purpose is to offer knowledge in a way that you may learn more, and to enjoy doing such. For this, we are forcing you, in some extent, to navigate the web to grab as much on good information as possible. We also offer good articles, and recommendations of books and interesting events.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have now several non financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, CETCEP/SENAI, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, CENPAPEL, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR and EMBRAPA FLORESTAS. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries as Brazil, USA, Chile, Portugal, Colombia, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing.
Know more about all of our today’s partners at the URL address:

Thanks again for the support to our work. We have just now reached the 5,000 registered people receiving these online publications about the Eucalyptus. Even so, I beg your help to inform about and to promote our project to your friends , in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from CELSIUS DEGREE, ABTCP, BOTNIA, ARACRUZ, INTERNATIONAL PAPER DO BRASIL, CONESTOGA-ROVERS & ASSOCIATES , SUZANO and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes to all of you, and please enjoy your reading.

Celso Foelkel

In this edition

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 7 (in English)

Online Technical References

References on Events and Courses


Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus: The Eucalyptus Inspiring Arts

New Section: News from the Eucalyptus Homelands (a cooperation from Appita)

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo

Technical mini-article by Celso Foelkel
The Eucalyptus and the Eco-labels

Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 7 (in English)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe pdf - 6.6 MB) just click the name of the chapter. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit and find the instructions how to get it.


Online Technical References

In this section, we are offering some very good euca-links with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they are very much connected with the Eucalyptus. In this section, we are trying to balance recent and historical publications, those that are helping to build the foundations and the history of the Eucalyptus forestry, environment, industrial utilization, and many other areas related to these magic trees.

"Eucalyptus globulus - Wood Applications" - (Spanish and English)
A publication very well edited by the Centro de Innovacion e Servizos Tecnoloxicos da Madeira, Galicia, Spain. The authors are M.C.Touza Vazquez and O.Gonzales Prieto. We have 42 pages containing beautiful illustrations and texts explaining the utilization of this fantastic wood for furniture's, floors, housing, structures, etc.

"Eucalypt Domestication and Breeding" - (English)
One of the fundamental textbooks about the genetic breeding of the Eucalyptus. It was written by Ken Eldridge, published on 1994, and now, the book has been made available for reading by Google Books. Take a chance to read the excellent concepts presented by Dr. Eldridge about : breeding strategies, selection of species and progenies, improved seed production, vegetative propagation, opportunities for new frontiers in the Eucalyptus forest breeding, etc.

"Hardwoods Wood Products Utilization" - (English)
A publication showing the increasing potential for the utilization of hardwoods as source of woods to the wood markets. Edited in 1987, by the U.S. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.

"Growing Eucalyptus for Timber, Poles and Firewood" - (English)
A guidebook about forest technologies and operational cares in producing Eucalyptus trees in plantation forests. The handbook has been created to orient the farmers in Uganda to produce Eucalyptus wood as source of material for timber, poles, furniture and firewood. Edited by the Sawlog Production Grant Scheme (

"Hand-outs about Seed and Seedling Production" - (Portuguese)
Professor Lauri Amandio Schorn and his team at the Regional University of Blumenau are offering to us an excellent set of hand-outs describing the production of forest seeds and seedlings. Please, navigate in the following links to know all the material: (Seed formation) (Ecological aspects of seed production) (General issues involved in seed production) (Dormancy and processes to break it) (Silviculture II: seedling production) (Silviculture of exotic forest species)

"Propagating and Planting Trees" - (Portuguese)
The publication Agrodok 16 from Agromisa Foundation, with 114 pages, was written by Ed Verheij, in 2005. The document describes the forest techniques to be used to propagate and to plant trees in agroforestry systems. It was written to be a guide to farmers and extensionists, for this reason the emphasis is given to low cost and simple methods.

"Tropical Silviculture Handbook" - (Portuguese)
This is a very interesting publication that received the support from FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization. In this Portuguese version, it is presented by the University Eduardo Mendlane, Department of Forestry Engineering. The 130 pages are rich contents on concepts about the silviculture in the tropical regions. The authors are N.Ribeiro, A.A.Sitoe, B.S.Guedes and C.Staiss; released on 2002.

" El Papel del Sur: Plantaciones Forestales en la Estrategia Papelera Internacional" - (Spanish and English)
In a previous edition of our Eucalyptus Newsletter we had the chance to introduce to you the English version of this interesting and controversial publication written by Ricardo Carrera / Larry Lohmann ( Since the book is also available in Spanish, we are taking the chance to bring it to you: (Spanish)

"Innovation in the Pulp Production based on the Eucalyptus Short Fibers" - (Portuguese)

This is an university paper describing the success of the market pulp manufacturing industry in Brazil, the reasons for these achievements and the role of the technological innovation for this competitiveness. The authors are: M.R.Brochado, L.M.Mofati, C.A. Choeypant, M.C.Pereira and C.Nolte. The article has 8 pages and it was presented at the XXIV Brazilian Meeting of Production Engineering, in 2004, in the city of Florianopolis.

"Green Steel: the Brazilian Steel Industry and Environmental Performance" - (English)
Academic paper showing the environmental advances of the Brazilian steel manufacturing industry. This industry in Brazil is based on the utilization of wood charcoal manufactured mainly using the Eucalyptus planted forests. Paper has been written by J.R.Barton to the School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom, 27 pages, 1998.

References on Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events. The advantage provided to the readers is that the event organizers made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties.

National Symposium on Environmental Forestry - (Portuguese)
This event was organized by CEDAGRO - Center for Agribusiness Development in the State of Espirito Santo. In the 2007 edition of this symposium, the central theme was "The role of forests in the global warning". We had excellent speeches about planted forests and natural forests, sustainable development, clean development mechanisms, carbon sinking, etc... (About the event)
(Speeches for downloading)

I Seminar on "Water Resources in the Paraiba do Sul River Watershed" - SERHIDRO 2007 - "The Eucalyptus and the Hydrological Cycle" - (Portuguese)
This was a great event about forests and their influence on the hydrology of the region they are. Special emphasis on the Eucalyptus plantation forests was given by several authors. Definitively, very good speeches on this issue. The event was organized by UNITAU - University of Taubate, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Among the speakers, several were renowned scientists and researchers on this topic. Considering that this theme is provoking debates and questioning from many NGO's, the symposium was able to clarify many conflicting topics through the very good technical and scientific contributions. Please, visit the websites to check the material and to download the speeches and articles. (Program) (Proceedings with the technical articles) (Invited speeches) (Pre-congress invited speeches)

UNFF Planted Forests Expert Meeting "Maximizing the Role of Planted Forests in Sustainable Forest Management" - New Zealand - (English)
It was an important event that has happened in New Zealand in 2003. The organization was shared among the New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, IUFRO (International Union of Forest Research Organizations) and the UNFF (United Nations Forum on Forests). The event had as objectives to discuss strategies to promote the sustainable forest management (SFM) in plantation forests, and had several case studies presented on this subject. Other topics also discussed were related to: forest certification, agroforestry, sustainable operational practices and models, etc.

Workshop "Eucalyptus in California" - USDA - PSWFRES - (English)
Organized by the USDA Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Association. The event was held some years ago (1983), but it has some very good articles about the successful introduction of Eucalyptus in plantation forests in some North American states: California, Florida, Oregon, and Hawaii. Some of the main topics that have been covered include: species introduction, forest tree breeding, cloning and vegetative propagation, industrial utilization of the woods, silviculture, etc. The proceedings are available for free downloading to the interested parties at the suggested URLs:

Seminar about "Integrated Management of Watersheds Containing Plantation Forests" - SIF 2007 - (Portuguese)
An important event about forest hydrology organized by SIF - Society of Forestry Investigations, in 2007. The speeches were related to: forest hydrology, stand productivity, water consumption, watershed mapping, etc.

EPOBIO Workshops on Biorefineries - (English)
EPOBIO is an European international project to study the energy potential of biomass raw materials as sources of renewable energy. The aim is to develop technological solutions in a time length of no longer than 15 years from the year 2005. Until now, two workshops have been organized about biorefineries. The speeches are available for free downloading to the interested parties. Very good technical material. Please, visit them:

1st EPOBIO Workshop:

Products from Plants - the Biorefinery Future (English)

2nd EPOBIO Workshop:
Products from Plants – from Crops and Forests to Zero-Waste Biorefineries (English)

I Journey about the "Forest and Industrial Potential of the Eucalyptus in Santiago del Estero - Argentina" - (Spanish)

The event was held in 2005 in Santiago del Estero, Argentina. It had the aim to debate the potential and strategies to raise the area of Eucalyptus plantations in the region. The organizer was the Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero, through its College of Forestry Sciences


Here, we are bringing to you a series of links with several very good websites that have strong connection with the Eucalyptus. I hope you may visit them, taking advantage of the good technical material they offer at a no cost basis.

Floram Project. (Brazil)
During late 1980's, in Brazil, a selected group of renowned experts and thinkers was created with the mission to propose strategies to the phenomenon's of carbon sinking and greenhouse effect mitigation. The results of this reflection was the proposal of a mega-project for afforestation in Brazil, with an estimated area of 20 million hectares of plantations. The Floram project, as it was named, had as objectives to show the environmental, social and economic advantages of such activity to the country. The archives of all main papers that have been issued by these experts are made available to all, thanks to the Advanced Studies Institute, University of Sao Paulo. The files may be read both in English or Portuguese. There are no doubts that this topic is still very actual and important. For these reasons, we recommend a visit to the following addresses to know more about the findings and suggestions of the Floram project. Good reading. (Portuguese) (English)

Continuous Forest Inventory for the State of Rio Grande do Sul. (Brazil)
It is a very useful and creative website, showing the results of a wide forest inventory that has been performed to the state of Rio Grande do Sul, late 1990's. The coordination of this study was under responsibility of the Federal University of Santa Maria - UFSM. The project leader was our dear friend Dr. Doadi Antonio Brena. Logistic and financial support was provided by the Environmental Secretary of this state. In the webpage you are able to find statistics, maps, methodologies, conclusions, about the state forest areas, both natural ecosystems and planted forests. A pearl, a masterpiece of the technical literature to serve as example to other states and countries. Please, visit:

Rob's Jackson Laboratory - Duke University. (USA)
The Jackson Laboratory is well-known by its studies and researches on forest hydrology, carbon sinking, global changes and environmental impacts, including the effects of forest plantations. Some of the papers that have been released by the Jackson Lab scientists are been considered helpful guides to establish new guidelines to the plantation forests. We are giving you a chance to visit the laboratory, to obtain the available publications, to know the main projects and programs , the group of professors and researchers, the graduate students, etc. Since the Jackson Lab is part of the Duke University, the Jackson Lab courses agenda, programs and lectures are also available to be visited. (Publications) (Projects) (Course on Plant Eco-physiology) (Course on Ecology and Global Changes)

Cenbio - Reference National Center in Biomass. (Brazil)
Cenbio is an organization that has the aim to promote the renewable energy sources, including biomasses and other bioenergy sources. Cenbio website is very rich, with a lot of technical material for downloading: documents, articles, speeches of events, standards, materials of courses, reports, etc. Cenbio has the support from several organizations as: University of Sao Paulo, FINEP, Ministry of Science and Technology, Sao Paulo State Secretary of Energy, International Energy Initiative and Biomass Users Network. Know more visiting the links: (General website) (Projects being developed) (Documents for downloading) (Brazilian Bioenergy Magazine - Revista Brasileira de Bionergia)

CAF - Companhia Agro Florestal Santa Barbara. (Brazil)
CAF is a company that belongs to the Arcelor group. It has the responsibility to plant Eucalyptus forests in Brazil to the wood production oriented to the manufacture of charcoal. This wood charcoal is raw material to the steel manufacturing by another company of the group: Belgo Mineira. CAF is devoted to the sustainable forest management, being certified in accordance with FSC and ISO 14001. Please, know more about CAF, its activities, visiting the webpage and the interesting photo gallery about the silviculture of the Eucalyptus. (General website) (The Eucalyptus and the steel) (Forest Producer Program oriented to farmers) (Eucalyptus photo gallery)

Acesita Energetica. (Brazil)
Acesita Energetica is a company that is owned by another Brazilian siderurgic company, Acesita S/A, also from the Arcelor group. The company aims to produce Eucalyptus woods, planting extensive areas of forests in Brazil. The wood is not just for charcoal, the main use, but also for multi-purpose utilization, such as: railway sleepers, poles, sawtimber, wood packaging, etc. The company environmental awareness, policies and guidelines can be confirmed through the reading of a very unique and original Forestry Management Plan. It is definitively delightful. (General website) (Turn over the pages of the Forestry Management Plan, and enjoy it as you were reading a book)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus
by Ester Foelkel

In this edition: The Eucalyptus Inspiring Arts

In the past edition of our Eucalyptus Newsletter, the main issue we have discoursed was about the Eucalyptus parts being used as raw materials for art craft around the world. Now, we are going to talk about the beauty of these trees, their morphological forms and parts, such as flowers, leaves, fruits, branches and twigs or even on their aggregations as forests. The marvelous trees and their impact on emotions are in such level that they may even be source of artistic inspiration to many people. Paints, illustrations, artistic photos, rugs, jewelry and even water fonts can have Eucalyptus images and forms.

Differently from the art craft, in which the artisans make products using the parts of the Eucalyptus trees, many artists like to represent this gorgeous and charming tree as the Eucalyptus is, interacting with the environment. The great variety of Eucalyptus species contributes to distinguish colors, architectures, shapes and textures that can even make this inspiration stronger and more pronounced.

Besides that, in the nature, these trees can show many light contrasts as the wind shakes the leaves and the sunshine hits them. This fact may create interesting images and landscapes which have been registered in many paintings, illustrations and photos for the eternity.

One of the most common paintings and drawings of the Eucalyptus and its morphological parts are the botanical illustrations. Many artists use water color and pastel techniques to illustrate detailed botanic characteristics of the Eucalyptus species and their parts. They paint in detail flowers, leaves, fruits and other tree parts. But there is another group of artists who are used to paint in oil and to put the emotion and feelings in the landscape that they see. In many of these cases, the Eucalyptus that is observed in the view inspires them.

The same way as it occurs with the art craft, many artworks that were inspired by the Eucalyptus can be found in its origin country: mostly in Australia. However, since these trees are spreading over the world, they are inspiring people's art in many parts of the planet.

Next, some of the famous Australian artists who create botanical illustrations and drawings from the Eucalyptus species are briefly introduced to you:

Beverley Graham: She expresses in her designs the Australian flora, including the Eucalyptus, using watercolor technique and graphic design. Member of the Botanical Illustrators Group of the Friends of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Berveley has part of her artwork exhibited in the Australian National Gallery and in RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. Some copies of her illustrations were also included in Australian post cards and in mail stamp collections. This artist loves her country native plants and hopes her artwork can bring concern to people for conserving such an unique flora. Perhaps that’s why we may find innumerous of her art pieces available in many web pages. (English) (English) (English)

Marta Salamon: Botanical illustration’s painter and drawer, Marta Salamon has a great knowledge of botany and represents native and exotic plants in her artwork, that are well-known because their richness of details. There are two of her Eucalyptus illustrations in the web for your delighting. (English)

Helen Fitzgerald: She is considered an experienced and renowned art professional with her botanical illustrations. Also, she studied art in Italy and on Wien. Her career started very early: born inside an artistic family, she had her fist art paint accepted in Wynne Art Exhibition, Sydney by the age of nineteen. She has already illustrated five Australian flora and fauna books and gives classes on art education. (English)

Fiona McKinnon: Artist and a teacher as well since 1998, Fiona has already won some special awards of the Australian and International Botanical arts. Take a look at her Eucalyptus artwork in: (English)

Alwynne Fairweather: Graduated in botany and geology, she always showed great interest in art, and had the Australian flora as a main source of inspiration for her artworks. (English)

John Armstrong: This artist paints and draws detailed Australian flora according to his observations. He has one of his Eucalyptus pieces in the web. (English)

Other painters in the world equally inspired by the Eucalyptus:

Laura Wynne: Born in California, USA, she started in the paint world motivated by her father and since than she gets her inspirations by the different forms and lights that nature offers. She tries always to capture the moment emotions in her art pieces. Laura Wynne has two oil paintings with the Eucalyptus for sale on Internet. (English)

Paul Kratter: Born in the California coast, USA, the artist shows with his oil paints the landscape of his natural region and also the animal wildlife. He has two works with Eucalyptus being shown in the web: (English)

Maria Kubicek: Born in the Chaco region of Argentina, and graduated in agronomy in Cordoba, Maria Kubicek started in art by the 90´s. Sooner, she became specialized in ceramics paintings, but also produces landscape oil paintings inspired by the beauty of her natural region. This includes the piece " O Eucalypto". She already exposed her artworks in the most important Argentina’s cities and in many Brazilian’s and Mexican’s galleries, too. (Spanish)

Luis Mendes: An artist coming from Sao Paulo, Brazil, Luis Mendes’ sources of inspiration are the Brazilian culture and landscapes. Take a look at his work and his painting of the Eucalyptus.
(English) (English)

Web sites with masterpieces of art inspired in the Eucalyptus:

• Australian Christmas cards and gift cards: (English) (English)

• The art of the botanical illustrations (site with a full diversity of plant genus and species, including the Eucalyptus): (English)

• Paintings and the Eucalyptus: (English) (English) (English) (English) (English) (English) (English),com_gallery2/Itemid,42/?g2_itemId=10843 (English) (English) (English) (English) (English) (English)
(English) (English) (English) (English) (English) (English) (Spanish) (Spanish) (Spanish)

• Art photos: (English) (English) (English) (English) (English) (French) (English) (English) (English) (English) (English)

• Jewelry inspired in the Eucalyptus: (English) (English) (English) (English) (English) (English) (English)

• Rugs inspired in the Eucalyptus: (English) (English)

• Artistic water font inspired in the Eucalyptus: (English)

New Section:
News from the Eucalyptus Homelands
(a cooperation from Appita / Australia -

Starting in this Eucalyptus Newsletter number, we are bringing a new section to you. It consists in a special cooperation from our dear Appita friends (Appita - The Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry - We are receiving the usual support from our dear friends Ralph Coghill, Roberto Miotti, and many other Appita members. I have also the privilege to be an Apitta member, taking the chance to enjoy the excellent services this association provides to members. My most sincere thanks to them for allowing us the chance to know more about the Eucalyptus in their homelands.

In this edition: Albany resources (Western Australia) pay off for forward thinking

By David Wettenhall (Appita member, )

Under circumstances of very strong international demand for high quality Eucalyptus wood fiber, the blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation resource around Albany is maturing at a very fortunate time.

The plantation industry around Albany, Western Australia, was initiated in the late 1980’s with a view to establishing more trees in the landscape for environmental benefits especially to combat rising water tables and burgeoning salinization of soils and waterways. It was recognized by the far sighted foresters that need for trees was so extensive that governments could not meet the costs. It was essential to establish profitable tree crops using private investment in order to achieve the environmental benefits. Early plantings were of radiata pine (Pinus radiata), but the short rotation blue gum soon proved more attractive to investors because of the shorter crop cycle to grow pulpwood.

The government agency CALM (Conservation and Land Management) developed the technical knowledge and established early blue gum plantations in partnership with Japanese paper companies and trading houses. Managed Investment Schemes soon recognized the potential and by the mid-1990’s there were a number of schemes active in the Albany hinterland.

Managed Investment Schemes have proved to be a very effective conduit for urban and mining wealth to be invested in forestry projects in accordance with government policy and partially relieving governments from their traditional forest products supply role. The schemes are sensitive to changes in government policy and subject to competition from alternative investment vehicles such as superannuation. This causes significant variation in the areas planted each year. The total area planted in the Albany supply zone exceeds 150,000 hectares.

The first shipment of woodchips departed Albany in March, 2002 on the ‘MS Oji Universe’ bound for Abaratsu, Japan. There are now four vendors of woodchips operating from Albany representing the major plantation managers in the region. Exports for 2007 totaled 1.4 Million green tonnes and this is expected to rise to 2 to 3 M green tonnes annually in the next few years.

All vendors report strong demand. There have been numerous enquiries from potential purchasers but the vendors are inclined to maintain the good relations with current markets given that they are taking all available wood. The export price has defiantly moved upwards every year since 2002 in the face of increasing shipping costs and strengthening Australian currency.

The plantation managers utilize a range of plantation harvesting systems including log harvesting and haulage to a woodchip mill from where chips are railed 25 km to the port. Other managers prefer to chip in-field and deliver woodchips directly to the port where they are screened. Some managers are using the capacity of blue gum to sprout from stumps to regenerate a second crop. Others are removing the first rotation stumps and planting genetically advanced seedlings on the site.

There have been few issues with blue gum forestry in the region. Application of agricultural pesticides causes community concern, land prices have escalated strongly, transport infrastructure requires upgrading to cope with expanded activity and some small communities have declined as populations move to regional centers. However, it is generally recognized that plantation forestry is well managed and regulated and only partially the cause of the adverse social impacts. The economic activity generated by plantation management, harvesting, transport and exports coinciding with unprecedented boom in the mining sector in Western Australia is stretching available labor and accommodation supplies in the region.

To cap it all off, government studies have established that the plantations have arrested the salinization of waterways which will soon return to drinking water standard. The visionary foresters who dared to think plantations could achieve all this and create the economic and social benefits deserve our thanks, praise and respect.

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo

Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo is one of the major icons in the Brazilian forestry and pulp and paper science and technology segments. I have the privilege to have had him as my professor, adviser, colleague at work, and today, a dedicated and fraternal friend. Barrichelo has always been an enthusiastic chemist, something that was a great complement to his career as an agronomist, with expertise in forestry. His love for chemistry was so great, that during his time of student at ESALQ/USP his given nickname was Berzelius, one of the chemistry science father. Barrichelo was able to introduce me to chemistry and to the principles of this science. Chemistry depends on quality, reliability, accuracy and precision. When we make mistakes on chemistry, they may be easily noticed, and sometimes, they are dangerous. For this reason, we must be attentive, careful, persistent and innovative. All these virtues Barrichelo has in abundance. As usual, he was good enough to teach me these features, when I was his student. On top of these, we should add his dedication, enthusiasm, profession and career believes, and faith and respect to human beings. Over his guidance he had tens of agronomy, chemistry and forest engineering students. With him, they were able to learn the fundamentals of the wood chemistry and quality, and the technology of the pulp and paper. Barrichelo was one of the responsible in Brazil to allow the forest engineers to fill an important room in the pulp and paper industry and also in the chemical forest products industry (essential oils, resins, gums, charcoal manufacturing, chemical supplies, etc.) His success as a professional may be confirmed by his hundreds of published articles, papers, reports, speeches, book chapters, hand-outs, standards, etc., etc. We shall also mention his administrative and managerial virtues. Thanks to them, he could reach important positions at E.S.A."Luiz de Queiroz"/USP, such as: mayor of the ESALQ campus; head of the Forest Sciences Department; executive, scientific and administrative director of the IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies; responsible to the Forestry Experimental Station of Itatinga from ESALQ. Besides these achievements at his work, he has also been very active in associations as ABTCP - The Brazilian Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, in which he is a founding member.

Professor Barrichelo was born in 1941, at the town of Rio das Pedras - SP. He belongs to a well-known Brazilian family, both in his homelands or even in the entire country. His devotion to his family, to his wife Sonia Maria, to his three daughters (Renata, Viviane and Marcia) and one son (Luiz Fernando), were key factors to him to develop a special website to the Barrichello family. Besides all these, he is also very well related to other people. His abilities have guided him to search places where he could exercise human relations and to work in favor of the society. Thanks to these orientations, he has been converted to a devoted Rotary Club member, since 1968. At the Rotary Club he reached important positions in the hierarchical chain, and was able to succeed in many social achievements projects. Another of his recreation is the internet. It is a passion to him, since the early days of this technology, during the mid 1980's. His passion to family, friends, and to the web have directed him to the creation of several websites, none of them a technical one. All these websites reflect his care and respect to people, to his family, to his friends from the university time and from the Rotary Club, and also to his father Luiz Augusto Barrichello.

Know more about the Luiz Ernesto's websites, navigating on them for entertainment:
• the Barrichello family (,
• his father Luiz Augusto Barrichello (,
• his own website ( ,
• his friends in the 1966 ESALQ graduation (,
• the Rotary Club he is a member (,
• the district of the Rotary Club where it is inserted (

Dr. Barrichelo started his studies at the ESALQ/USP (College of Agronomy "Luiz de Queiroz" - University of Sao Paulo) in 1962. His aim was to become an agronomist, a promising career in Brazil at that time. Exactly in that same year, the Department of Silviculture was created at ESALQ, under the leadership of Professor Helladio do Amaral Mello. In 1966, Barrichelo got his graduation in Agronomy, and in 1967 he was hired by ESALQ as assistant professor. Under his responsibility he had the courses about wood chemistry and pulp and paper technology. There, he had the guidance and the opportunity to work with Dr. Ronaldo Algodoal Guedes Pereira, another great name of the Brazilian forestry sector. Dr. Ronaldo was surely one of the major responsible to introduce in Brazil the science of pulp and paper, first to the agronomists, and later to the forest engineering students. Luiz Ernesto was first a trainee and soon an efficient co-worker under the advising of Dr. Ronaldo. His objectives were to combine his love to chemistry with the chemical and practical application of wood, converting the chips to pulp and paper. His dreams to be well-succeed in chemistry were becoming real. Chemistry and Forestry could complement and complete each other. From that time onwards, Barrichelo's career took its course with a lot of innovation, creativeness, hard-working, and a stupend scientific production.

Everything was happening in Brazil along those "golden years" in the 1960's and 1970's. A Federal Government program to incentive the plantation of forests was created, and some few years later, another program was launched to promote the development of the pulp and paper industry. It was absolutely natural that the forestry segment and career would grow concomitantly. In 1967, the ABTCP (Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper) was born. In 1968, the new born was IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies. To both, Barrichelo's participation was vital, to their foundations and to their developments and trajectories. Since the forestry and market pulp segments had had the decision to grow more in Eucalyptus, Barrichelo's studies were directed to discover the secrets of these new raw materials, their woods and their short hardwood fibers. Dr. Barrichelo had fundamental role in defining Eucalyptus species and provenances for kraft pulping, the required wood quality, the paper potential of the Eucalyptus fibers, the integration between forestry and wood industrial conversion areas, and also in the development of new chemical standards to this just fast-growing industry in Brazil.

Along his career as an ESALQ professor, he advised over 50 students (graduate and undergraduate). He has over 200 published scientific papers, reports and articles in renowned magazines. Also, an enormous number of speeches in scientific and technical conferences and meetings. Besides all this, he has also some books and book chapters written, a fantastic academic production. As a professor for over 30 years, he had a fast growing career, reaching the position of USP Office Holder Professor in 1987. This is the maximum position a professor may reach at this university.

After retiring as an USP professor, he continues very active as an invited professor at the same university, advising graduate students at the Department of Forest Sciences in Piracicaba. He is also the IPEF executive director, what means that he is definitively still very dynamic and still tied to the same sector he always helped to grow. The conclusion is that the family, the work, the forestry science, the human relations, and the people education are part of his life, they are vital things to him, impossible to live without.

Barrichelo had several very important and desired awards in his career, some uniques to most of the researchers working in his field in Brazil. The most important were:

• "Moinho Santista" Award, in 1994, for his relevant research works with the utilization of the Eucalyptus as raw material to the Brazilian pulp and paper industry;;

• "Hopes for the Future for Sustainable World" Award, a condecoration granted to him in 1996 by the International Academy of Sciences and by the International Union of Air Pollution Prevention and Environmental Protection Association, in recognition to his work, creativeness and performance in the Floram Project;

About the Floram Project (English and Portuguese):

Group of notable thinkers and scientists involved in the creation of the Floram Project: Antonio S. Rensi Coelho; Azis Ab Saber; Geraldo Forbes; Jacques Marcovitch; James Wright; Jose Goldemberg; Leopold Rodes; Luiz E. G. Barrichelo; Mauro Antonio de Morais Victor; Nelson Barbosa Leite; Werner Zulauf.

• Honorary member of the ABTCP - The Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper;

• Sao Paulo state Medal of Scientific Merit, granted by the Sao Paulo State governement, in June, 2001;

• Honorary member of IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies.

To know more about Dr. Barrichelo's career, we recommend to navigate in some of his curriculum vitae available in the web. They show a synthesis of his professional life, very active and rich on achievements:

CNPq Lattes Brazil Platform of Academic Curriculums

USP Atena System

Following, for your navigation, we will include links to a series of articles written by Dr. Barrichelo along his career. It would be an audacious intention to bring to this Eucalyptus Newsletter all Dr. Barrichelo's academic and scientific production. We were able to recover in the web a small fraction of Dr. Barrichelo's technical production. The other papers were published in a time where the digital world was still incipient, and virtual publications were not common or inexistent. Fortunately, IPEF decided to bring to the digital format the majority of its publications. Because of this fact, a great number of Dr. Barrichelo's publications could be rescued. About 50 articles and other type of publications from Barrichelo are then brought to you. Barrichelo has been a regular writer in magazines as: Silvicultura (SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture - ), O Papel (ABTCP Journal -, Silvicultura em Sao Paulo, Embrapa Florestas Forest Research Bulletin (, Brasil Florestal magazine. He has also been a frequent author in the Brazilian Forestry Congresses and in the ABTCP Annual Congresses. In case you reader, may become interested in some of Dr. Barrichelo's papers (when reading his curriculum) and that are not included in this newsletter for downloading, please get in touch with Dr. Barrichelo or to the organization responsible to the publication, either SBS, ABTCP, Embrapa Florestas, etc. I'm sure that you will get a reprint as a courtesy in a due time.

In his career, Dr. Barrichelo had several frequent co-workers, a great number of scientists and technical people who have worked with him in developing science and technology. Some were his former students, other are ESALQ colleagues, IPEF professionals, researchers from the IPEF company members, etc. I had the honor to be one of them.

Some of his most usual co-authors and co-workers in Dr. Barrichelo's papers and publications are:
Jose Otavio Brito (,
Celso Foelkel (,
Francides Gomes da Silva Jr. (,
Maria Aparecida Mourao Brasil (,
Hilton Tadeu Zarate do Couto (,
Antonio Rioyei Higa (,
Celso Garcia Auer (,
Tasso Leo Krügner ( ,
Mario Tomazello Filho (,
and also Antonio Jose Migliorini, Luiz Eduardo Gutierrez, Vail Manfredi, Jorge Vieira Gonzaga, Maria Aparecida Carpim, Mario Ferreira, Paulo Kageyama, etc., etc.

During our search to rescue the papers written by Luiz Ernesto to bring them to you through this Eucalyptus Newsletter, we had a very interesting surprise. We discovered that Barrichelo is not only an Eucalyptus' friend, but a Pinus, too. There is an enormous number of papers written by Barrichelo about species of Pinus, including his free-docency thesis discoursing on the kraft pulp production using Pinus caribaea wood. This fact is due to the leadership Barrichelo had from mid 1970's to mid 1980's in an ESALQ research project. He was responsible to the Tropical Pines Project, a research project that had the aim to promote the growth in the area of pine plantations in Brazil, at that time very restricted to the Southern states of the country. The study also had the objective to find suitable alternatives to the Araucaria angustifolia wood, at that time starting to become endangered and scarce. Soon, the Araucaria reached the stage of protected forest species, being no longer allowed to be used as raw material to the industry. For this reason, so intense was his production about Pinus, that we decide to create a special section in our number 03 PinusLetter ( to bring all these articles to you in the right newsletter. Visit the PinusLetter website to know this collection. The papers are equally precious.

In order to facilitate the search and location of the publications, we decided to divide the files in seven main groups: theses; books; interviews; wood anatomy, chemistry and quality; pulp and paper technology; biomass and energy; R&D management. Please, remember that more than 20 Dr. Barrichelo's articles about Pinus, their woods and pulps, are to be introduced to you in the number 03 issue of our PinusLetter.

My dear friend Luiz Ernesto Barrichelo, for all your career, for the charismatic and unique person you are, for everything you have done, are doing and will do for the Eucalyptus, for the Pinus and to the Brazilian forestry and forest-based industry, we all want to thank you very much. These acknowledgements reflect the will of all your former students, your friends, your admirers, and all the Brazilian forest community. Thanks for you dedication and work to us.

Know more about Dr. Barrichelo's talent reading some of his theses, articles, books, and papers. Among them, please find a fantastic book recently edited by Duratex S/A about the Eucalyptus, in which he was co-author. Most of his publications are written in Portuguese, but they have a summary in English. Precious works, have a look.

Barrichelo's Academic Theses

O uso da madeira de Eucalyptus saligna na obtencao de celulose pelo processo bissulfito base magnesio. L.E.G.Barrichelo. Ph.D. Thesis USP. 89 pp. (1971)

Estudo das caracteristicas fisicas, anatomicas e quimicas da madeira de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis para a producao de celulose kraft.
L.E.G.Barrichelo. Free Docency Thesis USP. 173 pp. (1979)


A madeira das especies de eucalipto como materia-prima para a industria de celulose e papel.
L.E.G.Barrichelo; J.O.Brito. Prodepef/BRA 45 Serie Divulgacao nº 13. 149 pp. (1976)

O Eucalipto: um seculo no Brasil (The Eucalypt: a century in Brazil). L.R.S.Queiroz; L.E.G.Barrichelo. Edited by Duratex S/A. 131 pp. (2007) - In Portuguese and English

Chat and Interview at the CeluloseOnline Website Portal

Publications about Wood Anatomy, Chemistry and Quality

Instrucoes para coleta de amostras de madeira destinadas a processos de analises quimicas laboratoriais. L.E.G.Barrichelo; J.O.Brito; F.G.Silva Jr. Website IPEF. (undated)

Estudos dos compostos fenolicos como tracadores taxonomicos das sementes do genero Eucalyptus. R.F.Faria; A.C.Facco; H.V.Amorim; L.E.G.Barrichelo; J.O.Brito. IPEF Technical Report nº 29. 8 pp. (undated)

Metodos para determinacao da densidade basica de cavacos para coniferas e folhosas. C.E.B.Foelkel; M.A.M.Brasil; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF 2/3: 45 – 74. (1971)

Utilizacao integral da arvore – A casca. J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF Technical Report nº 50. 4 pp. (1979)

A utilizacao da madeira na producao de celulose. L.E.G.Barrichelo; J.O.Brito. IPEF Technical Report nº 68. 12 pp. (1979)

Densidade basica entre procedencias, classes de diametro e posicoes em arvores de Eucalyptus grandis e E.saligna. V.R.Souza; M.A.Carpim; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF 33: 65 – 72. (1986)

Densidade basica da madeira, melhoramento e manejo florestal. V.R.S.Shimoyama; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF Techical Series 6(20): 1 – 22. (1989)

Qualidade da madeira de hibrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla e selecao precoce. G.S.B.Alencar; L.E.G.Barrichelo; F.G.Silva Jr. 35th ABTCP Annual Congress. 7 pp. (2002)

Publications about Pulp and Paper Technology

Influencia da gramatura sobre as propriedades fisico-mecanicas da celulose. L.E.G.Barrichelo; C.E.B.Foelkel. 2nd ABCP Annual Convention. 18 pp. (1969)

Variacao das caracteristicas e das propriedades fisico-mecanicas com refinacao da celulose sulfato de madeira de Eucalyptus saligna. M.A.M.Brasil; C.E.B.Foelkel; L.E.G.Barrichelo; A.R.Higa. IPEF 5: 33 – 45. (1972)

Variacoes nas propriedades fisico-mecanicas da celulose kraft de Araucaria angustifolia quando substituida parcialmente por celulose sulfato de Eucalyptus saligna. C.E.B.Foelkel; L.E.G.Barrichelo. 7th ABCP Annual Convention. p. 131 – 135. (1974)

Estudo comparativo das madeiras de Eucalyptus saligna, E.paniculata, E.citriodora, E.maculata e E.tereticornis para a producao de celulose sulfato. C.E.B.Foelkel; L.E.G.Barrichelo; A.F.Milanez. IPEF 10: 17 – 37. (1975)

Deslignificacao alcalina rapida para producao de celulose quimica de Bambusa vulgaris var. vitatta. L.E.G.Barrichelo; C.E.B.Foelkel. IPEF 11: 83 – 90. (1975)

Producao de celulose sulfato a partir de misturas de madeira de Eucalyptus saligna com pequenas proporcoes de cavacos de Bambusa vulgaris var. vitatta. L.E.G.Barrichelo; C.E.B.Foelkel. IPEF 10: 93 – 99. (1975)

Utilizacao de madeiras de essencias florestais nativas na obtencao de celulose: Bracatinga (Mimosa bracatinga), Embauba (Cecropia sp), Caixeta (Tabebuia cassinoides) e Boleira (Joannesia princeps). L.E.G.Barrichelo; C.E.B.Foelkel. IPEF 10: 43 – 56. (1975)

Mistura de celuloses de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea. C.E.B.Foelkel; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF 10: 63 – 76. (1975)

Caracteristicas anatomicas, quimicas e celulosicas do bagaco de quatro variedades de cana-de-acucar. L.E.G.Barrichelo; C.E.B.Foelkel; J.O.Brito. 9th ABCP Annual Convention. p. 97 – 106. (1976)

Estudos para producao de celulose sulfato de seis especies de eucalipto. L.E.G.Barrichelo; C.E.B.Foelkel. IPEF 12: 77 – 95. (1976)

Potencialidade de especies tropicais de eucalipto para a producao de celulose sulfato branqueada. L.E.G.Barrichelo; J.O.Brito. IPEF 13: 9 – 38. (1976)

Estudo de algumas sequencias de branqueamento para celulose kraft de Eucalyptus saligna. L.E.G.Barrichelo; C.E.B.Foelkel; J.O.Brito. 10th ABCP Annual Convention. 5 pp. (1977)

Estrutura anatomica e composicao quimica de cavacos de madeira de eucalipto inoculados com fungo Thermoascus aurantiacus. C.G.Auer; M.P.Ferrari; M.Tomazello Filho; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF 37: 45 – 50. (1987)

Fungos termofilos em pilhas de cavacos de Eucalyptus spp com auto-aquecimento. C.G.Auer; T.L.Krugner; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF 38: 28 – 32. (1988)

Polpacao kraft convencional e modificada para madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e hibrido E.grandis x E.urophylla. A.Bassa; V.M.Sacon; F.G.Silva Jr.; L.E.G.Barrichelo. 35th ABTCP Annual Congress. 24 pp. (2002) (em ppt)

Papel de eucalipto rumo a qualidade. L.E.G.Barrichelo. CeluloseOnline. 2005

Wood quality for kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus origins planted in Uruguay. F.Resquim; L.E.G.Barrichelo; J.O.Brito; C.A.Sansigolo. Scientia Forestalis 72: 57 – 66. (2006)

Publications about Biomass & Energy

Comportamento isolados da lignina e da celulose da madeira frente a carbonizacao. J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF Technical Report nº 28. 4 pp. (undated)

Correlacoes entre caracteristicas fisicas e quimicas da madeira e a producao de carvao vegetal. 1: Densidade e teor de lignina da madeira de eucalipto. J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF 14: 9 – 20. (1977)

Caracteristicas do eucalipto como combustivel: analise quimica imediata da madeira e da casca. J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF 16: 63 – 70. (1978)

Usos diretos e propriedades da madeira para geracao de energia. J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF Technical Report nº 52. 7 pp. (1979)

Gasogenio no transporte florestal: analise exploratoria. A.J.Migliorini; J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF Technical Report nº 57. 9 pp. (1979)

Avaliacao das caracteristicas dos residuos da exploracao florestal do eucalipto para fins energeticos. J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo; H.T.Z.Couto; E.C.M.Fazzio; L.Corradini; M.A.Carrera; A.J.Migliorini. IPEF Technical Report nº 62. 7 pp. (1979)

Aspectos florestais e tecnologicos da materia-prima para carvao vegetal. J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF Technical Report nº 67. 4 pp. (1979)

Estimativas energeticas para povoamentos florestais. J.O.Brito; A.J.Migliorini; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF Technical Report nº 79. 10 pp. (1979)

Correlacoes entre caracteristicas fisicas e quimicas da madeira e a producao de carvao. 2: Densidade da madeira x densidade do carvao. J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF 20: 101 – 113. (1980)

Influencia das praticas silviculturais na producao de carvao vegetal. IPEF Technical Report nº 104. A.J.Migliorini; J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo. 5 pp. (1980)

Avaliacao do potencial energetico de algumas especies de Eucalyptus. A.J.Migliorini; L.E.G.Barrichelo; J.O.Brito; M.G.Silva. IPEF Technical Report nº 107. 5 pp. (1980)

Estimativa da densidade a granel do carvao vegetal a partir de sua densidade aparente. J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo; M.C.Muramoto; H.T.Z.Couto. IPEF Technical Report nº 150. 6 pp. (1982)

Analise da producao energetica e de carvao vegetal de especies de eucalipto. J.O.Brito; L.E.G.Barrichelo; F.Seixas; A.J.Migliorini; M.C.Muramoto. IPEF 23: 53 – 56. (1983)

Estimativa de preco maximo de madeira para substituicao de oleo combustivel. J.O.Brito; J.M.Ferreira; L.E.G.Barrichelo; L.A.Camargo. IPEF 25: 41 – 44. (1983)

Endocarpos de babacu e de macauba comparados a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis para a producao de carvao vegetal. J.C.Silva; L.E.G.Barrichelo; J.O.Brito. IPEF 34: 31 – 34. (1986)

Publications about R&D Management

25 anos de pesquisas para o progresso do setor florestal brasileiro. L.E.G.Barrichelo. IPEF 46: 1 – 7. (1993)

P&D para o sucesso florestal brasileiro. L.E.G.Barrichelo. Revista Opinioes August/October 2005

A tecnologia aplicada na silvicultura. Resgatar a lideranca. L.E.G.Barrichelo. Revista Opinioes March/May 2006

Technical mini-article by Celso Foelkel

The Eucalyptus and the Eco-labels

There are clear evidences that our society is more concerned about environmental issues. Everyday, we have frequent news about the impacts of the greenhouse effect and global warning, about the ozone layer depletion and potential effects, about the endangered species of fauna and flora and the losses in biodiversity, and occasional news about great ecological disasters and environmental crimes, and a lot more. All these facts are posing a growing worry in the world population. What would be considered a light concern some years ago, today has been accelerated in an exponential form, mainly due to the fast information transfer and dissemination. Ordinary citizens are today showing interest and taking actions to mitigate or to minimize environmental problems. There is still a lot of room for further improvements, no doubts about. However, the initial steps have been taken and they are being given in a more effective and positive way. The new generations are to be more clarified, concerned, demanded and active in terms of environment.

We all know that the major causes for environmental changes in Earth have been given by the own human beings, whose population grows tremendously in number and in needs for goods and services for its existence and happiness. Independently of the cares that may be taken, the human needs for foods, housing, clothing, consumption goods, fuel, etc are leading the way to new treats to an already weakened environment. It is responsibility of this society to search and to find new more efficacious and more efficient mechanisms to prevent harm to environment and to preserve the natural resources in a better way than it is being achieved today. Among these new procedures we have those oriented to a cleaner and eco-efficient industrial production and to a more sustainable consumption by the society. Industry, private and public companies, and service businesses are trying to find methods to perform with lower waste generation, less re-manufacturing work, less pollution and better efficiency in operations. There are many new tools in management to provide these goals: quality and productivity programs, organization health and safety, good house-keeping, preventive and predictive maintenance, business planning, etc., etc. The ISO certifications, series 9000 and 14000, the OHSA 18000, and other certifications, are cooperating decisively to the improvements in operational and environmental performance in the factories and in the companies. Manufacturing companies are becoming more efficient to make the goods to the society consumption, with minimum impact to the environment. The ISO 14000 series of standards made its appearance in the mid 90's. They have spread in a notable way all over the world, adding responsibility, awareness, commitments and pro-activity to the companies that are managed according to their requirements. The certified companies may also disclose the advantages they have, such as better operators responsibility, cleaner and safer operations, fewer pollutants and lower production costs due to the better operational efficiencies.

A company that has its environmental management system certified and in compliance to the ISO 14001 standard is committed to have:

• legal compliance to the environmental laws that are applicable to it;
• training program to all employees and to the directly involved partners to develop education and responsibility to the people in the operations and management;
• in force environmental policy, well-disseminated to all employees and partners;
• a program for continuous environmental improvements ;
• evaluation of the environmental impacts and a minimization and mitigation program, including efficient control measures to the negative ones;
• a program of environmental audits, both internal and third parties;
• transparence and good communication in terms of environmental issues to the interested parties.

ISO 14001 standard offers unquestionable advantages to the companies who are committed to have an environmental management system implemented, effective and audited. However, this standard does not give the opportunity to clearly compare environmental performances of one certified company in relation to another one also certified, specially when they are competitors by the same market. In case of the hypothesis all the companies participating in the same market could show an ISO 14001 certificate, does it mean that all they are equally similar in terms of environmental care and performance? Surely not. All of them will be in compliance with the environmental law, they will all have an environmental police in force, a program for continuous improvement, they will be committed to environmental auditing systems, they will be evaluating the environmental effects and controlling and mitigating the negative impacts, etc. However, their environmental performance indexes will not be compared to pre-settled limits of performance, established with the involvement of interested parties. Having these points in mind, we are to have companies performing better or poorer, in the same market niche. How to disclose a credible information to the customers in such market, showing which companies are performing better in their relevant environmental aspects? What and how could these environmental aspects be selected? How to show this in a simple manner avoiding to obscure and to make things even more complex to the customers?

On the other hand, we also have another apprehension. How strong would customers be interested on this? In case we could have selected groups of well-educated and conscious customers willing to buy products that are manufactured in the best environmental performance mills, how could we tell this to them for their selection? How could we disseminate to customers such concept, using a simple and easy to understand tool?

Let's consider that the certifications of management systems for environmental management, occupational health and safety, are irreversible in the businesses, nowadays. In a medium term, the great majority of the companies will be holding them. However, we need ways to distinguish the best performers, those who are placing more efforts, with better eco-efficiency, and more committed to these goals. We need also mechanisms to add a healthy and sound competition to get a new level of overcoming, and also to be able to show this to the market, as an improvement of the company's image and product marketing. The competition, the search for continuous improvement, and for the best practices and technologies are propellers for new jumps in environmental performances in the companies, no matter their sizes or locations.

The eco-labels or green seals (those corresponding to type I, as we are to see later) were created exactly to fulfill these needs. For this reason, a type I eco-label is oriented:

  • to show, through a simple label, easy to be identified by the customers, because it is attached to the product, that this specific product distinguishes from the others in the segment because it was manufactured with better environmental performance with regard to some indicators. This award is reached for only a part of the products in the market, it is not given to all, but only to the best performers. In case the limits of the parameters are becoming weak, and allowing many companies to grab the label, the limits are reviewed to have stricter ones implemented.
  • to allow consumer to select the products he wants to purchase also basing his decision on the environmental performance of the manufacturer. When selecting a product in the shelves of his favorite supermarket, the consumer will have ways to select the products that are more environmentally friendly. He will have several issues to consider when balancing his purchasing decision: price, quality, image, environmental protection and performance.
  • to be a product label and not a company's label. In case the company has several product lines, it has to develop ways in environmental performance to get labels to each one, case criteria and indicators may be available for.
  • to allow interested parties to participate and to place opinions in the selection of the criteria, and limits to be imposed to the candidates to the label.
  • to be a voluntary process, reliable, not an obligation. The companies are free to decide whether or not they are to work to have the label granted to them, as far as they fulfill the requirements.
  • to be a process for value and image aggregation to the labeled product.
  • not to be biased, subjective, partial and manipulated.

Considering that both systems are independent from each other, a company may not be certified according to the ISO 14001 standard, but it may have an eco-label in one of its products, and vice-versa. The better companies, those willing to have a responsible image with regard to the environment, they in general try to get both rewards: a certified environmental management system, and a green label for attaining the strict levels of environmental performance imposed by the label criteria.

The criteria for performance evaluation are based on the life cycle analysis of the given product. Doing such, it is possible to identify the most critical stages in the process of designing, manufacturing, and disposing the product. These impacts are evaluated in terms of effects on water, soil, air, biodiversity, human health, energy consumption, hazardous wastes generation, etc. Defined the parameters, the next step is to establish the limits to each one. The limits are defined considering the best practices, technologies, and performances in vigor for this specific product. This means that any of these criteria and limits are possible to be reached, they are feasible as far as some of the manufacturers are working in compliance to them. The major difficulty is to reach all limits of the different criteria at the same time. For this reason, the challenge the companies will face. It is not easy, but it is challenging, motivator and rewarding to attain an eco-label.

Now we know the basic concepts to differentiate certifications from eco-labels, how could we insert our Eucalyptus friends in this eco-labeling process? It is a very interesting process to improve even further our forest-based industry, our forest plantations, our image and our relation with the interested parties.

First of all, it has to be very clear that any extensive activity of forest plantation corresponds to the generation of environmental impacts, some are negative and other are positive. The positive should be maximized, and the negative ones, controlled, mitigated and minimized. The impacts are reflex of the enormous magnitude of this forestry activity, that demands a great utilization of Nature (wood, soil, land, water, air, energy, chemicals, etc). Because of this, the following exigencies are requested to those acting in the business: environmental impact assessments, environmental permits, legal compliance, environmental management system certification (ISO 14001), certification of sustainable forest management or sound forest management, and chain of custody certification (FSC / CERFLOR).

The second important point to be clarified is that the great majority of the leading forest-based companies in Brazil are aware and committed with the fulfillment of the environmental specifications, as the above mentioned in our previous item. We could assure that close to all Brazilian leading companies that are using Eucalyptus plantation forests for different purposes (paper, pulp, charcoal, saw-timber, wood panels, boards, etc.) are certified and in compliance with the recommendations of ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSA 18000, FSC and/or CERFLOR. The certifications for sound forest management and chain of custody (traceability of the certified wood utilized in a given product) are dominants in Brazil. They add environmental quality, social justice, education and commitment within the companies, from the operators to the managers and shareholders. This is excellent to the environment. However, the market and the interested parties are seen them as all equal. All with the same certifications; does it mean that we have reached a level of maximum in our industry? Are there chances for additional environmental gains to the companies and to the manufactured products? It is absolutely normal that people demand for more. Even the companies are searching for voluntary mechanisms to add more environmental and social quality in their management and operations. They want to be differentiated as one of the best and the most responsible in terms of environmental and social issues. These are the winds of the new times. Very good, indeed.

To the environmentalists, to the clear-minded customers, their purposes are to privilege the good manufacturers, and to force the not so good to improve. This also means to use the purchasing power to promote environmental changes. How can a company be differentiated as one of the best? By introducing intangible values to their products. One of these values are the type I eco-labels. We need now to clarify a new concept. What do we mean by type I or type II eco-labels. These are today the most common eco-labels available in the market.

Type II eco-labels are self-declarations coming from the manufacturers. These declarations should be standardized by the eco-label and/or by the standard organizations: recyclable, recycled, CFC-free, etc. The manufacturer is allowed to use these declarations and corresponding logos in a not so bureaucratic procedure. However, in case of requests, the company has to prove for what it is self-declared.

Type I eco-labels are based on the compliance with well-defined requirements of performance and manufacture. The criteria and the limits are developed with a wide involvement of the interested parties. Our understanding for interested parties are groups of: manufacturers, suppliers, customers, workers, final consumers, financing banks, NGO's, universities, business associations, etc. The type I labels are exactly those we are referring along this mini-article till now. They add reliability to the product and image to the manufacturer. This is understandable: the manufacturer has to compete to have an eco-label granted, and to prove its environmental performance is one of the best with regard to selected criteria. That is the reason type I labels are a lot stricter and more difficult to be achieved than the self-declarations.

A major concern that exists in the international commerce in that eco-labels may open the doors to some products or to some countries, and to close the doors to others. For this reason, many of the eco-label opponents, call the labels as "non-tariff custom barriers". They believe that the eco-labels may establish a selection from the purchaser to one product in detriment to another one. For example: the main printing houses in a specific country may decide to purchase only paper with an accredited eco-label, one that has been endorsed by a reliable mutual recognition system. The eco-label opponents claim that the criteria and limits are defined within the frontiers of the country or region is conferring the label. For example: in Scandinavia, the water availability is a lot better than in the Mediterranean Spain. For this reason, the standard organization in Spain, to develop the criteria for their Spanish eco-labels is more stringent in the water consumption in the manufacturing processes, than the corresponding criteria and limits imposed in Scandinavia. Another example: in Scandinavia, the paper industry is based in the utilization of virgin fibers produced through the pulping of wood from forests. The exigencies for fiber furnish in Scandinavia is the presence of a certain percentage of certified wood in the virgin fiber pulp. In Germany, wood is scarce, and the population garbage is rich on wastepaper. For this, the German eco-labels for paper award the utilization of waste recycled paper in the paper manufacturing. Conclusion; the German eco-label ("Blue Angel") rewards the wastepaper content in paper manufacturing, while the Scandinavian label ("Nordic Swan") privileges the certified wood used in the fiber furnishes. To balance these differences and to avoid complaints from each side, there is a mutual recognition system to "equalize" theses two labels. The different criteria and limits are not to interfere in the international trade. The "Blue Angel" label has the same status and weight in comparison to the "Nordic Swam". Both criteria are respected and the differences due to countries specificity's are understood. The final consumers will take the decision to buy the product containing one or another of these two eco-labels, a decision based on their thoughts and believes.

Green labels are fantastic tools for improving environmental performances. They for sure will play a decisive role in the decades to come. All pro-activity placed to acquire eco-labels to the Eucalyptus forest products are very welcome. The products obtained from the Eucalyptus forests may have a label attached to them or to their packaging, on these cases. Today, many products are carrying and displaying a label granted by FSC or CERFLOR. In truth, both are certifications, but they offer the possibility to place the certification logo in the product. Differently, the ISO 14001 does not offer this chance, it is not a certification conferred to the product, but to the environmental managerial system.

A type I eco-labeled product offers the following advantages:

• Gain of more sophisticated and stringent markets, but also where the better prices are in force;
• Improvement in the company image, reflecting not only to the general public, but also to the stock markets;
• Market share growth;
• Overall environmental performance improvement, with consequent reflex in the achievements of the legal compliance;
• Reduction on environmental liabilities;
• Better company visibility in the international markets;
• Improved acceptance by the interested parties;
• Growth in quality and performance in the production process, in the innovation and in the responsibility of workers and managers.

Eco-labels are not granted forever, but for a certain length of time. It depends on renewals. The company has the need to maintain the labels, a task so difficult as to conquer it. The environmental quality continues to be guaranteed.

To the country where the company is located, eco-labeling also offers environmental gains, but marketing and international image, too. When a company from a given segment reaches a position to have an eco-label granted to its product, even an eco-label conceded by a foreign entity, a competition process immediately starts. Other companies in the same market start to search to gain the label. Competition for labeling is accelerated. This competition is very sound and healthy to the environment. The companies are winning, but the country and the environment either. It is very important to the governments to incentive the development of domestic eco-labeling systems, based on international principles, for mutual recognition. They will be cooperating to the strengthening of the local standard organizations.

Today, there are several Eucalyptus forest-based products that a Brazilian company may work to obtain an European eco-label (in a given country or region, as those already mentioned - Blue Angel, Nordic Swan, or the European Union eco-label - the "Flower"). Among these products, we may signalize the printing and writing papers, in the sub-category copy and graphic papers, and the tissue papers. The printed papers are also very close to have the criteria and limits approved by the European Union eco-labeling system. Those who are interested on the printed paper eco-label are the printers. They are using paper to make books, magazines, packaging, etc. As far the criteria for this label is based on the life cycle analysis ("from cradle to grave"), and the printing paper in Brazil is manufactured using Eucalyptus woods growing in planted forests, all this process will also be affected. Remember, the concept to an eco-label development is to detect the most important environmental issues in a given product. Paper is the most important raw material to the printers, for this, our paper industry will have the impact of this type of label.

With regard to our Eucalyptus, attaining eco-labels to their products is very welcome, in a complement to the certifications we have, as ISO 9001 and 14001; OHSA 18000, FSC and/or CERFLOR. Eco-labels may help to improve to better the segment image, both in the forests and in the mills. Eco-label will also offer to the manufacturers the opportunity for growing in production, in market share and in participating in better and sophisticated markets. In these cases, the companies may sell their products without the danger of being in marginal markets, with lower prices and sometimes without payments at all, due to lack of customers reliability. Since this process is important to the country, the government involvement is vital. The governmental organizations linked to international trade, industry, environment, science and technology, standardization, and also the universities, may cooperate to the Brazilian industry to eco-label products. Eco-labels may be attained either outside the country, via other countries eco-labeling systems, or domestically. Brazilian eco-labeling process is still embrionic; thus, this may be just the right moment to make it more dynamic. The opportunity exists and the moment is appropriate. However, we must always remember that the essence of the eco-labeling process is that it is voluntary. This means that in case the manufacturing companies do not show interest to get a label, we need to place incentives to then, via demands from government, interested parties, customers, etc. There is always the risk that some of the manufacturers may consider eco-labeling as more costs, more bureaucracy or more barriers. In this case, we may lose an excellent opportunity to jump ahead the competitors. We believe this is a vital issue to the plantation forests sector, and to the business sustainability.

Our Eucalyptus planted forests are receiving negative criticism from several sources. We are facing constant attacks in relation to their effects on biodiversity, regional hydrology, soil quality, rural communities, etc. Although we are questioning them and giving answers to these comments, in other mini-articles through this Eucalyptus Newsletter, we must not stay quiet and passive as a segment. We need pro-active actions and sound arguments. These criticisms are happening in Brazil and also in countries that are traditional importers of the Eucalyptus-based products (pulp, paper, wood panels, furniture, etc.). The customers of the Brazilian Eucalyptus-containing products, no matter where they are or the product they are purchasing, they have the wish to have an environmental guarantee from our side. FSC / CERFLOR certificates and type I eco-labels for products will provide them this guarantee. This trend will decisively grow in the next years. This is an additional reason to work hard to develop faster our nice "Hummingbird", the Brazilian type I eco-label being created by the ABNT - Brazilian National Standards Association.

I consider paper as a cultural good, a mankind heritage. People are used to link paper to Nature, it is a renewable resource, a renewable source of raw material, the forests. It is very important that the general society may feel confortable in relation of paper manufacturing process. It is essential to people the understanding that paper is made with environmental quality and safety, and with social justice. In Brazil, the major percentage of the white papers contains Eucalyptus fibers as the main fibrous raw material, no matter virgin or recycled fibers. The country exports today around 2 million tons of paper per year. This number is projected to grow. The domestic market is also expanding. Domestic and international customers need to be well-informed about the sector environmental performance, both at the forest and industrial operations. Since a huge massive information process is very difficult and expensive, eco-label is a simple, reliable and powerful opportunity for doing this. It is also well-renowned by the international markets. It is important to have a sounder alternative to the self-declarations. Sometimes they are done without any regulation, understanding and purposes. Self-declarations are being created by companies without following the guidelines of the standardized ones. They may even be detrimental and not favorable in such cases.

It is very important to the sector to be oriented to work for eco-labels based on the life cycle of the product. The government support is fundamental. Government organizations may stay working together to the business associations in informing and clarifying markets and citizens about eco-labeling. It is important to have people aware about the advantages of an eco-labeled product: the meaning, the improvements to Nature and how they may encourage sustainable consumption by ordinary people.

In case we be able to follow these measures, we will be planting the seeds of a new age in the relations of the industry with the most important of its interested parties, the customers. The industry based on the Eucalyptus wood will improve in performances and in technologies. Products will be better and cleaner. The consumers more conscious and selective. The Eucalyptus will reach another level in image and prestige. Nature will be less endangered. All of us will testify and will be able to see the Eucalyptus plantation forest-based industry to give a decisive jump in the direction of the dreamed sustainability.

Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the eucalyptus. It depends only on registering yourself to receive them.
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
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