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Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,

Dear friends
, here we are again, now with the issue number 31 of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. We hope that this edition may fulfill your expectations and interests, allowing that readers may gain additional knowledge and understanding about the Eucalyptus planted forests and about the products and services they provide to the benefit of our society. This target we try to fulfill bringing a selection of themes combining history, science, technology, innovation, emotion and culture.

In this newsletter edition, the traditional section, "The Friends of the Eucalyptus" has a very difficult mission: to bring to all who knew the forest engineer M.Sc. Jorge Vieira Gonzaga in life, some of his accomplishments in his short, but productive career, in the Brazilian forest-based sector. Jorge was a remarkable person, bright and dedicated. His modesty and his generous humility were his main virtues, all times having his hands extended to help someone whether in the workplace or everywhere. An example of a person to be known also by those who never had the pleasure of meeting him personally. I was and always will be a great admirer of Jorge's talent - to tell the truth, we always worked together throughout his career, whether in universities (as my student, supervised graduate and trainee) at Riocell (as co-worker) and at several professional associations, serving as institutional representative partners. The least the Brazilian forest sector should do to Jorge is trying to preserve his achievements and his professional history - we will try to do it in a simple but very sincere way in this edition of Eucalyptus Newsletter.

In this edition, we are continuing with the prestigious section "The World of the Eucalyptus", bringing news about the "state of Tocantins - Brazil". This is the new frontier of the Brazilian forestry, a state in full drive to become attractive to growers of forest plantations and enterprises that need the produced wood. The enthusiasm is huge and things are happening very fast over there. The choice for development was Eucalyptus, as it should be, due to the recent success of the neighboring states Maranhao, Para, Bahia and Piaui with this tree genus.

In the section "Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus", the agronomist M.Sc. Ester Foelkel tells you, by far, something very interesting and valuable to be known: "Small diameter roundwood obtained from the Eucalyptus and its utilization in the construction industry".

The traditional sections "Online Technical References" and "Euca-Links" are definitely tied to the state of Tocantins, offering literature and interesting websites from this specific state of Brazil to be visited by anyone who wants to know more about this new "forestry hurricane" in Brazil .

In the section "References about Courses and Events", we offer access to materials of recent events and of great relevance, even where there is an excellent event with lectures and videos about the state of Tocantins.

As part of our purposes, this edition attempts to make another historical report about the Brazilian pulp and paper sector. We are bringing to you some interesting information about "The First Annual Congress of ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper", which occurred in 1968. The three awarded papers, in that year of great hope and faith at the Brazilian forest sector, are available for you to understand why the forest sector and industry have grown so much and with high quality in Brazil. It was certainly due to science, research, technology but also to the talent and motivation of people. Not to forget the ever present support from public, private and institutional organizations.

Our mini-article continues the series of texts on performance indicators for our pulp and paper mills and forests, an initiative of ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper in its efforts to strengthen and enhance the competitiveness of Brazilian companies. This time we are writing on "Social Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Companies".

At this edition, you are also to find a link to the Chapter number 21 of the Eucalyptus Online Book, in the Portuguese language, and titled: "Residuos Solidos Industriais do Processo de Fabricacao de Celulose e Papel de Eucalipto. Parte 04: Casca Suja". (Industrial Solid Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Processes. Part 04: Dirt Bark).

We hope this newsletter issue may be very useful to all of you, since the thematic selection was made in a way to bring interesting and diversified topics about the Eucalyptus. We hope and believe they may be valuable to you who honor us with your reading.

In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the following link: Click here for registration.

We have several non-financial supporting partners to the Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline, RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR, EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales, Papermakers' Wiki, Åbo Akademi - Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology and Blog do Papeleiro. They are helping to disseminate our efforts in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, Finland and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web, in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we are doing to the Eucalyptus.

Know more about all of our today’s partners
and meet them at the URL address:

Thanks to all of you dear readers for your support and constant presence visiting our websites. Our digital information services about the Eucalyptus are currently being sent to an extensive "mailing list" through our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association, a number that today is equivalent to several thousands of registered addresses. This happens in addition to the accesses made directly to the websites; and, or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book chapters are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal from now is very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus Online Book & Eucalyptus Newsletter that they will be always on the first page, when any single person in the world, using a search engine like Google, Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the word Eucalyptus. This service aims to better inform stakeholders and interested parties about the Eucalyptus, with relevant information and a lot of credibility, too. I beg your help to publicize and to inform about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and also the gratitude from Celsius Degree, ABTCP, International Paper do Brasil and from the supporting partners.

Our best wishes and a friendly hug to all of you, and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have prepared to you this time.

Celso Foelkel

In this Edition of the Eucalyptus Newsletter

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 21 (in Portuguese)

The First Annual Congress or Convention of ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper - in 1968

The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Forest Engineer M.Sc. Jorge Vieira Gonzaga - (In memoriam †)

The World of the Eucalyptus: State of Tocantins - Brazil

Online Technical References - State of Tocantins - Brazil

Euca-Links - State of Tocantins - Brazil

References about Events and Courses

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus - Small Diameter Roundwood Obtained from the Eucalyptus and its Utilization in the Construction Industry - by Ester Foelkel

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel
Social Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Companies

Eucalyptus Online Book - Chapter 21 (in Portuguese)

For downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 11.4 MB) just click below over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps even easier, is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer archives. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your computer, please visit and find the instructions how to get it.

Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.

"Residuos Solidos Industriais do Processo de Fabricacao de Celulose e Papel de Eucalipto. Parte 04: Casca Suja" - "Industrial Solid Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Processes. Part 04: Dirt Bark"

If a problem occurs with the automatic redirection to the chapter, copy the URL address below and place it in your browser (Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, etc.). You may find the chapter at:

The First Annual Congress or Convention - in 1968

ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper

I always had the greatest of my concerns and attention to technical conferences in the forest-based sector. At them, we find friends and technical peers and we can update our technical skills and grab interesting news. I have participated in hundreds of them, maybe more than 500 throughout my career. They open up windows of opportunities and increase our technological knowledge, enabling us to play better in our professional career. In 1968, I started as a member of ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. The association was in its childhood, it was officially founded in early 1967. Exactly at that time, I had begun as trainee in the pulp and paper laboratory of ESALQ - Superior College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz", University of Sao Paulo. My adviser was my great friend Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo. Already in 1968, I attended some events organized by ABCP, as it was called at the origin. It was a pride for me, an agricultural engineering student, who had the aim to become specialized in forestry, meeting outstanding experts in the Brazilian pulp and paper sector. I was able to meet great teachers and educators, battling for a better Brazilian pulp and paper industry. I'll mention some friends I met in the early ABCP days, but there are other dozens of great pioneers of Brazilian pulp and paper sector, who have taught me a lot and who helped to build and to pave the road of success to the pulp and paper industry in Brazil: Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo, Marcello Pilar, Alberto Fernandez y Sagarra, Alfredo Leon, Benjamin Solitrenick, Antanas Stonis, Roberto Leonardos, Gunnar Krogh, Beatriz Vera Pozzi Redko, Rosely Maria Viegas Assumpcao, Paul Phillip, Dirceu Ciaramello, Clayrton Sanches, Ernst Rosenfeld, John Warren, Ney Meirelles, Nei Monteiro da Silva, Francisco Jose de Almeida Neto, Ovidio Sallada, Sarkis Aprahamian, Americo Pereira da Silva, Persio Souza Santos, Aldo Sani, Milton Pilao, Antonio Waldomiro Petrik, Ceslavas Zvinakevicius, Pieter Prange, Maury Fontes Athayde, etc. Closed to them, the new generation just arriving to the business in Brazil of the early 70's: myself, Maria Luiza Ottero de Almeida, Jose Mangolini Neves, Anisio Azzini, Carlos Augusto Lira Aguiar, Alberto Ferreira Lima, Silavia Bergmann, Silvia Bugajer, Franco Petrocco, Guido Schreiber, Jorge de Macedo Maximo, Valentim Suchek, and many more. A rich and creative biodiversity - the proof is exactly what has happened to this sector in Brazil...

At the 60's, several vigorous trees were planted to sustain the success of the forestry industry in Brazil. In 1960, the first forest engineering course was created in Vicosa (UREMG today UFV) and just after in Curitiba (UFPR). Soon after, in 1967, ABCP/ABTCP was founded; and in 1968, the same happened as regard to IPEF (Institute of Forest Researches and Studies). The acceleration engine was given by Law 5106/1966, which established the Tax Incentives for Reforestation, which for over 20 years energized the activity of planting Eucalyptus and Pinus forests in Brazil. Happiness to those, who like me, were able to live and participate in all this.

In 1967 and 1968, the newly created ABCP organized some events at the time called Seminars: Paper and Cardboard, Paper Conversion, etc. I've been attending some of them, always guided by my teacher Dr. Luiz Ernesto Barrichelo. Late 1968, the big moment: ABCP held its First Annual Convention, also called the "Paper Week" in Hotel Danubio at the city of Sao Paulo, from 26 to 29 of November. A huge success, with excellent technical papers (some of them awarded), a lot of technical integration between participants. Thereafter, without any fail, ABTCP performs its annual congress, the name that came to appropriately replace the name convention. In 2010, ABTCP celebrated its 43rd Annual Congress, always associated with a technical exhibition, from its origins in the late 60's. I have no doubts of the enormous importance of this congress/exhibition to the Brazilian pulp and paper industry. So my tribute to the first one of them. This tribute will occur in two ways: recalling this historical fact and bringing to you the opportunity to read the three awarded papers. After that, the awards were hundreds, even I was fortunate and honored to receive some. But undoubtedly, the pioneers deserve our greatest admiration and respect. At that time, the prize was not a given money amount, but it was a trip to Buenos Aires to present the awarded paper at the technical congress of ATIPCA - Technical Association of the Argentinean Pulp and Paper Industry, which had a few more years than the Brazilian association.

Please, know more about the first of the ABTCP Congresses and download the first three of the awarded papers just ahead:

ABTCP Linha do Tempo (ABTCP Timeline): (in Portuguese)

A summary of the First Annual Convention promoted by ABCP - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. Revista O Papel (November): 02-09. (1968) (in Portuguese)

First Awarded Paper: Aspectos do emprego de fertilizantes minerais no reflorestamento de solos de cerrado do estado de Sao Paulo, com Eucalyptus saligna. (Aspects of the use of mineral fertilizers in Eucalyptus saligna reforestation of the cerrado/savannah soils in the state of Sao Paulo). Helladio do Amaral Mello. O Papel (November): 10 - 18. (1968)
(in Portuguese)

Second Awarded Paper: Reflorestamento para o Brasil meridional. (Reforestation to Southern Brazil). James R. Amos; Pieter Willem Prange. First ABCP Annual Convention. 16 pp. (1968) (in Portuguese)

Third Awarded Paper: Pigmentos como materia-prima para enchimento e cobertura do papel. (Pigments as raw materials for paper filling and coating purposes). Clayrton Sanchez. First ABCP Annual Convention. 13 pp. (1968)
(in Portuguese)

As you may have noticed - three outstanding papers and two of them on forestry aspects - one with Eucalyptus and the other one with Pinus. Again, scores on the fly by the ABTCP pioneers - these two types of forest plantations have consolidated the success of our pulp and paper industry. We started very well and continue doing a good job over these four decades. Congratulations ABTCP and technical people of the Brazilian pulp and paper sector.

The Friends of the Eucalyptus

Forest Engineer M.Sc. Jorge Vieira Gonzaga †
(† - In memoriam )

In this section of this Eucalyptus Newsletter edition, I feel very pleased to introduce to you our this time honored friend of the Eucalyptus, but I do this with sorrow, respect and admiration. This is because we are honoring someone who have departed from our environment, leaving a lot of nostalgia in all of his friends, family and admirers of his professional work and his personal quality as human being. He was a dear friend of mine, maybe more than that, because I always set him as my almost-brother. He was my former student (ESALQ and UFV), former trainee (ESALQ), ex-advised graduate student (UFV) and former co-worker (Riocell). He made a remarkable work along his life, combining expertise, determination, humanism, leadership and human relations. We have published together some dozens of scientific and technical papers/reports, conducted with highly qualified people in our R&D working teams. We have done all this with great enthusiasm and motivation. We had shared several institutional representation's in major trade and research associations, such as SIF - Society of Forest Researches; IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies; SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture; AGEFLOR - Rio Grande do Sul Association of Forestry; ABECEL - Brazilian Association of Market Pulp Exporters, among others. He was a very much admired and respected person in the Brazilian forest sector, especially in the area of Eucalyptus planted forests. In addition, the forest engineer Jorge Vieira Gonzaga was a lot more than a competent and responsible technician. He had the gift of a generous humility, playing his catalytic role without seeking glory for himself alone, but to the team he had the leadership. He was the first managerial-level executive who I was able to see hiring a forest expert to be his subordinate in the line of command, with a salary greater than his - and he was extremely happy with this fact, cooperating as few people I know, to the success of the Y-career at Riocell. Things very rare to be seen in our companies and executives. I have, due to all these facts, a huge admiration for the competence and the achievements of this great friend of Eucalyptus, both at forestry and wood production levels oriented to the market pulp industry in Brazil.

Therefore, we are very honored to be providing to Jorge, together with much certainty with the thousands of friends that Jorge left, the award of "Friend of the Eucalyptus" to him. Surely, the Eucalyptus will also be happy with this fact, I'm quite sure about. I am also happy to show his achievements and career and to share some of his articles published during his short but productive professional life.

I want to thank Jorge's son, Mr. Rafael Dias Gonzaga for helping me with this biography, photos and important data about Jorge "Lampiao" Gonzaga, as he was known by his friends in the forest-based sector - the nickname he earned in college days and that accompanied him throughout the rest of his life. It is quite possible that he is being called as such in paradise, a place he deserves as few.

Jorge Vieira Gonzaga was born on May 21st, 1953, in the city of Pereira Barreto in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Jorge was the eldest of a total of 10 children. His parents, Joao Ferreira Gonzaga and Brazilina Vieira Gonzaga, were humble people who had the responsibility to operate a small farm close to the city of Jales/SP. Jorge left home at age 12 to attend the elementary and high schools, having graduated in these school levels in 1972. In 1973, he moved to Sao Paulo capital, to prepare himself for the examinations with the aim of studying agronomy at USP - University of Sao Paulo. After two years of efforts, in 1975, Jorge has succeeded in the entrance examination for USP, and began attending his new career option: the course of Forest Engineering. It was there that I first met him, since he was my student in the freshman year of university in a course that I was in charge along with Professor Dr. Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo. This course was called "Introduction to Forestry". Three students at that time caught my attention for the competence and initiative they had: Jorge Gonzaga, Vail Manfredi and Cristina de Jesus Caldeira, so I invited them to be volunteering trainees at SQCP - Section of Chemistry, Pulp and Paper, a well-equipped laboratory sector at ESALQ, keeping them in this position working and researching with me until my departure from USP, in 1976. They were intelligent, dedicated, hardworking and interested students, so even after I left USP, I continued investing in gaining them for the Brazilian pulp and paper sector - something I have succeeded with Jorge and Vail. Unfortunately, I lost contact with Cristina Caldeira.

On January 1979, Jorge graduated as forest engineer at USP - ESALQ - Superior College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" ( - class of 1978). Immediately, I invited him to be my graduate student (advised by me) in the course we had created in 1977 at UFV - Federal University of Vicosa. It was a course in pulp and paper technology, one of the most complete that existed in Brazil at the time, and with support from CENIBRA and Riocell (two market pulp companies). Jorge had a scholarship from Riocell during his time as a Master student in Vicosa, from March 1979 until the completion of the academic credits in December 1980. However, his thesis was defended only in 1983, because he had to develop a part of the research in the laboratories of Riocell, where he began working as assistant engineer at the Department of Industrial Research and Development. There, he had as friend and boss Mr. Carlos Alberto Busnardo, another Master of Science graduated who had also studied in our pulp and paper course at UFV. The thesis had as subject, as it should be, the "Quality of the woods and kraft pulps obtained from thirteen species of Eucalyptus". In 1983, after completing all course requirements, Jorge obtained his M.Sc. degree in forest science with expertise in wood technology and pulp/paper by the UFV - Federal University of Vicosa.

Later in Riocell, he was promoted to be head of the Department of Forestry Research and Development, followed by other managerial positions, as Technical Manager; Forest Planning and Control Manager, etc. Finally, he became a member of the Riocell Forestry Managerial Team, a managerial committee formed by four managers, responsible for an annual budget of US$ 20 million, management of 72.000 hectares of planted forests and supply of 1.75 million cubic meters of wood in the format of wood chips. He had 18 years of hardwork and successful performance as employee at Riocell.

At Riocell, his main tasks were:

- Technology assessment of wood for pulp, involving all Eucalyptus species used in the company, seeking to associate silvicultural and technological data for then;

- Technology assessment of the black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) wood for pulping. This forest species was also used by Riocell in the manufacture of paper and dissolving grade pulps;

- Coordinating the preparation of a "Master Plan for Forestry Research", working on setting up the Department of Forestry Research and Development at Riocell;

- Coordinating the preparation of a sound and wide technical project and seeking funding from the FINEP - Financing Bank for Studies and Projects. These funds were oriented for the construction and implementation of the Forestry Technology Center (Laboratories of Seeds, Tissue Culture, Soils and Plant Nutrition and Greenhouses). Following project approval, Jorge was responsible for the starting up and maintenance of the project.

- Program Management deployment of the genetic basis in the company, promoting trips to Australia and other genome centers for collecting Eucalyptus genetic material;

- Coordinating the project for implementation of a modern forest nursery, suspended type, with production capacity of 15 million seedlings per year;

- Project management for the recovery of degraded areas due to erosion and land removal for road construction;

- Management of the Riocell forestry communication program and environmental education at 23 municipalities where the company had operations;

- Coordination of the process for implementation and maintenance of ISO 14.001 standard in forestry, managing agreements with SEBRAE to train forest service sub-contractors teams;

- Management of a research agreement with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, aimed for developing a program of research on agroforestry and silvopasturing of cattle and sheep;

- Representative of Riocell for several associations: SIF - Society of Forest Researches; IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies; SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture; AGEFLOR - Rio Grande do Sul Association of Forestry. Jorge was also SIF's president in the term 96/97.

- Participation in numerous seminars and congresses in the areas of forestry and pulp and paper, both at national and international levels;

-Publication of about 25 technical papers, most available in this edition of Eucalyptus Newsletter for downloading;

- Professor and academic advisor in the area of Wood Products and Pulp/Paper Technology at the State High School "Gomes Jardim " (1981-1984) - Guaiba-RS; and in Technology of Forest Products at UFSM - Federal University of Santa Maria - RS (1990-1994);

- Technical visits to several Brazilian companies and companies/forestry institutions in countries such as South Africa, Indonesia, Spain, Portugal, France, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Canada, United States, Mexico, Argentina and Uruguay.

On March 1998, Jorge resigned from his job at Riocell and formed a consulting firm in forestry, "J.V. Gonzaga" and provided services to the following companies:

- Souza Cruz S.A. - as technical responsible and top managerial advisor on technical and economic issues for the forest sites in the Brazilian states of RS, SC and PR;

- AES Florestal – management advisor in the technical, commercial and economic forest unit in Triunfo - RS;

- Seta. S.A. Black Wattle Tannin Extraction - carrying out of consulting work in the area of Forest Certification - FSC;
- Reflorestadores Unidos S.A. - technical advising on forest management and auditing of the company in compliance to the FSC criteria and principles for Forest Certification;

- Judicial Public Power - forestry expertise in the condition of third party expert to support data for judgement.

On March 2000, he graduated from UFRGS - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Business Economics, a latu-sensu graduate course.

Along a significant span of his life, Jorge has also provided various social and volunteer work to the community of Guaiba, such as vocational guidance, education and religious issues. On October 2001, he was invited to join ACIGUA - Commercial and Industrial Association of Guaiba - RS, where he had the position of Director of Strategic Affairs.

On October 2002, he founded another company - RS Servicos Florestais - in partnership with 4 other shareholders.

The basis of his life was based on a tripod: "Work, Family and Religion". His most striking features were the humility and the willingness to help other people, things he did in the family, workplace and community. It should be pointed out his zeal with his younger brothers/sisters, helping not only to graduate almost all in higher education, but also his nephews and other relatives. Also, he always had his hands extended to offer help to whoever needing. A son of God, who must surely be close to Him for his goodness to the people whom devoted friendship to.

Jorge Vieira Gonzaga, our friend "Lampiao", died very early on his life, in the afternoon of January 24th, 2003, at 49 years of age, from a heart attack. He left his wife Cleuza and 3 sons: Rafael - 20, Carina - 17 and Luan - 12.

Jorge was always a devoted father and had always a great love for his children. Rafael the eldest, has obtained a degree in Economics at UFRGS - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, in 2005, two years after Jorge's death. Rafael demonstrated in his monograph of course completion the importance of his father, which resulted in a paper on plantation forestry activities as an alternative income to small farmers in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. At our request, and agreement from the author, this literature and its presentation in PowerPoint, are presented together with articles written by Jorge and coworkers, enriching this newsletter issue.

Know more about the scientific and technical production from Jorge Vieira Gonzaga and Rafael Dias Gonzaga, navigating the links below:

A atividade florestal como alternativa de renda para o pequeno produtor rural da metade sul do RS. (The forest activity as an alternative income for small farmers in the southern half of the RS). R.D. Gonzaga. Course Completion Monograph. College of Economic Sciences. UFRGS - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. 75 pp. (2005)
(in Portuguese)

A atividade florestal como alternativa de renda para o pequeno produtor rural da metade sul do RS. (The forest activity as an alternative income for small farmers in the southern half of the RS). R.D. Gonzaga. College of Economic Sciences. UFRGS - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. PowerPoint presentation: 21 slides. (2005)
(in Portuguese)

Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espacamentos em relacao ao Eucalyptus grandis e E. saligna. (Quality of kraft-anthraquinone pulp from Eucalyptus dunnii planted in five spacings in relation to Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna). G.W. Ferreira; M.C.M. Silva; J.V. Gonzaga; C.E.B. Foelkel; T.F.Assis; E. Ratnieks. 30th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. 15 pp. (1997) (in Portuguese)

Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espacamentos em relacao ao Eucalyptus grandis e E. saligna. (Quality of kraft-anthraquinone pulp from Eucalyptus dunnii planted in five spacings in relation to Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna). G.W. Ferreira; J.V. Gonzaga; C.E.B. Foelkel; T.F.Assis; E. Ratnieks; M.C.M. Silva. Ciencia Florestal 7(1): 41-63. (1997)
(in Portuguese)

Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espacamentos em relacao ao Eucalyptus grandis e E. saligna. (Quality of kraft-anthraquinone pulp from Eucalyptus dunnii planted in five spacings in relation to Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna). G.W. Ferreira. Adviser: J.V. Gonzaga. Master Dissertation. UFSM - Federal University of Santa Maria. 147 pp (1996) (in Portuguese)

Sazonalidade no abate da madeira de Eucalyptus: efeitos sobre a polpacao kraft e formacao do pitch. (Seasonality in harvesting Eucalyptus: effects on kraft pulping and pitch formation). E. Ratnieks; C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga. 22nd ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. p. 93-118. (1989)
(in Portuguese)

Interface recebimento de madeira X producao de polpa: estabelecimento de relacoes praticas sobre indice de qualidade. (Interfacing wood supply and pulp production: stablishing practical relationships for quality indexes). C.A. Busnardo; S. Menochelli; J.V. Gonzaga; R. Rostirolla. 22nd ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. p. 35-55. (1989)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Em busca da qualidade ideal da madeira do eucalipto para producao de celulose. IV. Altura ideal de amostragem para avaliacao da densidade media para arvores de Eucalyptus grandis. (Searching the ideal wood quality in Eucalyptus for pulp production. IV. Recommended wood sampling tree hight for evaluation of the average wood basic density). C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; C.E.B. Foelkel; S. Menochelli. 20th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. p. 17-33. (1987) (in Portuguese)

Estudo da viabilidade tecnica do interplantio de florestas de Eucalyptus de segunda rotacao. (Study the technical feasibility of interplanting second rotation Eucalyptus forests). C.A.G. Finger; J.V. Gonzaga; A.J.P. Freitas. Proceedings of the Technical Meeting on Eucalyptus Second Rotation Management - Coppicing). IPEF Technical Series 4(11): 14-19. (1987) Portuguese)

Qualidade de madeira e polpa de arvores jovens e adultas de Acacia mearnsii. (Wood and pulp quality from Acacia mearnsii young and mature trees). C.A. Sansigolo; C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga. 19th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. p. 51-77. (1986)
(in Portuguese)

SUMMARY: Estudo da variacao genetica em progenies de Eucalyptus grandis para as caracteristicas de crescimento, densidade basica da madeira e resistencia a podridao branca do cerne. (Study of genetic variation in Eucalyptus grandis progenies for growth traits, wood basic density and resistance of heartwood to white rot decay). M. Onuki; J.V. Gonzaga; A.J.P. Freitas; L.R.D. Rech. 5th Brazilian Forest Congress. 01 pp. (1986)
(in Portuguese)

Estudo comparativo das caracteristicas silviculturais e da qualidade da madeira de nove procedencias de Eucalyptus tereticornis introduzidas na regiao de Guaiba-RS. (Comparative studies on silvicultural and wood quality parameters for nine Eucalyptus tereticornis provenances introduced in the region of Guaiba-RS). J.V. Gonzaga; M.Onuki; I.F.O. Gomes. 5th Brazilian Forest Congress. 71 pp. (1986) (in Portuguese)

Caracterizacao da qualidade da madeira e da celulose kraft produzida a partir de arvores de Acacia mearnsii sadias e atacadas por gomose. (Wood and kraft pulp quality characterization for healthy and attacked by gomosis Acacia mearnsii wood). C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; C.A. Sansigolo. 5th Brazilian Forest Congress. 46 pp. (1986)
(in Portuguese)

Estudos visando a substituicao alternativa do benzeno nos procedimentos de extracao para a obtencao de material livre de extrativos. (Studies aiming the alternative replacement of benzene in the extraction of wood for the preparation of extractive-free wood for chemical analyses). C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; C. Dias. 17th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 359-384. (1984)
(in Portuguese)

Branqueamento e caracterizacao das celuloses kraft a partir de cozimentos conjuntos de misturas de cavacos de Eucalyptus saligna e Acacia mearnsii. (Bleaching and kraft pulp evaluation of blends from Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii wood chips). C.A. Busnardo; C.S. Benfato; J.V. Gonzaga; C.E.B. Foelkel. 17th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 2: 533-550. (1984)
(in Portuguese)

Celulose kraft de Eucalyptus camaldulensis e Eucalyptus globulus. (Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulping). J.V. Gonzaga; C.A. Busnardo; C.E.B. Foelkel; S. Menochelli. 17th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 347-357. (1984)
(in Portuguese)

Estudo comparativo da qualidade da madeira de duas procedencias de Eucalyptus camaldulensis e uma de Eucalyptus globulus introduzidas na regiao de Guaiba - RS. (Comparative studies for the wood quality from two Eucalyptus camaldulensis and one Eucalyptus globulus provenances introduced in the region of Guaiba-RS). J.V. Gonzaga; C.A. Busnardo; C. Dias; C.E.B. Foelkel. 17th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 325-345. (1984)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Producao de celulose kraft a partir de misturas de madeiras de Eucalyptus saligna e Acacia mearnsii. (Kraft pulps production from Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii wood blends). A.W. Petrik; C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; A.F. Milanez. 17th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 297-324. (1984)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Quantificacao para fins energeticos da biomassa florestal de povoamentos de Eucalyptus saligna de primeira e segunda rotacao. (Quantifying for energy purposes of the generated biomass at first and second rotation Eucalyptus forest stands). C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; E.P. Benites; I. Borssatto. 17th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 267-295. (1984)
(in Portuguese)

Qualidade da madeira e da celulose kraft branqueada de treze especies de Eucalyptus. (Quality of the woods and bleached kraft pulps obtained from thirteen species of Eucalyptus). J.V. Gonzaga; C.E.B. Foelkel; C.A. Busnardo; J.L. Gomide; C. Schmidt. 16th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 07-29. (1983)
(in Portuguese)

Estudo comparativo da qualidade da madeira do Eucalyptus saligna, procedencia de Coff's Harbour, e madeira de origem hibrida, procedencia de Canela, introduzidos na regiao de Guaiba-RS. (Comparative studies of the quality of the woods from Eucalyptus saligna, Coff's Harbour provenance, and the hibrid material from a Canela provenance, both introduced in the region of Guaiba-RS). C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; E.P. Benites; C. Dias; S. Menochelli; C. Schmidt. 16th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 4: 1073-1091. (1983) (in Portuguese)

Em busca da qualidade ideal da madeira do eucalipto para producao de celulose. III. A importancia da altura de amostragem para avaliacao da densidade basica media da arvore. (Searching the ideal wood quality in Eucalyptus for pulp production. III. The importance of the sampling tree height for evaluation studies of the tree average wood basic density). C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; C.E.B. Foelkel; C. Dias; S. Menochelli. 16th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 55-72. (1983)
(in Portuguese)

Em busca da qualidade ideal da madeira do eucalipto para producao de celulose. II. Inter-relacoes entre propriedades das arvores e de suas madeiras. (Searching the ideal wood quality in Eucalyptus for pulp production. II. Inter-relationship among tree and wood properties). C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; C.E.B. Foelkel; J.B.V. Vesz. 16th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 31-53. (1983)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Caracterizacao da qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis introduzido na regiao de Guaiba-RS. (Characterization of the wood quality for Eucalyptus viminalis introduced in the region of Guaiba-RS). J.V. Gonzaga; C.A. Busnardo; C. Dias; S. Menochelli; C.E.B. Foelkel. 16th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 4: 1053-1071. (1983)
(in Portuguese)

Master Dissertation: Qualidade da madeira e da celulose kraft de treze especies de Eucalyptus. (Quality of the woods and kraft pulps obtained from thirteen species of Eucalyptus). J.V. Gonzaga. Master of Science Dissertation. UFV - Federal University of Vicosa. 137 pp. (1983) (in Portuguese)

Melhoramento genetico das qualidades celulosico-papeleiras da madeira do Eucalyptus saligna. (Genetic improvement of the pulp and paper quality for Eucalyptus saligna wood). C.E.B. Foelkel; J.V. Gonzaga; C.A. Busnardo; B. Rech; I. Borssatto; C. Schmidt; C. Dias; S. Menochelli. 15th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 35-53. (1982)
(in Portuguese)

Caracterizacao da qualidade da madeira de procedencias de Eucalyptus grandis introduzidas na regiao de Guaiba-RS. (Characterization of the wood quality for provenances of Eucalyptus grandis introduced in the region of Guaiba-RS). J.V. Gonzaga; E.P. Benites; C. Dias; B. Rech; C.A. Busnardo; C.E.B. Foelkel. 15th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 103-124. (1982)
(in Portuguese)

Umidade ao abate da madeira e da casca de Eucalyptus grandis. (Wood and bark moisture content in Eucalyptus grandis just-harvested trees). C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; S. Menochelli; E.P. Benites; C. Dias; C.E.B. Foelkel. 4th Brazilian Forestry Congress. p. 749-753. (1982)
(in Portuguese)

Qualidade da madeira de Acacia mearnsii da regiao de Guaiba-RS. (Wood quality for Acacia mearnsii from the region of Guaiba-RS). J.V. Gonzaga; S. Menochelli; B. Rech; C.A. Busnardo; C.E.B. Foelkel. 4th Brazilian Forestry Congress. 17 pp. (1982)
(in Portuguese)

My dear and almost-brother Jorge Vieira Gonzaga, it was a honor to have enjoyed your friendship and to have had the opportunity to learn so much with you, either professionally or from your values. Thanks also for everything you have done, in so short time, to the Brazilian forestry sector. We all are missing you, dear "Friend of the Eucalyptus".

As a proof of Jorge's professional and personal virtues, when I mentioned to some of his friends that we were offering this Eucalyptus Newsletter "in memorian" homage, many of them were excited to send some additional words to enrich this short biography.

Know some phrases coming from Jorge "Lampiao" Gonzaga's close friends:

Dr. Luiz Ernesto Jorge Barrichelo (IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies): "It is unquestionable that the leadership of the work for integrating the areas of forestry & pulp industry belongs to the Courses of Forestry in Brazil. In particular, Mr. Jorge Vieira Gonzaga made a major contribution to this kind of consolidation, from the time of his graduation from ESALQ, post-graduate studies at UFV, until his bright performance in the private sector and industry organizations, such as SIF, IPEF, SBS, AGEFLOR, ABECEL, etc.".

Dr. Cesar Augusto Guimaraes Finger (UFSM - Federal University of Santa Maria): "I first met Jorge Vieira Gonzaga in the 1980's, when we worked at Riocell SA Guaiba. Person of humble origins, with solid family foundations, he was able to conquer everybody with his simple and friendly way. He was admired by colleagues and superiors. As a professional, he was always determined and tireless. All his tasks were accomplished with dedication and responsibility, making colleagues feel equally involved and responsible. After the period working together in Riocell, I had another opportunity to share Jorge's friendship, when he joined the Graduate Program in Forest Engineering at the Federal University of Santa Maria, as visiting professor in the area of teaching and researching pulp and paper science and technology. His early departure left a gap among all his friends".

Forest Engineer Rubens Cristiano Garlipp (SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture): "Jorge had the ability to combine competence, discipline and professional ethics - and the humanitarian and social position as he proved to have in the community in which he lived. I met Jorge, or the "Lampiao", his nickname gained at ESALQ, when we were studying in Piracicaba. Later, we worked as institutional peers for Brazilian forestry sector development, where I always remember his willingness to cooperate with positive actions and aggregation. In our professional lives, we have lots and lots of acquaintances, several colleagues and some real in fact friends. Jorge was one of those friends whom we could always count with. Our Brazilian forestry lost some of its bright/gloss with the absence of our dear Lampiao".

Forest Engineer Jorge Euclides Mayer Klein (Celulose Riograndense - ex-Riocell): "Jorge Gonzaga was one of those people, who besides a great professional colleague, we could count as a a real friend, always willing to listen, guide, help. Kind-hearted people, as few. As a technician, he was one of those responsible for the growth of forestry in RS (Celso Foelkel's disciple). Man of vision, he invested in tools such as plant breeding, soil management, plant nutrition, forest management, environmental planning, some of the foundations for the excellent results that we manage today with Eucalyptus plantations. Person of great virtues and great example to all of us".

Forest Engineer Teotonio Francisco de Assis (Assistech Forest Consulting): "Jorge Gonzaga was an intense and brilliant person. Excellent researcher, exemplary professional, he has always been a great friend of mine and of all the Friends of the Eucalyptus. He generously exercised all his activities and with deep humility, two of his most striking features".

Chemical Engineer Carlos Alberto Busnardo (CAB - Advising and Consulting in Business Management - friend, professional colleague and Jorge's ex-boss in the area of technological research at the ex-Riocell): "Jorge Gonzaga, Forester, Master of Science in Forest Sciences, multidisciplinary professional whom I had the honor of hiring, knowing, and accomplishing many projects together over several fruitful years. Due to his undeniable ability and commitment, nothing more than his fair transfer to new areas of knowledge at Riocell; challenge accepted by him and met with success. All of us, who had the opportunity to meet him and share his presence, we can attest, without any shadow of doubt, his human and professional quality. Wherever you are now dear friend Jorge, be sure that all your efforts and dedication were not in vain, and you will always be an example and driver to all of us. We thank you for the time that you were with us - for your fellowship, friendship and valuable contributions ".

In order to well finish this section, we would like to share with you some Jorge's thoughts. Please, find two sentences of his own, he wisely used in his motivational talks and meetings in the church in activities for lacking communities. I thank very much his son Rafael Gonzaga and his wife, our dear friend Cleuza, for the help in rescuing some personal data about Jorge.

"Wisdom is discovering little by little what is really necessary and sufficient to provide a worthy and wise life".
(Jorge Gonzaga)

"To forgive is to give back to someone else the right to be happy again". (Jorge Gonzaga)

The World of the Eucalyptus

State of Tocantins - Brazil

Tocantins is the newest state in Brazil, it was officially created in 1988 through the division of the large state of Goias. The state territorial area is important - it corresponds to 277,600 square kilometers, larger than many countries that are known and admired in the forest sector, such as Uruguay, New Zealand and Portugal. From these 27.76 million hectares, about 7 million are pastures and three are still considered to be forests. For such a large area, we have a tiny population - about 1.38 million inhabitants according to the recent Brazilian census of 2010. Most of people live in midsize cities, including the beautiful, modern and projected Palmas, the state capital with 228,000 inhabitants. Other major cities and bases for the development of state forestry are Araguaina, Gurupi, Porto Nacional, Paraiso de Tocantins, Tocantinopolis, Sao Miguel do Tocantins, Palmeiropolis, Miracema do Tocantins, etc. The state is favored by the second largest river system in Brazil, due to the presence of the Araguaia and Tocantins rivers. Its location, climate, vegetation and geography lead to the formation of a rare natural beauty, as the regions of Jalapao, the Araguaia National Park and the island of Bananal. Most of the state land (about 88%) is inserted in the Cerrado biome (Savannahs), with flat to gently rolling land topography. About 80% of lands are very favorable to agriculture, as the topography facilitates mechanization and are inexpensive to be purchased. There, you still may buy a hectare of land oriented to forest plantations for values between 600 to 2,500 Brazilian reais (1 US$ = 1.65 R$), according to fertility and agricultural suitability. For all these reasons, the huge interest in the state for growth in agricultural production (sugar cane, sorghum and cereal grains) and silvicultural species (Eucalyptus, Acacia mangium, teak, rubber tree, tropical pines, Indian neem, etc.).

The state of Tocantins is located in the north-central region of Brazil, bordering the states of Maranhao, Piaui, Para, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Goias. Together with the states of Maranhao and Piaui, Tocantins is today a part of the region that has been called as MaPiTo, considered to be the new frontier of Brazilian plantation forestry. MaPiTo is also referred as the region where occurs the fastest growing agribusiness in the country. Besides these three mentioned states, also Bahia, Goias and Para states are important for the Brazilian eucalyptic world. In the near future, they will also be introduced to you in our World of Eucalyptus, as it was the case of Mato Grosso and Piaui in past newsletter editions.

Despite the strong predominance of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) as an element of biodiversity, the state also has important areas of tropical and equatorial forest vegetation, located at its northern region. In upstate, in the region known as the "Parrot's Neb - Bico do Papagaio", there is an important tradition in production and extraction of babassu for almonds and charcoal. Tocantins is one of the leading states in this kind of extraction. The state cities of Tocantinopolis, Araguatins, Babaculandia are renowned for this type of production. The western region, next to Para border is rainier in relation to central and eastern regions, showing distinct forest and agricultural fitness.

The state's economy is almost entirely dependent on agriculture, plant and mineral extraction (limestone, dolomite, iron, nickel, copper, gold, etc.) and cattle ranching. The industry is small, more focused on domestic consumption. Tocantins is still weak on exports of industrialized goods, but there are expectations for the arrival of new types of industries, especially those based on the use of wood as raw material. People speak with enthusiasm in attracting to the state some forest-based industries as pulp and paper, lumber, furniture, wood panels, energy pellets and briquettes, as well as charcoal for steel and pig-iron manufacturing.

Given that already exists strong recent growth in the business of forest plantations for industrial wood supply in the states of Maranhao and Piaui, the state of Tocantins entered as "deluxe hitchhiker" in this important segment of Brazilian agribusiness. Currently, there is a strong emphasis on the growth of Eucalyptus forest in various regions of the state. Therefore, expectations are that in Tocantins, the Eucalyptus trees will be planted at unbeatable planting rates. Eucalyptus, for its rusticity, rapid growth and return results to investors has been the major emphasis of rural producers and local governments at this present economic times. All the studies show that Eucalyptus trees create more jobs, incomes and profits than cattle ranching, till now the driving force of the agribusiness in Tocantins. But times are changing, even the farmers are willing to invest in silvopastoring systems, including or not agricultural crops. Already, there is even the term "green cow" for animals raised in these agroforestry systems. Besides Eucalyptus, also teak, pines and rubber trees are being established as viable and promising plantations. Not to forget all the expectations placed in the culture of sugar cane to become a source of important raw materials for bioethanol production.

The state of Tocantins has been strongly promoted by the state government through the Secretariat of Planning (SEPLAN) and Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (SEAGRI).

The attractiveness of the state for forest plantations are reported to be due to:

• land availability at low cost;
• land topography - specially oriented to mechanization in forestry;
• extensive areas of degraded pasture, eroded land, where forestry may even play a role in the recovery of soil fertility;
• poor and thin vegetation covering these areas, which facilitates the preparation of soil and minimize environmental impacts of deforestation, even if legally permitted in some cases;
• reasonably favorable climate, good rainfall ranging between 1,100-2,200 mm per year. However, there are regions with pronounced water deficit (about 4-6 months with little rain).
• abundant sunshine, especially in the dry summer, where there are virtually no impediments to sunlight due to the few clouds - however, the evapotranspiration is higher, due to high soil temperature, low relative humidity and strong winds.
• no major environmental and social constraints, such as occur in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest - the protected ecosystems and indigenous reserves are few and well-defined, and the area of rainforest to be preserved is minimal. There is already strong human influence in the region due to extensive cattle ranching , the land where exactly the aspects of plantation forestry are focused.
• good perspectives for improvements in transport infrastructure, with the expansion of the north-south railway and waterway system in the Araguaia and Tocantins rivers;
• reasonable expectations on the productivity of the Eucalyptus planted forests (from 35 to 40 m³/ha.year), with chances of higher forest growth as soon new suitable clones be developed to local conditions. So far, the clones being introduced have been obtained from companies that have improved them for regions in Para, Maranhao, Amapa, Bahia and Minas Gerais, and even in Espirito Santo.
• strong government support and amazing interest from local society to the plantation forestry projects.

In 2006, there were in Tocantins about 13,000 hectares of Eucalyptus plantations for a total of 16.6 thousand hectares of total forest plantations. In 2009, the state already had 44,700 hectares of Eucalyptus, from the 49.6 thousand of all forest plantations in the state. In 2010, the projections are 52.7 thousand hectares of Eucalyptus; 1,370 hectares of rubber tree; 2,190 of teak and 850 of tropical pines. Therefore, the total area of plantation forestry in the state in 2010 should reach about 58,000 hectares. However, with the arrival of powerful new forestry companies, the expectations are that in 2011 this area of planted forests could grow to about 200,000 hectares; and in 2016, could optimistically reaches about 540,000 hectares. The production of a forest area as large as that, and in so short period of time, will be demanding enormous challenges, one of them is exactly the availability of seedlings with the quality to meet this demand and projected results. Data from SEAGRO project an area of 530,000 hectares of Eucalyptus for 2016 - if they are just dreams or if the hard work will allow achieving these targets, this time will tell us. It will not be so easy, but there are enthusiasm and motivation - with political and institutional supports. The "Bico do Papagaio" region and the cities of Araguaina, Sao Miguel do Tocantins and Ponte Alta do Tocantins have changed their way of living due to forestry and optimism is abundant at all corners. Many other cities in the state are also holding the same expectations.

In addition to the introduction of new industrial uses for wood, plantations are expected to replace the predatory use of firewood, which is extracted in an extensive way from natural ecosystem formations in the state. IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics reports that are exploited every year about one million cubic meters of firewood in the state, almost all harvested from natural resources. That is, plantation forestry will also have the mission of stopping the bleeding of the natural green. Unfortunately, the destination of this natural timber is still to supply wood for energy and to produce charcoal to fuel steel and pig-iron mills in the nearby state of Maranhao.

In this way, two very important events took place in November 2010 in Palmas. The first was an important forest congress - Tocantins Florestal - The 1st Forestry Congress of Tocantins, which served to consolidate the ideas and to bring together the business, state and institutional leaders to work for the development of policies in favor of forestry in the state. In fact, the second vital fact occurred during the mentioned congress: the creation of ARETINS - Association of Tocantins Forest Tree Planters, in order to act as a business association, defending and promoting forest plantations ant tree planters in Tocantins.

However, at the same time there are optimism, hope and enthusiasm; barriers and difficulties exist to overcome, and there are commitments to the sustainability of forestry activities that need to be respected and fulfilled. Cerrado is one of the most threatened biomes in the country. The way it has been attacked by ranchers, farmers, second class foresters is frightening. Every single year, thousands of hectares of cerrado are burnt in Tocantins just to induce the growth of a thin greener pasture, but very poor for cattle to eat. This people culture needs to be changed with the arrival of plantation forestry. I personally know Tocantins - I saw with sadness, many hectares of savannah burning during the dry season of the year. A pity or an environmental crime, as you prefer. I am hopeful that this type of attitude may be minimized with the arrival of the forest plantations. In general, plantation forestry uses exactly degraded pastures, due to the easier and cheaper land preparation. Forestry has also complied with the Brazilian Forest Code and the other relevant environmental legislation - thus, it has protected and recovered natural ecosystems at 35 to 50% of the total area in any Brazilian planted forestry enterprise. This can be an excellent alternative for reducing the extraction and to increase the conserved and preserved areas of the Cerrado.

The Brazilian Cerrado is one of the bravest of all types of vegetation that exist. Its biodiversity is absolutely remarkable. The cerrado plants are resistant to drought, fire and coexist with intensive grazing. Many plants have lignotubers to adapt to weather conditions and to extreme poverty of soil and aggressions of all kinds (fire and intense harvesting, as examples). The seed bank in cerrado biome is lush. Finally, the cerrado is brave, but not a miracle. If aggressions are constant and intense, it will eventually be defeated and disappears, leaving a huge environmental liability for future generations.

I have expectations that the strong technological and environmental background of plantation forestry and the forest sector leaders commitments can help ensure the preservation and rehabilitation of large areas of the cerrado. However, I have concerns too, and many. When newcomers arrive in a business located at pioneer regions, the environmental and social commitments of the new players may not be the same as those developed over decades by the planted forest sector in Brazil. So, while I have faith that we are to have a good forestry and appropriate level of sustainability in Tocantins, I'll keep my eyes and my smart pen alive to help maintaining the social and environmental quality we learned to perform in the Brazilian silviculture. I count also with the important role of the state environmental agency, NATURATINS - Instituto Natureza do Tocantins, which cares for the accuracy of environmental impact studies and licensing of areas for receiving the plantations.

Despite all the advantages mentioned so far to Tocantins, there are many other challenges and barriers to overcome, such as:

• the supply the large amounts of high quality seedlings with improved genetics for such expansion on plantations;
• adaptation and adjustment of forest management techniques to the local conditions (soils, climate, natural vegetation in the understory, etc.);
• development of suitable and adapted genetic material for local conditions in their specificities;
• to guarantee the growth rates that should be attractive, at least 40 to 45 m³/ha.year of wood with bark, instead of the projected 30 to 35, as in the case of plantations with lower aggregation of technology;
• improvements of the local surveys of climate, soil, vegetation, evapotranspiration charts, etc.;
• monitoring and prevention of plant damage by the entrance of pests and diseases, such as fungi (eg Ceratocystis fimbriata, etc.) and insect pests (ants, beetles, defoliators caterpillars, bronzed bug, etc.).

Things are happening very quickly in Tocantins, despite the entrepreneurs' claims, who would like more flexibility and less bureaucracy. I believe that for the sake of precaution, in situations of uncertainty for pioneer regions, more studies and demands on environmental and social issues should be applied and required. However, this is no reason for endless procrastinations.

The Eucalyptus clonal forestry is arriving to Tocantins by means of several companies with appropriate levels of silvicultural technology. The agroforestry systems are also demanding studies and researches, as for them, it is recognized that every farm is unique and demanding specific projects. Several modern forest companies are today acting in Tocantins, expanding their forestry bases. Also, in the area of seedling production, the growth is expected to be huge - if maintained the projections of about 80,000 hectares of new plantations per year, the requirements would be about 150 million Eucalyptus seedlings annually.

We must place a lot of attention, researches and serious commitments to leaders and foresters, as far as the objective is to establish plantations of species of high photosynthetic activity and strong demands on water and nutrients. The ideal situation is developing improved clones for tolerance to drought and with low water and nutrient requirements. Other needs are related to forest management of soils receiving high sunstroke, strong oxidation of organic matter, high evapotranspiration and potentially high nutrient exports. Therefore, one of the most critical challenge to this Brazilian state with no tradition and education/innovation in forestry is to develop all this and in a short time. The development of critical mass and brains is a big issue to challenge business leaders and local authorities. Forestry is a new career in Tocantins, with no great traditions in education and researching.

The State Government of Tocantins is looking for providing attractiveness to the forestry sector, encouraging the reduction on bureaucracy and speeding up licensing procedures; however, this must be done without losing quality in environmental assessments and inspections, considering we have new entrepreneurs in the planting forest issues, including the entrant rural producers. If the goal is to remove the state of Tocantins from the extractive age, it should be done with quality and responsibility. We shall not change from a perverse extractive model to another without adding strict responsibilities in relation to sustainability.

One of the main objectives of the current government is to encourage the industrialization process in the medium term to be able to consume the wood will be produced by the forest base being planted today. There's no intention at all, to just planting forests to produce charcoal for feeding the steel industry located at neighboring states. I think this type of government commitment has been well explained in the forums where debates are taking place to discuss about the future of forestry in Tocantins. The first and today's concern is to the attraction of the planted forests; the second to bring the wood comsuming companies. Whithout this wood supply basis, the state will not be attractive to industrial enterprises.

The Tocantins state government has several roles and targets: to attract investments, to strengthen infrastructure, to vitalize basic research, to speed up decisions and to monitor both the use of the available resources, as well as the social and environmental performance of the newcomers. Also, the government has in its hands the objective of transforming into reality one of Tocantins' dreams: to be in fact the new forest frontier and one of the main actors in the Brazilian agribusiness. This does not necessarily need to be done just by government, but by partnerships with the private sector, public universities and other entities within or outside the state.

For everything we've seen so far, anyone can clearly set the state of Tocantins as a pioneering plantation forest region, where opportunities exist and are numerous, but also the risks. There are important factors to be worked out and that may affect future competitiveness and attractiveness of this business, such as:

• lack of forestry qualified manpower at all levels, from operational to the top management;
• low on the productivity of forest workers;
• lack of technological inputs;
• high cost of plantation (between 3,500-4,500 reais per hectare managed till the second year);
• strong dependence of the invested capital return rates on the forest productivity - not yet fully proven and guaranteed in the long term;
• poor rural infrastructure;
• potentials of clearings and "deforestation" in the cerrado, even considering that the environmental legislation allows savannah removal up to certain proportions. This fact may have a strong negative influence in the business, due to rejections to the plantation forestry model coming from environmental and social organizations, both nationally and internationally.

One thing is absolutely right - the greater the biodiversity among clones and species of trees planted and preserved in the eco-mosaic, as well as the integrated systems agriculture-livestock-forestry, the less significant will be the risks that plantations could bring or undergo. Despite this being the target committed by the government, it is still missing a comprehensive forestry plan and an appropriate zoning for forestry negotiated and developed in consensus with stakeholders from the society, just it is the case for some other Brazilian states. Since local people and investors are willing to work with Eucalyptus clonal forestry in Tocantins state, nothing more logical than starting up with the very best. And doing this without hampering or delaying investments, but qualifying them for better.

All these plans need to be very well linked to prevent the plantation forests to reach the age of harvesting without having market place for the wood, what would be extremely disappointing and frustrating to investors, especially to small and medium sized planted forest producers.

Everything is needed and crucial to the Tocantins forest sector shall require further discussions, specialized forums and commitments. The partnerships among government organizations - private - environmental - academic sectors are needed to help creating the future. Competent and skilled people willing to cooperate must be found and included in the forums. Today I have seen many business managers complaining about lack of time and resources. However, how to build a sustainable future not finding ways to successfully involving the main stakeholders and competencies? Time and resources are needed to be found - and urgently. The sooner the better.

Ultimately, we want a successful plantation forestry in Tocantins, and that this forestry be understood by all to be practiced in a green, clean, natural and photosynthetic state, in a so bright way as it is the Adhara star that illuminates the state flag.

Images of the state of Tocantins - Eucalyptus forests:
(Tocantins and Eucalyptus forests - Google images)
(Tocantins and Eucalyptus - Google images)

Online Technical References

State of Tocantins - Brazil

In this section, we are as usual offering some very good euca-links with relevant publications available in the virtual world wide web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe me, they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since they are very much connected with the Eucalyptus.

In this edition, we are emphasizing some recent publications about forestry and forest products with strong connection with the Brazilian state of Tocantins, the state being honored in this edition in the section "The World of the Eucalyptus".

We hope you enjoy this selection we have prepared:

Tocantins. Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in English)

Historia do Tocantins. (The history of Tocantins). Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Tocantins. Estados @. (Tocantins. States @). IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Agroecological zoning for the state of Tocantins. EMBRAPA Monitoring by Satellite and the State Government of Tocantins. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (in English)

Perspectivas florestais para o estado de Tocantins em 2011. (Prospects for forestry in the state of Tocantins - 2011). E.S. Campos. Painel Florestal TV. Accessed on 14.12.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Eucalipto chega ao norte do Tocantins. (Eucalyptus arrives to North Tocantins). P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal TV. Accessed on 14.12.2010:
(in Portuguese)

O potencial da regiao sul do Tocantins. (The potential of the south Tocantins region). P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal TV. Accessed on 14.12.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Eucalipto: a grande transformacao da regiao do MaPiTo. (Eucalyptus: the great change at the MaPiTo region). P. Cardoso. Painel Florestal TV. Accessed on 14.12.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Monocultura no estado do Tocantins: reflexoes acerca da producao do eucalipto. (Monoculture in the Tocantins state: reflexions about the production of Eucalyptus). S.L. Rezende; E.A. Lima; A.F. Souza. 13 pp. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Meio Ambiente do estado do Tocantins: um breve historico. (Environment in the state of Tocantins: a brief history). G. Salera Junior. Usina de Letras. Accessed on 14.12.2010:
(in Portuguese)

O produtor rural e o cultivo de eucalipto. (The rural producer and the Eucalyptus forestry). G. Salera Junior. Usina de Letras. Accessed on 14.12.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Cenario tecnico e juridico do licenciamento florestal da propriedade rural (LFPR) de Palmas - TO. (Technical and legal licensing of forest rural ownerships at Palmas-TO). C.A.C. Nascimento; A.E.N. Guimaraes; S.R. Santos. Tocantins Catholic College. 15 pp. Accessed on 14.12.2010:
(in Portuguese with summary in English)

Projeto de mudas em viveiros. (A project for a forest seedling nursery). A.D. Pereira; G.R. Carvalho; J.C.S. Vieira; W.O. Nunes; C.T. Muraishi. Tocantins Catholic College. 12 pp. Accessed on 14.12.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Florestamento e reflorestamento no Brasil: uma analise do projeto FLORAM. (Afforestation and reforestation in Brazil: an analysis of the FLORAM project). S.K. Pela. Master Dissertation. USP - University of Sao Paulo. 182 pp. (2010)
(in Portuguese with summary in English)

O reflorestamento no estado do Tocantins
. (Plantation forestry in the state of Tocantins). I. Abreu. Tocantins Florestal. PowerPoint presentation: 27 slides. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

O Tocantins e seu potencial florestal. (Tocantins and its forestry potential). ARETINS -Association of Tocantins Forest Tree Planters. 30 pp. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

RIMA - Relatorio de Impacto de Meio Ambiente das plantacoes florestais da GMR Florestal no estado do Tocantins. (Environmental Impact Report for the GMR Plantation Forestry Project in the state of Tocantins). Nativa Meio Ambiente. 78 pp. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Estudo da viabilidade para implantacao silvicultural da Tectona grandis (Teca) no estado do Tocantins. [A study for evaluation the feasibility for silvicultural plantations of Tectona grandis (teak) in the state of Tocantins]. A.C. Coelho; M. Valeria; P.G. Batista; R. Ludmila. Course Completion Monograph. Tocantins Catholic College. 08 pp. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

A fiscalizacao ambiental do Instituto Natureza do Tocantins. (Environmental controlling supervision by the Instituto Natureza do Tocantins). N.C.A. Castro. Course Completion Monograph. Tocantins Catholic College. 12 pp. (2009)
(in Portuguese)

Balanco social 2009. (Social balance - 2009). SEAGRO - Secretariat for Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply in the State of Tocantins. (2009)
(in Portuguese)
(in Portuguese)

Analise do licenciamento florestal da propriedade rural como instrumento de gestao ambiental. (Analysis of the permit licensing for plantation forestry as a tool for environmental management). J. Gomes Sobrinho. Course Completion Monograph. Tocantins Catholic College. 22 pp. (2009)
(in Portuguese)

Zoneamento ecologico economico no Tocantins: comparacao de resultados usando um mesmo metodo em diferentes datas. (Ecological economic zoning in the Tocantins state: comparison of results using a same method in different times). R.R. Dias; J.T. Mattos. Revista Brasileira de Cartografia 61(4): 351 - 369. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Solos representativos do estado do Tocantins sob vegetacao natural do cerrado. (Representative soils of the state of Tocantins covered by the natural savannah vegetation). H.M.P. Santana; M.P.C. Lacerda. II International Symposium Tropical Savannahs. 07 pp. (2008) (in Portuguese)

Adequacao do uso da terra a sua aptidao agricola - Norte do estado do Tocantins. (Suitability of land uses in comparison to their agricultural capabilities - Northern state of Tocantins). Ecological Economic Zoning for the Tocantins State. SEPLAN - Secretariat of Planning. 70 pp. (2005)
(in Portuguese)

Uma indicacao de potencial do uso das terras do Tocantins. (An indication of the potential uses for the lands of Tocantins state). Ecological Economic Zoning for the Tocantins State. SEPLAN - Secretariat of Planning. 14 pp. (2000)
(in Portuguese)

Aptidao agricola dos solos do estado do Tocantins. (Agricultural suitability for the soils of the state of Tocantins). A.A.C. Lima; F.N.S. Oliveira; A.R.L. Aquino. Technical Statement EMBRAPA CNPAT # 47: 01-04. (2000) (in Portuguese)


State of Tocantins - Brazil

In this section, we are, as always we do, offering some relevant Euca-Links to important websites available in the virtual web. Just click on the addresses of the corresponding URLs to open them or save as favorites on your computer. In this unique edition about the state of Tocantins, the Euca-Links will be all related to companies, organizations, universities and entities oriented to the study, business, usage and manufacturing products from Eucalyptus at this specific state. If any organization or company is eventually missing, please contact us and provide the URL addresses, which we will evaluate to make an addition on some of our upcoming editions.

We hope you may enjoy our selection:

NATURATINS - Institute Nature of Tocantins
. (Instituto Natureza do Tocantins). Organization of the Tocantins state government that takes care of environmental policies, controlling, and environmental licensing of forest plantations and industrial projects. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (Naturatins website - in Portuguese) (Forest projects permits - in Portuguese) (Reference terms and guidelines for the preparation of environmental projects for forestry nurseries - in Portuguese) (Technical guidelines for preparation of forest harvesting projects - in Portuguese)

SEPLAN - State of Tocantins Secretariat of Planning. Public authority responsible for significant areas of forest development in the state, including also the agricultural, forestry and ecological-economic zoning (ZEE-TO). Accessed on 14.12.2010: (SEPLAN website) (Technical documents and maps - ZEE - Ecological economic zoning for the state of Tocantins and a more detailed report to the north region of the state - in Portuguese)
(Atlas of Tocantins - in Portuguese)
(Atlas of Tocantins - in English)

SEAGRO - State of Tocantins Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply.
Public authority responsible for important areas of agriculture and forestry in the state of Tocantins. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (SEAGRO website - in Portuguese) (About the forestry potential in the state of Tocantins - in Portuguese) (Weather in Tocantins - in Portuguese)
(Searching silvicultura at SEAGRO website - in Portuguese)
(Searching Eucalyptus at SEAGRO website - in Portuguese))

RURALTINS - Institute for Rural Development in the State of Tocantins.
Public authority that manages the promotion of socio-environmental issues and economic factors in rural and agricultural areas, including environmental impact studies in conservation areas, etc. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Tocantins Protected Areas. Website of the Tocantins state government for the dissemination of knowledge about the conservation areas in the state. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

GMR Florestal. Diversified group having business in construction and energy industries and today investing in the production of Eucalyptus forests in southeastern Tocantins to supply wood for renewable energy and other added value uses. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (GMR Florestal website - in Portuguese) (Eucalyptus planting operations - in Portuguese) (Forest production - in Portuguese) (The GMR project - Painel Florestal TV - in Portuguese) (GMR Florestal Institutional video - in English)

Florestar. Forestry company that operates in the region known as MaPiTo (triple border between Maranhao, Piaui and Tocantins), planting Eucalyptus trees to form a basis for forest wood supply to energy, pulp and charcoal as a function of potential growth of wood consumption in steel and pig-iron factories and market pulp mills. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (Company website with headquarters located at the Maranhao state - in Portuguese) (Location of Florestar in MaPiTo region - in Portuguese)
(Painel Florestal TV - in Portuguese)

Eco Brasil Florestas.
Forestry-based company with extensive Eucalyptus plantations in the state of Tocantins, with strong participation of our dear friends Nelson Barboza Leite, Osmar Elias Zogbi and Mario Higino Leonel . Accessed on 14.12.2010: (Source: Valor Economico - Fazenda Triqueda website - in Portuguese) (Naturatins release about the EIA-RIMA and Public Hearing for Eco Brasil Florestas, explaining the activities of this company in Tocantins state - in Portuguese)

Alianca Florestal. Forest services provider, with business in the state of Tocantins. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Viveiros Tocantins. Nursery and production of Eucayptus seedlings. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Esteio Eucaliptos. A tree seedling production company having also business with treated/preserved wood and wooden houses manufacturing. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (Uses and benefits coming from the Eucalyptus - in Portuguese)

UFT - Federal University of Tocantins. Educational institution with several campi in the state, showing available areas of teaching and researching in agronomy, forestry, chemistry, etc. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (Forest engineering at the campus of Gurupi - in Portuguese),com_docman/Itemid,0/task,doc_download/gid,2252/ (Forest engineering course- in Portuguese) (Agronomy at the campus of Gurupi - in Portuguese),
(Online digital master dissertations - in Portuguese) (Graduate course in plant production - in Portuguese)
(Searching Eucalyptus at the UFT website - in Portuguese)

FACTO - Tocantins Catholic College. This college has an academic course in agronomy and has contributed to the education of professional foresters in the region. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

IFTO - Tocantins Federal Institute of Education, Science and Tecnology. Educational institution with several campi in the state, having available areas of teaching and researching in agronomy, technical courses and bachelor's degree in agribusiness, chemistry, etc. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

FIETO - Industry Federation of the State of Tocantins. Business entity that represents the interests of the industrial sector. Accessed on 14.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

References about Events and Courses

This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good links with recently already happened events (congresses, seminars, conferences, workshops, courses). The advantage provided to web readers is that the event organizers have made the presentations or proceedings available for free downloading to all interested parties. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the interested parties. I would like to emphasize the importance of visiting the material of these suggested events. Most of them have exceptional PowerPoint presentations, rich on data, photos, images and references. By doing this visit you can learn a lot more about the discussed topics. Other courses or events offer the entire book of technical articles, true sources of knowledge to our readers.

I hope you may like the present selection, there is even one interesting event to be browsed dedicated to cover forestry at the state of Tocantins, the region being honored in the section "The World of the Eucalyptus".

Tocantins Florestal - 1st Tocantins Forestry Congress. (in Portuguese)
Excellent event that was held at the city of Palmas, Tocantins, the Brazilian state being honored in this edition of our Eucalyptus Newsletter. The presentations occurred from 09 to 10 of November 2010, with political, technical, social and environmental issues being covered. There were striking government support and enthusiasm from all the participants for the opportunity that the state was taking to promote and increase the activity of planting Eucalyptus forests oriented to social and economic development. The event was organized by ARETINS - Association of Tocantins Forest Tree Planters and by the webportal Painel Florestal, from Mato Grosso do Sul.
Know the speaches for downloading at: (Event website)

Please, have also a look to very interesting videos about the event, with interviews, comments, etc - all made available by Painel Florestal TV Channel: (Tocantins, the new forest frontier - an interview with Mr. Guilherme Sahade - in Portuguese) (Tocantins Florestal - a great success - an interview with Mr. Nelson Barboza Leite - in Portuguese ) (Tocantins Florestal - a general coverage of the event - in Portuguese)

MS Florestal - 2nd Mato Grosso do Sul Forestry Congress. (in Portuguese)
MS Florestal is already becoming one of the most important Brazilian events about forestry. This second edition occurred in the city of Campo Grande, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul. The event promoters were SEPROTUR (State Secretariat of Agricultural Production Development, Industry, Trade and Tourism) and the State Government of MS. The organization was due to the REFLORE-MS (Association of South Mato Grosso Planted Forests Producers and Consumers) and webportal Painel Florestal. The talks took place from 07 to 09 of June 2010, concurrently with an exhibition of suppliers and producers of forest base products in the state. The topics were wide and varied, covering different species of trees, commercial aspects of planted forests, forest policy and legislation, and it could not fail to occur, with numerous technical talks on the silviculture and products from Eucalyptus.
Meet the speeches of the event for downloading at: (Speeches - in Portuguese)

II National Forum on Charcoal. (in Portuguese)
Traditional event about charcoal, especially for the type produced using the wood derived from Eucalyptus planted forests. In 2010, the event was held in the city of Sete Lagoas-MG, on 27-29 October. The event organizers were: SIF - Society of Forest Researches, UFV - Federal University of Vicosa thorough its Department of Forest Engineering and UNIFEMM - Universtity Center of Sete Lagoas.
Please, go soon to visit SIF website and to download the speeches, since they may be available on the website for a short period of time: (Speeches for downloading - in Portuguese)

Please, know also some Painel Florestal TV videos, an internet TV channel that covered the event: (About the II National Forum on Charcoal at Sete Lagoas-MG - in Portuguese) (Interview with Professor Dr. Mrs. Cassia Carneiro - UFV - in Portuguese) (Interview with Mr. Geraldo Mateus Reis - Mutum Group - in Portuguese) (Interview with Mr. Augusto Valencia Rodriguez - ArcelorMittal - in Portuguese) (Interview with Mr. Jose Bastidas - in Portuguese) (Interview with Mr. Paulo Azeredo - in Portuguese)

MADEN 2 - Wood Energy Seminar. (Seminario Madeira Energetica). (in Portuguese)
This event was held in Sao Paulo city on November 25, 2010, with several presentations showing the potential of wood biomass energy. Highlights included talks on: types of bioenergy, biorefineries, charcoal, biomass densification, briquettes and pellets, energy efficiency, Brazilian policies for the sector, etc. The organization of the seminar was addressed by the INEE - National Institute for Energy Efficiency, with the enthusiasm of our friend Dr. Jayme Buarque de Hollanda, INEE general director. (Event website - in Portuguese) (Speeches - in Portuguese)

2nd Pan-American Congress on Plants and Bioenergy. (in English)
This international event on bioenergy, which emphasized very much the forest plantations in Brazil, was held in the town of Sao Pedro-SP, from 08 to 11 of August 2010. The entities who organized and supported the event were: Biosciences Institute - USP; Botanical Society of Sao Paulo - SBSP; American Society of Plant Biologists - ASPB; National Laboratory of Bioethanol Science and Technology - CTBE; Federal University of Vicosa - UFV; Purdue University; University of Illinois; Energy Bioscience Institute - EBI, among others. Although the lectures are not available, we have summaries of them provided by each speaker. (Speeches short summary offered by speakers - in English) (First Congress program - an evento that took place in 2008 at the city of Merida, Mexico - in English)

Curiosities and Oddities about the Eucalyptus
(by Ester Foelkel)

Small Diameter Roundwood Obtained from the Eucalyptus and its Utilization in the Construction Industry


The Eucalyptus wood is increasingly replacing the wood from native trees used by the construction industry. This can be easily explained by its greater availability in the forest products markets, appropriate quality/end-purposes and the rapid growth and sustainable management of the plantations (Revista da Madeira, 2010).

According to Zenid and coworkers (2003), wood is a renewable resource, which when is well utilized and maintained, can have multiple uses and long and extended life in the construction industry. The small diameter Eucalyptus roundwood is usually obtained from the first thinning of the plantations - trees having usually two to four years. It can also be a result from sprouting/coppicing management, leaving several trees to grow in each stump and managing then to be thin in diameter, to be sold for such purpose. Thus, their diameters are to be relatively thin, ranging from 5 to 15 cm, with a length of wood pieces from 2 to 5 meters, depending on the end-uses, but in all cases the pieces must be straight along (Partel, 2006).

Taking into account economic aspects, the first thinned wood from Eucalyptus plantations (small diameter roundwood) is considered to be quite inexpensive, so it is extremely useful and can be used for various purposes at the construction industry and related businesses. The use of such wood for this industry may be temporary, being utilized as molds for concrete, scaffolding and shoring; or may be definite that is nobler, and may act as the main raw material timber (Zenid et al., 2003). Small diameter roundwood can also be used for the preparation of anchors/chocks, supports and also for manufacturing rustic buildings. They may be used in the construction of roofs, roof structures, pillars, columns, floors, decks, sheds, kiosks, fences, walls, and especially, in manufacturing children's toys such as large playgrounds, swings, slides, among similar toys (Partel , 2006).

In addition to the first plantation thinning and sprout/coppicing management to lead to small diameter roundwood, we may have a third source for this wood: the core of larger diameter logs, resulting from veneering by rotating delaminating devices. The central part of these logs have higher amounts of knots (knotty corewood) and therefore they are discarded as wastes. Thus, these very uniform residues may also be properly treated and used both in toys and in rustic buildings.

The main purpose of this paper is to present the commercial uses for the Eucalyptus small diameter roundwood, with emphasis in the construction industry, highlighting its main economic, social and environmental advantages and some disadvantages. Some of the processing technologies will also be mentioned.

Uses of the small diameter roundwood

Small diameter roundwood is defined as a part of the tree trunk that has almost null wood processing. They can be long and thin rod-alike logs, obtained from the tree with or without transverse sectioning, where very often the bark is not removed from. They are mainly used for making choking's and scaffoldings. When wood is treated with preservative products, it can be used for rustic buildings, mainly in rural areas and also in the production of short electric poles and fences. Now-a-days, the timber from the planted Eucalyptus forests is commonly used for this purpose (Zenid et al., 2003). In 2001, the same authors observed that approximately 33% of lumber consumed in Sao Paulo was used for temporary purposes, and for the manufacture of molds for concrete and for the fabrication of scaffolds.

Advantages of the small diameter roundwood

The roundwood obtained from the first thinning of Eucalyptus plantations is used in construction works and it can generate substantial economic gains. According to Partel (2006), most of the wood sector companies working with such kind of wood perform tailor-made designed projects to customers for the construction of floors, kiosks, staircases, balconies, toys, among others, thus adding value to products with significant financial returns.

Chaul and Tibirica (2006) observed the economic feasibility of producing Eucalyptus 3 meters long anchors by harvesting 2 year-old plantations in a place close to Goiania, GO. The authors emphasized that the 1,558 trees per hectare produced 3,116 anchors, selling them for R$ 30.00 to R$ 36.00 per dozen (1 US$ = 1.65 R$). The results were quite interesting and considered economically feasible at the time of the study.

In 2005, Baena has also analyzed the economic feasibility of Eucalyptus plantations aimed at producing noble hardwood. The first plantation thinning, which occurred three years after planting, had provided wood for the production of anchors to be used in construction industry. According to the author, the income generated in that process was sufficient to pay all costs of land leasing, paying back a part of the initial plantation investments.

Fagundes (2003) reported that no other raw material temporarily used in civil construction works has so many environmental benefits such as timber, mainly by providing low environmental impact, being a renewable and reusable resource. The use of wood from planted forests for this purpose also reduces the deforestation of native forests that previously had their wood also widely used in this specific function (Revista da Madeira, 2010; Ponce, undated).

The small diameter roundwood after fulfilling its working function, it is often discarded or used for combustion, generating energy in industrial processes. However, it is possible to recover this product for its own reuse at construction works, achieving additional incomes. Sometimes, its new use can provide even higher economic values when compared to the previous one.

Barros and Melhado (2006) showed that this kind of material is easily found in the supply markets, with low costs. These two advantage points are some of the reasons for temporary use of roundwood in building constructions.

Another advantage is the continuous launching of new businesses and job creation for the production of roundwood products, as those related to the manufacture of toys, poles and rustic buildings, promoting improved quality of life for many communities (Ponce, undated). After all, in a country growing in population like Brazil and demanding for housing and comfort, there is always growing demand for these products, because this wood has replaced other types of materials in this sector.

Disadvantages of the small diameter roundwood

Despite the growing use of small diameter roundwood in construction works, there are experts in this issue who pointed out the heterogeneity and roughness of this raw material as the main problems and obstacles to its use as anchors (Barros and Melhado, 2006). The authors commented that the anchoring with the material hinders the flattening. Also, the uncertainty of the wood mechanical properties makes the project sizing always to be calculated for the worst case. The lack of specifications and quality assurance has been an obstacle to increased use of this material.

There are Brazilian laws restricting the use of wood in building structures, especially because wood is sensitive to combustion due to be a fuel material. The lack of specific improved plantations for this quality, the low durability of the product and lack of tradition in the use of this material are other barriers, mainly for the construction of larger buildings (Barros and Melhado, 2006). These authors have observed that these wooden anchors, depending on the species used, have low load capacity, requiring large quantities of pieces under the concrete slab for proper shoring. This hampers the movement of people by the high number of struts, leading also to lower quality of work due to deformations which the timber may eventualy suffer. Thus, in buildings with strict quality controls, shoring with wood is not recommended, being replaced by metal struts.

Recovering the wastes of small diameter roundwood

After the temporary use in construction works, the struts, anchors, and remainings of wooden molds, often can no longer be oriented to the same purposes. According to Gerolla (2010), the material has not received proper treatment and have low strength and quality cannot have a noble reuse, as the use in a sawmill or furniture-making. Thus, the timber could be used for the preparation of packaging boxes for vegetable/fruits, and for generating energy by burning in boilers and furnaces in manufacturing industries, pottery and even in restaurants.

Treating the small diameter roundwood

The wood used for shoring purposes may become very much affected with regard to its durability, especially when in environments of high humidity and temperature variations (Zenid et al. 2003; Felten, undated). It is for this reason that the roundwood to be used in rustic buildings and anchors should be submitted to previous treatments to increase the lifespan of the wood, thus avoiding the attack of detractors agents, such as fungi and termites.

The most recommended treatments for such roundwood type are those using machines that combine pressure/vacuum to inject the wood preservative chemical inside the wood structure. However, there are some treatments of wood that can be performed in non-industrial processes (with no pressure) (Jankowsky, 1990).

According to Brinque Park (2010), the treatment of roundwood used in rustic construction and toys could be performed at autoclaves (vacuum/pressure). During the process, a water soluble preservative (CAA or CCB) impregnates the timber. In case the user may want additional security in relation to chemical preservatives, he can varnish or paint the exposed parts to prevent physical contact with the chemical.

Montana News (undated) indicated that technologies already exist, which are well used to enhance and improve the durability of roundwood up to 50 years (according to its use), not requiring many repairs or extra monitoring along this period.

The method of replacement the sap by preservative chemicals in green roundwood (without the utilization of pressure/vacuum autoclaves) is indicated for Eucalyptus logs with diameters from 7.5 to 15 cm and maximum length of 2.5 m. The treated logs must rest for 30 days after treatment of wood, which, if well done, can increase the lifespan of the wood by up to five times (Pereira, undated).

The Brazilian standard that regulates chemical preservation of wood to extend the life of wooden structures is the NBR 7190 (Timber structures), helping users to make more rational application of these chemicals (Revista da Madeira, 2010).

The treated wood at preservation plants have much better specifications than the woods in the raw form. The treatment allows the utilization of other species of Eucalyptus, in addition to the wood of Corymbia citriodora. This enables the wood of other species such as Eucalyptus urophylla, E.tereticornis, E.paniculata, E. urograndis, E.dunnii, E.microcorys, etc.

Final remarks

The growing demand for housing in Brazil makes also increased the need for wood in the civil construction industry. Although wood is a renewable resource, it must be rationally used. The temporary use of wood from the first thinning of Eucalyptus plantations can help the construction of buildings, as props, anchors, stilts and scaffoldings. The wood of the first thinning can also be directed to the construction of rustic buildings and toys in large playgrounds or toy parks, adding value to this material and providing a social destination very much appreciated by the communities.

Further research studies should be encouraged to develop the most correct specifications and characterization's for this type of wood, considering the various species of Eucalyptus in Brazil. Some of the targets could be: increasing the durability of the material, reducing the disadvantages, and aiming to promote improvements in the quality of this roundwood for other noble purposes, as the construction of houses and vertical buildings (Dias,2009). Thus, by having available for civil construction a renewable material that helps sinking carbon from the atmosphere (much better than the metallic ones) and fully recyclable or biodegradable, we have the possibility to use additional quantities of raw materials that will be promoting more sustainable benefits to society, not only in economic ways, but also environmental and social.

Just ahead, please find a series of technical papers, brochures and educational websites related to the use of Eucalyptus small diameter roundwood both for temporary use in buildings, and for the manufacture of rustic buildings, toys, etc.

Please know more about the benefit of these Eucalyptus products at:

Brinque Park. Technical Information. Accessed on 16.11.2010: (in Portuguese)

Madeira para uso sustentavel na construcao civil. (Wood for sustainable utilization in the construction industry). IPT - Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo. Revista da Madeira 122. (2010)
(in Portuguese)

O que fazer para reaproveitar o resto de formas e escoras depois que a obra e finalizada? (What to do to reclaim/reuse the rest of forms and anchors after the construction work is completed?). G. Gerolla. 12 Questions and Answers about Wood. Painel Florestal. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Uso da madeira de florestas plantadas na construcao civil e no mobiliario: tendencias e perspectivas. (Use of wood from planted forests in the construction industry and furniture manufacturing: trends and perspectives). M. A. R. Nahuz. CT Floresta-IPT. PowerPoint presentation: 41 slides. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Manual ajuda no uso de peca rolica em construcoes. (A guidebook helps the use of roundwood pieces in contructions). V. Dias. USP News. (2009) (in Portuguese)

Tecnologia da construcao de edificios. (Technology for building construction). I. F. H. Sabbatini; F. F. Cardoso, L. S. Franco; M. M. B. Barros. Department of Civil Construction Engineering. USP - University of Sao Paulo. Lecture 9. 16 pp. (2007)
(in Portuguese)

Recomendacoes para a producao de estruturas de concreto armado em edificios. (Recommendations for the production of reinforced concrete structures in buildings). M. M. S. B. Barros; S. B. Melhado. USP Texts. Handouts of the course Technology for the Construction of Buildings I. 89 pp. (2006)
(in Portuguese)

Paineis estruturais utilizando madeira rolica de pequeno diametro parahabitacao social: desenvolvimento do produto. (Structural panels using small diameter roundwood for social housing: product development). P. M. P. Partel. Ph.D. Thesis. College of Engineering. USP - Sao Carlos. 245 pp. (2006)
(in Portuguese)

A rentabilidade economica da cultura do eucalipto e sua contribuicao ao agronegocio brasileiro. (The economic profitability of Eucalyptus plantations and its contribution to the Brazilian agribusiness). E. S. Baena. Conhecimento Interativo 1(1): 3-9. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Madeira: uso sustentavel na construcao civil. (Wood: sustainable utilization in the civil construction industry). G. J. Zenid et al. 1st edition. IPT. 60 pp. (2003)
(in Portuguese)

Viabilidade economica de florestas de eucalipto no estado de Goias. (Economic feasibility of Eucalyptus plantations at the state of Goias). T. N. Chaul; L. G. Tibirica. PUC- Goias. 16 pp. (2006)
(in Portuguese)

Producao de madeira serrada e geracao de residuos do processamento de madeira de florestas plantadas no Rio Grande do Sul. (Production of sawn timber and generation of wastes from wood processing using raw material from plantation forests in Rio Grande do Sul). H. A. V. Fagundes. Master Dissertation. UFRGS - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. 173 pp. (2003) (in Portuguese)

Estruturas de edificios em concreto armado submetidas a acoes de construcao. (Structures of reinforced concrete subjected to building actions). J. F. M. A. Prado. Ph.D. Thesis. College of Engineering. USP - Sao Carlos. 201 pp. (1999) (in Portuguese)

Custos de construcao. (Construction costs). F. C. Baeta; V. Sartor. UFV - Federal University of Vicosa. Handouts. 96 pp. (1998) (in Portuguese)

Fundamentos de preservacao de madeiras. (Fundamentals of wood preservation). I. P. Jankowsky. IPEF. Documentos Florestais (11): 01-12. (1990) (in Portuguese)

Tecnologia que protege a madeira. (Technology to protect the wood). Montana News. Year XIV (9). 03 pp. (Undated)
(in Portuguese)

Uso da madeira de eucalipto na construcao civil. (Use of Eucalyptus wood at the civil construction industry). C. Foelkel. Ask the Euca Expert. Question 772. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Madeira de floresta. Construcao civil. (Forest wood. Civil construction). R. H. Ponce. PowerPoint presentation:50 slides. (Undated)
(in Portuguese)

Tipos de estacas. Construcao civil. (Types of anchors. Civil construction). D. Felten. FAG - College Assis Gurgacz. Powerpoint presentation: 53 slides. (Undated)
(in Portuguese)

Imunizacao da madeira rolica do eucalipto. (Immunization of Eucalyptus roundwood). J. D Pereira. EMATER-MG. Powerpoint presentation: 10 slides. (Undated) (in Portuguese)

Images about Eucalyptus small diameter roundwood used by the civil construction industry, including websites of vendors and producers, as merely technical references purposes:

Some websites of Eucalyptus small diameter roundwood producers are presented ahead just to inform about products with technical illustrations, and therefore should not be considered as commercial recommendations. (Eucalyptus products. Arko Madeiras) (Products. Arterust) (Products. Brinque Park) (Buriti Madeiras) (Eucalyptus anchors. Casa da Madeira) (Products - Duron Madeiras) (Eucalyptus anchors. Flaviense) (Madeireira Iraitaipu) (Wood structures. Madeireira Capivaras) (Anchoring. Megaps) (Products. Postes Mariani) (Roundwood constructions) (Roudwood constructions. Que barato) (Eucalyptus anchors. Serf Florestal) (Products. Tora Forte) (Eucalyptus anchoring. Madeireira Nova Era)
(Eucalyptus roundwood. Google Images)
(Eucalyptus anchors. Google Images)
(Eucalyptus anchors. Google Images - in Portuguese)

Technical Mini-Article by Celso Foelkel

Social Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Companies

The so often referred in the literature as capital/labor relations have been seen as potential source of conflicts and controversies. This type of management has always been and remains a key challenge for top managers. The ways to conciliate the interests of businesses and their workers and the communities close to where the companies operate, are things no longer typically of inner corporate management to become something much broader, involving the now-called "stakeholders from society". The issues that in the past could be managed in a way "locked, straight and in-house", today have a much wider scope and even global. Times have changed, companies also; people, even more.

Linked to this, there are two important topics often neglected by managers and by workers operating the vast majority of our pulp and paper mills. The first of them is that companies are not magical and aliens entities, who possess magic wands. After all, the companies are no more than the result of people, who are there as a team to operate and manage them. If we have persons in the company who are motivated, happy and determined, there is a huge chance that this specific company be classified as a enterprise of the "plus world", in which its way of acting is to build, grow and to have positive examples of social management. On the other hand, if the company people have fear, unhappiness, worries and adverse interpersonal relationships, it will surely be a company which will focus on aspects of the "minus world", in which the typical characteristics are lacks of confidence, motivation, growth and opportunities. As a result, the company will have to worry about surviving than in developing itself, showing inappropriate policies with regard to people management and to its relations with communities.

The second point I would like to emphasize is that pulp and paper industrial mills are vectors for changes and strongly influence the communities where they operate, regardless the company size and the kind of community. This happens because the size of these companies, even those considered medium or small, is sufficiently large to leverage many businesses at their sites of influence. Therefore, companies and people are always and intimately related, either inside or outside the pulp and paper mills.

For centuries, most of industrial companies have not had a major concern in evaluating or leveraging their social performance. They had the belief to be important generators of employment and they were paying high amounts of money as taxes: these points were seen as their important social and community contributions. Maybe, I'm being a little unfair to set things in this direct way - they were past times and past realities, and will never not come back again. At those not so distant times, inadequate management of persons or interpersonal relationships sometimes were drivers for localized impacts to society, and restricted to the surroundings of the company. The pulp and paper companies had local performance, usually in locations away from large urban areas. They had, as consequence, restricted global projection. Here again the world has changed. The industry has gone global - the pulp and paper industry was converted into a global business. At this globalized industry, we have companies displaying images of "highly admired by society" and others with the status of "rejected" (in a few cases, a well deserved position - up to the fact that "the voice of people is the voice of God").

Past times, the interested parties were few and from a local community; today they are global and numerous. The huge expansion of communications exposes companies to the world, and very rapidly. Any inappropriate action of a company no longer gets just some headlines in the local newspaper or in the local radio, but it goes to the cyber world, to television, social networks, etc. Also, the positive actions may become more visible, but as it is human beings characteristic, the bad news, gossips and scandals are the preferred news. We say that the media has such preference, but in fact are the users of the media who prefer this type of news. They are only served in their wishes by the media.

The past two decades have been the cradle for great changes in the ways of business management. Many were the drivers to cause these changes so fast, but the need to show a positive company image to the public, inside and outside the company was one of them. In the late 80's, the management focus shifted to the quality of processes and products; then switched to the management of occupational safety and environmental issues in order to minimize mills impacts on Nature. Soon, it included quality of life of workers in integrated management systems, demanding indicators of health and safety, professional and human development, technical careers, people expectations, etc. In the next step, the community's area of influence of the company gained room to be assessed and monitored for people's quality of life and their perceptions of the company performance. These themes were finally incorporated by modern managers, who understand now that good business results are achieved when the company has an efficient management of the company's and communities' people. Several academic theses and the thoughts of great management gurus in their worldwide known best-sellers have become fashion for at least the past 20 years.

Many companies proudly write in their corporate policies that their employees are their greatest assets and that are they who "cause the differences" on business performance. Even the words changed to define the company's people: first it was worker, then employee, after that cooperator, and now travels between human talent, social capital, intellectual capital and other terms that the gurus invent to sell more and better their ideas and books. Expect a little more -there are other terms in the nursery of these fancy words to define exactly the same thing: people.

More recently, in early 2000, even a new terminology and science was born so inconceivably fast, the "Corporate Social Responsibility". This sequence of words was soon linked to another very strong word of the moment - sustainability. With all these issues growing and moving as a top ranked hurricane, each company now is trying to "show good results to their stakeholders". As a consequence, they were emerged and created the environmental reports, social performance reports, sustainability reports, etc. A huge flow of information is now being required, and showing data with a lot of credibility to avoid "shooting the own foot".

The companies now have to show a clean, healthy, safe, legal, efficient, accountable, innovative and sustainable image. How to place all these data in an well-understandable way to the different types of interested parties was another huge challenge to overcome. The previously isolated financial reports soon were integrated with environmental and social data, coming to be turned into well-prepared and magnificent sustainability reports. In general, these reports tend to show the environmental, social and economic accomplishments, achievements and commitments of the corporations. Even the strategic goals in environmental and social issues came to be shared with society. Some companies even set up "forums for dialogue with stakeholders", an unusual audacity just a very few years ago - but that proved to be very useful for managers for ripening the interpersonal relationship with community's people.

Definitely, we have to admire the competence that many of these sustainability reports show - they have to meet various stakeholders' wishes such as tax authorities, bankers, customers, suppliers, regulators, politicians, educators, reporters, employees, unions, neighbors and other representative elements from society, etc. In the past, an annual financial report from any business was something intended to comply with demands from federal income tax auditors and controllers of the company's capital (shareholders and funding sources). It was printed in a few tens of copies and openly published in newspapers, to anyone to read - just a legal requirement for transparency. Therefore, there was not any aesthetic beauty and the writing and language was something just understandable by those knowledgeable in finance.

Today, things became extremely different: a sustainability report must be written at least in two languages (English and local language - some are written in Mandarin, too), they must be attractive, beautiful due to the wonderful and artistic photos; must also be written to be understood by any of the thousands or millions of readers who will download the report to their computers via the web. Also, it needs to demonstrate credibility about anything is written and the measurement data must come from reliable sources. What was once something done for the shareholders, bankers and tax authorities, today must meet the global world demands, being even available to competitors and opponents.

All this has had a meteoric rise. In the early 1990's, the society became interested in the environmental performance of companies even before the launching of ISO 14,000 series of environmental standards. The companies responded to this demand through preparing the first type of environmental reports and other types of printed reports showing environmental, social activities, safety and occupational health issues, etc. There was not at the time the dissemination of information over the web, since the Internet was in the pre-embryo age. Everything was done in small richly illustrated booklets. The 14,000 series of standards themselves did not even state guidelines on how to deal with this new and huge demand for information to be given to society. The social background emerged with the entry into force of OHSAS 18000, which were intended for occupational health and safety of people working in the companies. At that time, the parameters were simple to report, such as accidents, lost time due to accidents, and some environmental indicators as water & air emissions and solid wastes generation. Nothing difficult for those who had to control these issues in the mills, even considering that at the time had appeared in the market some fancy software tools to help the production of nice graphs, charts and tables. The famous pie charts, Pareto, trend curves, etc. astonished the readers of such reports; readers who until a few years ago were used to know the mills for their smell, noise, and the texts of unintelligible financial statements published in newspapers.

When demands increased from the social stakeholders, it became very difficult to find indicators to monitor and to inform the world about. Stakeholders comprise the inside mill workers (very eager for details, because until a few days ago their sources for reporting and information were very limited) and people in the global society. This is the great challenge to overcome: who are the interested parties and what to show to them? ... and how to do this? Enormous reports are not recommended - luckily, today the Internet allows us with interactive and personalized browsing. People, who had nothing to relate with the company, often located far away in other continents, have now concerns about our mill performances and socio-environmental issues are sometimes difficult to be explained - a new world of challenges.

The big difference between the indicators of productivity or of environmental performance with social indicators is that the latter include not only numerical data but also emotional components and perceptions. As a result, some insights may dramatically affect certain indicators, often with abrupt changes as a function of relevant facts. Also, another heavy influence on these indicators is the way by which people (inside and outside the company), and who are in search of happiness and quality of life, can be impacted by the corporate management.

How to generate indicators to evaluate material and immaterial things related to social aspects of the business and then to share them efficiently to the global society? I think one of the major problems that prevent a more rapid advance in this area is exactly the model of business management, said to be modernized, but that still carries a lot of contamination's and defects of previous styles of management. Most executives are self-declared as participatives and open-minded, focused on social welfare and the quality of life of the human resources in the company and in the region. However, at any "stomach ache" in the mills or in company's results, they forget it all and come to act with perverse social management styles. They come to practice a management model that is understood as a "bunch of evil actions" to the own internal human resources, which were previously called human capital or intellectual assets of the company. The proof of this are the thousands of examples of social damages that are reported in light of recent international financial crisis of the years 2008/2009. With that, the workers suffer, suffers the community and the public relations get in conflict. Also, the social indicators get worse.

I think a lot of these problems could best be solved through a higher level of open and frank dialogue between business managers and stakeholders from the company and from society. Learning this fact, it makes easier to share and explain some tough decisions and, thus, to relieve pressure on the managers themselves.

The difficulties to show socially relevant facts to stakeholders are so great that some companies merely provide numeric data for paid taxes, investments in training and qualification of personnel, data on safety and availability of benefits to workers, such those with food, pension, transportation, etc. When just this is done, people who read these reports definitely are not fully satisfied, because in their view, and rightly so, most of these data are not clarifying and demonstrating the social performance of the company, because:

• the paid taxes by companies are business obligations and companies are always speaking out against this issue in the media. Also, everyone in society knows that the greater the amount of paid taxes, the greater is the turnover, the result and the earnings of the company.
• investments in safety are made to meet legal labor requirements, besides taking into account the thousands of academic and technical information demonstrating the high costs for companies when safety fails in operations.
• investment in training and education inside the company are seen as requirements for workers to qualify them for best professional performance and therefore resulting in more for the business.

This type of clashes between business vision and perceptions of society offered the opportunity for new types of social indicators to be created for better acceptance and understanding by stakeholders. Virtually, a new science was born from this. There are thousands of academic theses on social reports, corporate social responsibility and corporate governance - many of them available on the web. Very simply, these theories demonstrate that the actions of a healthy and growing company impact and leverage improvements to both internal human resources, as in the communities where it operates. Often, they affect the quality of life of people very far away and even knowledgeable of the company/business existence.

Once again, we fall into the famous questions: how to measure it all? how to turn this universe of information into simple indicators? how to give credibility to them? how to disseminate them? how to give and receive feedback about them?

Some social indicators are not numbers, but depend on the perceptions of the stakeholders. Some companies have already became aware of this through the so called "organizational climate surveys". They have also noticed that "the power of the company" may affect the workers' responses, which is very common in the researches about the internal climate. People with fear of reprimands end up not being completely honest. Management often believes that all is going well according to those surveys, when in fact things are far from this. Every time we have emotions and perceptions involved, it is better to outsource the interviews to prevent undesirable people inhibitions during data collecting.

I have noticed a trend to the creation of social indicators based on multi criteria and they are very interesting. Thus, they help company managers to understand the company's participation as a vector for social development and improved quality of life for people in its area of influence. There are several institutes, some business leaders have even helped to set up that are contributing for the generation of very credible social indicators. Among them, we may mention, in Brazil, the Ethos Institute and iBase - Brazilian Institute of Social and Economic Analyses (a creation from the renowned sociologist Betinho - Mr. Herbert de Souza). In general, several of these indicators are the same used by the governments and the United Nations bodies to measure social progress in countries, regions and municipalities, as the case of HDI - Human Development Index and SDI - Social Development Index. They seek to identify and select reliable metrics for important issues of quality of life, such as education, longevity of people, income and wages, health, skills and education, personal development, comfort, sanitation, infrastructure, available services to persons, etc.

The companies have divided their social indicators in three basic types:

• Internal social indicators: those that the company uses to assess its social performance in relation to its direct workers and contractors. Examples include: education and training, occupational safety and health, food, transportation, average salary, benefits, pension plans, etc. More recently, companies have included some selected items of their organizational climate surveys and also the actions of volunteering programs developed with their human resources.
• External social indicators: the indicators that are linked to actions with community and results of external programs maintained by the company in terms of: the practice of citizenship, social inclusion, environmental education, achieved awards, inclusion on lists of the most admired companies or the best companies to work for in the region, etc.
• Social indicators resulting from the company's presence in the region: here are included: the paid taxes, supports in infrastructure and sanitation's, educational programs, technological development activities, investment in public services through partnerships with public organizations, etc.

There are already well-established and proposed metrics to measure almost all of these indicators. Some were released by the mentioned institutes and others by the standards of corporate social responsibility to indicate the items that must be addressed by the companies. It is very important to have a standardized methodology to allow comparisons to understand the evolution of the company itself and for making comparisons among different companies (benchmarking corporate social indicators).

Some social indicators that they are commonly included in corporate social reports are:

• participative management: dialogue, respect for individual people, workers participation on internal forums of debates, etc.;
• dialogue and relationship with the external community;
• relationships with employees and contractors;
• relationships with unions;
• absence of inadequate and non-decent job types: child labor, forced labor and/or similar to slave labor, etc.;
• employee profile: diversity in age, educational level, gender, race, etc.;
• compliance with relevant legislation: social, labor, tax, environmental, etc.;
• profile of wages with respect to the region or sector;
• care with quality of life and work conditions of employees and contractors: safety, organizational health, daycare for children, gymnastics academies, feeding at company, transportation to work, workplace quality, etc.;
• company commitment in the face of layoffs: percentage of layoffs, support to the fired worker, psychological preparation, etc.;
• preparation for people retirement: psychological preparation, complementary pension, etc.;
• investments in items of labor meaning in relation to total payroll: workers' training and education, safety operations, etc.;
• responsibility towards future generations and sustainability: issues related to environmental impacts, environmental management system, forest certification, environmental education, culture and regional traditionalism, etc.;
• evidence of commitments to regional social sustainability: generation of jobs, local purchases, partnerships with local suppliers and rural farmers, etc.;
• economic value added to the local economy, identifying the total amount: how much, what and for whom the resources have been distributed;
• "social investments" in percentage of company's sales or operating income: paid taxes , investments in social projects and actions oriented to citizenship (fighting hunger, health and public education, etc.);
• selected items from institutional image survey (external perceptions);
• selected items from organizational climate survey (internal perceptions);
• etc., etc.

Virtually, most of these data are presented in the social balance sheets making part of corporate sustainability reports. However, it should be very clear that the indicators are not indexes to be just displaced to society and nothing else. In their inner conception, social reports are not merely a presentation of accounts to stakeholders. They are valuable management tools with the aim of helping the company to successfully perform the social part of its mission. They show trends, demonstrate and promote strategies and reinforce the management commitments.

Many of these indicators have the objective to present how the company fulfills its social function, with actions, strategies and investments. Others, show stakeholders perceptions, such as insights from the organizational climate surveys, or trademark or image public strengths. However, I miss an indicator that could be both internal and external, and that is not yet part of the current listing of social indicators, neither demanded by specialized institutes nor by the great gurus of corporate social responsibility. I refer to an index for measuring people happiness. When we succeed to have the courage to measure and monitor this; when we manage to show why people are more or less happier inside and outside the fences of the company, depending on the management performance; when we feel our importance to bring in and to disseminate happiness and satisfaction in people who are part of our team and relationships; we will have achieved perhaps the ultimate of all indicators of management and social performance. After all, happiness is the ultimate of the human beings goals. Does an indicator for happiness would be so hard to be created? Or to be practiced?

References of literature and suggestions for reading:

IDH - Indice de Desenvolvimento Humano. (HDI - Human Development Index). Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in English)

Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano.
(Human Development Atlas). PNUD Brasil. UNDP - United Nations Development Program. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Indicadores Ethos de responsabilidade social empresarial. (Ethos Institute indicators for corporate social responsibility). Ethos Institute. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (Ethos Institute indicators - in Portuguese)
(Documents about Ethos indicators - in Portuguese)
(Indicators for the pulp and paper sector - in Portuguese)

Responsabilidade social empresarial: o que o consumidor consciente espera das empresas. (Corporate social responsibility: what consumers expect from conscious companies). Akatu Institute for Conscious Consumption. Accessed on 15.12.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Balanco social iBase. (iBase social balance). Ibase - Brazilian Institute of Social and Economic Analyses. 02 pp. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Programa Brasileiro de Certificacao em Responsabilidade Social. (Brazilian Program on Social Responsibility Certification). INMETRO - National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

A norma ABNT/NBR 16001: 2004. (The ABNT/NBR 16001: 2004 standard). INMETRO - National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

ISO 26000. Norma internacional de responsabilidade social. (ISO 26000. International standard for social responsibility). Ethos Institute. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

ISO 26000. Social Responsibility. ISO - International Organization for Standardization. Accessed on 15.12.2010:
(in English)

Responsabilidade social SA 8000. (SA 8000. Social responsibility). Available at Suzano Papel e Celulose website. Accessed on 15.12.2010:
(in Portuguese)
(SA 8000 guidebook - in Portuguese)

NBR 18001:2010 - os requisitos para um sistema de gestao de saude e seguranca ocupacional. (NBR 18001:2010 - the requirements for a management system on occupational health and safety). H.R. Prado Filho. Qualidade Online. Accessed on 15.12.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Praticas e perspectivas da responsabilidade social empresarial no Brasil – 2008. (Practices and perspectives of corporate social responsibility in Brazil - 2008). Akatu Institute for Conscious Consumption. Accessed on 15.12.2010:
(in Portuguese)

Responsabilidade socioambiental das empresas do setor de celulose e papel. (Socio-environmental responsibility of the Brazilian pulp and paper companies). BRACELPA - Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (2006 Report - 09 pp - in Portuguese) (2005 Report - 08 pp - in Portuguese)

IDH - Indice de Desenvolvimento Humano. Crescimento do IDH em municipios com atividade florestal significativa. (HDI- Human Development Index. HDI growth in municipalities with significant plantation forestry activity). In: "Florestas plantadas: um caminho para o desenvolvimento sustentavel. (Planted forests: a road to the sustainable development). p. 17. AMS - Minas Gerais Association of Silviculture. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Fortune world's most admired companies. Fortune magazine. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in English)

Melhores empresas para voce trabalhar. (Best companies you should work for). Voce S.A. Magazine - Exame. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Humanizando nossas empresas. (Humanizing our companies). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. 04 pp. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Vamos colocar felicidade no nosso trabalho? (Let's place happiness in our work?). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. 03 pp. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Empresas e pessoas mais felizes. (Happier companies and happier people). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. 04 pp. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Entendendo o que esta por tras na logica do comportamento dos executivos do setor. (Understanding what is behind the logic of behavior of the forest sector executives). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. 05 pp. Accessed on 15.12.2010: (in Portuguese)

Evidenciacao do balanco social: um estudo de caso da Suzano Papel e Celulose no periodo compreendido entre 2005 a 2009. (Disclosure of the social balance: a case study of Suzano Papel e Celulose for the period from 2005 to 2009). G.C. Marcolino; G.G. Catallino; L.S. Itelvino; C. Ramacciotti; M.A. Bertachini. International Congress on Socio-Environmental Responsibility. 15 pp. (2010) (in Portuguese)

Monitoramento de custos e do passivo socio-ambiental: uma proposta de arquitetura de dados de sustentabilidade. (Monitoring costs and socio-environmental liability: a proposed architecture of sustainability data).T. Tachizawa. ABCustos Volume 91. 24 pp. (2010) (in Portuguese)

A responsabilidade social do setor de papel e celulose no Brasil. (The social responsibility of the Brazilian pulp and paper sector). H.P. Silva; C.L. Silva. II Sustainability Seminar. FAE University Center. 16 pp. (2007) (in Portuguese)

A certificacao florestal como um instrumento de responsabilidade social empresarial. (Forest certification as a tool of corporate social responsibility). R. Borsato; A.B.C. Faria. II Sustainability Seminar. FAE University Center. 11 pp. (2007) (in Portuguese)

A gestao estrategica da qualidade de vida no trabalho. (Strategic management of life quality at workplace). A.Z.F.C. Nishimura; E.E. Spers; A.C. Giuliani. II Sustainability Seminar. FAE University Center. 11 pp. (2007) (in Portuguese)

Responsabilidade social empresarial. (Corporate social responsibility). CNI - National Industry Confederation. 64 pp. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Das arvores aos lares. A geracao de renda, emprego, divisas e impostos da cadeia produtiva da Aracruz Celulose. (From trees to homes. Generating income, jobs, exports, and taxes in Aracruz Celulose supply chain). FGV - Getulio Vargas Foundation. 52 pp. (2006) (in Portuguese)

From trees to homes. Generating income, jobs, exports, and taxes in Aracruz Celulose supply chain. FGV - Getulio Vargas Foundation. 52 pp. (2006) (in English)

Analise do balanco social das empresas de papel e celulose. (Social balance analysis for the pulp and paper companies). P.Y.A. Morimoto; M.J.C.M. Zen. XLIV SOBER Congress - Brazilian Society of Rural Economics and Sociology. 13 pp. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Investimento socialmente responsavel. (Socially responsible investment). R.S. Gonzales. APIMEC/CORECONSP. PowerPoint presentation: 37 slides. (2006) (in Portuguese)

Responsabilidade social na Veracel Celulose. (Social responsability at Veracel Celulose). Social Observatory Institute. 146 pp. (2005)
(in Portuguese)

Indicadores para diagnostico, monitoramento e avaliacao de programas sociais no Brasil. (Indicators for diagnosis, monitoring and evaluation of social programs in Brazil). P.M. Jaccuzzi. Revista do Servico Publico 56(2): 137-160. (2005) (in Portuguese)

Balanco social: uma analise das empresas do estado do Espirito Santo. (Social balance: an analysis of companies from the state of Espirito Santo). M.A. Pires. Course Completion Monograph. Federal Unversity of Espirito Santo. 92 pp. (2002) (in Portuguese)

Monitoramento de florestas plantadas no Brasil: indicadores sociais e economicos. (Monitoring of planted forests in Brazil: socio-economic indicators). L.C.E Rodriguez. IPEF Technical Series 12(31): 22-32. (1998) (in Portuguese)

Percepcao pelo publico interno acerca dos sistemas de gestao ISO 9002 e ISO 14001 na Riocell. (Perception by the internal public/stakeholders about the ISO 9002 and ISO 14001 management systems in Riocell). C. Zimmer; C.C. Bitencourt; C. Foelkel. 30th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. 17 pp. (1997)
(in Portuguese)

Social Balance Reports presented by some pulp and paper companies (and for some of their socio-environmental institutes):
Most of them are in Portuguese or Spanish and English:


Eco Futuro Institute:


Irani: e

Kimberly Clark Brasil:


Orsa group:



Recent Sustainability Reports published by some pulp and paper companies showing also their social accomplishments:
Most of them are in Portuguese or Spanish and English:

Bahia Specialty Cellulose:


CMPC Chile group:




Orsa group:

Portucel Soporcel group:


Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter
are technical information texts written and made available free of charge to all people involved with the forestry and utilization of the Eucalyptus.
Technical coordination - Celso Foelkel
Webmaster / editing - Alessandra Foelkel
Celsius Degree: Phone (+55-51) 3338-4809
Copyright © 2009-2012

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