Good morning to all of you, dear friends of the Eucalyptus,
Dear friends, here we are again,
now with the issue number 31 of our Eucalyptus
Newsletter. We hope that this edition may fulfill your
expectations and interests, allowing that readers may gain additional
knowledge and understanding about the Eucalyptus planted forests and
about the products and services they provide to the benefit of our society.
This target we try to fulfill bringing a selection of themes combining
history, science, technology, innovation, emotion and culture.
this newsletter edition, the traditional section, "The
Friends of the Eucalyptus" has a very difficult mission: to bring to
all who knew the forest engineer M.Sc. Jorge Vieira Gonzaga in life,
some of his accomplishments in his short, but productive career,
in the Brazilian forest-based sector. Jorge was a remarkable person,
bright and dedicated. His modesty and his generous humility were
his main virtues, all times having his hands extended to help someone
whether in the workplace or everywhere. An example of a person to
be known also by those who never had the pleasure of meeting him
personally. I was and always will be a great admirer of Jorge's talent
- to tell the truth, we always worked together throughout his career,
whether in universities (as my student, supervised graduate and trainee)
at Riocell (as co-worker) and at several professional associations,
serving as institutional representative partners. The least the Brazilian
forest sector should do to Jorge is trying to preserve his achievements
and his professional history - we will try to do it in a simple but
very sincere way in this edition of Eucalyptus Newsletter. In this edition, we are continuing with the prestigious section "The
World of the Eucalyptus", bringing news about the "state
of Tocantins - Brazil". This is the new frontier of the Brazilian
forestry, a state in full drive to become attractive to growers of
forest plantations and enterprises that need the produced wood. The
enthusiasm is huge and things are happening very fast over there. The
choice for development was Eucalyptus, as it should be, due to the
recent success of the neighboring states Maranhao, Para, Bahia and
Piaui with this tree genus. In the section "Curiosities
and Oddities about the Eucalyptus",
the agronomist M.Sc. Ester Foelkel tells you, by far, something very
interesting and valuable to be known: "Small
diameter roundwood obtained from the Eucalyptus and its utilization
in the construction
industry". The traditional sections "Online
Technical References" and "Euca-Links" are
definitely tied to the state of Tocantins, offering literature and
interesting websites from this specific state of Brazil to be visited
by anyone who wants to know more about this new "forestry
In the section "References
about Courses and Events",
we offer access to materials of recent events and of great relevance,
even where there is an excellent event with lectures and videos about
the state of Tocantins.
part of our purposes, this edition attempts to make another historical
report about the Brazilian pulp and paper sector.
We are bringing to you some interesting information about "The
First Annual Congress of ABTCP - Brazilian Technical Association of
Pulp and Paper", which occurred in 1968. The three awarded papers,
in that year of great hope and faith at the Brazilian forest sector,
are available for you to understand why the forest sector and industry
have grown so much and with high quality in Brazil. It was certainly
due to science, research, technology but also to the talent and motivation
of people. Not to forget the ever present support from public, private
and institutional organizations.
mini-article continues the series of texts on performance indicators
for our pulp and paper mills and forests, an initiative of ABTCP
- Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper in its efforts
to strengthen and enhance the competitiveness of Brazilian companies.
This time we are writing on "Social
Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Companies".
this edition, you are also to find a link to the Chapter number
21 of the Eucalyptus Online Book, in the Portuguese language, and
titled: "Residuos Solidos Industriais
do Processo de Fabricacao de Celulose e Papel de Eucalipto. Parte
04: Casca Suja". (Industrial
Solid Wastes Generated in the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper
Manufacturing Processes. Part 04: Dirt Bark).
We hope this newsletter issue may be
very useful to all of you, since the thematic
selection was made in a way to bring interesting
and diversified topics about the Eucalyptus. We hope and believe they may be valuable to you
who honor us with your reading.
In case you are not registered yet to receive free-of-charge the Eucalyptus
Newsletter and the chapters of the Eucalyptus
Online Book, I suggest you to do it through the
following link: Click
here for registration.
We have several non-financial supporting partners to the
Eucalyptus Online Book & Newsletter: TAPPI, IPEF, SIF, CeluloseOnline,
RIADICYP, TECNICELPA, ATCP Chile, Appita, TAPPSA, SBS, ANAVE, AGEFLOR,
EMBRAPA FLORESTAS, GIT - Eucalyptologics, Forestal Web, Painel
Florestal, INTA Concordia - Novedades Forestales, Papermakers'
Wiki, Åbo Akademi - Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose Technology
and Blog do Papeleiro. They are helping to disseminate our efforts
in favor of the Eucalyptus in countries such as: Brazil, USA, Canada,
Chile, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay,
Finland and South Africa. However, thanks to the world wide web,
in reality, they are helping to promote our project to the entire
world. Thanks very much to our partners for believing in what we
are doing to the Eucalyptus.
Thanks to all of you dear readers for your support and
constant presence visiting our websites. Our digital information
services about the Eucalyptus are currently being sent to an extensive "mailing
list" through our partner ABTCP - Brazilian Pulp and Paper
Technical Association, a number that today is equivalent to several
thousands of registered addresses. This happens in addition to
the accesses made directly to the websites www.abtcp.org.br; www.eucalyptus.com.br and www.celso-foelkel.com.br,
or in other cases, due to the fact that our newsletters and book
chapters are easily found by search engines in the web. Our goal
from now is very clear: to perform in a way with the Eucalyptus
Online Book & Eucalyptus
Newsletter that they will be always on the first
page, when any single person in the world, using a search engine
like Google, Yahoo or Bing, make a web search using the word Eucalyptus.
This service aims to better inform stakeholders and interested
parties about the Eucalyptus, with relevant information and a lot
of credibility, too. I beg your help to publicize and to inform
about our project to your friends, in case you feel these publications
may be helpful to them. Please, accept my personal thanks, and
also the gratitude from Celsius
Degree, ABTCP, International
Paper do Brasil and
from the supporting partners.
Our best wishes and a friendly hug to all of you,
and please enjoy your reading. We all hope you may like what we have
prepared to you this time.
Online Book - Chapter 21 (in Portuguese)
downloading the chapter (in Adobe PDF - 11.4 MB) just click below
over the name of the chapter. Another option, perhaps
even easier, is to use the right button of your mouse and select the "Save
target as..." command to save the chapter in one of your computer
archives. In case you do not have the Adobe Reader installed in your
computer, please visit http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos_eng.html and
find the instructions how to get it.
Since it is a heavy file, please, be patient to allow the full downloading.
- Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper
always had the greatest of my concerns and attention to technical conferences
in the forest-based sector. At them, we find
friends and technical peers and we can update our technical skills and
grab interesting news. I have participated in hundreds of them, maybe
more than 500 throughout my career. They open up windows of opportunities
and increase our technological knowledge, enabling us to play better
in our professional career. In 1968, I started as a member of ABTCP -
Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. The association was
in its childhood, it was officially founded in early 1967. Exactly at
that time, I had begun as trainee in the pulp and paper laboratory of
ESALQ - Superior College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz",
University of Sao Paulo. My adviser was my great friend Dr. Luiz Ernesto
George Barrichelo. Already in 1968, I attended some events organized
by ABCP, as it was called at the origin. It was a pride for me, an agricultural
engineering student, who had the aim to become specialized in forestry,
meeting outstanding experts in the Brazilian pulp and paper sector. I
was able to meet great teachers and educators, battling for a better
Brazilian pulp and paper industry. I'll mention some friends I met in
the early ABCP days, but there are other dozens of great pioneers of
Brazilian pulp and paper sector, who have taught me a lot and who helped
to build and to pave the road of success to the pulp and paper industry
in Brazil: Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo, Marcello Pilar, Alberto Fernandez
y Sagarra, Alfredo Leon, Benjamin Solitrenick, Antanas Stonis, Roberto
Leonardos, Gunnar Krogh, Beatriz Vera Pozzi Redko, Rosely Maria Viegas
Assumpcao, Paul Phillip, Dirceu Ciaramello, Clayrton Sanches, Ernst Rosenfeld,
John Warren, Ney Meirelles, Nei Monteiro da Silva, Francisco Jose de
Almeida Neto, Ovidio Sallada, Sarkis Aprahamian, Americo Pereira da Silva,
Persio Souza Santos, Aldo Sani, Milton Pilao, Antonio Waldomiro Petrik,
Ceslavas Zvinakevicius, Pieter Prange, Maury Fontes Athayde, etc. Closed
to them, the new generation just arriving to the business in Brazil of
the early 70's: myself, Maria Luiza Ottero de Almeida, Jose Mangolini
Neves, Anisio Azzini, Carlos Augusto Lira Aguiar, Alberto Ferreira Lima,
Silavia Bergmann, Silvia Bugajer, Franco Petrocco, Guido Schreiber, Jorge
de Macedo Maximo, Valentim Suchek, and many more. A rich and creative
biodiversity - the proof is exactly what has happened to this sector
At the 60's, several vigorous trees were planted to sustain the success
of the forestry industry in Brazil. In 1960, the first forest engineering
course was created in Vicosa (UREMG today UFV) and just after in Curitiba
(UFPR). Soon after, in 1967, ABCP/ABTCP was founded; and in 1968, the
same happened as regard to IPEF (Institute of Forest Researches and Studies).
The acceleration engine was given by Law 5106/1966, which established
the Tax Incentives for Reforestation, which for over 20 years energized
the activity of planting Eucalyptus and Pinus forests in Brazil. Happiness
to those, who like me, were able to live and participate in all this.
In 1967 and 1968, the newly created ABCP organized some events at the
time called Seminars: Paper and Cardboard, Paper Conversion, etc. I've
been attending some of them, always guided by my teacher Dr. Luiz Ernesto
Barrichelo. Late 1968, the big moment: ABCP held its First Annual Convention,
also called the "Paper Week" in Hotel Danubio at the city of
Sao Paulo, from 26 to 29 of November. A huge success, with excellent
technical papers (some of them awarded), a lot of technical integration
between participants. Thereafter, without any fail, ABTCP performs its
annual congress, the name that came to appropriately replace the name
convention. In 2010, ABTCP celebrated its 43rd Annual Congress, always
associated with a technical exhibition, from its origins in the late
60's. I have no doubts of the enormous importance of this congress/exhibition
to the Brazilian pulp and paper industry. So my tribute to the first
one of them. This tribute will occur in two ways: recalling this historical
fact and bringing to you the opportunity to read the three awarded papers.
After that, the awards were hundreds, even I was fortunate and honored
to receive some. But undoubtedly, the pioneers deserve our greatest admiration
and respect. At that time, the prize was not a given money amount, but
it was a trip to Buenos Aires to present the awarded paper at the technical
congress of ATIPCA - Technical Association of the Argentinean Pulp and
Paper Industry, which had a few more years than the Brazilian association.
Please, know more about the first of the ABTCP Congresses and download
the first three of the awarded papers just ahead:
As you may have noticed - three outstanding papers and two of them on
forestry aspects - one with Eucalyptus and the other one with Pinus. Again, scores on the fly by the ABTCP pioneers - these two types of forest
plantations have consolidated the success of our pulp and paper industry.
We started very well and continue doing a good job over these four decades.
Congratulations ABTCP and technical people of the Brazilian pulp and
In this section of this Eucalyptus Newsletter
edition, I feel very pleased to introduce to you our this time honored
of the Eucalyptus, but I do this with sorrow, respect and admiration.
This is because we are honoring someone who have departed from our environment,
leaving a lot of nostalgia in all of his friends, family and admirers
of his professional work and his personal quality as human being. He
was a dear friend of mine, maybe more than that, because I always set
him as my almost-brother. He was my former student (ESALQ and UFV), former
trainee (ESALQ), ex-advised graduate student (UFV) and former co-worker
(Riocell). He made a remarkable work along his life, combining expertise,
determination, humanism, leadership and human relations. We have published
together some dozens of scientific and technical papers/reports, conducted
with highly qualified people in our R&D working teams. We have done
all this with great enthusiasm and motivation. We had shared several
institutional representation's in major trade and research associations,
such as SIF - Society of Forest Researches; IPEF - Institute of Forest
Researches and Studies; SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture; AGEFLOR
- Rio Grande do Sul Association of Forestry; ABECEL - Brazilian Association
of Market Pulp Exporters, among others. He was a very much admired and
respected person in the Brazilian forest sector, especially in the area
of Eucalyptus planted forests. In addition, the forest
engineer Jorge Vieira Gonzaga was a lot more than a competent and responsible technician.
He had the gift of a generous humility, playing his catalytic role without
seeking glory for himself alone, but to the team he had the leadership.
He was the first managerial-level executive who I was able to see hiring
a forest expert to be his subordinate in the line of command, with a
salary greater than his - and he was extremely happy with this fact,
cooperating as few people I know, to the success of the Y-career at Riocell.
Things very rare to be seen in our companies and executives. I have,
due to all these facts, a huge admiration for the competence and the
achievements of this great friend of Eucalyptus, both at forestry and
wood production levels oriented to the market pulp industry in Brazil.
Therefore, we are very honored to be providing to Jorge, together with
much certainty with the thousands of friends that Jorge left, the award
of "Friend of the Eucalyptus" to him. Surely, the Eucalyptus will also be happy with this fact, I'm quite sure about. I am also happy
to show his achievements and career and to share some of his articles
published during his short but productive professional life.
I want to thank Jorge's son, Mr. Rafael Dias Gonzaga for helping me with
this biography, photos and important data about Jorge "Lampiao" Gonzaga,
as he was known by his friends in the forest-based sector - the nickname
he earned in college days and that accompanied him throughout the rest
of his life. It is quite possible that he is being called as such in
paradise, a place he deserves as few.
Vieira Gonzaga was born on May 21st, 1953, in the
city of Pereira Barreto in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Jorge was
the eldest of a
total of 10 children. His parents, Joao Ferreira Gonzaga and Brazilina
Vieira Gonzaga, were humble people who had the responsibility to operate
a small farm close to the city of Jales/SP. Jorge left home at age 12
to attend the elementary and high schools, having graduated in these
school levels in 1972. In 1973, he moved to Sao Paulo capital, to prepare
himself for the examinations with the aim of studying agronomy at USP
- University of Sao Paulo. After two years of efforts, in 1975, Jorge
has succeeded in the entrance examination for USP, and began attending
his new career option: the course of Forest Engineering. It was there
that I first met him, since he was my student in the freshman year of
university in a course that I was in charge along with Professor Dr.
Luiz Ernesto George Barrichelo. This course was called "Introduction
to Forestry". Three students at that time caught my attention for
the competence and initiative they had: Jorge Gonzaga, Vail Manfredi
and Cristina de Jesus Caldeira, so I invited them to be volunteering
trainees at SQCP - Section of Chemistry, Pulp and Paper, a well-equipped
laboratory sector at ESALQ, keeping them in this position working and
researching with me until my departure from USP, in 1976. They were intelligent,
dedicated, hardworking and interested students, so even after I left
USP, I continued investing in gaining them for the Brazilian pulp and
paper sector - something I have succeeded with Jorge and Vail. Unfortunately,
I lost contact with Cristina Caldeira.
On January 1979, Jorge graduated as forest engineer at USP - ESALQ -
Superior College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" (http://www.esalq.usp.br/acom/livroesalq.pdf
- class of 1978). Immediately, I invited him to be my graduate student
(advised by me) in the course we had created in 1977 at UFV - Federal
University of Vicosa. It was a course in pulp and paper technology, one
of the most complete that existed in Brazil at the time, and with support
from CENIBRA and Riocell (two market pulp companies). Jorge had a scholarship
from Riocell during his time as a Master student in Vicosa, from March
1979 until the completion of the academic credits in December 1980. However,
his thesis was defended only in 1983, because he had to develop a part
of the research in the laboratories of Riocell, where he began working
as assistant engineer at the Department of Industrial Research and Development.
There, he had as friend and boss Mr. Carlos Alberto Busnardo, another
Master of Science graduated who had also studied in our pulp and paper
course at UFV. The thesis had as subject, as it should be, the "Quality
of the woods and kraft pulps obtained from thirteen species of Eucalyptus".
In 1983, after completing all course requirements, Jorge obtained his
M.Sc. degree in forest science with expertise in wood technology and
pulp/paper by the UFV - Federal University of Vicosa.
Later in Riocell, he was promoted to be head of the Department of Forestry
Research and Development, followed by other managerial positions, as
Technical Manager; Forest Planning and Control Manager, etc. Finally,
he became a member of the Riocell Forestry Managerial Team, a managerial
committee formed by four managers, responsible for an annual budget of
US$ 20 million, management of 72.000 hectares of planted forests and
supply of 1.75 million cubic meters of wood in the format of wood chips.
He had 18 years of hardwork and successful performance as employee at
At Riocell, his main tasks were:
- Technology assessment of wood for pulp, involving all Eucalyptus species
used in the company, seeking to associate silvicultural and technological
data for then;
- Technology assessment of the black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) wood for
pulping. This forest species was also used by Riocell in the manufacture
of paper and dissolving grade pulps;
- Coordinating the preparation of a "Master Plan for Forestry Research",
working on setting up the Department of Forestry Research and Development
- Coordinating the preparation of a sound and wide technical project
and seeking funding from the FINEP - Financing Bank for Studies and Projects.
These funds were oriented for the construction and implementation of
the Forestry Technology Center (Laboratories of Seeds, Tissue Culture,
Soils and Plant Nutrition and Greenhouses). Following project approval,
Jorge was responsible for the starting up and maintenance of the project.
- Program Management deployment of the genetic basis in the company,
promoting trips to Australia and other genome centers for collecting
Eucalyptus genetic material;
- Coordinating the project for implementation of a modern forest nursery,
suspended type, with production capacity of 15 million seedlings per
- Project management for the recovery of degraded areas due to erosion
and land removal for road construction;
- Management of the Riocell forestry communication program and environmental
education at 23 municipalities where the company had operations;
- Coordination of the process for implementation and maintenance of ISO
14.001 standard in forestry, managing agreements with SEBRAE to train
forest service sub-contractors teams;
- Management of a research agreement with the Federal University of Rio
Grande do Sul, aimed for developing a program of research on agroforestry
and silvopasturing of cattle and sheep;
- Representative of Riocell for several associations: SIF - Society of
Forest Researches; IPEF - Institute of Forest Researches and Studies;
SBS - Brazilian Society of Silviculture; AGEFLOR - Rio Grande do Sul
Association of Forestry. Jorge was also SIF's president in the term 96/97.
- Participation in numerous seminars and congresses in the areas of forestry
and pulp and paper, both at national and international levels;
-Publication of about 25 technical papers, most available in this edition
of Eucalyptus Newsletter for downloading;
- Professor and academic advisor in the area of Wood Products and Pulp/Paper
Technology at the State High School "Gomes Jardim " (1981-1984)
- Guaiba-RS; and in Technology of Forest Products at UFSM - Federal University
of Santa Maria - RS (1990-1994);
- Technical visits to several Brazilian companies and companies/forestry
institutions in countries such as South Africa, Indonesia, Spain, Portugal,
France, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Canada, United States, Mexico, Argentina
On March 1998, Jorge resigned from his job at Riocell and formed a consulting
firm in forestry, "J.V. Gonzaga" and provided services to the
- Souza Cruz S.A. - as technical responsible and top managerial advisor
on technical and economic issues for the forest sites in the Brazilian
states of RS, SC and PR;
- AES Florestal – management advisor in the technical, commercial
and economic forest unit in Triunfo - RS;
- Seta. S.A. Black Wattle Tannin Extraction - carrying out of consulting
work in the area of Forest Certification - FSC;
- Reflorestadores Unidos S.A. - technical advising on forest management
and auditing of the company in compliance to the FSC criteria and principles
for Forest Certification;
- Judicial Public Power - forestry expertise in the condition of third
party expert to support data for judgement.
On March 2000, he graduated from UFRGS - Federal University of Rio Grande
do Sul in Business Economics, a latu-sensu graduate course.
Along a significant span of his life, Jorge has also provided various
social and volunteer work to the community of Guaiba, such as vocational
guidance, education and religious issues. On October 2001, he was invited
to join ACIGUA - Commercial and Industrial Association of Guaiba - RS,
where he had the position of Director of Strategic Affairs.
On October 2002, he founded another company - RS Servicos Florestais
- in partnership with 4 other shareholders.
The basis of his life was based on a tripod: "Work, Family and Religion".
His most striking features were the humility and the willingness to help
other people, things he did in the family, workplace and community. It
should be pointed out his zeal with his younger brothers/sisters, helping
not only to graduate almost all in higher education, but also his nephews
and other relatives. Also, he always had his hands extended to offer
help to whoever needing. A son of God, who must surely be close to Him
for his goodness to the people whom devoted friendship to.
Jorge Vieira Gonzaga, our friend "Lampiao", died very early
on his life, in the afternoon of January 24th, 2003, at 49 years of age,
from a heart attack. He left his wife Cleuza and 3 sons: Rafael - 20,
Carina - 17 and Luan - 12.
Jorge was always a devoted father and had always a great love for his
children. Rafael the eldest, has obtained a degree in Economics at UFRGS
- Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, in 2005, two years after Jorge's
death. Rafael demonstrated in his monograph of course completion the
importance of his father, which resulted in a paper on plantation forestry
activities as an alternative income to small farmers in the state of
Rio Grande do Sul. At our request, and agreement from the author, this
literature and its presentation in PowerPoint, are presented together
with articles written by Jorge and coworkers, enriching this newsletter
Know more about the scientific and technical production from Jorge Vieira
Gonzaga and Rafael Dias Gonzaga, navigating the links below:
Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus
em cinco espacamentos em relacao ao Eucalyptus grandis e E.
saligna. (Quality of kraft-anthraquinone pulp from Eucalyptus dunnii planted in
five spacings in relation to Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna). G.W.
Ferreira; M.C.M. Silva; J.V. Gonzaga; C.E.B. Foelkel; T.F.Assis; E. Ratnieks.
30th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp
and Paper. 15 pp. (1997) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/ABTCP/1997.%20E.dunnii%20giovanni.pdf (in Portuguese)
Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus
em cinco espacamentos em relacao ao Eucalyptus grandis e E.
saligna. (Quality of kraft-anthraquinone pulp from Eucalyptus
dunnii planted in
five spacings in relation to Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna). G.W.
Ferreira. Adviser: J.V. Gonzaga. Master Dissertation. UFSM - Federal
University of Santa Maria. 147 pp (1996) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/ufsm/Giovanni%20Willer%20Ferreira.pdf (in
Sazonalidade no abate da madeira de Eucalyptus: efeitos
sobre a polpacao kraft e formacao do pitch. (Seasonality in harvesting Eucalyptus: effects
on kraft pulping and pitch formation). E. Ratnieks; C.A. Busnardo; J.V.
Gonzaga. 22nd ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association
of Pulp and Paper. p. 93-118. (1989) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/
01_sazonalidade%20abate%20madeira.pdf (in Portuguese)
busca da qualidade ideal da madeira do eucalipto para producao de
celulose. IV. Altura ideal de amostragem para avaliacao da densidade
media para arvores de Eucalyptus grandis. (Searching the ideal wood quality
in Eucalyptus for pulp production. IV. Recommended wood sampling tree
hight for evaluation of the average wood basic density). C.A. Busnardo;
J.V. Gonzaga; C.E.B. Foelkel; S. Menochelli. 20th ABTCP Annual Congress
- Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper. p. 17-33. (1987) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/03_Altura%20amostragem%20e.grandis.pdf (in
da viabilidade tecnica do interplantio de florestas de Eucalyptus de segunda rotacao. (Study the technical feasibility of interplanting
second rotation Eucalyptus forests). C.A.G. Finger; J.V. Gonzaga; A.J.P.
Freitas. Proceedings of the Technical Meeting on Eucalyptus Second Rotation
Management - Coppicing). IPEF Technical Series 4(11): 14-19. (1987) http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/stecnica/nr11/cap02.pdf(in
SUMMARY: Estudo da variacao genetica em progenies de Eucalyptus
grandis para as caracteristicas de crescimento, densidade basica
da madeira e resistencia a podridao branca do cerne. (Study of genetic variation in
Eucalyptus grandis progenies for growth traits, wood basic density and
resistance of heartwood to white rot decay). M. Onuki; J.V. Gonzaga;
A.J.P. Freitas; L.R.D. Rech. 5th Brazilian Forest Congress. 01 pp. (1986) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/
Estudo comparativo das caracteristicas silviculturais e da qualidade
da madeira de nove procedencias de Eucalyptus tereticornis introduzidas
na regiao de Guaiba-RS. (Comparative studies on silvicultural and wood
quality parameters for nine Eucalyptus tereticornis provenances introduced
in the region of Guaiba-RS). J.V. Gonzaga; M.Onuki; I.F.O. Gomes. 5th
Brazilian Forest Congress. 71 pp. (1986) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/04B_E.tereticornis_Guaiba.pdf (in
da qualidade da madeira e da celulose kraft produzida a partir de
arvores de Acacia mearnsii sadias e atacadas por gomose. (Wood and kraft pulp quality characterization for healthy and attacked
by gomosis Acacia mearnsii wood). C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; C.A. Sansigolo.
5th Brazilian Forest Congress. 46 pp. (1986) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/
visando a substituicao alternativa do benzeno nos procedimentos de
extracao para a obtencao de material livre de extrativos. (Studies
aiming the alternative replacement of benzene in the extraction of wood
for the preparation of extractive-free wood for chemical analyses). C.A.
Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; C. Dias. 17th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian
Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 359-384. (1984) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/
para fins energeticos da biomassa florestal de povoamentos de Eucalyptus
saligna de primeira e segunda rotacao. (Quantifying for
energy purposes of the generated biomass at first and second rotation
Eucalyptus forest stands). C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; E.P. Benites;
I. Borssatto. 17th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association
of Pulp and Paper 1: 267-295. (1984) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/
Qualidade da madeira e da celulose kraft branqueada de treze especies
de Eucalyptus.(Quality of the woods and bleached kraft pulps obtained
from thirteen species of Eucalyptus). J.V. Gonzaga; C.E.B. Foelkel; C.A.
Busnardo; J.L. Gomide; C. Schmidt. 16th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian
Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 07-29. (1983) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/
Estudo comparativo da qualidade da madeira do Eucalyptus
de Coff's Harbour, e madeira de origem hibrida, procedencia de Canela,
introduzidos na regiao de Guaiba-RS. (Comparative studies of the quality
of the woods from Eucalyptus saligna, Coff's Harbour provenance, and
the hibrid material from a Canela provenance, both introduced in the
region of Guaiba-RS). C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; E.P. Benites; C. Dias;
S. Menochelli; C. Schmidt. 16th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical
Association of Pulp and Paper 4: 1073-1091. (1983) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/12_E.salignaemGuaiba.pdf (in
busca da qualidade ideal da madeira do eucalipto para producao de
celulose. III. A importancia da altura de amostragem para avaliacao da
densidade basica media da arvore. (Searching the ideal wood quality in
Eucalyptus for pulp production. III. The importance of the sampling tree
height for evaluation studies of the tree average wood basic density).
C.A. Busnardo; J.V. Gonzaga; C.E.B. Foelkel; C. Dias; S. Menochelli.
16th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp
and Paper 1: 55-72. (1983) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/
Caracterizacao da qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus
na regiao de Guaiba-RS. (Characterization of the wood quality for Eucalyptus
viminalis introduced in the region of Guaiba-RS). J.V. Gonzaga; C.A.
Busnardo; C. Dias; S. Menochelli; C.E.B. Foelkel. 16th ABTCP Annual Congress
- Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper 4: 1053-1071. (1983) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/
Dissertation: Qualidade da madeira e da celulose kraft de treze especies
de Eucalyptus. (Quality of the woods and kraft pulps obtained
from thirteen species of Eucalyptus). J.V. Gonzaga. Master of Science
Dissertation. UFV - Federal University of Vicosa. 137 pp. (1983) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/ufv/Jorge%20Vieira%20Gonzaga.pdf (in
Caracterizacao da qualidade da madeira de procedencias de Eucalyptus
grandis introduzidas na regiao de Guaiba-RS. (Characterization of the
wood quality for provenances of Eucalyptus grandis introduced in the
region of Guaiba-RS). J.V. Gonzaga; E.P. Benites; C. Dias; B. Rech; C.A.
Busnardo; C.E.B. Foelkel. 15th ABTCP Annual Congress - Brazilian Technical
Association of Pulp and Paper 1: 103-124. (1982) http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/outros/17_
My dear and almost-brother Jorge
Vieira Gonzaga, it was
a honor to have enjoyed your friendship and to have had the opportunity
to learn so much
with you, either professionally or from your values. Thanks also for
everything you have done, in so short time, to the Brazilian forestry
sector. We all are missing you, dear "Friend of the Eucalyptus".
As a proof of Jorge's professional and personal virtues, when I mentioned
to some of his friends that we were offering this Eucalyptus Newsletter "in
memorian" homage, many of them were excited to send some additional
words to enrich this short biography.
Know some phrases coming from Jorge "Lampiao" Gonzaga's close
Luiz Ernesto Jorge Barrichelo (IPEF - Institute of
Forest Researches and Studies): "It is unquestionable that the leadership of the work
for integrating the areas of forestry & pulp industry belongs to
the Courses of Forestry in Brazil. In particular, Mr. Jorge Vieira Gonzaga
made a major contribution to this kind of consolidation, from the time
of his graduation from ESALQ, post-graduate studies at UFV, until his
bright performance in the private sector and industry organizations,
such as SIF, IPEF, SBS, AGEFLOR, ABECEL, etc.".
Cesar Augusto Guimaraes Finger (UFSM - Federal University
of Santa Maria): "I first met Jorge Vieira Gonzaga in the 1980's, when we
worked at Riocell SA Guaiba. Person of humble origins, with solid family
foundations, he was able to conquer everybody with his simple and friendly
way. He was admired by colleagues and superiors. As a professional, he
was always determined and tireless. All his tasks were accomplished with
dedication and responsibility, making colleagues feel equally involved
and responsible. After the period working together in Riocell, I had
another opportunity to share Jorge's friendship, when he joined the Graduate
Program in Forest Engineering at the Federal University of Santa Maria,
as visiting professor in the area of teaching and researching pulp and
paper science and technology. His early departure left a gap among all
Engineer Rubens Cristiano Garlipp (SBS - Brazilian
Society of Silviculture): "Jorge had the ability to combine competence, discipline
and professional ethics - and the humanitarian and social position as
he proved to have in the community in which he lived. I met Jorge, or
the "Lampiao", his nickname gained at ESALQ, when we were studying
in Piracicaba. Later, we worked as institutional peers for Brazilian
forestry sector development, where I always remember his willingness
to cooperate with positive actions and aggregation. In our professional
lives, we have lots and lots of acquaintances, several colleagues and
some real in fact friends. Jorge was one of those friends whom we could
always count with. Our Brazilian forestry lost some of its bright/gloss
with the absence of our dear Lampiao".
Forest Engineer Jorge Euclides Mayer Klein (Celulose Riograndense - ex-Riocell): "Jorge
Gonzaga was one of those people, who besides a great professional colleague,
we could count as a a real friend, always willing to listen, guide, help.
Kind-hearted people, as few. As a technician, he was one of those responsible
for the growth of forestry in RS (Celso Foelkel's disciple). Man of vision,
he invested in tools such as plant breeding, soil management, plant nutrition,
forest management, environmental planning, some of the foundations for
the excellent results that we manage today with Eucalyptus plantations.
Person of great virtues and great example to all of us".
Engineer Teotonio Francisco de Assis (Assistech
Forest Consulting): "Jorge
Gonzaga was an intense and brilliant person. Excellent researcher, exemplary
professional, he has always been a great friend of mine and of all the
Friends of the Eucalyptus. He generously exercised all his activities
and with deep humility, two of his most striking features".
Engineer Carlos Alberto Busnardo (CAB - Advising
and Consulting in Business Management - friend, professional colleague
and Jorge's ex-boss
in the area of technological research at the ex-Riocell): "Jorge
Gonzaga, Forester, Master of Science in Forest Sciences, multidisciplinary
professional whom I had the honor of hiring, knowing, and accomplishing
many projects together over several fruitful years. Due to his undeniable
ability and commitment, nothing more than his fair transfer to new areas
of knowledge at Riocell; challenge accepted by him and met with success.
All of us, who had the opportunity to meet him and share his presence,
we can attest, without any shadow of doubt, his human and professional
quality. Wherever you are now dear friend Jorge, be sure that all your
efforts and dedication were not in vain, and you will always be an example
and driver to all of us. We thank you for the time that you were with
us - for your fellowship, friendship and valuable contributions ".
In order to well finish this section, we would like to share with you
some Jorge's thoughts. Please, find two sentences of his own, he wisely
used in his motivational talks and meetings in the church in activities
for lacking communities. I thank very much his son Rafael Gonzaga and
his wife, our dear friend Cleuza, for the help in rescuing some personal
data about Jorge.
"Wisdom is discovering little by little what is really necessary and sufficient
to provide a worthy and wise life". (Jorge Gonzaga)
"To forgive is to give back to someone else the right to be happy
again". (Jorge Gonzaga)
World of the Eucalyptus
of Tocantins - Brazil
Tocantins is the newest state in Brazil, it was officially
created in 1988 through the division of the large state of Goias. The
state territorial area is important - it corresponds to 277,600 square
kilometers, larger than many countries that are known and admired in
the forest sector, such as Uruguay, New Zealand and Portugal. From these
27.76 million hectares, about 7 million are pastures and three are still
considered to be forests. For such a large area, we have a tiny population
- about 1.38 million inhabitants according to the recent Brazilian census
of 2010. Most of people live in midsize cities, including the beautiful,
modern and projected Palmas, the state capital with 228,000 inhabitants.
Other major cities and bases for the development of state forestry are
Araguaina, Gurupi, Porto Nacional, Paraiso de Tocantins, Tocantinopolis,
Sao Miguel do Tocantins, Palmeiropolis, Miracema do Tocantins, etc. The
state is favored by the second largest river system in Brazil, due to
the presence of the Araguaia and Tocantins rivers. Its location, climate,
vegetation and geography lead to the formation of a rare natural beauty,
as the regions of Jalapao, the Araguaia National Park and the island
of Bananal. Most of the state land (about 88%) is inserted in the Cerrado
biome (Savannahs), with flat to gently rolling land topography. About
80% of lands are very favorable to agriculture, as the topography facilitates
mechanization and are inexpensive to be purchased. There, you still may
buy a hectare of land oriented to forest plantations for values between
600 to 2,500 Brazilian reais (1 US$ = 1.65 R$), according to fertility
and agricultural suitability. For all these reasons, the huge interest
in the state for growth in agricultural production (sugar cane, sorghum
and cereal grains) and silvicultural species (Eucalyptus, Acacia
teak, rubber tree, tropical pines, Indian neem, etc.).
The state of Tocantins is located in the north-central region of Brazil,
bordering the states of Maranhao, Piaui, Para, Bahia, Mato Grosso and
Goias. Together with the states of Maranhao and Piaui, Tocantins is today
a part of the region that has been called as MaPiTo, considered to be
the new frontier of Brazilian plantation forestry. MaPiTo is also referred
as the region where occurs the fastest growing agribusiness in the country.
Besides these three mentioned states, also Bahia, Goias and Para states
are important for the Brazilian eucalyptic world. In the near future,
they will also be introduced to you in our World of Eucalyptus, as it
was the case of Mato Grosso and Piaui in past newsletter editions.
Despite the strong predominance of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah)
as an element of biodiversity, the state also has important areas of
tropical and equatorial forest vegetation, located at its northern region.
In upstate, in the region known as the "Parrot's Neb - Bico do
Papagaio", there is an important tradition in production and extraction
of babassu for almonds and charcoal. Tocantins is one of the leading
states in this kind of extraction. The state cities of Tocantinopolis,
Araguatins, Babaculandia are renowned for this type of production. The
western region, next to Para border is rainier in relation to central
and eastern regions, showing distinct forest and agricultural fitness.
The state's economy is almost entirely dependent on agriculture, plant
and mineral extraction (limestone, dolomite, iron, nickel, copper, gold,
etc.) and cattle ranching. The industry is small, more focused on domestic
consumption. Tocantins is still weak on exports of industrialized goods,
but there are expectations for the arrival of new types of industries,
especially those based on the use of wood as raw material. People speak
with enthusiasm in attracting to the state some forest-based industries
as pulp and paper, lumber, furniture, wood panels, energy pellets and
briquettes, as well as charcoal for steel and pig-iron manufacturing.
Given that already exists strong recent growth in the business of forest
plantations for industrial wood supply in the states of Maranhao and
Piaui, the state of Tocantins entered as "deluxe hitchhiker" in
this important segment of Brazilian agribusiness. Currently, there is
a strong emphasis on the growth of Eucalyptus forest in various regions
of the state. Therefore, expectations are that in Tocantins, the Eucalyptus trees will be planted at unbeatable planting rates. Eucalyptus, for its
rusticity, rapid growth and return results to investors has been the
major emphasis of rural producers and local governments at this present
economic times. All the studies show that Eucalyptus trees create more
jobs, incomes and profits than cattle ranching, till now the driving
force of the agribusiness in Tocantins. But times are changing, even
the farmers are willing to invest in silvopastoring systems, including
or not agricultural crops. Already, there is even the term "green
cow" for animals raised in these agroforestry systems. Besides Eucalyptus,
also teak, pines and rubber trees are being established as viable and
promising plantations. Not to forget all the expectations placed in the
culture of sugar cane to become a source of important raw materials for
The state of Tocantins has been strongly promoted by the state government
through the Secretariat of Planning (SEPLAN) and Secretariat of Agriculture,
Livestock and Food Supply (SEAGRI).
The attractiveness of the state for forest plantations are reported to
be due to:
• land availability
at low cost;
• land topography - specially oriented to mechanization in forestry;
• extensive areas of degraded pasture, eroded land, where forestry may
even play a role in the recovery of soil fertility;
• poor and thin vegetation covering these areas, which facilitates the
preparation of soil and minimize environmental impacts of deforestation,
even if legally permitted in some cases;
• reasonably favorable climate, good rainfall ranging between 1,100-2,200
mm per year. However, there are regions with pronounced water deficit
(about 4-6 months with little rain).
• abundant sunshine, especially in the dry summer, where there are virtually
no impediments to sunlight due to the few clouds - however, the evapotranspiration
is higher, due to high soil temperature, low relative humidity and strong
• no major environmental and social constraints, such as occur in the Amazon
and Atlantic Forest - the protected ecosystems and indigenous reserves
are few and well-defined, and the area of rainforest to be preserved
is minimal. There is already strong human influence in the region due
to extensive cattle ranching , the land where exactly the aspects of
plantation forestry are focused.
• good perspectives for improvements in transport infrastructure, with
the expansion of the north-south railway and waterway system in the Araguaia
and Tocantins rivers;
reasonable expectations on the productivity of the Eucalyptus planted
forests (from 35 to 40 m³/ha.year), with chances of higher forest
growth as soon new suitable clones be developed to local conditions.
So far, the clones being introduced have been obtained from companies
that have improved them for regions in Para, Maranhao, Amapa, Bahia and
Minas Gerais, and even in Espirito Santo.
• strong government support and amazing interest from local society to
the plantation forestry projects.
In 2006, there were in Tocantins about 13,000 hectares
of Eucalyptus plantations for a total of 16.6 thousand hectares of total
In 2009, the state already had 44,700 hectares of Eucalyptus, from
the 49.6 thousand of all forest plantations in the state. In 2010,
are 52.7 thousand hectares of Eucalyptus; 1,370 hectares of rubber
tree; 2,190 of teak and 850 of tropical pines. Therefore, the total
plantation forestry in the state in 2010 should reach about 58,000
hectares. However, with the arrival of powerful new forestry companies,
are that in 2011 this area of planted forests could grow to about 200,000
hectares; and in 2016, could optimistically reaches about 540,000 hectares.
The production of a forest area as large as that, and in so short period
of time, will be demanding enormous challenges, one of them is exactly
the availability of seedlings with the quality to meet this demand
and projected results. Data from SEAGRO project an area of 530,000
of Eucalyptus for 2016 - if they are just dreams or if the
hard work will allow achieving these targets, this time will tell us.
not be so easy, but there are enthusiasm and motivation - with political
and institutional supports. The "Bico do Papagaio" region
and the cities of Araguaina, Sao Miguel do Tocantins and Ponte Alta
have changed their way of living due to forestry and optimism is abundant
at all corners. Many other cities in the state are also holding the
In addition to the introduction of new industrial uses for wood, plantations
are expected to replace the predatory use of firewood, which is extracted
in an extensive way from natural ecosystem formations in the state.
IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics reports that
every year about one million cubic meters of firewood in the state,
almost all harvested from natural resources. That is, plantation forestry
also have the mission of stopping the bleeding of the natural green.
Unfortunately, the destination of this natural timber is still to supply
wood for energy and to produce charcoal to fuel steel and pig-iron
mills in the nearby state of Maranhao.
In this way, two very important events took place in November 2010
in Palmas. The first was an important forest congress - Tocantins Florestal
- The 1st Forestry Congress of Tocantins, which served to consolidate
the ideas and to bring together the business, state and institutional
leaders to work for the development of policies in favor of forestry
in the state. In fact, the second vital fact occurred during the mentioned
congress: the creation of ARETINS - Association of Tocantins Forest
Planters, in order to act as a business association, defending and
promoting forest plantations ant tree planters in Tocantins.
However, at the same time there are optimism, hope and enthusiasm; barriers
and difficulties exist to overcome, and there are commitments to the
sustainability of forestry activities that need to be respected and fulfilled.
Cerrado is one of the most threatened biomes in the country. The way
it has been attacked by ranchers, farmers, second class foresters is
frightening. Every single year, thousands of hectares of cerrado are
burnt in Tocantins just to induce the growth of a thin greener pasture,
but very poor for cattle to eat. This people culture needs to be changed
with the arrival of plantation forestry. I personally know Tocantins
- I saw with sadness, many hectares of savannah burning during the dry
season of the year. A pity or an environmental crime, as you prefer.
I am hopeful that this type of attitude may be minimized with the arrival
of the forest plantations. In general, plantation forestry uses exactly
degraded pastures, due to the easier and cheaper land preparation. Forestry
has also complied with the Brazilian Forest Code and the other relevant
environmental legislation - thus, it has protected and recovered natural
ecosystems at 35 to 50% of the total area in any Brazilian planted forestry
enterprise. This can be an excellent alternative for reducing the extraction
and to increase the conserved and preserved areas of the Cerrado.
The Brazilian Cerrado is one of the bravest of all types of vegetation
that exist. Its biodiversity is absolutely remarkable. The cerrado plants
are resistant to drought, fire and coexist with intensive grazing. Many
plants have lignotubers to adapt to weather conditions and to extreme
poverty of soil and aggressions of all kinds (fire and intense harvesting,
as examples). The seed bank in cerrado biome is lush. Finally, the cerrado
is brave, but not a miracle. If aggressions are constant and intense,
it will eventually be defeated and disappears, leaving a huge environmental
liability for future generations.
I have expectations that the strong technological and environmental
background of plantation forestry and the forest sector leaders commitments
can help ensure the preservation and rehabilitation of large areas of
the cerrado. However, I have concerns too, and many. When newcomers arrive
in a business located at pioneer regions, the environmental and social
commitments of the new players may not be the same as those developed
over decades by the planted forest sector in Brazil. So, while I have
faith that we are to have a good forestry and appropriate level of sustainability
in Tocantins, I'll keep my eyes and my smart pen alive to help maintaining
the social and environmental quality we learned to perform in the Brazilian
silviculture. I count also with the important role of the state environmental
agency, NATURATINS - Instituto Natureza do Tocantins, which cares for
the accuracy of environmental impact studies and licensing of areas for
receiving the plantations.
Despite all the advantages mentioned so far to Tocantins, there are
many other challenges and barriers to overcome, such as:
• the supply the large amounts
of high quality seedlings with improved genetics for such expansion
• adaptation and adjustment of forest management techniques to the local
conditions (soils, climate, natural vegetation in the understory, etc.);
• development of suitable and adapted genetic material for local conditions
in their specificities;
to guarantee the growth rates that should be attractive, at least 40
to 45 m³/ha.year of wood with bark, instead of the projected 30
to 35, as in the case of plantations with lower aggregation of technology;
• improvements of the local surveys of climate, soil, vegetation, evapotranspiration
• monitoring and prevention of plant damage by the entrance of pests and
diseases, such as fungi (eg Ceratocystis fimbriata, etc.) and insect
pests (ants, beetles, defoliators caterpillars, bronzed bug, etc.).
Things are happening very quickly in Tocantins, despite the entrepreneurs'
claims, who would like more flexibility and less bureaucracy. I believe
that for the sake of precaution, in situations of uncertainty for pioneer
regions, more studies and demands on environmental and social issues
should be applied and required. However, this is no reason for endless
The Eucalyptus clonal forestry is arriving to Tocantins by means of
several companies with appropriate levels of silvicultural technology.
The agroforestry systems are also demanding studies and researches, as
for them, it is recognized that every farm is unique and demanding specific
projects. Several modern forest companies are today acting in Tocantins,
expanding their forestry bases. Also, in the area of seedling production,
the growth is expected to be huge - if maintained the projections of
about 80,000 hectares of new plantations per year, the requirements would
be about 150 million Eucalyptus seedlings annually.
We must place a lot of attention, researches and serious commitments
to leaders and foresters, as far as the objective is to establish plantations
of species of high photosynthetic activity and strong demands on water
and nutrients. The ideal situation is developing improved clones for
tolerance to drought and with low water and nutrient requirements. Other
needs are related to forest management of soils receiving high sunstroke,
strong oxidation of organic matter, high evapotranspiration and potentially
high nutrient exports. Therefore, one of the most critical challenge
to this Brazilian state with no tradition and education/innovation in
forestry is to develop all this and in a short time. The development
of critical mass and brains is a big issue to challenge business leaders
and local authorities. Forestry is a new career in Tocantins, with no
great traditions in education and researching.
The State Government of Tocantins is looking for providing attractiveness
to the forestry sector, encouraging the reduction on bureaucracy and
speeding up licensing procedures; however, this must be done without
losing quality in environmental assessments and inspections, considering
we have new entrepreneurs in the planting forest issues, including the
entrant rural producers. If the goal is to remove the state of Tocantins
from the extractive age, it should be done with quality and responsibility.
We shall not change from a perverse extractive model to another without
adding strict responsibilities in relation to sustainability.
One of the main objectives of the current government is to encourage
the industrialization process in the medium term to be able to consume
the wood will be produced by the forest base being planted today. There's
no intention at all, to just planting forests to produce charcoal for
feeding the steel industry located at neighboring states. I think this
type of government commitment has been well explained in the forums where
debates are taking place to discuss about the future of forestry in Tocantins.
The first and today's concern is to the attraction of the planted forests;
the second to bring the wood comsuming companies. Whithout this wood
supply basis, the state will not be attractive to industrial enterprises.
The Tocantins state government has several roles and targets: to attract
investments, to strengthen infrastructure, to vitalize basic research,
to speed up decisions and to monitor both the use of the available resources,
as well as the social and environmental performance of the newcomers.
Also, the government has in its hands the objective of transforming into
reality one of Tocantins' dreams: to be in fact the new forest frontier
and one of the main actors in the Brazilian agribusiness. This does not
necessarily need to be done just by government, but by partnerships with
the private sector, public universities and other entities within or
outside the state.
For everything we've seen so far, anyone can clearly set the state
of Tocantins as a pioneering plantation forest region, where opportunities
exist and are numerous, but also the risks. There are important factors
to be worked out and that may affect future competitiveness and attractiveness
of this business, such as:
• lack of forestry qualified manpower
at all levels, from operational to the top management;
• low on the productivity of forest workers;
• lack of technological inputs;
• high cost of plantation (between 3,500-4,500 reais per hectare managed
till the second year);
• strong dependence of the invested capital return rates on the forest
productivity - not yet fully proven and guaranteed in the long term;
• poor rural infrastructure;
potentials of clearings and "deforestation" in the cerrado,
even considering that the environmental legislation allows savannah removal
up to certain proportions. This fact may have a strong negative influence
in the business, due to rejections to the plantation forestry model coming
from environmental and social organizations, both nationally and internationally.
One thing is absolutely right - the greater the biodiversity among clones
and species of trees planted and preserved in the eco-mosaic, as well
as the integrated systems agriculture-livestock-forestry, the less significant
will be the risks that plantations could bring or undergo. Despite this
being the target committed by the government, it is still missing a comprehensive
forestry plan and an appropriate zoning for forestry negotiated and developed
in consensus with stakeholders from the society, just it is the case
for some other Brazilian states. Since local people and investors are
willing to work with Eucalyptus clonal forestry in Tocantins state, nothing
more logical than starting up with the very best. And doing this without
hampering or delaying investments, but qualifying them for better.
All these plans need to be very well linked to prevent the plantation
forests to reach the age of harvesting without having market place for
the wood, what would be extremely disappointing and frustrating to investors,
especially to small and medium sized planted forest producers.
Everything is needed and crucial to the Tocantins forest sector shall
require further discussions, specialized forums and commitments. The
partnerships among government organizations - private - environmental
- academic sectors are needed to help creating the future. Competent
and skilled people willing to cooperate must be found and included in
the forums. Today I have seen many business managers complaining about
lack of time and resources. However, how to build a sustainable future
not finding ways to successfully involving the main stakeholders and
competencies? Time and resources are needed to be found - and urgently.
The sooner the better.
Ultimately, we want a successful plantation forestry in Tocantins, and
that this forestry be understood by all to be practiced in a green, clean,
natural and photosynthetic state, in a so bright way as it is the Adhara
star that illuminates the state flag.
Images of the state of Tocantins - Eucalyptus forests:
In this section, we are as usual offering some very
good euca-links with relevant publications available in the virtual world
wide web library. You have only to click the URLs addresses to open the
documents and/or to save them. Since they are references, we are not
responsible for the opinion of the corresponding authors. However, believe
me, they are valuable references that should be watched carefully, since
they are very much connected with the Eucalyptus.
In this edition, we are emphasizing some recent publications about forestry
and forest products with strong connection with the Brazilian state
of Tocantins, the state being honored in this edition in the section "The
World of the Eucalyptus".
We hope you enjoy this selection we have prepared:
RIMA - Relatorio de Impacto de Meio Ambiente das plantacoes florestais
da GMR Florestal no estado do Tocantins. (Environmental Impact Report
for the GMR Plantation Forestry Project in the state of Tocantins). Nativa
Meio Ambiente. 78 pp. (2010) http://www.gmrflorestal.com.br/RIMAGMRFlorestal.pdf (in Portuguese)
ecologico economico no Tocantins: comparacao de resultados usando
um mesmo metodo em diferentes datas. (Ecological economic zoning
in the Tocantins state: comparison of results using a same method in
different times). R.R. Dias; J.T. Mattos. Revista Brasileira de Cartografia
61(4): 351 - 369. (2009) http://www.rbc.ufrj.br/_pdf_61_2009/61_04_5.pdf (in Portuguese)
representativos do estado do Tocantins sob vegetacao natural do cerrado. (Representative soils of the state of Tocantins covered by the
natural savannah vegetation). H.M.P. Santana; M.P.C. Lacerda. II International
Symposium Tropical Savannahs. 07 pp. (2008) http://www.cpac.embrapa.br/download/570/t (in Portuguese)
agricola dos solos do estado do Tocantins. (Agricultural suitability
for the soils of the state of Tocantins). A.A.C. Lima; F.N.S. Oliveira;
A.R.L. Aquino. Technical Statement EMBRAPA CNPAT # 47: 01-04. (2000) http://www.cnpat.embrapa.br/cnpat/cd/jss/acervo/Ct_047.pdf (in Portuguese)
State of Tocantins - Brazil
In this section, we are, as always we do, offering some
relevant Euca-Links to important websites available in the virtual web.
Just click on the addresses of the corresponding URLs to open them or
save as favorites on your computer. In this unique edition about the
state of Tocantins, the Euca-Links will be all related to companies,
organizations, universities and entities oriented to the study, business,
usage and manufacturing products from Eucalyptus at this specific state.
If any organization or company is eventually missing, please contact
us and provide the URL addresses, which we will evaluate to make an addition
on some of our upcoming editions.
Protected Areas. Website of the Tocantins state government
for the dissemination of knowledge about the conservation areas in the
state. Accessed on 14.12.2010: http://areasprotegidas.to.gov.br/ (in Portuguese)
Eucaliptos. A tree seedling production company having also business
with treated/preserved wood and wooden houses manufacturing. Accessed
on 14.12.2010: http://www.esteio.ind.br/utilidades.html (Uses and benefits coming from
the Eucalyptus - in Portuguese)
FACTO - Tocantins Catholic College. This college has an academic course
in agronomy and has contributed to the education of professional foresters
in the region. Accessed on 14.12.2010: http://www.catolica-to.edu.br/agronomia/index.php (in Portuguese)
- Tocantins Federal Institute of Education, Science and Tecnology. Educational institution with several campi in the state, having available
areas of teaching and researching in agronomy, technical courses and
bachelor's degree in agribusiness, chemistry, etc. Accessed on 14.12.2010: http://www.ifto.edu.br/index.php (in Portuguese)
- Industry Federation of the State of Tocantins. Business entity
that represents the interests of the industrial sector. Accessed on 14.12.2010: http://www.fieto.com.br/ (in Portuguese)
about Events and Courses
This section has as aim to introduce to you several very good
links with recently already happened events (congresses, seminars,
conferences, workshops, courses). The advantage provided to web
readers is that the event organizers have made the presentations
or proceedings available for free downloading to all interested
parties. This is a very good way to practice social and scientific
responsibility. Our most sincere thanks to all these organizers
for this friendly procedure, sharing the event material with the
interested parties. I would like to emphasize the importance of
visiting the material of these suggested events. Most of them have
exceptional PowerPoint presentations, rich on data, photos, images
and references. By doing this visit you can learn a lot more about
the discussed topics. Other courses or events offer the entire
book of technical articles, true sources of knowledge to our readers.
I hope you may like the present selection, there is even one interesting
event to be browsed dedicated to cover forestry at the state
of Tocantins, the region being honored in the section "The
World of the Eucalyptus".
Tocantins Florestal - 1st Tocantins Forestry Congress. (in Portuguese)
Excellent event that was held at the city of Palmas, Tocantins,
the Brazilian state being honored in this edition of our Eucalyptus
Newsletter. The presentations occurred from 09 to 10 of November
2010, with political, technical, social and environmental issues
being covered. There were striking government support and enthusiasm
from all the participants for the opportunity that the state was
taking to promote and increase the activity of planting Eucalyptus forests oriented to social and economic development. The event
was organized by ARETINS - Association of Tocantins Forest Tree
Planters and by the webportal Painel Florestal, from Mato Grosso
Know the speaches for downloading at: http://www.painelflorestal.com.br/noticias/download/10116/palestras-do-tocantins-florestal-2010 http://www.tocantinsflorestal.com.br/
Florestal - 2nd Mato Grosso do Sul Forestry Congress. (in Portuguese)
MS Florestal is already becoming one of the most important Brazilian
events about forestry. This second edition occurred in the city
of Campo Grande, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul. The event promoters
were SEPROTUR (State Secretariat of Agricultural Production Development,
Industry, Trade and Tourism) and the State Government of MS.
The organization was due to the REFLORE-MS (Association of South
Mato Grosso Planted Forests Producers and Consumers) and webportal
Painel Florestal. The talks took place from 07 to 09 of June
2010, concurrently with an exhibition of suppliers and producers
of forest base products in the state. The topics were wide and
varied, covering different species of trees, commercial aspects
of planted forests, forest policy and legislation, and it could
not fail to occur, with numerous technical talks on the silviculture
and products from Eucalyptus.
Meet the speeches of the event for downloading at: http://www.opec-eventos.com.br/msflorestal/index.php (Speeches
- in Portuguese)
National Forum on Charcoal. (in Portuguese)
Traditional event about charcoal, especially for the type produced
using the wood derived from Eucalyptus planted forests. In 2010,
the event was held in the city of Sete Lagoas-MG, on 27-29 October.
The event organizers were: SIF - Society of Forest Researches,
UFV - Federal University of Vicosa thorough its Department of
Forest Engineering and UNIFEMM - Universtity Center of Sete Lagoas.
Please, go soon to visit SIF website and to download the speeches,
since they may be available on the website for a short period of
time: http://www.sif.org.br/interna.php?area=palestrasArquivos&palestra=13 (Speeches for downloading - in Portuguese)
MADEN 2 - Wood Energy Seminar. (Seminario Madeira Energetica).
This event was held in Sao Paulo city on November 25, 2010, with
several presentations showing the potential of wood biomass energy.
Highlights included talks on: types of bioenergy, biorefineries,
charcoal, biomass densification, briquettes and pellets, energy
efficiency, Brazilian policies for the sector, etc. The organization
of the seminar was addressed by the INEE - National Institute for
Energy Efficiency, with the enthusiasm of our friend Dr. Jayme
Buarque de Hollanda, INEE general director. http://www.seminariomaden.com.br (Event website - in Portuguese) http://www.seminariomaden.com.br/palestras.html (Speeches - in
Pan-American Congress on Plants and Bioenergy. (in English)
This international event on bioenergy, which emphasized very much
the forest plantations in Brazil, was held in the town of Sao
Pedro-SP, from 08 to 11 of August 2010. The entities who organized
and supported the event were: Biosciences Institute - USP; Botanical
Society of Sao Paulo - SBSP; American Society of Plant Biologists
- ASPB; National Laboratory of Bioethanol Science and Technology
- CTBE; Federal University of Vicosa - UFV; Purdue University;
University of Illinois; Energy Bioscience Institute - EBI, among
others. Although the lectures are not available, we have summaries
of them provided by each speaker. http://www.plantsandbioenergy.com.br/lecture.php (Speeches short
summary offered by speakers - in English) http://www.aspb.org/meetings/bioenergy08/BioEnergyFinalProgram.pdf (First Congress program - an evento that took place in 2008 at
the city of Merida, Mexico - in English)
Diameter Roundwood Obtained from the Eucalyptus and its Utilization
in the Construction Industry
The Eucalyptus wood is increasingly replacing the wood from native
trees used by the construction industry. This can be easily explained
by its greater availability in the forest products markets, appropriate
quality/end-purposes and the rapid growth and sustainable management
of the plantations (Revista da Madeira, 2010).
According to Zenid and coworkers (2003), wood is a renewable resource,
which when is well utilized and maintained, can have multiple uses
and long and extended life in the construction industry. The small
diameter Eucalyptus roundwood is usually obtained from the first
thinning of the plantations - trees having usually two to four
years. It can also be a result from sprouting/coppicing management,
leaving several trees to grow in each stump and managing then to
be thin in diameter, to be sold for such purpose. Thus, their diameters
are to be relatively thin, ranging from 5 to 15 cm, with a length
of wood pieces from 2 to 5 meters, depending on the end-uses, but
in all cases the pieces must be straight along (Partel, 2006).
Taking into account economic aspects, the first thinned wood from
Eucalyptus plantations (small diameter roundwood) is considered to
be quite inexpensive, so it is extremely useful and can be used for
various purposes at the construction industry and related businesses.
The use of such wood for this industry may be temporary, being utilized
as molds for concrete, scaffolding and shoring; or may be definite
that is nobler, and may act as the main raw material timber (Zenid
et al., 2003). Small diameter roundwood can also be used for the
preparation of anchors/chocks, supports and also for manufacturing
rustic buildings. They may be used in the construction of roofs,
roof structures, pillars, columns, floors, decks, sheds, kiosks,
fences, walls, and especially, in manufacturing children's toys such
as large playgrounds, swings, slides, among similar toys (Partel
In addition to the first plantation thinning and sprout/coppicing
management to lead to small diameter roundwood, we may have a third
source for this wood: the core of larger diameter logs, resulting
from veneering by rotating delaminating devices. The central part
of these logs have higher amounts of knots (knotty corewood) and
therefore they are discarded as wastes. Thus, these very uniform
residues may also be properly treated and used both in toys and
in rustic buildings.
The main purpose of this paper is to present the commercial uses
for the Eucalyptus small diameter roundwood, with emphasis in the
construction industry, highlighting its main economic, social and
environmental advantages and some disadvantages. Some of the processing
technologies will also be mentioned.
Uses of the small diameter roundwood
Small diameter roundwood is defined as a part of the tree trunk
that has almost null wood processing. They can be long and thin
rod-alike logs, obtained from the tree with or without transverse
sectioning, where very often the bark is not removed from. They
are mainly used for making choking's and scaffoldings. When wood
is treated with preservative products, it can be used for rustic
buildings, mainly in rural areas and also in the production of
short electric poles and fences. Now-a-days, the timber from the
planted Eucalyptus forests is commonly used for this purpose (Zenid
et al., 2003). In 2001, the same authors observed that approximately
33% of lumber consumed in Sao Paulo was used for temporary purposes,
and for the manufacture of molds for concrete and for the fabrication
Advantages of the small diameter roundwood
The roundwood obtained from the first thinning of Eucalyptus plantations
is used in construction works and it can generate substantial economic
gains. According to Partel (2006), most of the wood sector companies
working with such kind of wood perform tailor-made designed projects
to customers for the construction of floors, kiosks, staircases,
balconies, toys, among others, thus adding value to products with
significant financial returns.
Chaul and Tibirica (2006) observed the economic feasibility of
producing Eucalyptus 3 meters long anchors by harvesting 2 year-old
plantations in a place close to Goiania, GO. The authors emphasized
that the 1,558 trees per hectare produced 3,116 anchors, selling
them for R$ 30.00 to R$ 36.00 per dozen (1 US$ = 1.65 R$). The
results were quite interesting and considered economically feasible
at the time of the study.
In 2005, Baena has also analyzed the economic feasibility of Eucalyptus plantations aimed at producing noble hardwood. The first plantation
thinning, which occurred three years after planting, had provided
wood for the production of anchors to be used in construction industry.
According to the author, the income generated in that process was
sufficient to pay all costs of land leasing, paying back a part
of the initial plantation investments.
Fagundes (2003) reported that no other raw material temporarily
used in civil construction works has so many environmental benefits
such as timber, mainly by providing low environmental impact, being
a renewable and reusable resource. The use of wood from planted forests
for this purpose also reduces the deforestation of native forests
that previously had their wood also widely used in this specific
function (Revista da Madeira, 2010; Ponce, undated).
The small diameter roundwood after fulfilling its working function,
it is often discarded or used for combustion, generating energy in
industrial processes. However, it is possible to recover this product
for its own reuse at construction works, achieving additional incomes.
Sometimes, its new use can provide even higher economic values when
compared to the previous one.
Barros and Melhado (2006) showed that this kind of material is
easily found in the supply markets, with low costs. These two advantage
points are some of the reasons for temporary use of roundwood in
Another advantage is the continuous launching of new businesses
and job creation for the production of roundwood products, as those
related to the manufacture of toys, poles and rustic buildings, promoting
improved quality of life for many communities (Ponce, undated). After
all, in a country growing in population like Brazil and demanding
for housing and comfort, there is always growing demand for these
products, because this wood has replaced other types of materials
in this sector.
Disadvantages of the small diameter roundwood
Despite the growing use of small diameter roundwood in construction
works, there are experts in this issue who pointed out the heterogeneity
and roughness of this raw material as the main problems and obstacles
to its use as anchors (Barros and Melhado, 2006). The authors commented
that the anchoring with the material hinders the flattening. Also,
the uncertainty of the wood mechanical properties makes the project
sizing always to be calculated for the worst case. The lack of
specifications and quality assurance has been an obstacle to increased
use of this material.
There are Brazilian laws restricting the use of wood in building
structures, especially because wood is sensitive to combustion
due to be a fuel material. The lack of specific improved plantations
for this quality, the low durability of the product and lack of
tradition in the use of this material are other barriers, mainly
for the construction of larger buildings (Barros and Melhado, 2006).
These authors have observed that these wooden anchors, depending
on the species used, have low load capacity, requiring large quantities
of pieces under the concrete slab for proper shoring. This hampers
the movement of people by the high number of struts, leading also
to lower quality of work due to deformations which the timber may
eventualy suffer. Thus, in buildings with strict quality controls,
shoring with wood is not recommended, being replaced by metal struts.
Recovering the wastes of small diameter roundwood
After the temporary use in construction works, the struts, anchors,
and remainings of wooden molds, often can no longer be oriented to
the same purposes. According to Gerolla (2010), the material has
not received proper treatment and have low strength and quality cannot
have a noble reuse, as the use in a sawmill or furniture-making.
Thus, the timber could be used for the preparation of packaging boxes
for vegetable/fruits, and for generating energy by burning in boilers
and furnaces in manufacturing industries, pottery and even in restaurants.
Treating the small diameter roundwood
The wood used for shoring purposes may become very much affected
with regard to its durability, especially when in environments
of high humidity and temperature variations (Zenid et al. 2003;
Felten, undated). It is for this reason that the roundwood to be
used in rustic buildings and anchors should be submitted to previous
treatments to increase the lifespan of the wood, thus avoiding
the attack of detractors agents, such as fungi and termites.
The most recommended treatments for such roundwood type are those
using machines that combine pressure/vacuum to inject the wood
preservative chemical inside the wood structure. However, there
are some treatments of wood that can be performed in non-industrial
processes (with no pressure) (Jankowsky, 1990).
According to Brinque Park (2010), the treatment of roundwood used
in rustic construction and toys could be performed at autoclaves
(vacuum/pressure). During the process, a water soluble preservative
(CAA or CCB) impregnates the timber. In case the user may want
additional security in relation to chemical preservatives, he can
varnish or paint the exposed parts to prevent physical contact
with the chemical.
Montana News (undated) indicated that technologies already exist,
which are well used to enhance and improve the durability of roundwood
up to 50 years (according to its use), not requiring many repairs
or extra monitoring along this period.
The method of replacement the sap by preservative chemicals in green
roundwood (without the utilization of pressure/vacuum autoclaves)
is indicated for Eucalyptus logs with diameters from 7.5 to 15 cm
and maximum length of 2.5 m. The treated logs must rest for 30 days
after treatment of wood, which, if well done, can increase the lifespan
of the wood by up to five times (Pereira, undated).
The Brazilian standard that regulates chemical preservation of wood
to extend the life of wooden structures is the NBR 7190 (Timber structures),
helping users to make more rational application of these chemicals
(Revista da Madeira, 2010).
The treated wood at preservation plants have much better specifications
than the woods in the raw form. The treatment allows the utilization
of other species of Eucalyptus, in addition to the wood of Corymbia
citriodora. This enables the wood of other species such as Eucalyptus
urophylla, E.tereticornis, E.paniculata, E. urograndis, E.dunnii,
The growing demand for housing in Brazil makes also increased the
need for wood in the civil construction industry. Although wood is
a renewable resource, it must be rationally used. The temporary use
of wood from the first thinning of Eucalyptus plantations can help
the construction of buildings, as props, anchors, stilts and scaffoldings.
The wood of the first thinning can also be directed to the construction
of rustic buildings and toys in large playgrounds or toy parks, adding
value to this material and providing a social destination very much
appreciated by the communities.
Further research studies should be encouraged to develop the most
correct specifications and characterization's for this type of wood,
considering the various species of Eucalyptus in Brazil. Some of
the targets could be: increasing the durability of the material,
reducing the disadvantages, and aiming to promote improvements in
the quality of this roundwood for other noble purposes, as the construction
of houses and vertical buildings (Dias,2009). Thus, by having available
for civil construction a renewable material that helps sinking carbon
from the atmosphere (much better than the metallic ones) and fully
recyclable or biodegradable, we have the possibility to use additional
quantities of raw materials that will be promoting more sustainable
benefits to society, not only in economic ways, but also environmental
Just ahead, please find a series of technical papers, brochures and
educational websites related to the use of Eucalyptus small diameter
roundwood both for temporary use in buildings, and for the manufacture
of rustic buildings, toys, etc.
Please know more about the benefit of these Eucalyptus products at:
da madeira de florestas plantadas na construcao civil e no mobiliario:
tendencias e perspectivas. (Use of wood from planted forests in the
construction industry and furniture manufacturing: trends and perspectives).
M. A. R. Nahuz. CT Floresta-IPT. PowerPoint presentation: 41 slides.
(2010) http://www.opec-eventos.com.br/msflorestal/dowload/marcio.pdf (in
ajuda no uso de peca rolica em construcoes. (A guidebook
helps the use of roundwood pieces in contructions). V. Dias. USP
News. (2009) http://www.usp.br/agen/?p=1483 (in Portuguese)
de madeira serrada e geracao de residuos do processamento de
madeira de florestas plantadas no Rio Grande do Sul. (Production
of sawn timber and generation of wastes from wood processing using
raw material from plantation forests in Rio Grande do Sul). H. A.
V. Fagundes. Master Dissertation. UFRGS - Federal University of Rio
Grande do Sul. 173 pp. (2003) http://www.lume.ufrgs.br/bitstream/handle/10183/4567/000412901.pdf?sequence=1 (in Portuguese)
Images about Eucalyptus small diameter roundwood used by the civil
construction industry, including websites of vendors and producers,
as merely technical references purposes:
Some websites of Eucalyptus small diameter roundwood producers are
presented ahead just to inform about products with technical illustrations,
and therefore should not be considered as commercial recommendations.
Social Indicators to the Eucalyptus Pulp and Paper Companies
The so often referred in the literature as capital/labor
relations have been seen as potential source of conflicts and controversies.
This type of management has always been and remains a key challenge
for top managers. The ways to conciliate the interests of businesses
and their workers and the communities close to where the companies
operate, are things no longer typically of inner corporate management
to become something much broader, involving the now-called "stakeholders
from society". The issues that in the past could be managed
in a way "locked, straight and in-house", today have a
much wider scope and even global. Times have changed, companies also;
people, even more.
Linked to this, there are two important topics often neglected by
managers and by workers operating the vast majority of our pulp and
paper mills. The first of them is that companies are not magical
and aliens entities, who possess magic wands. After all, the companies
are no more than the result of people, who are there as a team to
operate and manage them. If we have persons in the company who are
motivated, happy and determined, there is a huge chance that this
specific company be classified as a enterprise of the "plus
world", in which its way of acting is to build, grow and to
have positive examples of social management. On the other hand, if
the company people have fear, unhappiness, worries and adverse interpersonal
relationships, it will surely be a company which will focus on aspects
of the "minus world", in which the typical characteristics
are lacks of confidence, motivation, growth and opportunities. As
a result, the company will have to worry about surviving than in
developing itself, showing inappropriate policies with regard to
people management and to its relations with communities.
The second point I would like to emphasize is that pulp and paper
industrial mills are vectors for changes and strongly influence the
communities where they operate, regardless the company size and the
kind of community. This happens because the size of these companies,
even those considered medium or small, is sufficiently large to leverage
many businesses at their sites of influence. Therefore, companies
and people are always and intimately related, either inside or outside
the pulp and paper mills.
most of industrial companies have not had a major concern in evaluating
or leveraging their social performance. They
had the belief to be important generators of employment and they
were paying high amounts of money as taxes: these points were seen
as their important social and community contributions. Maybe, I'm
being a little unfair to set things in this direct way - they were
past times and past realities, and will never not come back again.
At those not so distant times, inadequate management of persons or
interpersonal relationships sometimes were drivers for localized
impacts to society, and restricted to the surroundings of the company.
The pulp and paper companies had local performance, usually in locations
away from large urban areas. They had, as consequence, restricted
global projection. Here again the world has changed. The industry
has gone global - the pulp and paper industry was converted into
a global business. At this globalized industry, we have companies
displaying images of "highly admired by society" and others
with the status of "rejected" (in a few cases, a well deserved
position - up to the fact that "the voice of people is the voice
Past times, the interested parties were few and from a local community;
today they are global and numerous. The huge expansion of communications
exposes companies to the world, and very rapidly. Any inappropriate
action of a company no longer gets just some headlines in the local
newspaper or in the local radio, but it goes to the cyber world,
to television, social networks, etc. Also, the positive actions may
become more visible, but as it is human beings characteristic, the
bad news, gossips and scandals are the preferred news. We say that
the media has such preference, but in fact are the users of the media
who prefer this type of news. They are only served in their wishes
by the media.
The past two decades have been the cradle for great changes in the
ways of business management. Many were the drivers to cause these
changes so fast, but the need to show a positive company image to
the public, inside and outside the company was one of them. In the
late 80's, the management focus shifted to the quality of processes
and products; then switched to the management of occupational safety
and environmental issues in order to minimize mills impacts on Nature.
Soon, it included quality of life of workers in integrated management
systems, demanding indicators of health and safety, professional
and human development, technical careers, people expectations, etc.
In the next step, the community's area of influence of the company
gained room to be assessed and monitored for people's quality of
life and their perceptions of the company performance. These themes
were finally incorporated by modern managers, who understand now
that good business results are achieved when the company has an efficient
management of the company's and communities' people. Several academic
theses and the thoughts of great management gurus in their worldwide
known best-sellers have become fashion for at least the past 20 years.
Many companies proudly write in their corporate policies that their
employees are their greatest assets and that are they who "cause
the differences" on business performance. Even the words changed
to define the company's people: first it was worker, then employee,
after that cooperator, and now travels between human talent, social
capital, intellectual capital and other terms that the gurus invent
to sell more and better their ideas and books. Expect a little more
-there are other terms in the nursery of these fancy words to define
exactly the same thing: people.
More recently, in early 2000, even a new terminology and science
was born so inconceivably fast, the "Corporate Social Responsibility".
This sequence of words was soon linked to another very strong word
of the moment - sustainability. With all these issues growing and
moving as a top ranked hurricane, each company now is trying to "show
good results to their stakeholders". As a consequence, they
were emerged and created the environmental reports, social performance
reports, sustainability reports, etc. A huge flow of information
is now being required, and showing data with a lot of credibility
to avoid "shooting the own foot".
The companies now have to show a clean, healthy,
safe, legal, efficient, accountable, innovative and sustainable
image. How to place all these
data in an well-understandable way to the different types of interested
parties was another huge challenge to overcome. The previously isolated
financial reports soon were integrated with environmental and social
data, coming to be turned into well-prepared and magnificent sustainability
reports. In general, these reports tend to show the environmental,
social and economic accomplishments, achievements and commitments
of the corporations. Even the strategic goals in environmental and
social issues came to be shared with society. Some companies even
set up "forums for dialogue with stakeholders", an unusual
audacity just a very few years ago - but that proved to be very useful
for managers for ripening the interpersonal relationship with community's
Definitely, we have to admire the competence that many of these
sustainability reports show - they have to meet various stakeholders'
wishes such as tax authorities, bankers, customers, suppliers, regulators,
politicians, educators, reporters, employees, unions, neighbors and
other representative elements from society, etc. In the past, an
annual financial report from any business was something intended
to comply with demands from federal income tax auditors and controllers
of the company's capital (shareholders and funding sources). It was
printed in a few tens of copies and openly published in newspapers,
to anyone to read - just a legal requirement for transparency. Therefore,
there was not any aesthetic beauty and the writing and language was
something just understandable by those knowledgeable in finance.
Today, things became extremely different: a sustainability report
must be written at least in two languages (English and local language
- some are written in Mandarin, too), they must be attractive, beautiful
due to the wonderful and artistic photos; must also be written to
be understood by any of the thousands or millions of readers who
will download the report to their computers via the web. Also, it
needs to demonstrate credibility about anything is written and the
measurement data must come from reliable sources. What was once something
done for the shareholders, bankers and tax authorities, today must
meet the global world demands, being even available to competitors
All this has had a meteoric rise. In the early 1990's, the society
became interested in the environmental performance of companies even
before the launching of ISO 14,000 series of environmental standards.
The companies responded to this demand through preparing the first
type of environmental reports and other types of printed reports
showing environmental, social activities, safety and occupational
health issues, etc. There was not at the time the dissemination of
information over the web, since the Internet was in the pre-embryo
age. Everything was done in small richly illustrated booklets. The
14,000 series of standards themselves did not even state guidelines
on how to deal with this new and huge demand for information to be
given to society. The social background emerged with the entry into
force of OHSAS 18000, which were intended for occupational health
and safety of people working in the companies. At that time, the
parameters were simple to report, such as accidents, lost time due
to accidents, and some environmental indicators as water & air
emissions and solid wastes generation. Nothing difficult for those
who had to control these issues in the mills, even considering that
at the time had appeared in the market some fancy software tools
to help the production of nice graphs, charts and tables. The famous
pie charts, Pareto, trend curves, etc. astonished the readers of
such reports; readers who until a few years ago were used to know
the mills for their smell, noise, and the texts of unintelligible
financial statements published in newspapers.
When demands increased from the social stakeholders, it became very
difficult to find indicators to monitor and to inform the world about.
Stakeholders comprise the inside mill workers (very eager for details,
because until a few days ago their sources for reporting and information
were very limited) and people in the global society. This is the
great challenge to overcome: who are the interested parties and what
to show to them? ... and how to do this? Enormous reports are not
recommended - luckily, today the Internet allows us with interactive
and personalized browsing. People, who had nothing to relate with
the company, often located far away in other continents, have now
concerns about our mill performances and socio-environmental issues
are sometimes difficult to be explained - a new world of challenges.
big difference between the indicators of productivity or of environmental
performance with social indicators is that the latter
include not only numerical data but also emotional components and
perceptions. As a result, some insights may dramatically affect certain
indicators, often with abrupt changes as a function of relevant facts.
Also, another heavy influence on these indicators is the way by which
people (inside and outside the company), and who are in search of
happiness and quality of life, can be impacted by the corporate management.
How to generate indicators to evaluate material and immaterial
things related to social aspects of the business and then to share
them efficiently to the global society? I think one of the major
problems that prevent a more rapid advance in this area is exactly
the model of business management, said to be modernized, but that
still carries a lot of contamination's and defects of previous
styles of management. Most executives are self-declared as participatives
and open-minded, focused on social welfare and the quality of life
of the human resources in the company and in the region. However,
at any "stomach ache" in the mills or in company's results,
they forget it all and come to act with perverse social management
styles. They come to practice a management model that is understood
as a "bunch of evil actions" to the own internal human
resources, which were previously called human capital or intellectual
assets of the company. The proof of this are the thousands of examples
of social damages that are reported in light of recent international
financial crisis of the years 2008/2009. With that, the workers
suffer, suffers the community and the public relations get in conflict.
Also, the social indicators get worse.
I think a lot of these problems could best be solved through a
higher level of open and frank dialogue between business managers
and stakeholders from the company and from society. Learning this
fact, it makes easier to share and explain some tough decisions
and, thus, to relieve pressure on the managers themselves.
The difficulties to show socially relevant facts to stakeholders
are so great that some companies merely provide numeric data for
paid taxes, investments in training and qualification of personnel,
data on safety and availability of benefits to workers, such those
with food, pension, transportation, etc. When just this is done,
people who read these reports definitely are not fully satisfied,
because in their view, and rightly so, most of these data are not
clarifying and demonstrating the social performance of the company,
• the paid taxes by companies are business
obligations and companies are always speaking out against this
issue in the media.
Also, everyone in society knows that the greater the amount of paid
taxes, the greater is the turnover, the result and the earnings of
• investments in safety are made to meet legal labor requirements, besides
taking into account the thousands of academic and technical information demonstrating
the high costs for companies when safety fails in operations.
• investment in training and education inside the company are seen as requirements
for workers to qualify them for best professional performance and therefore resulting
in more for the business.
This type of clashes between business vision and perceptions of society offered
the opportunity for new types of social indicators to be created for better
acceptance and understanding by stakeholders. Virtually, a new science was
born from this. There are thousands of academic theses on social reports, corporate
social responsibility and corporate governance - many of them available on
the web. Very simply, these theories demonstrate that the actions of a healthy
and growing company impact and leverage improvements to both internal human
resources, as in the communities where it operates. Often, they affect the
quality of life of people very far away and even knowledgeable of the company/business
Once again, we fall into the famous questions: how to measure it
all? how to turn this universe of information into simple indicators?
how to give credibility to them? how to disseminate them? how to
give and receive feedback about them?
Some social indicators are not numbers, but depend
on the perceptions of the stakeholders. Some companies have already
became aware of
this through the so called "organizational climate surveys".
They have also noticed that "the power of the company" may
affect the workers' responses, which is very common in the researches
about the internal climate. People with fear of reprimands end up
not being completely honest. Management often believes that all is
going well according to those surveys, when in fact things are far
from this. Every time we have emotions and perceptions involved,
it is better to outsource the interviews to prevent undesirable people
inhibitions during data collecting.
I have noticed a trend to the creation of social indicators based
on multi criteria and they are very interesting. Thus, they help
company managers to understand the company's participation as a vector
for social development and improved quality of life for people in
its area of influence. There are several institutes, some business
leaders have even helped to set up that are contributing for the
generation of very credible social indicators. Among them, we may
mention, in Brazil, the Ethos Institute and iBase - Brazilian Institute
of Social and Economic Analyses (a creation from the renowned sociologist
Betinho - Mr. Herbert de Souza). In general, several of these indicators
are the same used by the governments and the United Nations bodies
to measure social progress in countries, regions and municipalities,
as the case of HDI - Human Development Index and SDI - Social Development
Index. They seek to identify and select reliable metrics for important
issues of quality of life, such as education, longevity of people,
income and wages, health, skills and education, personal development,
comfort, sanitation, infrastructure, available services to persons,
The companies have divided their social indicators in three basic
• Internal social indicators: those that the
company uses to assess its social performance in relation to its
and contractors. Examples include: education and training, occupational
safety and health, food, transportation, average salary, benefits,
pension plans, etc. More recently, companies have included some selected
items of their organizational climate surveys and also the actions
of volunteering programs developed with their human resources.
• External social indicators: the indicators that are linked to actions
with community and results of external programs maintained by the
company in terms of: the practice of citizenship, social inclusion,
environmental education, achieved awards, inclusion on lists of the
most admired companies or the best companies to work for in the region,
• Social indicators resulting from the company's presence in the region:
here are included: the paid taxes, supports in infrastructure and sanitation's,
educational programs, technological development activities, investment in public
services through partnerships with public organizations, etc.
There are already well-established and proposed metrics to measure almost all
of these indicators. Some were released by the mentioned institutes and others
by the standards of corporate social responsibility to indicate the items that
must be addressed by the companies. It is very important to have a standardized
methodology to allow comparisons to understand the evolution of the company
itself and for making comparisons among different companies (benchmarking corporate
Some social indicators that they are commonly included in corporate
social reports are:
• participative management: dialogue, respect for individual people,
workers participation on internal forums of debates, etc.;
• dialogue and relationship with the external community;
• relationships with employees and contractors;
• relationships with unions;
• absence of inadequate and non-decent job types: child labor, forced
labor and/or similar to slave labor, etc.;
• employee profile: diversity in age, educational level, gender, race,
• compliance with relevant legislation: social, labor, tax, environmental,
• profile of wages with respect to the region or sector;
• care with quality of life and work conditions of employees and contractors:
safety, organizational health, daycare for children, gymnastics academies,
feeding at company, transportation to work, workplace quality, etc.;
• company commitment in the face of layoffs: percentage of layoffs,
support to the fired worker, psychological preparation, etc.;
• preparation for people retirement: psychological preparation, complementary
• investments in items of labor meaning in relation to total payroll:
workers' training and education, safety operations, etc.;
• responsibility towards future generations and sustainability: issues
related to environmental impacts, environmental management system,
forest certification, environmental education, culture and regional
• evidence of commitments to regional social sustainability: generation
of jobs, local purchases, partnerships with local suppliers and rural
• economic value added to the local economy, identifying the total
amount: how much, what and for whom the resources have been distributed;
"social investments" in percentage of company's sales or
operating income: paid taxes , investments in social projects and actions
oriented to citizenship (fighting hunger, health and public education,
• selected items from institutional image survey (external perceptions);
• selected items from organizational climate survey (internal perceptions);
• etc., etc.
Virtually, most of these data are presented in the social balance
sheets making part of corporate sustainability reports. However,
it should be very clear that the indicators are not indexes to be
just displaced to society and nothing else. In their inner conception,
social reports are not merely a presentation of accounts to stakeholders.
They are valuable management tools with the aim of helping the company
to successfully perform the social part of its mission. They show
trends, demonstrate and promote strategies and reinforce the management
Many of these indicators have the objective to present how the company
fulfills its social function, with actions, strategies and investments.
Others, show stakeholders perceptions, such as insights from the
organizational climate surveys, or trademark or image public strengths.
However, I miss an indicator that could be both internal and external,
and that is not yet part of the current listing of social indicators,
neither demanded by specialized institutes nor by the great gurus
of corporate social responsibility. I refer to an index for measuring
people happiness. When we succeed to have the courage to measure
and monitor this; when we manage to show why people are more or less
happier inside and outside the fences of the company, depending on
the management performance; when we feel our importance to bring
in and to disseminate happiness and satisfaction in people who are
part of our team and relationships; we will have achieved perhaps
the ultimate of all indicators of management and social performance.
After all, happiness is the ultimate of the human beings goals. Does
an indicator for happiness would be so hard to be created? Or to
References of literature and suggestions for reading:
26000. Norma internacional de responsabilidade social. (ISO
26000. International standard for social responsibility). Ethos Institute.
Accessed on 15.12.2010: http://www.ethos.org.br/ISO26000/ (in Portuguese)
- Indice de Desenvolvimento Humano.Crescimento
do IDH em municipios com atividade florestal significativa. (HDI- Human Development Index.
HDI growth in municipalities with significant plantation forestry
activity). In: "Florestas plantadas: um caminho para o desenvolvimento
sustentavel. (Planted forests: a road to the sustainable development).
p. 17. AMS - Minas Gerais Association of Silviculture. Accessed on
15.12.2010: http://silviminas.com.br/Publicacao/Arquivos/publicacao_492.pdf (in
o que esta por tras na logica do comportamento dos executivos
do setor. (Understanding what is behind the logic of behavior of
the forest sector executives). C. Foelkel. Grau Celsius. 05 pp. Accessed
on 15.12.2010: http://www.celso-foelkel.com.br/artigos/66%20final.doc (in Portuguese)
do balanco social: um estudo de caso da Suzano Papel e Celulose
no periodo compreendido entre 2005 a 2009. (Disclosure
of the social balance: a case study of Suzano Papel e Celulose for
the period from 2005 to 2009). G.C. Marcolino; G.G. Catallino; L.S.
Itelvino; C. Ramacciotti; M.A. Bertachini. International Congress
on Socio-Environmental Responsibility. 15 pp. (2010) http://www.isapg.com.br/2010/cirss/download.php?id=8009 (in Portuguese)
de custos e do passivo socio-ambiental: uma proposta de arquitetura
de dados de sustentabilidade. (Monitoring costs and
socio-environmental liability: a proposed architecture of sustainability
data).T. Tachizawa. ABCustos Volume 91. 24 pp. (2010) http://www.unisinos.br/abcustos/_pdf/162.pdf (in Portuguese)
arvores aos lares. A geracao de renda, emprego, divisas e impostos
da cadeia produtiva da Aracruz Celulose. (From trees to homes. Generating
income, jobs, exports, and taxes in Aracruz Celulose supply chain).
FGV - Getulio Vargas Foundation. 52 pp. (2006) http://www.aracruz.com.br/pdf/arquivofgv.pdf (in Portuguese)
do balanco social das empresas de papel e celulose. (Social
balance analysis for the pulp and paper companies). P.Y.A. Morimoto;
M.J.C.M. Zen. XLIV SOBER Congress - Brazilian Society of Rural Economics
and Sociology. 13 pp. (2006) http://www.sober.org.br/palestra/5/587.pdf (in Portuguese)
de florestas plantadas no Brasil: indicadores sociais e economicos. (Monitoring of planted forests in Brazil: socio-economic
indicators). L.C.E Rodriguez. IPEF Technical Series 12(31): 22-32.
(1998) http://www.ipef.br/publicacoes/stecnica/nr31/cap2.pdf (in Portuguese)
knowledge oriented service was made possible through sponsoring
support provided by ABTCP -
Brazilian Technical Association of Pulp and Paper and
Paper do Brasil. The
opinions expressed in the texts are those of the authors
or coming from the referenced
technical literature. They do not necessarily reflect the
views of the sponsors.